A^ GUIDE 'TO

ICO'

N-THE

sg-i^

;

THE READER'S GUIDE
TO THE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
A HANDBOOK CONTAINING SIXTY-SIX COURSES
OF SYSTEMATIC STUDY OR OCCASIONAL READING

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY,

Limited

London

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY
New York

1146264
Copyright in the United States of America, 1913;

by

The Encyclopaedia

Britannica

Company

INTRODUCTION
In your ordinary use of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, you give
your attention to the one article that will answer the one question
you have in your mind. The aim of this Guide is to enable you to

use the Britannica for an altogether different purpose, namely, for
systematic study or occasional reading on any subject.
The volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica contain forty-four

million words as much matter as 440 books of the ordinary octavo size.
And the subjects treated in other words,'the whole sum of human knowledge may be divided into 289 separate classes, each one completely

some one art, science, industry or other department of knowledge. By the mere use of scissors and paste the alphabetical arrangement of the articles could be done away with, and the
Britannica could be reshaped into 289 different books containing, on
the average, about half as much again as an ordinary octavo volume.
It would misrepresent the Britannica to say that you would then have
289 text-hooks, because there is an essential difference in tone and purA text-book is really a book intended to be used under the
pose.
direction and with the assistance of a teacher, who explains it and
comments upon it. The Britannica, on the other hand, owes the posi-

covering the

field of

has enjoyed since the first edition appeared in 1768 to the fact
that it has succeeded, as no other book has succeeded, in teaching
without the interposition of a teacher.
It is not, of course, claimed that the idea of reading certain groups
of Britannica articles in the order in which they will combine themselves into complete books is a novel invention. Thousands of men
owe the greater part of their educational equipment to a previous
tion

it

edition of the Britannica.

And

not only did they lay out their

own

courses of reading without the aid of such a Guide as this, but the

means so complete as is the nth
Every edition of the Britannica before this one, and every
other book of comparable size previously published, appeared volume
by volume. In the case of the last complete edition before the present,
no less than 14 years elapsed between the publication of the first
volume and the last. It is obvious that when editors have to deal with
one volume at a time, and are unable to deal with the work as a

material at their disposal was by no
Edition.

whole, there cannot be that exact fitting of the edges of one article
to the edges of another which is so conspicuously a merit of the nth

each designed for readers engaged in. and who can forecast most authoritatively the results to be expected from the new methods which are now being experimentally different countries applied in every field of activity. The 1500 contributors in 21 and failure in life. at one stage of its preparation. or the The experienced merchant. No amount of technical training and of actual experience will lead a man of sound judgment to believe that he alone knows everything that all his competitors put together know. In this Guide. difficulties. and the work stood. confirm. manu- man who already firmly established in any other profession or business. Part 2 contains 30 chapters. or to take the place of. some part of the usual school and college curriculum.Edition. but he can profit by the opportunity to review. of which a more detailed analysis brief review of the six parts into of its given in the Table of Contents. some specific occupation. To the beginner. the Britannica can render invaluable service of another kind. the advantages derived from such a course of study may well be so great as to make the difference between success and to those who have already overcome the first whom the only question is how marked a success awaits them. Part I contains 30 chapters. and the summaries of the larger articles afford such a preliminary survey as may assist you in making your choice among where it seems necessary. reconsider and "brush up" his articles facts and figures previous knowledge. or that his knowledge and theirs is all that ever will be known. as has already been said. All the articles. will naturally find in some of the is which are not new to him. the principal articles dealing with the subject of each chapter are named in the order in which you may most profit- ably study them. each devoted to a course of systematic study designed to supplement. A Besides. The educational articles in the Britannica are the work of 704 professors in 146 universities and . or engineer. show the general features is which the Guide is divided will plan. who still or preparing has everything to learn. in this edition were completed before a volume was printed. the courses. there is added to the chapter a fairly complete list of all articles in the Britannica on the subject. for. in precisely the form which. facturer. might be given to it by merely rearranging the articles according to single their subjects. so that the reader may make his study exhaustive. to who wrote the articles in the Britannica include the men who have made the latest advances in every department of knowledge.

and the elasticity with which any selected course of study can be enlarged and varied is in full accordance with the modern theories of higher education. The first of its chapBritannica articles of the utmost practical value to parents. both among the contributors and on the editorial staff of the Britannica. It is no exaggerapublic life tion to say that the Britannica subjects as legislative is the only existing work in which such tariffs. as well as questions which may be put to them in order in this to guide their natural inquisitiveness to to pages in the Britannica good purpose. Part 5. The third chapter Part gives a number of specific questions such as children are prone to ask. as well as with home-making. with their mental and bodily training. trusts. The second chapter indicates varied readings in the Britannica for children themselves. The important part which women. art and science. or so highly specialNor has any system of home study ever been devised by which ized. the student is brought into contact with teachers so trustworthy and so stimulating. but also to exercise in private or the influence for good which arises from a clear view of the arguments on both sides of controverted questions. m . dealing with the care of children's health. devoted to the interests of children. deals with their legal and political status in various parts of the world. but for students eager to make rapid fascination of first-hand progress. The knowledge and the pleasure of studying pages intended not for reluctant drudges submitting themselves to a routine. their achievements in scholarship. institution of learning in the world has a faculty so numerous. and with the intelHgent direction of their pastimes. showing how their work at school can be made Part 3 is ters describes more interesting and profitable to subjects allied to those included in them by entertaining reading on their studies. took in the preparation of the work sufficiently indicates that the editor-in-chief made ample provision for the subjects peculiarly within their sphere. domestic science and kindred subjects. Part 4 suggests readings on questions of the day which relate to American citizenship and to current politics. The show where these questions are references clearly and instructively answered. immigration. A study of the articles indicated in this section of the Guide will aid the reader not only to form sound opinions for himself.cc^lleges in 21 No different countries. labour and the relation between and judiciary powers are treated without partisan bias and with adequate fulness. especially for women. are factors in the educational value of the Britannica that cannot be overestimated. so authoritative.

this Guide is It is inevitable that printed may for call for a chapters of an analytical numbers of volumes and and terminating with lists of the titles of articles. Part 6 are shown from is in the extracts. of its articles to the scant information found in ordinary guide books. and the superiority. motoring. THE EDITORS. 881-947 of Vol. The extent to which the work can be used in planning motoring tours. But as you proceed to examine It will its contents for yourself. in one portion only of a selected course. travel at home and abroad. a series of only three or four articles which will. Or. the form in which word of justification. for he may flit from one chapter to another. lists it and that gives a as a whole you should turn to the Table articles in the Britannica. combination. 29. photography. But he may feel that because a list has a forbidding aspect the pleasure he has derived from browsing at will in the Britannica would give place to a sense of constraint if he rigidly pursued a course of reading. There is no danger that the possessor of the Britannica. familiar with the fascination of its pages and the beauty of the illustrations which enhance their charm would permit his impression of the work itself to be affected by the bleak appearance of the Guide. outdoor and indoor games and other forms of relaxation and of exercise. IV . relating to New York a trip through the Berkshire Hills to the White Mountains.an analysis of the many departments of the Britannica which relate to recreation and vacations. be seen from this brief survey of the field covered by the Guide that provision has been made for every purpose which can dictate the choice of a course of reading. in such a connection. included in this Part 6. selecting here and there an article merely because the account . for the Britannica articles are all the better reading when one carries forward the interest which one of them has excited to others of related attraction. in character. But to anyone who is firmly determined that he shall not be persuaded to read systematically. he may find. bespattered with references to the of pages.which is given of it pleases him. the Guide will none the less be useful. better yet. Finally. you should remember that the name only a fraction of the fuller summary of the work on pp. It may easily be shown that such a fear would be groundless. should bear a certain air of formality. make the best of occasional reading.

Paper-makers and All who Love Books For Journalists and Authors For Teachers For Ministers For Physicians. 8. 27. 13. 4. 10. 25. or Preparing for Them Page Chapter 1. 22. 23. 18. 21. Surgeons and Dentists For Lawyers For Bankers and Financiers For Civil Service Men For Army Officers For Naval Officers 71 79 83 90 94 100 109 117 122 127 125 143 151 156 158 168 . 24. 26. 14. 28. 3. 16. 11. Textiles 21 6. Furniture Leather and Leather Goods Jewelry. Hardware. Binders. Clocks and Watches Electrical Machinery and Supplies Chemicals and Drugs Food Products For Insurance Men For Architects For Builders and Contractors For Decorators and Designers For Railroad Men For Marine Transportation Men For Engineers For Printers. Machinery Metals. Glass and China 28 33 39 44 48 55 58 63 69 7. 15. 17. 30. General and Introductory 3 10 14 19 5. 9.Table of Contents Part I Courses of Reading Especially Useful to Those Engaged in Certain Occupations. 20. For For For For Farmers Stock-Raisers Dairy Farmers Merchants and Manufacturers. 12. 29. 2. 19.

" ** " " 57. Scotch 43. *' 56. 46. *' 51. Part 175 187 189 198 207 214 218 224 230 234 237 246 248 270 272 278 281 288 294 300 308 316 322 329 334 338 344 347 353 361 III Devoted to the Interests of Children Chapter 61. Arts. •* 63. and Some Questions to ask Children vi 371 379 387 . 60. French 47. ** 52. German 40. 58. English. The Far and Irish East: India. Physics ** 55. *• " " " " " 42. 49. ** 62. English " *' " 39. Etc Sculpture *' 35. Introductory Painting. China. General and Introductory Botany Zoology Philosophy and Psychology *' " 48. Introductory and General 44. Music 32. The Fine 33. . . and General and General Bible Study History. *' 53. Drawing. Greek 41. Japan *' 50. Language and Writing *' 36.Part II Courses of Educational Reading to Supplement or Take the Plage of Sghool or University Studies Page Chapter " ** " 31. American Canadian 45. Chemistry Geology Biology. Readings for Parents Readings for School Children Questions Children sometimes ask. 34. Introductory ** 37. American 38. Literature. Economics and Social Science Health and Disease Geography and Exploration Anthropology and Ethnology Mathematics Astronomy ** 54. 59.

