Industrial Simulation Report

For
Automobile Development Internship

Submitted by: Group 1 (Boosters)

Submitted to: Ezenith

. our sincere thanks to Ezenith team for providing us with this internship opportunity. Navi Mumbai for providing with their support. We are also thankful for Lokmanya Tilak College of Engineering.Acknowledgement We acknowledge with gratitude.

Torque BSFC Power to weight ratio(BHP/ton) Emission Norms Cost Cold startability Benchmarking Engineering Target 123 BHP@6000 RPM 170Nm@1500-4500 RPM 205 g/KwH 98 BS5 Vehicle is for entry level market -15 deg C . Power Max. Figure 2: Variable Valve Timing……………………………………………………… 6 Figure 3: Gasoline Direct Injection……………………………………………………. 7 Figure 4: Dual Mass Flywheel…………………………………………………………. Target Engine Specifications: Parameters Max. 8 Figure 5: Catalytic Convertor…………………………………………………………….. 9 Figure 6: Integrated Exhaust……………………………………………………………… 10 Problem Statement: A passenger car downsized 1L petrol engine with high power to weight ratio and reduced engine friction.List of figures Page Figure 1: Turbocharger……………………………………………………………….

The increased power of a turbocharged engine is shown by more torque available at the engine's crankshaft (at a given rpm within the power band) than an identical engine. Turbo Charger A turbocharger is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber. 6. The engine using turbochargers loses 10% weight. 4. variable timing. EGR (in cylinder emission) Integrated Exhaust 1. Modern turbochargers can use waste gates. Turbocharger improves an engine's volumetric efficiency by increasing density of the intake air and improves fuel efficiency by lowering pumping losses as well as improving throttle response and lowend torque. 5. 3. Turbo Charger Variable valve (VVT) Gasoline direct injection (GDI) Dual Mass Flywheel Split Cooling Catalytic Convertor-After treatment. Some technologies used for downsizing Following technologies can be used to downsize an engine: 1. 7. saving up to 30% in fuel consumption while delivering the same power. blow-off valves and variable geometry for better operation.Ford Eco Sport 1L Petrol Eco boost titanium (Rs 8.6 lakh) with turbo charge. direct injection technology and 3 cylinder engine is an example of downsizing done right which reduced size by 30 Kg less than its non downsized counterpart and has CO2 rating of 114g/km. . 2.

Advantages     Low RPM drivability Better Fuel Economy Increasing Torque Internal Exhaust gas recirculation .Figure 1: Turbocharge 2. and is often used to improve performance. it could result in lower fuel as well. while complete exhaust gas cannot exit the combustion chamber in time. VVT is the process of altering the timing of valve lift event. It is increasingly being used in combination with variable valve lift system. the duration of the intake and exhaust valves opening would decrease. To optimize the air breathing. an engine would require different valve timings at different speeds. Variable Valve Timing In internal combustion engine. Therefore. fuel economy or emission. thus less amount of fresh air may enter the combustion chambers. As the revolution speed Increases. varying the Intake timing of an engine could help to produce more power and. if applied to smaller and lighter engine.

pressured to a higher-than-average 200 bar. . This is an effective means of reducing fuel consumption and emissions while greatly boosting driving dynamics. The high pressure injection system is especially suitable for engines with a power to-weight ratio between around 60 and100 kW/liter along with downsizing rates of up to 45 percent in future GDI injector. securing a clean combustion and improving fuel economy and emissions to fulfill Euro 6 emission standards. Gasoline Direct Injection Gasoline direct injection is a process whereby fuel is injected straight into the combustion chamber at high pressure.Figure 1 Variable valve timing 3.

Cold starting is easier. better thermal efficiency. On gasolinepowered passenger car applications. Fuel efficiency due to electronically control fuel injection Ability to accommodate alternative fuels Less carbon based emission Better power output and performance than a standard carburetor based vehicle 4. a dual-mass flywheel can provide the same kind of drive train cushioning and dampening for a smoother. . A dual-mass flywheel also helps smooth clutch engagement in vehicles with high torque output engines. Gasoline Direct Ignition Advantages       Smaller combustion space. Dual Mass Flywheel A dual-mass flywheel is essentially two flywheels in one that provides some spring cushioning to dampen torsional crankshaft vibrations and shock loading when the clutch is engaged. quieter ride.Figure 3.

Catalytic Convertor A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing oxidation or reduction. . Ceramic is coated with precious metals like platinum. The cylinder block is heated up quickly for lower friction and more efficient run. It easily delivers a smooth transfer torque to the road wheels via clutch. It increases mechanical efficiency 5. The core is usually a ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure. while the cylinder head operates at lower temperatures to optimize injection and combustion. • Optimal temperature distribution in engine • Cleaner emission due to rapid and complete combustion of fuel 6. Split Cooling An optimized split-cooling concept manages different temperatures in the cylinder head and block area using separate circuits.Figure 4 Dual Mass Flywheel Advantages    It gives high torque output. The use of coolant with different coolant in the two circuits provides desired optimal temperature distribution in the engine which is cooler head and warmer head relative to standard temperature.

. saving cost throughout the development cycle. By integrating the manifold tracts into the cylinder head the parts counts is reduced significantly. Figure 5. These efforts result in faster warm-up of the catalyst and ultimately in improved real-world fuel consumption and emissions.palladium. rhodium. to keep the engine unit as small as possible. Through intelligent cooling jacket design heat is retained in the engine rather than lost to the engine bay. Catalytic Converter Advantages   Reduces harmful emissions Increase in fuel economy 7. Integrated Exhaust manifold In this technology. accelerating engine warm up so it more quickly reaches optimal efficiency. the exhaust manifold is integrated within the cylinder head and can therefore be cooled efficiently using the cylinder head water cooling system. Honeycomb structure provide larger surface area so that exhaust gases are converted into less dangerous ones more efficiently. etc.

. saving cost throughout the development cycle 8. reduce its cost and make design more efficient. Precision manufacturing Methods like metal injection molding can be used to reduce material use in engine and components manufacturing.Figure 6 Integrated exhausts Advantages  By integrating the manifold tracts into the cylinder head the parts counts is reduced  significantly. Simulated analysis can be done before production to reduce physical testing which is reflected in the price of the engine. It helps to reduce the overall weight of the engine. Advantages: •Weight reduction • Better engine response Conclusion: The above technologies can be used to downsize a petrol engine.