Tariff. Finance. Juvenile Courts. Polo and Horse-racing Gardening and Plants In-door Games and Pastimes. Alcoholism Heredity and Eugenics Wages and Labour. the Table Food Preservation and Food Values Costume and Ornament Women famous in History and Literature. and on the Stage Part VI Readings for Recreation and Vacation Chapter 66 425 Motoring. Riding. Peace Arbitration The Greater United States Part V For Women Chapter 65 The many 411 subjects on which Women contributed to the Britannica Accomplishments of Women in Scholarship. Banking. Psychology Crime. Training of Defectives. Recall. Art and Science Women's Legal Position in the United States and elsevehere Their Disabilities in Great Britain Home-making. Needlewoik Dancing. Bridge. The Negro Problem Trusts. Labour Organization Immigration. a Specimen Trip: New York to the White Mountains Photography Out-door Games and Athletic Sports Hunting. the Stage Travel at Home and Abroad vB - . Insurance Socialism and its Tendencies Referendum and Initiative.Part IV Readings on Questions of the Day Chapter 64 393 Education. Fishing and Taxidermy Sailing. Canoeing and Boating Mountaineering and Winter Sports Driving. Domestic Science. Government by Commission Suffrage and the Suffrage Question International Relations.

.

Part I Courses of Reading Especially Useful to Those Engaged In Certain Occupations or Preparing for Them .

.

as you look at the mentioned in these pages. with all thg world's farmers. One subject may for example be discussed in three different bulletins. Fifty years ago the farmer sold for consumption in his immediate neighborhood the small surplus of his crops that was not needed for his own household and live stock. and markets as well as for scientific knowledge of soils. that there are some which you need not read because you have already read bulletins of the United States Department of Agriculture or of your State Experiment Station. He lives better. CHAPTER in the United knows that farming today an industry which calls is for study of the world's agricultural products. Their arrangement and the way in which they are issued shows that they are designed to meet only certain special needs. "there is no other considerable country activity where as much mental and alertness has been applied to the cultivation of the soil as to trade and manufactures. Of course it would be absurd to say that merely reading these articles will make . ignorant peasants. out of precisely the same houses. The course of reading indicated here is designed for wideawake farmers who intend to be large FOR DAIRY FARMERS — by whom the latest informaand the broadest outlook are recog- farmers tion HI. as those who filled the learned professions or who were engaged in manufacturing or commercial pursuits". In the Britannica you get information that forms the very foundation of a thorough knowledge of farming and titles of articles — that also extends over the widest field. processes. crops. in speaking of the United States. nized as essential to their calling. they do not attempt to cover the whole range of agricultural subjects as the Britannica does they are not intended for that purpose. GETTING "GROUNDWORK" KNOWLEDGE You may think. but naturally. you think the articles named great deal of ground. The Russian wheat fields and the Argentine cattle ranches are really nearer to him than a farm in the next township was to his grandfather. and their competitors abroad have been." American farmers "have been the same kind of men. and is the chief among American exporters. published in three different years. not to give a general view of all the branches of farming. generally with the same training. and yet he can successfully compete with them. and the first may be out of print before the third appears. in all the world's great markets. as the article on Agriculture in the Encyclopaedia Britannica says. farmer FOR STOCK-RAISERS. because. does more for his children and pays higher wages than do farmers in other parts of the world. These official publications are most valuable. and that the subjects included in all the sixty-four are treated in the Bri' tannica. for the most part. and animals. // here cover a remember that the Massachusetts Agricultural College provides no less than sixty-four distinct courses of instruction. Today he competes.CHAPTER I FOR FARMERS SEE ALSO CHAPTER EVERY States II.

There are some 600 articles on individual plants. of which a list will be found on pp. it would not be quite so valuable as it is to you. which has in great part broken it down into the small particles of stone that. how- ever. no matter how much practical experience and special training he has had. 25. Fream and Roland Truslove. Of course you will begin by reading the article Agriculture (Vol. deal with the "weathering" of rock. 825) describes the useful part that worms play in stirring the mixture. and you cannot know too much about the material on which your principal work is done. or about farming in any part of the world. and moisture. 889 and 890 of Vol. form the soil or subsoil. If any one of these thousands of articles were not in the Britannica. so that you can omit any article that goes into details which you think you do not want. states and provinces describe the local crops and any local methods of farming that are of special interest. professor in an agricultural college would of course be glad to study the A whole series. want to find out about any plant that grows. through which the roots of the plants must push their way. 29 (the index volume). and through which air and water must reach these roots. by Dr. p. Those upon continents. which is And remember The thing a farmer has to deal the ground from which his crops are to come. p. p.341 geographical articles Scope of the a great many give important informaArticles tion about the production. and the contents of each of these is described. Flett. while the natural and artificial fertilizers. This mixture is in turn "weathered" by air. which supply . or spaces between the grains. continues the story of these particles of rock and shows how sand and clay must be combined with decaying vegetable or animal matter in order to make the best soil.p. 323). countries. but also their shape which makes them pack more or less tightly affect the pores. But unless the medical student has studied those text books he will never make a successful doctor. There are in the Encyclopfedia Britannic& 1. But in this Course of Reading only the articles which are of most immediate use to all practical farmers are mentioned. 338). for you may. distribution and consumption of farm products. frost. p.186 articles dealing with animal and vegetable life. 345). and similarly the information in the Britannica will give the farmer new advantages. It may seem that it is going very far back into the origin of things for a farmer to read about the sources from which soil comes. that this chapter of the Readers' Guide mentions only those subjects that are treated more fully in other parts of the Britannica than in that article. the key to the whole subject. The article on Subsoil Petrology. mixed with decayed roots and plants. by J. If you do skip any of them. 21. The article which should next be read. and among the 11. l. S. for you may like to come back them later when you realize how pracand understandable all the Britannica articles are even those with dull- to tical — sounding names. any day. heat. be a good plan to mark their titles in this list. 11. and the second part (Vol. 659) of the article Geology. The whole surface of the earth was originally hard Soil and rock. but the nature of the mineral substances in it has a great deal to do with its power to nourish plants. it will. and not only the size of the grains in which it lies. the science of rocks (Vol. Soil (Vol. so that the chapter does not attempt to tell the whole story. 8.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES any man a successful farmer as to say that a medical student who works hard at his books will always develop the tact and the sound judgment that a doctor needs. by Sir Archibald Geikie. The article with first is — Earthworm — (Vol.

471). its height above sea level. headed "Utility of Forests" (Vol. 28. subjects is and the Britannica brings to its readers the latest information regarding them in articles written by the leaders of progress. p. the slope at which the fields face the sun or turn away from it. and River Engineering (Vol. are explained in the section "PhysiCold. has been an engineer long enough to get the water off his farm or on his farm and perhaps he has t3 do both in different parts of the — . of Harvard. by Professor Cleveland Abbe. p. 28. 14. by Professor R. Water — Enough and Not too Much ology" (Vol. is influenced by the latitude in which it lies. 23. (Vol. by Professor Marshall Ward. where the diagram showing variations of temperature at different depths in the soil should be carefully studied. Water Rights (Vol. 28. by G. are all as bad in their way as the river-floods or the merely sodden soil in which nothing will grow but coarse grass that is always unsafe pasturage. 745) of the article The on Plants. the rain-fall. 114). in the articles Climate (Vol. p. fessor L. Windmill (Vol. The distribution of heat in the described in the article soil is Conduction of Heat (Vol. 18. 6. the relative dampness or dryness of the air when it is not raining. p. the protection that mountains give it. and the action of water and of heat and Sunlight and Shade. 16. of the liquid-manure tank. 954). p. p. 17. working each farm. 264).FOR FARMERS whatever ingredients the soil lacks. 164). and Professor Muir. in this connection. p. proper method of with a view to using these four in the right proportions. the supply of which is just as necessary in causing growth as the warmth the sun gives. 610). Heat and cold. Reclamation of Land (Vol. 86) is also of interest in connection with irrigation. and the article Lake (Vol. p. are discussed in the article Manures and Manuring (Vol. Every one of these vital to the farmer. 710). F. and with the use. Drains and embankments need very careful planning. de C. 387). and this process is described in the Bacteriology (Vol. p. into the forms in! which it is indispensable to them. are of course important to farmers whose land includes any lumber. 10. 1. of the United States Weather Bureau. You will find the latest scientific guidance. 22. Deacon. 385) explains the laws which regulate the taking of water from streams and lakes. p. by Gifford Pinchot. Chief Forester. The brackish water that troubles farmers near tidal creeks. p. and Acclimatization (Vol. and Pump in the section (Vol. in the most practical shape. article The action of light. 6. The microbes in the soil render the farmer an enormous service by changing crude nitrogen. The saving of water and the method to the farm and distributing it over the fields are authoritatively discussed in the articles Irrigation of bringing it Water Supply (Vol. 8. S. p. the leading authority on such subjects the world over. dealing with the timber industry. Meteorology (Vol. An important part of this article deals with the best methods of keeping farm yard manure in such a way that it does not lose its value" before it is spread over the fields. When the farmer. 509). 645). the alkali water that often occurs West of the Mississippi. Ward. and the Drainage and stagnant water that Irrigation never does the farm any good. F. the latter by Proarticles p. and the moisture of the soil. 374). p. formerly U. who has to be everything by turns. Professor Blackman. 21. and sound information will be found in the Drainage of Land (Vol. 22. which plants cannot digest. The other parts of this article. Vernon H. p. p. p. 841). 646) of the article Forests and Forestry. 893). Harcourt. 3.

20. Building (Vol. that you will be especially interested by the article Conetc. 13. 180). 618). 7. 6. p. 106). 35). all by experts in the building trade Farm : Buildings (Vol. 26. how grossly that the American farmer should be hampered. irrigation. p. but that Advertisers no doubt supply literature Agricultural unfair essential to get sound has proved so successful. 835). p. and consider all that has to be done in merely getting a farm ready to be worked.. 4. and farm mortgages should be in fairness regarded not as opportunities for short loans. Foundations (Vol. p. 10. by the want of proper banking facilities when he And after he has is making a start. p. 887). p. (Vol. Barbed Wire 384). You can learn a great deal from the articles Plough (Vol. 978). is also dealt with. 27). article. as he is. money to finance his crops. 118) are also of 25. p. p. p. the country as a whole produces only half as much grain for every acre of farm land as is produced in Europe. and sooner or later will be done. by Aneurin Williams. For any loan used in the purchase of land and in permanent improvements such as buildings. of late increasing in favor. p. bought and prepared his land and equipped and stocked his farm he needs. just as suitable as railroad bonds for conserva- Timber Carpentry crete You cannot read the articles already mentioned. Water Motors (Vol. 13. 944). drainage. is another practical 3. 850). 28. but the short-term farm mortgages five years at most customary in the United States. Hoe (Vol. 21. importance this Guide. 382) and Traction (Vol. p. Oil Engine (Vol. The Britannica goes into the principles of construction and helps you to see the good and bad points in the new models you are constantly offered. find. 762). some hints that are quite new to him. Cultivator (Vol. and is so increasing. and the only reason is that most of our farmers lack the capital needed in order to get the fullest yield from their land. Sowing (Vol. 521).. 958). irrigation w^orks. in the United States. Brickwork (Vol. 697). and Thrashing (Vol. This Chapter II of article Machines information that has no trade bias. 5. p. and the sections on machines in the articles Reaping Hay (Vol. too. 17. (Vol. Harrow (Vol. p. 559). 4. do not give the farmer as much time as he needs for repayment. p. in the excellent series of articles. 7. described in the article Co-operation (Vol. p. p. 738).as does the average railroad. more realizing Finance makes it all the more (Vol. 841). p. In the chief European countries. Farm each year. a mortgage is the natural security. no matter how successful he may be. 23. 26. The average farm offers quite as good a certainty of continued earning powe. 13. 22. the system of banking facilities for farmers. it is tive investors. (Vol. Notwithstanding the prosperous conditions of farming in the United States. p. Masonry (Vol. you with about farm machinery than you find time to read. shows what can be done. fully describes the admirable . 386). without — — — — The farmer's position is Farm horses and the other live-stock required in general farming fall under even worse when he needs a short loan that he will be able to repay as soon as his crops have been sold. 10. tanks. and Roofs The use of concrete (Vol. 27. 86). 25. 523) p. in which the meshed field fencing. Stone (Vol.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES —he must next take on the will be reminded of a good many precautions and economies same farm He builder's job. p. p. but as sound standing investments. rapidly (Vol. p. for he is then expected either to give a mortgage as security or to pay exorbitant interest. p. for buildings. Farm Buildings and Fences that are often overand may looked.

8. and it is time to get down to something that grows. 21. The success of artificial fertilization or impregnation is explained (Vol. 744) in the article Horticulture. dealing with them (Vol. 28. It is written by eight contributors. p. 889 of Vol. such as Locust (Vol. 767). 29 (the index volume). p. and turning to a larger enemy Rabbit — (Vol. 728) is indeed one of the most important and unusual in the Encyclopaedia. and in a novel. There is no bird that troubles the farmer. 16. Separate articles are devoted to individual pests. and in particular under their individual names. that on the healthy life of plants by Professor J. that on the forms and organs of plants by Professor S. 891 of Vol. and other systems are also discussed in the Britannica.FOR FARMERS Germany. 299). 367). 896). and practical way. and the special article Economic Entomology. p. then takes up ploughing. Special accounts of the chief parts of the plant are given in the articles Leaf (Vol. upon which there is not an article. Apart from the diseases described in the section. W. Tansley. 22. 857)." It begins Wheat the story of a wheat crop with the burning of the old straw of the previous year. p. 875). p. and the life of the plant is treated under another heading. p. 29 (the index volume). and Root (Vol. that on their diseases by Professor H. p. p. E. p. all men who have done a great deal of original work. 322). that on the relation between plants and their surroundings by Dr. Italian. A promissory note is the only security required. 576) deals with one of the chief products of "the greatest cereal producing region of the world. and in any case you ought to read Grass and Grassland (Vol. but it deals chiefly with the history of botanical science. This course of reading has now covered the conditions and the material required for farming. 261). p. 712). The cotton boll weevil is the subject of a most interesting section of the article Cotton (Vol. Stem (Vol. of botany. The article Wheat (Vol. and indeed so fully listed on p. y6u remember a string of long names and very little else. interesting. gives a full account of each of the remedies that have proved useful. that on plant cells by Harold Wager. the greatest danger to which crops are exposed is that of insect pests. There is of course an article on botany in the Britannica. Thiselton-Dyer. p. H. and that on the distribution of plants in various parts of the world by Sir. all of which are so familiar. for more than 200 distinct bird articles are listed under the heading "Birds" on p. Plants and In the old Crops books everything about the life of a plant was treated as a part of the science and if you remember the botany you were taught at school. giving the results of recent investigation which you could not find in any other book. Moss. 959). that they need not be repeated here. p. and the article on families of birds (Vol. in addition to the information in the article Bird (Vol. The crops of all climates are treated in general in the article Agriculture. 369). 7. which are based upon the idea that a society of farmers (restricted to the neighborhood. 3. Naturally you will include in this course of reading the crops with which you are personally concerned. The article Plants (Vol. or helps him by killing insects. harrowing. Reynolds Green. The section on classes of plants is by Dr. that on the anatomy of plants by A. p. 13. p. Austrian. 16. already mentioned. 12. 20. G. of the article Plants. Rendle. so that each member's honesty and capaRaiffeisen banks in known to the other members) make themselves jointly responsible for bility are loans to the members. and Grasses (Vol. Marshall Ward. 12. Vines. C. 25. The French. 23. but the German plan is that which offers the best example to America. .

and. p. 888 Meats. labor in connection with all these operations. p. Soap stock (Fuel) Cotton seed stearin) Salad Soa Ashes Summer (CattU food) with the meal T oil white Fertilizer These together. barley and cotton. 10. the article Flour and Flour Manufacture (Vol. 5. wonderful development of the fruit industry since fruit section cold describes the transportation and cold storage enabled consumers in every part of the . and trans- Barley rice. Cotton (Vol. reaping. in the section of it which deals with the United Fruit and States Flower Growing 268). The articles on individual countries contain sections on the crops of each of them. of special interest. It may surprise you to learn from the Britannica that wheat first found its way to America through a few grains being accidentally mixed with is also PRODUCTS FROM A TON OF COTTON SEED Cotto n seed. (Vol. 405) on the grain that oldest cereal food of the human is race. interesting article At this and marketing. 260) covers fruit culture in general. a very valuable Lard manure Cottolene (with beef stearin. special features of tropical farming are described in the articles on tropical crops. and the like. 548). portation point. p. takes up the later (Vol. 11. 3. p. F. is an article of which the vast importance may be judged by the following table taken from page 261 that history of wheat. will find and Germany (Vol. The 11. 3000 pounds Linters. Some of the principal articles on the routine of farming such as sowing. Zimmer. 800 pounds Meal (Feeding stuff. the American This crops. p. 23 pounds Hulls. by Professor Chapman. by G. p. Crude (High-grade paperT (Cattle food) 290 pounds Summer Yellow (Winter yellow Bran Fibr Fertilizer) Oil. thrashing. and you Canada (Vol. 256).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES some seeding. 11. have already been mentioned in connection with agricultural machinery. an the is and remarkable for its power to grow over a greater range of latitude than any other grain. cooking Miners' oil) oil Soap Every one of the other cereal and general crops produced in any part of the world is treated in the Britannica with the same fullness of information and with the same practical detail which characterizes these articles on wheat. The article Fruit and Flower Farm- ing (Vol. 810). 1090 pounds pounds T Cake. p. 7. 152).

Truck farming is treated in 13. p. 630). 213). Co-operation (Vol. p. naturally. Bee-keeping and the honey industry are treated in the articles Bee (Vol. protects the farmer against the speculators who buy standing crops for less than a fair price. with vegetables (Vol. p. Fowl p. 697). 336). 13. and the provisions as to the working of land on the "metayer" system. 22. of all agricultural products. 12. 899). and it is to be hoped that some similar plan may be adopted in the United States. 26. but those on any others that are possible in the part of the country where your land lies.FOR FARMERS country. 8. and pictures of them appear on page 72 of the same volume. If the ancient history of farming interarticle it is only necessary for you to turn to the heading "Agriculture. Poultry and their rearing are dealt with in the articles Poultry and Poul- try Farming (Vol. p. and the passages relating ests you. 3. p. of the article Horticulture. long as their appearance pre- ceded that of man. Apart from the law as to water rights already mentioned the legal doctrine most particularly afifecting farm- the section dealing Emblements (Vol. under which the landowner received from the landholder a share of the crops. p. 766) of more than three hundred hardy annuals. full of practical information. Economics fessor (Vol. the Code of Khammurabi. 317) on the agriculcles tural societies of all countries. described in the on Babylonian Law. p. Fowl (Vol. p. latter describing the latest type of grain elevators. 29). 308) . biennials." in the Index (Vol. 13. 776). deal with topics related to the marketing p. which is working admirably in Western Canada. . based of vegetable life. 8. The calendar already mentioned indicates the dates for indoor and outdoor operations. 82). from the riety. greatly affected the nature of the earth's crust which he was to occupy. twenty separate articles on individual fruits. Agricultural history is. The section on fruit in the article on Horticulture (Vol. 241). It contains (Vol. p. p. 27. and the fossil plants described in the article upon the history Paleobotany The History of Farming (Vol. shows (Vol. p. and perennials. not only those on the varieties which you are already growing. The new system of purchase of grain by the government. (Vol. 12. 20. and Incubation and Incubators (Vol 14. Grain Trade (Vol. 775) is devoted to growing on a smaller scale. p. 69) in the Egypt. From the many articles on individual flower plants listed at the end of Part 3 of this chapter you can make your own choice. p. Goose (Vol. and Tariff (Vol. 760). 7. The earliest of all known writings. by Pro- Hewins. 3. the ers is that of p. are articles of great interest to farmers who specialize in cereal crops. Poultry and Bee8 Turkey (Vol. 9. 322) and Granaries (Vol. p. was the subject of careful legislation under the oldest government of which a contemporary record has survived. 524). as from the historical section of the guiding article Agriculture. 9. 12. 13. 12. The arti- on learned societies have an extensive section (Vol. 13. (Vol. p. are most explicit and practical. to purchase fruit grown in whatever state most advantageously produces any one vaYou should select. and as to irrigation. 653). p. p. Ancient Egyptian implements of agriculture are article p. Guinea 467). From these articles. 422). Flower culture is the subject of special sections in both the articles above named and there is a descriptive list (Vol. p. Duck 10. 780) a practical calendar to show each month's work. 625) and Honey (Vol. 25. p. in gardens. 359). where you will find references to a number of other articles on the early civilizations. 117) that agriculture fully described (Vol. and in Europe as well.

choosing for yourself the line that will be most attractive to you. as definitely as the comparatively recent development of America. who declared. all originated in farming of one kind or another. the carpets and blankets and sheets in our houses. save fish and game. For all the progress science has made. in until the careless methods which had been handed down from the old days of the range-cattle industry.BRITANMCA READINGS AND STUDIES !0 to agriculture in many of the 6. afterwards Secretary of the Treasury. were based upon an agricultural impetus. we are no nearer to replacing these processes by any short cut of chemistry than were the first farmers whose husbandry is recorded in history. depend upon the mysterious and inimitable processes by which the brown soil yields green growth. a glance will show you what authoritative positions they occupy and how thoroughly they command your is confidence. in reply to a request for a loan on the security of range-cattle." The vague possession and the vague methods of breeding and marketing which suggested this comparison did not form the habits of close observation and incessant care which became necessary when land and food began to cost money. The names of many of the writers of these articles are given in the table of the 1. and the present conditions of the industry are country at large. just as carefully as a teacher trains children. If all the little roots ceased for one year to do their work in the dark. that he "would as soon lend money on a shoal of mackerel in the Atlantic Ocean. the human race would hopelessly starve to death. And his reading upon other subjects in the Encyclopaedia Britannica will often remind him that the wool and cotton and linen and leather that we wear. [See list of articles on subjects connected with farming. all the world's work and thought and happiness. and the more you know about the way they eat and drink. The end alphabetical of list Chapter III of make it easy for you to of articles at the this Guide will add to this course of reading. all the wheels that turn in the mills. so you are particularly concerned with the roots down in the soil. The lesson has been learned. all the intricate mechanism of industry and commerce. In making your choice. at the end of Chapter III of this Guide.500 Contributors to the Britannica. Chicago men still tell the story of the Chicago banker. No matter what crop you make your specialty. do not forget that plant-life is a subject you cannot study too closely. mind Another fact to keep in that just as a doctor is dealing with organs in the human body which he cannot see. the better for your farm. CHAPTER II FOR STOCK-RAISERS STOCK-RAISING the United quite recent years. the reader may learn that agriculture has been the key to all history.292 articles on the histories of races and countries. while every food that nourishes us. been proved that fattening as well as breeding can be successfully undertaken in almost every part of the United infinitely better for the It has . beginning at page 949 of Vol. The earliest migrations of the human race. 29 (the index volume). you have to educate the plants that produce it to do their work. Australasia and the interior of Africa. cultural product. under the evil influence of States was. is directly an agri- All the bustle of the great cities.

for which the demand is always greater than the supply. the tendency today is to turn from exclusive grain growing to a combination of cropping and feeding. Cattle. contain the results of the latest investigations. 23. It is certainly true that stock-raising needs the young man who is determined to know somethiijg about everything and all there is to know about one thing. p. p. p. Hans Driesch. Kerry's. 1. combined with When tillage. Agriculture (Vol. by Professor Wallace and Dr. Food Preservation (Vol. 16. 115) will tell you all about the theory which is nowadays the great subject of discussion among exEmbryology (Vol. Even in the North West. Fream. 398) is chiefly about the origin of domestic cattle. and the article Sex (Vol. are yielding fair profits on many of the New England farms which had been neglected for years. 350). 26. p. 13. 5. Highlands. by Dr. 509) gives you the evidence for and against the belief that offspring are influenced by a previous mate of the dam. illustrated with photographs of the best specimens of bulls and cows of different breeds.FOR STOCK-RAISERS States. p. This article. but the best class of young men who have left the farms have done so because they did not believe that plowing and sowing and reaping gave enough scope for their incities telligence and stock-raising is their initiative. by Dr. The best methods of mating are described Breeds and Breeding (Vol. 23. begins by reminding you rhinoceros. 24. Parker. 10. better than to begin your reading with the article (Vol. 30) cover the cold shipping and cold storage of beef. one of the foremost . a family so varied that it includes so small a creature as the hare. Dutch Belteds. 4. 27. 9. 116). Herefords. but they will make each day's work more there is interesting and more You cannot do effective. p. p. Longhorns. p. by Profully in 487). Chalmers Mitchell. It has long been a popular belief that the attraction of the lies largely in the facilities for amusement which they offer. One of the most encouraging features the present situation is that the broader distribution of the livestock industry encourages of Staying on the Land farm-bred boys to remain at home. 359). Galloways. by G. p. They do not profess to teach what can only be learnt in the course of practical experience. Devons. Red Polleds. Telegony (Vol. Variation (Vol. Leather (Vol. and also work horses of the right type. but there are also better opportunities for a young man to make a small venture of his own while he is still a farm hand. and they are written by specialists of the highest authority. 18. 747) describes the recent ex- periments undertaken with the hope that breeders may at some future time be enabled to vary at will the proportion of males and females. fessor Vines. and p. and has a section on the rearing of calves. 20. Dr. Sussexes. 330). and Selection Heredity (Vol. and that our word "pecuniary" is taken from the Latin term for cattle. 388) contains information of a more general kind as to practical stock-raising. 612) and Refrigerating (Vol. 906). p. p. p. 337) on the family of animals to which cattle belong. perts in breeding. Jerseys and Guernseys. Cattle that the idea of cattle owning has always been so closely associated with the idea of wealth that the two words "capital" and "cattle" have the same root. J. Mendelism (Vol. p. 314). not only a greater interest in farm life and a greater chance to make general knowledge effective. 4. Ox (Vol. for they cover a broad range. AberdeenAngus. and Reproduction (Vol. Dexters. Holsteins. p. and so large a one as the 11 The article Cattle (Vol. deals with Shorthorns. To him the articles in the Britannica which are indicated in this chapter should be of the greatest value.

and the description of American trotting goes back to the day when "Boston Blue. 261) should be read. Algeria and North China. p. You no doubt find. Breeddipping and lambing are fully Sheepdogs and other breeds useful to the stock-raiser fall under the y> treated. 712). deemed impossible" at that The English race meetings. follows hides through the market to their final distribution and industrial uses. p. trotted "a feat period! a mile in three minutes. 8. and then goes on to show why greasy wool is better than . Spain. in 1818. 726). 13. and explaining the structure of the fibres. and Driving (Vol. Italy. 13. p. by Richard Lyddeker. The history of the thoroughbred strain is carefully traced. are described in special sections." tors. p. p. E. p. 28. article wool deals next with wool-yolk and wool-fat. on the breed that has influenced every variety of horse. cotton. Sir Williiam Flower. p. ing. in the articles already named. p. 374). 9. and that you must always be ready to change your plans at short But it is to the quick-witted notice. the Editors of the Britannica showed good sense and originality by making each one to scale. 2. D. but you will give more time to the elaborate article Horse (Vol. The breeds are separately described. 817) contains separate descriptions of the 28 best breeds. feeding. the pedigree of one famous type being shown in a table naming more than one hundred ances- The article Horse-Racing (Vol. and other textile materials. by Alfred Watson. on a scale of 320 to 1. p. It goes to the very foundation of the subject by giving you microscopic photographs. and Professor Wallace. oughness that is characteristic of the Britannica. Brickwood. 10. 309) will enable you to compare another microscopic photograph of wool fibre with similar pictures of silk. p. there is still an active market for farm horses and for stock suited to trucking and light delivery work in cities. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 12 technical experts on this subject. The jute. shows how the sport has influenced breeding. of each of the six great varieties of wool. 713) of the article Horse deals with all the attempts that have been made to get a perfect type of mule by introducing various strains of blood. 585). The section on Arab horses in the article Arabia (Vol. discussing their values both for wool and for the Sheep and the Wool Market meat trade. 118) contains an interesting table analyzing the draft power of the horse. business. Egypt. and Traction (Vol. Syria. Mules man who is always prepared to vary his methods that the Britannica offers the greatest practical services. for instead of following the usual custom of making all the photographs the same size. Riding (Vol. The article on the horse family in general (Vol. Sheep (Vol. in whatever part of the United States your interests lie. The section on Hybrids (Vol. 23. 24. and notwithstanding the competition which American exporters find in Europe from the Argentine ranches. Asia Minor. and the sections on feeding and breaking are full of useful hints. as well as the training Notwithstanding the harm that trolley cars and automobiles and mechanically propelled agricultural machines have done to important branches of the horse Horses and at Newmarket. article Dog (Vol. are by practical experts. in 27. The illustrations are unusually valuable. 13. p. 18. that you need to watch the market very closely. p. Mule (Vol. but also in France. Portugal. The article Fibres (Vol. for it adds to the information. 805). is an article in which you will at once be impressed by the splendid thor(Vol. 720) is very interesting. flax. 317). 959) will tell you about the varieties not only in the United States and Mexico. 8. which American owners and jockeys now play so conspicuous a part. Wool by Professof Aldred Barker.

20. 26. 465). for some very harsh restrictions on Pork page plate. a very full and clear account of the diseases of all domestic animals. From this point the treatment of wool hardly comes within the jurisdiction of the sheep-man. p. 8). 914). afflicts tion on stock-raising. 236) deals with the swine family in general. p. Rinderpest (Vol. and occasionally human beings. p. and Anthrax (Vol.FOR STOCK-RAISERS wool washed before shearing. (Vol. The connection between the disease in cattle and its spread among human beings is fully explained in this Pleuro Pneumonia article. The article Swine (Vol. too. 1. for it is a " disease of civili- zation" almost unknown among wild animals in their natural state and among the uncivilized races of mankind. p. containing Pigs and a fine full- a account of the breeds most profitable on the farm. 388). 10. by Dr. p. p. Diseases and Parasites of Live-stock losis (Vol. Among the articles on continents and countries which contain special informa- (Vol. p. and to keep his pigs following his cattle over the fields. 9. 27. 266) deals with a disease that has sometimes seriously affected the pork market. The microbe by which this disease is carried is shown in the plate facing one of the pages (Vol. Fleming and Professor McQueen. classing and then scouring. and the article Pig (Vol. p. of sheep. with special sections on the maladies of the horse. 354) calls for special study. 28. in 1643. enables the farmer to utilize produce that cannot advantageously be shipped. the Duroc. 2. only thirty-four years after the first sheep was brought to America. Much information will be found all through the article Agriculture (Vol. 12. with the infectious fever which affects both cattle p. and pigs. You will find in the Britannica (Vol. cattle. 106). p. with the terribly infectious carbuncles communicated from cattle and sheep to man by the microbes carried in wool and Glanders hides. 770) of the article Foot and Parasitic Diseases. 2. p. The When you have read the articles mentioned in the three parts of this chapter on Farming. p. p. 153). you should not miss the interesting general review of the European live-stock industry in the article Europe (Vol. 838) deals and sheep. 21. and on the parasites that infest 28. Mouth Disease p. to note in this article that the first fulling mill in America was built at Rowley. 19. fattening of hogs. the section on live-stock in Canada (Vol. although he cannot know too much about the qualities of the yarns obtained from It is interesting different kinds of wool. with the lung disease from which cattle are the only sufferers. Eleven breeds in The breeding and all are particularized. although it is now successfully followed as a distinct branch of the live-stock industry.. do not turn away with the the idea that you have got from . Mass. 23. 594). in the animals themselves. 617) sheep. 6) 13 TuBERCU- them. and the Chester White. and of pigs. (Vol. gives detailed American exportation. 388). must always remain in great part a mere branch of general farming. 2. p. and been made the excuse. 5. 950). 27. and only twenty-three years after the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock. 21. p. including the PolandChina. the Berkshire. Wool and sorting are next described. 627) history of stock-raising is fully treated at the beginning of the article Agriculture (Vol. p. fall under the scribes the subject of horse diseases (Vol. of cattle. New Zealand (Vol. in and in Australia (Vol. Trichinosis (Vol. 1. 76) de- form in which this disease of horses and mules afflicts human beings. that in Argentina (Vol. p. for the pig's power of thriving on many kinds of food. p. 348). the symptoms and course of which.

in order to succeed. and that general knowledge is of the The one greatest use in doing that. 7. do not leave there food it is [See list of articles on subjects connected with stock-raising and other branches of farming. deals with the best milking breeds. factories in soil. "For Stock-Raisers. AND CHAPTER THE admirable set of rules for farmers issued by the United States Department of dairy Agriculture begins by telling you to "read current literature and keep posted on new ideas. Dairy and Dairy Farming (Vol. must cover a much broader field of new ideas than can be included in any The periodical or dairying manual. the installation. Now that you have the Britannica. the more readily you can detect the pretentious people who might make you think too well of them. equipment. skim milk. the in the store-room. FOR FARMERS. you will see what courses of reading will do most to make you an "evened up" man. and if you fail to feed it with the information it asks for. and the industry itself has been completely revolutionized since the days when cities got their milk from ramshackle cow-sheds in their suburbs. A vigorous mind wants an answer whenever it becomes conscious of a question or of a doubt. grass. at the cud of Chapter 111 of this Guide. the values of various kinds of pasturage and fodder. and II. Remem- ber that you have to judge men. and the articles dealing with the breeding and rearing of dairy cattle are mentioned in Part II. branches of science in which the greatest advance has been made since the beginning of the present century happen to be those that have most to do with dairying. and ask yourself. The key article in the Britannica.] CHAPTER HI FOR DAIRY FARMERS SEE ALSO CHAPTER I. as well as live-stock." . without any weak threads in your intellectual texture." And you can easily see that the information on dairy-farming and the many subjects connected with it. supplied by the Britannica. and milk powder and with the organization and operation of cream- and dairy Such subjects as eries. cheeseries. as you glance at the chapters. p. with condensed milk. whatever you read. or while you are reading your newspaper. hay and other fodder crops fall under Part I of this chapter. with the milk trade. do not forget that the Britannica is a book of reference as well as for reading: that you are debasing your mind every time you leave unanswered any question that comes up in the course of the day's work or talk. sure sign of the kind of man you cannot rely upon is that he talks confidently about subjects of which he really knows and the more you yourself know. And. it loses health. If you turn over the pages of this guide. 737). FOR STOCK-RAISERS when butter-making was regarded as one of the "chores" to be done at odd times. with butter-making and cheese-making. and management of a dairy farm. general. little. in what departments of general knowledge you are weakest.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 14 How to "Even Up" Britannica all that it can give you to help you in your business.

214). 26. 15. but also because it . p. 28. on the other hand. is so general a demand for prepared milk abortion. p. p. although they refer you to the key Products and article on dairying Marketing for details. (Vol. the articles on individual countries also contain information of value. which deal with Metch- (Vol. p. 130) Pepsin describes the process by which milk is rendered more digestiand Infancy (Vol. The 156). p. tions" are responsible. 6. 354). There fever. 14. p. but the dairy farmer has a special inter- contagious milk contagious nikoff's 15 system of treatment. 977). and deals with the gravest problems of the industry the diflBculty of sterilizing milk. and not only because it gives hundreds of thousands of men employment on the land instead of in crowded cities. and cowpox. (Vol. 920) and 8. 611). cheese. You get to the very foundation of the supply of milk in Professor Parson's and Dr. in which the Milk and the Milk Market comparative anato- my of the milk yielding organ Milk is fully treated. but also affects the transportation and marketing of milk. p. article Bacteriology (Vol. Dr. 154) in the article Canada. Although the special developments of dairying in various parts of the world are discussed in the article Dairy and Dairy. p. fection. p. and the similar product " kerif " made from cow's milk. 19. 528). and Oils contains (Vol. p. all of which are described (Vol. 7. on Veterinary Science. 17. The article 451) discusses the chemistry of many kinds of milk and the diseases carried by milk. deals with the preparation of milk to be sold for the use of young children. p. In reading these articles in Britannica. p. 30) with the processes and machinery employed. Koumiss (Vol. 889. 22) you should not overlook. without making the milk less nutritious and the butter less delicate in (Vol. and thinking of the present conditions of this great business. Edmund Owen's article Mammary Gland (Vol. condensed milk powder. p. who wrote the article. in this connection. 513) ble. goes to the root of this whole question of inMilk is. you will be reminded that dairying is an industry of peculiar importance to the whole people of the United States. 21. 10) in the article which You cannot study too carefully the article ouTubercuLOSis (Vol. 23. used to convey into the human system the "friendly microbes. p. and Refrigerating (Vol. not only because of the money made out of it. 47) 10. by Professor H. and the difficulty of sterilizing cream. so that butter may be quite safe. an interesting analytical table in which butter is compared with other animal fats. 3. and the account of co-operative dairying (Vol. p. for this terrible infection is not only a standing danger to your herd. like most other great authorities. 87) in Denmark should not be overlooked. from every point of view wholesome that you will find it worth while to is p. is not inclined to encourage the popular exaggeration of the dangers for which newspaper "sensa- read. Marshall Ward and Professor Blackman. Dairy-Herd est in Diseases mammitis. The section on dairying (Vol. 10. Butter Food (Vol.FOR DAIRY FARMERS diseases Cattle in general are also covered by the course of reading suggested in Part II. 4. 5. p.) and Cheese are brief articles which (Vol. Hennessy. 18." and the use of soured milk and cheese for this purpose is explained in the articles Therapeutics and Longevity (Vol. 800) 16. 920) describes the milk-wine or milk-brandy prepared by fermenting mare's milk. 27. Food Preservation (Vol. . p. : flavor.Farming. 20. Nutrition Dietetics (Vol. p. 612) deals with the cold storage of and milk butter. so that tuberculosis and typhoid cannot be carried by it. p. is an expert of the first rank and. (Vol.

The Britannica article on co-operation says that the word "in its widest usage. in machine shops and cotton mills and shoe factories. there is combination in the best sense of the word. modern civilization has created in which you find the neighborly spirit that the first American settlers showed in the days when they by the competition of individuals. promises to institutions our joined to defend themselves against the Indians. where each seeks the interest of himself and his family. about strikes and trusts. Thus it replace the may best be not among rational struggle for combination for and existence each* is its proposes to moral things by voluntary life. but by mutual help. but the following others in which valuable information will be found. and all for accepted motto. STOCK-RAISING AND DAIRYING (The more important articles includes Aal Aaron's Rod have already been mentioned in the preceding pages. plants which are beginning to be established by dairy farmers are the only separator platform. and the social body in return caring for each individual." ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE BRITANNICA ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH FARMING. But where the farmer's wagons clatter up to the means ordered creed the that life 'each for all. about the man on top and the man underneath. by each individual consciously striving for the good of the social body of which he forms part.) many Amaryllis Amentiferae Abaca Ammoniacum Abutilon Acacia Ampelopsis Anatto Acanthus Anemone Acaulescent Acerose Angelica Achimenes Angiosperms Angulate Acinus Anime Acorn Acorus Calamus Anise Antirrhinum Apiculture Acotyledones Acrogenae Adonis African Lily Agave Agrimony Ailanthus Alburnum Alder A leu rites Apple Apricot Araucaria Arbor Day Arbor Vitae Arboretum Arboriculture Archil Alexanders Aristolochia Aroideae Algae Arrowroot Algum or Almug Alismaccaea Ascus Allamanda Ash Alliaria Officinalis Asparagus Aspen Ashpodel Allium Almond Aloe Amadou Amanita Amaranth Artichoke Aspidistra Aster Aubergine Aucuba Auricula list .BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 16 develop the co-operative action which harmonizes with the best The co-operative ideals of democracy. you hear unhappy talk about the relations of capital and labor. At political meetings.

or Cuca Cocculus Indicus Cock's-comb Dividivi Dock Dodder Dogwood Gale Fustic Coffee Dulse Genista Gentian Gentianaceae Geoponici Geraniaceae Colchicum Duramen Geranium Coleus Durian Durra Gillyflower CoUeter Colocynth Geum Horsetail Horticulture Houseleek Huckleberry Hyacinth Mahogany Hydrangea Gloriosa Gloxinia Hydrocharideae Maidenhair Maize Mallow Goat Golden Rod Goose Ice-plant Iceland Moss Idioblast Ensilage Gourd Immortelle Impatiens India Hemp Indian Corn Mangel-wurzel Endive Gooseberry Goose Grass Gorse Entada Graft Grains of Paradise Gram or Chick-pea Granadilla Grass and Grassland Grass of Parnassus Grasses Greenheart Insectivor ous Manila Compass plant Economic mology Gladiolus Ento Edelweiss Eglantine Elder Elecampine Elephant's foot Elm Ericaceae Espalier Cotoneaster Cotton Cow-tree Esparto Eucharis Cranberry Eunonymus Crassulaceae Euphorbia Weed Loosestrife Loquat Lotus Lucerne Lupine Lycopodium Glasswort Glaucous Ebony Crazy Horse Horseradish Madder Columbine Copaiba Copal Coppice Coriander Cork Corn Corn .wood Mare's-tail Ivy Jarrah Wood Jasmine Jew's Ears Job's Tears Judas Tree Jujube Marguerite Marigold Marjoram Cress Evergreen Crinum Crocus Everlasting Fairy Ring Crowberry Fallow Cruciferae Cryptomeria Farm Farm Cucumber Fennel Cucurbitaceae Cumin or Cummin CupuUiferae Cultivator Fenugreek Fern Fig Filmy Ferns Currant Custard Apple Finger-and-toe Fir Hacienda Hackberry Kumquat Millet Cyclamen Flail Labiatae Cyperaceae Cypress Flax Flower Harebell Harrov/ Labrador Tea Mimosa Mimulus Hawthorn Laburnum Mint Cystolith Fool's Parsley Hay Lac Mistletoe DaflFodii Forage Hazel Lace-bark Tree Moly Buildings Ground Nut Groundsel Guano Guava Guelder Rose Gulfweed Gum Gumbo Gutta Percha Gymnosperms Mastic Mate Mattock Medlar Juncaceae Melon Juniper Meristem Jute Mesquite Kaffir Bread Merino Kauri Pine Mignonette Kerguelen's Land Mildew Milkwort Cabbage .salad or Lamb's Lettuce Correa or Linden Liquidambar Humus Huon Pine Earth-nut Earth-star Ginger Colt's-foot Compositae Convolvulaceae Hornbeam Lily Euphorbiaceae Hyssop Plants Iridaceae Iris Irish Moss Magnolia Malvaceae Mammee Apple Mandrake Mango Mangosteen Mangrove Hemp Manna Manures Maple Marcescent Iron.FOR FARMERS Chestnut Chicory Chive & Dairy Dairy Farming Forests & F o r - estry 17 Heath Lancewood Hedges and Fences Larch Heifer Larkspur Heliotrope Lattice Leaf Plant Dahlia Daisy Fork Chrysanthemum Churn Dame's Violet Foxglove Hellebore Dammar Freesia Hemlock Cicely Dandelion Fritillary Hemp Cimicifuga Cinchona Cineraria Daphne Frog-bit Fruit Fruit & Hen Cinnamon Deciduous Citron Cleavers Clematis Dewberry Fuchsia Diatomaceae Dicotyledons Dictyogens Fumitory Fungi Funkia Furze Chlorosis Climbing Fern Cloudberry Clover Forget-me-not Darlingtonia Date Palm Henbane Flower Henna Farming Laurel Laurustinue Lavender Leaf Leek Leguminosae Herb Herbarium Lemon Hickory Hippeastrum Lettuce Lichens Lilac or Pipe Tree Hoe Lentil Holly Hollyhock Liliacae Lime Galls Honey Honey Locust Dracaena Gardenia Honeysuckle ' Litchi Garlic Hop Lobelia Cocoa Coco de Mer Dragons Blood Drainage Dropwort Horehound Loco-weeds Locust Coco-nut Palm Codiaeum Duck Duckweed Cloves Cocoa.

John's Wort Sunn Salsafy or Salsify Sweet Gum Salvia Sap Sapan Wood Poplar Poppy ease Sheep Rue Nut Nutmeg Oak Spinach Rape Persimmon Nasturtium New Ranunculaceae Pennyroyal Pentstemon Pepper Bay Peppermint Pepper Tree Satin Wood Saxifrage Saxifragaceae Scammony Scion Scorzonera Screw-pine Scrophulariaceae Scythe Sea-kale Sweet Potato Sweet-sop Swine Switch-plants Synanthry Tallow Tree Tamarind Tamarisk Tea Teak Teasel Terebinth Thistle Traveller's Tree-fern Trowel Tumble-weed Turkey Turmeric Turnip Turnsole Umbelliferae Urticaceae Vanilla Vegetable Vegetable Marrow Venus's Fly Trap Looking Venus's Glass Veratrum Verbena Vetch Vine Violet Walnut Water-lily Water-thyme Wax-tree Wheat Whin Whortleberry Willow Willow-herb Wintergreen Winter's-bark Witch Brooms Witch Hazel Papyrus Paraguay Tea Pyrethrum Quince Parsley Parsnip Radish Sea wrack Ram Sedum Ramie Ramsons Ranch Secund Seed Sequoia Ranunculas Service Tree Tobacco Zinnia Passionflower Pea Peach Pear Thorn Thrum-eyed Woad Wormwood Thyme Yam Tiger-flower Toad-stool Yucca Thrashing Tree Tree Yew .Pumpkin Purslane Sudd Sumach Sundew Sainfoin Sunflower St.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 18 Momordica Moonseed Moon-wort Moraceae Moreton Chestnut Muciuia Mulberry Sesame Shaddock Tomato Tonqua Bean Raspberry Reaping Shallot Reed Rhododendron Toothwart Topiary Sisal Snake-root Petunia Phlox Rice Richardia Robinia Phormium Rocambole Soap-bark Truffle Pig Pimento Pine Roller Soil Tuberose Root Solanaceae Rosacese Sorghum Tulip Tulip Tree Pine-apple Pin-eyed Rose Rosemary Rosewood Sowing Spade Pellitory Mushroom Mustard Myrobalans Myrrh Myrtle Narcissus Nard Pink Nettie Nettle Tree Pistachio England Flax Nightshade Nut Pistil Pitcher Plants Plane Plantain Plough and Hemp Skirret Snapdragon Snowdrop Sorrel Rosin or Colophony Spanish Broom Royal Fern Spanish Grass Rubraceae Spikenard Rubber Spinach Ruderal Spruce Stem Plum Rush Rye Poinsettia Sabicu Stink-wood Strawberry Strophanthus Pokeberry Safflower Saffron Oat Okra Oleander Pollination Oleaster Olive Polyanthus Polygonaceae Ploughing Polypodium Onion Pomegranate Orach or Mountain Pondweed Onagraceae Orange Wood Sago Orchard Potato Orchids Orris-Root Osier Potentilla Poultry Ox Primrose Oxalis Paeony Primulaceae Privet Palm Pteridophyta Palmetto Puif-ball & Sarcocarp Sarmentose Poultry Sarracenia Farming Pansy or Hearts.

it will be for the reader's con- various in countries regulating and Employers' Liability (Vol. those on insurance in the chapter For Insurance Men. the work of the consular service. The articles on banking and finance are described fully in this Guide in the chapter For Bankers and Financiers. as they are on especially important subjects: Sale OF Goods (Vol. Commerce (Vol. p. 356). Economics for (Vol. . be mentioned here. p. zations in Germany. engineers and employers of labour. the true value of education (not simply school education. Practical 334). As the Britannica article on Education indicates. ^""en by Magnus. 8. deal with commerce and manufactures. one dove-tailing into another. that they give the reader precisely that orderly still broader truth who have is of the series of chapters venience to begin by dealing with those two subjects in general. which describes commercial associations in the United States. which deals with the laws A all which immediately follow and which are intended for merchants and manufacturers. Company (Vol. p. says that: "The widespread appreciation of the advantages of the higher education among all classes of the American people. p. however. and Trade Organization (Vol. p. 27. p. 795). 24. 6. but are so logically arranged. one of the greatest edu- - j (Vol. 899). authorities u in the world. and those on law in the chapter For Lawyers. 733). 26. by whatever study or reading they may have developed that power. corporations. p. and the general recognition among manufacturers. 6. ^ Philip . Great . Trusts (Vol. possess the greatest of all advantages. The broad questions of commercial and industrial policy are discussed in Economics (Vol." view of knowledge which is the foundation of all mental training. Hewins. 63). But certain branches of industrial and manufacturing knowledge are dealt with in special chapters. 766). Tkr t ^ ana Merchant cational • xi. by Prof. p. p. and the organiFrance. Three of the legal articles should. of the value to them in their own work. but all education) lies as much in the influence which intelligently directed study exerts upon the mind as in the immediate usefulness of the information acquired. on this topic so important in modern industrial law and in the relations between capital and labour. 27. 9. Since that the men learned to think clearly. has largely helped to increase the number of students in attendance at the universities and technical institutions.CHAPTER IV FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS: GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY THE article on Technical Educa- tion in the new (Eleventh) Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica ^^V: Technical p. . 335). of the services of college-trained men. and the articles in the Britannica not only supply the most recent and authoritative information. Practical Men Monopoly 18.

and Mercantile Agencies p. p. 22.D. much in- as to industries. is by Prof. France has retorted by . Colmar and other important milling centres of Alsace became German. 22. Railroad freighting is covered by the article Railways (Vol. p. Lloyds. p. the article Europe deals with European commerce in general. 72). which contains more matter than a whole book of ordinary size and more information than a dozen ordiManufacturing nary books. 24. and Free Trade (Vol. M. 10. p. 3. 24. 426) of the article England. Great industries are dealt with The Kingdom industries of (Vol. in the p. 26. indemnity. the F. p. it contains information about the great freight carrying lines of the world that can be found in no other book. 4. Salvage (Vol. Britain with its up-to-date account of modern accounting methods. 11. common-sense articles in the Britannica. p. Nations 639) on manufactures and on foreign and domestic commerce. Harvey. 422) is by one of the most famous American economists. 89) by William Cunningham." is by Walton. S. 4. the sec- and Consuming tions (Vol. p. This article is by Douglas Owen. p. and it is interesting to note that although Germany has outranked France in cotton manufactures since Mtilhausen. The articles on the great manufacturing towns of formation Britain's in Europe contain the article United 27. by E. p. and is so far from exhausting the country's power of production and consumption. Advertisement (Vol. p. p. A section (Vol. p. are by F. 18. 7. with its on "Stoppage in transitu. 669). Free Ports (Vol. and Bounty (Vol. 225). 9. that even when coastwise traffic is disregarded. 324). p. In the article United States. honorary secretary and treasurer of the Society of National Research. 983). card ledgers and loose systems. and is a very full and fair discussion of the points in conProtection (Vol. Marine insurance. M. p. and Blockade (Vol. may be named as many practical articles 148) specimens of the on business methods which need not all be enumerated here. 916) of world. p. 1. 464) troversy. James of the University of Illinois. 50). (Vol. 11. Germany's industries are the subject of sections (Vol. 6.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 20 Book- and other countries. Exchange (Vol. a partner in one of the largest firms of bullion brokers in the world. (Vol. 594). 458) are both by Sir Robert Giffen. Philbrick. 4. by T. 854b) on the new models of American freight cars. G. Raikes. p. Much of what you read and hear about the tariff systems of the United States and various other countries and about their influence upon trade is so Imports and vague and confusing Exports that you will be delighted with the group of clear. is 819). p. England alone are separately treated in a section (Vol. with the movement of Commercial Treaties (Vol. p. 235). 235) and Taxation (Vol. and other insurance subjects fall under the chapter of this Guide For Insurance Men to which you should refer. You should read with care Customs Duties (Vol. Ph. leaf keeping 1. 26. 16. Kennedy. Balance OF Trade (Vol. 88). 11. p. 302) by Sir Joseph Lien (Vol. New York is the most active port 9. p. 97). as this article states. gold. p. 771) is by Sir C. is in itself greater than the total international commerce of the world. The internal commerce of the United States. deals Freights are discussed in Affreightment (Vol. Cargo-carrying and merchant shipping are further covered by Shipping (Vol. Carver. Taussig of Harvard. p. Prof. by Sir Thomas Barclay. and author of Ports and Docks. 27. in which there a special section (p. section W. 691). great international lawyer in Paris. Tariff (Vol. 811) of the article Germany.

was naturally not firms with long-established credit and methods that first ventured upon the new field of business some few that did failed owing to their want of experience it was rather enterprising and adventurous spirits with little — or credit Legislation whp — eagerly flocked to the question. p. The Britannica has done commerce a great service in giving to the relation to world at last a good account of this extraordinary country. 28. p. 10. J. succeeded and came to occupy an honourable position as business men. while a few of the abler men. Strikes and Lockouts (Vol. The proportion of labour cost to the cost of production is in most industries so great that you cannot study total Mill Labour foreign trade was first opened. 15. Now when too carefully every aspect of the labour articles are of it capital newly opened ports to try their fortune.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS overtaking and passing Germany in the production of linen. 201) by Capt. and Miss A. will consult in those of their exports in which you are especially interested. . 156) is editor 21 . Pres- the Imperial University of Kyoto. BaUin. 785) on foreign commerce in the article France show her position as in the main a self-supporting country. 1024). to be regretted that in introducing Western business methods. S. Principal Lady Inspector of Factories to the British government. The chief Labour (Vol. 22. The account (Vol. 7). It is. Trades Union (Vol. 9. Employers' Liability (Vol. 15. Wages (Vol. It was not to be expected that all or most of those should be very scrupulous in their dealings with the foreigners. a statesman of great experience and authority. p. such as promotion of swindling companies. long the Japan Mail. The sections (Vol. Brinkley of the curious system of creating branches of Japanese business houses is another part of this article which should not be overlooked. p. Commerce and trade are now regarded as highly honourable professions. Italy and other which you countries. the majority of those adventurers failed. by Prof. Profit Sharinxj (Vol. Anderson. Wright. Nicholson. 16. p. p. . p. 25. by Capt. 228). The body Japan (Vol. it has not been quite possible to exclude some of their evils. by Aneurin Williams and Apprenticeship (Vol. It would be a waste of space to enumerate here the articles on Belgium. Brinkley. merchants and business men occupy the highest social positions. and are as honourable a set of men as can be met anj'where. generally those who believed in and practised honesty as the best policy. Baron Dairoku Kikuchi. though only a fourth of the cargoes loaded and discharged in French ports are carried under the French flag. M. Carroll D. His remarks upon the commercial morality of the Japanese are so ingenuous and so candid that an extract from them cannot be omitted: ident forth. S. 2. by J. 140) . 273) dealing with Japan's international position. 423). . the great American authority on the subject. tampering with members of legislature. p. and so of the article 15. 356). has already been mentioned. whose of opportunities of seeing Japanese life from the inside have been greater than those of any other foreign observer. p. 27. several of them having been lately raised to the peerage. Switzerland. but you should not overlook the article on Japan. The article p. contributes to the article a section (Vol. p. 229). jointly writ- ten by the late Dr. however.

each and of the greatest importance to him Taking up possibly in many more. and making as long a journey in the finished form. 28. 311) studied. F. p. indeed. of varied. because the scope of the Britannica is broader than that of any other book or. 685) . p. compares Fibres and _ the fibres yielded by . p. 5. In the third place. and have given to the Britannica the results of their re- Men search and of their experience as practiin many Contributors cal experts cases. by C. the — number of distinguished men who have devoted their exclusive attention to the subjects upon which they write. 324) deals with the brushing and combing of fibres. and animal substances used in textiles. 10. their Treatment ^^ ^^^^ vegetable . 906) deals with cottop. personalities.CHAPTER V FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILES THE Course of Reading outlined anyone who has to do with the making with the buying and selling of in this chapter will help or at least. p. the raw materials often traveling from one end of the world to the other before manufacture. textiles. and always of authoritative. before they reach the consumer. Cross. 606) deals with the "body" of cotton. Cellulose (Vol. — The article Fibers (Vol. in three ways. tech- Practical Among the — — nological and commercial institutes and twenty countries. 310 and and the table of vegetable 311) fibres should be carefully (p. 5. it will teach him many facts about manufacturing and merchandizing in general. that he could learn nowhere else. while the article Dacca says that a piece 15 feet by 3 was once woven that weighed only 900 grains. Carding flax. for that matter. In the second place. whose name has been much before the public in connection with the recent scientific investigation of the Textile subject. 309). The 18 microscopic photographs on the full page plates (facing pp. and the international character of the Britannica gives equal weight to the articles which deal with the textiles and with the markets of all countries a statement which it would certainly not be safe to make about any other book. these three: In the first place. covers both cotton and and it is curious to note from this article that in preparing yarns for the exquisite Dacca muslins one pound of cotton has been spun into a thread 252 miles long. fifteen hundred contributors in fact include no less than 704 connected with the staffs of 151 different universities. linen. The reader colleges in thus gets the benefit of contact with the thought of many. Spinning (Vol. p. (Vol. Yarn (Vol. than the pcope of any collegiate course can well be. as successful business men is far greater than the number of men who form the faculty The of any university in the world. the textile trade is peculiarly an international trade. hemp and jute fibres. 25. — — and about dry goods in particular.

Russia. Textile and Prof. 26. illustrated with a number of reproductions of famous specimens of hand-loom work. and contains 23 illusshowing the chief weaving "schemes. 256) begins by discussing the pe- Cotton Spinning Machinery (Vol. p. Cotton Manufacturing (Vol. to complete. 7. including India. Freeman. Fox. by 28. Georgia and Alabama. Italy and in other countries. of Mechanics Prof. probably originating in the East. but gives sixty recipes for various shades of colour. but he is kept at tasks requiring his powers and is not suffered to waste his time doing the work of unskilled or boy labour. Bleaching trations (Vol." and "straddles" shows how greatly the movement of prices is affected by speculation and often by artificial manipulation. T. 49) describes the chemical pro- cesses which have expedited the bleachand silk. supply is The section on marketing and by Prof. then with ginning and baling. Chapman. pile fabrics. p. 744). 8." known The 7. and not only describes all the styles of printing. Knecht and Alan Cole. planting. p. very ancient. woollens." "options. One explanation of American success is that the American employer "tries to save in labour but not in wages. and of Alan the first article you should read in a group dealing with processes applied Cole. cotton plant follows. 4. Weaving. 301) describes all the machines in great detail and contains a number of . Dyeing of Knecht. if a The generalization may be ventured. is The first to more than one material. with a special section on the recent developments in the two Carolinas. that of the United States. worsteds. G. W. author of Ornament in European Silks. p. p. linen used to take summer 23 on the cotton seed which by facilitating spinning gives cotton its predominant position as a culiar twist of the hairs Cotton and Cotton Fabrics The section on cultiby W. bedding. p. and the Chinese. then a discussion of the improvement of yield by seed selection. Fabrics. Textile-Printing (Vol. wool. 293) that "Americans were making vast strides in industrial efficiency even before the period when American theories and American enterprise were monopolizing in a wonderful degree the attention As far of the business world" abroad. Every dye is separately treated. silks and yarns. section is on the various combinations of warp and weft. It is interesting to note (p. The whole article is full of practical every-day information of the kind the merchant and manufacturer wants to know. 378) deals with the processes used for cotton. 440). at least. 7.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILES woollen and Weaving (Vol. which ing of cotton." A section on weaving machinery follows. It has been practised in China and India from time immemorial. 10. deals with the soils. by 100% in Massachusetts as against only 23% in England. A section on diseases and pests of the textile material. author of A Manual of Dyeing. Finishing (Vol. 694) is by Prof. and the latest models of dyeing machinery are carefully described. p. author silk yarns. China and Japan. vation. The full page plates reproduce fine specimens of early printing. back as 1875 progress in the United States was so rapid that the production for each operative had increased during the ten years 1865-75. good workman gets high pay. it Dyeing Hummel. author of The all (Vol. Switzerland. is another of the thorough articles which entitle the Britannica to rank as a great original work on textiles. by Prof. in The art of textile-printing "is Europe. are known to have made use of engraved wood-blocks many centuries before any kind of printing was 281) describes the industry in England. and then one on weaving as an art. and his practical study of "futures. France. and also the mills in Germany. hoeing and picking. p." elaborate article Cotton (Vol.

used in Linen and Linen Manufactures (Vol. be such that 450. teasing. 738) seems hardly more wonderful than Spider silk is as valuable as the best qualities of the silk-worm product. are fleece virtually the same processes and machines that are used for cotton. The article states that the finest linen threads used for lace are produced by Belgian hand spinners who can only get the desired results by working in damp cellars. 18. 150) is another market and carries it to the point where the yarn is delivered for weaving. p. article discusses shearing. 47). burring. p. 16. combing. a well known manufacturer of Macclestion of Great Britain the great British center. 28. extraordinarily warm and light. p. and this is slightly in excess of the fineness of the Dacca cotton thread already mentioned as producing 252 But at Cambrai the miles for a pound. and the cost of doing this has prevente^i the fibre from being it . ranging from the shoulders. the spinner being guided by touch alone. next after cotton and flax and with the processes employed in its manufacture. and that on the silk trade by Arthur Mellor. The centres of the industry are then compared. p. p. 12. 1. to the hind quarters. are: Alpaca (Vol. article. p. and the subsequent stages of preparation. 18. 28. 906) to field. familiar from discussions of the Underwood Tariff bill. p. A diagram of a shows the qualities obtained from various parts of the animal. p." roots and all. and the drawing of platinum wire to the fifty-thousandth part of an inch in thickness (Vol. Llama (Vol. classing. where the finest is found. the history of its manufacture being " one of the romances of commerce. 603) deals with the vegetable fibre which ranks. 827). Aldred F. 25. sort- Jute (Vol. the process of separating the capsules from the branches. (Vol. Worsted and Woollen Manufactures (Vol. and dealing with its weaving and the imitations of the cloth. president of the Silk Associaand Ireland. 721). The degree of fineness to which silk thread can be spun is stated (Vol. lace maker's linen thread already described has been made as fine as 272 miles to the pound. 96) contains illustrations of cocoons and worms. Linen various countries is first described and then the wool fibre is studied and microscopic photographs reproduced to show the structure of and Silk varieties. 10." Mohair (Vol. which deals with the hair of the Angora goat. is necessary to keep each one in a separate cage. 724). contains illustrations of a number of Articles dealing with certain sources of wool or of the wool-like hair machines. This thread is said to have been sold for as much as $72 an ounce. 16. Wool. takes up the story where the flax fibre is ready SiTiK (Vol. warping. instead of being cut. as the filament is too fine for him to see. and its production and preparation is by Frank of the The section on the fibre Warner. 805) is by Prof. The development in dressing and beaming. and pictures moths which produce wild silk. with details as to the The article special products of each.000 yards of thread have been produced from one pound of silk. drawing and spinning. are woven. p. scouring. 15. 28. mule spinning. but spiders are such fierce cannibals that this. textiles. Barker. wool production of Wool. by Thomas Woodhouse. p. and the looms employed. Flax (Vol. p. 647). and the articles Guanaco (Vol. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 24 full-page plates Mercerizing important and other illustrations. 649) and Vicugna (Vol. Lamb. microscopic photographs of fibre. on the two wild animals from whose hair high priced materials. for The winding. 484) describes the cultivation of the crops which are harvested by being "pulled. in its industrial importance. drying. and with the finished products. hogg and wether wools are compared and the different ing. 28. p.

mineral employed p. and is a textile of which the importance is rapidly increasing. 37). 431) describes the colours and patterns of all Scottish . Tapestry (Vol. Pineapple fibre is described (Vol. 992) which shows how unfair is an article to treat the re-manufacture of "devilled" fabric as an illegitimate if not absolutely fraudulent branch of the textile industry. p. proofing Shoddy gives it great (Vol. Save that gold. 471). (Vol. described (Vol. 5. 21. p. 26. p. linen. is described (Vol. 379) mentions the curious fact that the Chinese and Japanese makers of soft crepe guard their secret processes. p. 10. 24. 13. and masses of poor people who would otherwise be in rags are thus comfortably " Mungo. 814) deal with other art textiles. 25. wool. 609). 16. and Flannelette (Vol. 480) describes the true flannels made from wool. The 3. its culture. 311) as of exceptional fineness and is used in yarn cloths of the best quality. 25. 21. 8. Drill (Vol. p. 7. by Alan Cole. 714) is the only in textiles. p. varieties of 25 Carpet (Vol. p. p. p. 481) the cotton imitations and the new fire-resisting fabrics of this class. and its value for jacketing steam pipes and boilers and for insulating fabrics and fire- importance. 788) covers the textiles that are produced by knitting or looping. 19. 26. Flannel (Vol. flat-surfaced carpets and the printed carpetings. Felting is an even older textile process than weaving. 22. and silk. p. Artificial or "viscose" silk is described in the article Cellulose (Vol. for really serviceable cloths are woven from it is The many Textile and Merchandise special fabrics. 9. p. 28. 403) deals with another luxurious branch of the textile and is illustrated with photographs of the finest specimens and with pictures showing the methods of Brocade (Vol. Tartan (Vol. Asbestos (Vol. which are still unknown to western manufacturers. 5. p. and is a very full treatise on the history and the present state of the lace-making art. factured cloth. p. p. contains some of the most beautiful fullpage plates and other illustrations to be found in the Britannica. p. p. p. p. 906) in the article Yarn.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILES generally used (Vol." another re-manuclad. so carefully that the different stages of their production are carried on in towns far distant from sometimes called New Zealand flax. p. 2. 609) in the article Cellulose already mentioned. but experiments in the production of better fibre are being made. 481) is older than spinning. Net (Vol. 625) describes Sisal Hemp (Vol. article Felt (Vol. 309) (Vol. 60) gives further details as to both woollen and fur felts and describes the machinery for hatmaking. p. which originated in the United States. 10. 10. 158) is used in bagging as well as cordage. 664). one another. The article Pine-apple (Vol. 4. which no doubt originated in basket making (Vol. 13. cloths iery (Vol. 412) covers the textiles of which the mesh is knotted. 620) weaving. 10. and gives an account. describes with and illustrates this stately class Embroidery six full-page plates (Vol. Ramie (Vol. p. and the article Hat (Vol. with illustrations. 5. Paper pulp yields a yarn which is used in some cheap fabrics as of fabrics. p. woven are described in the articles already mentioned in the manufacture of cotton. and the same is true of Phormium it. silver and other metals are occasionally used in cloth or gauze. p. p. and Shawl 24. p. 245) deals with asphalted felts used for roofing as well as with the hat felts. p. 392) contains full- page plates of rare specimens and describes pile carpets. (Vol. of the machinery employed. in on Hos- articles Lace (Vol. industry. 580) covers both the cotton and linen Crepe tissues sold under this name. 875) is not so largely used in textiles. just as weaving.

William (Vol. 23. 1.. p. inventor of the power p. p. Jones. immigrated to New York and gradually built up the largest retail store in the city. B. p. who went from Yale to Savannah to secure a position as school teacher and then. 28. in one of which the judicial robes of the U.25. It is unnecessary to describe one by one the seventy articles on other fabrics and tissues. editor of The Ancestor. director of the British School at Rome. Another section of this article is on national and official costumes by W. of textile manufacturers in . 776) and those of Alb (Vol. p. Titus (Vol. (Vol." series of articles 7. the great 15th Century cloth manufacturer who became a clergyman after making a large fortune. but they Articles on Special Fabrics are all the list with a 87). Cartwright. p. (Vol. 611). 10. 23. p. p. Mackintosh. 785) clan tartans. Wanatry maker. The account of underclothing is of especial interest. Costume (Vol. The study of ceremonial robes is carried into further detail by the article Robe (Vol. p. who when Chicago was a comparatively unimportant city founded there what has become the finest dry goods store in the world. Supreme Court Justices are shown. 5. (Vol. life as an errand Marshall (Vol. that on ancient costumes by H. turned his attention to a device for sej^arating the cotton fibre from the seeds and refuse. Samuel and in a such as Dalmatic (Vol. 322). The secon dress in general is by T. A. 7. (Vol.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 26 Damask (Vol. and Whitney. T. Edward (Vol. 2. You will also be interested in the lives of successful merchants such as CaNYNGES. 497). with its five richly colored plates. Mass. p. Liturgical vestments are dealt with in Vestments p. 3. and Tarpaulin (Vol. 223). p. p. who after studying for the ministry in Dublin. Elias (Vol. who Jedediah(Vo1. 486). 25. included in at the are fully described in the Britannica. p. who began boy in a book store Field. 418). p. the barber who invented the spinning frame. 27) American inventor who individually rendered great services to the textile indusis that of Howe. Edmund. 200) and Sacking and Sack ManuCanvas (Vol. 430) deals with waterproof covers. (Vol. created the alpaca industry. Richard est mercantile business in the world. Charles (Vol. loom Inventors of Textile Machinery and Great Textile Merchants . 454) of the The enormous conarticle Weaving. p. inventor of the spinning mule. ranging through the alphabet from Alpaca to The Seventy Velveteen. and Claflin. I:li (Vol. S. 26. ing disappointed. who came from Worcester. 302). principal assistant editor of the Britannica. 912). 975) 5. 425). 556). 224) is a long and article. H. 250). 28. founder of a famous Quaker family Among the biographies which are of interest in connection with textiles are England. facture . 31). S. beof end of and all enced American industrial economic and social history. as most books on costume altogether neglect this branch of the subject.28." Another name of a great full page plate and many other illustrations. 13. Strutt. tion Joyce. Salt. . A. and that on modern costume by Oswald Barron. sumption of coarse bags for the packing of raw cotton and of sugar gives importance to the articles Bagging (Vol. 7. 835). of the British Museum staff. John (Vol. to New York where he for years controlled " the great- Arkwright. 17. p. p. 6. and invented the gin which has "profoundly influ- this chapter. 7. p. 21. (Vol. discusses this fine class of fabrics. (Vol. p. Stewart. who introduced lightweight waterproof garments. important Crompton. who invented the sewing machine. p. p. 23. 5. p. the weaving of which is the subject of a special section (Vol. p. 28. 408).p. 1044). Alison Phillips. whodidmuch to perfect the manufacture of cotton. Pease. 223) discusses sail cloth and artists' canvas.

John (Vol. William 950). 141). 712). . HorROCKs. (Vol. p. John (Vol. (Vol. Worth. 605). 823) you will note the associations of the locality with Elias (Vol. who invented the carpet-weaving machine (Vol. another inventor who helped to perfect the power loom. 28. famous Institute of Technology. already mentioned. at the rehearsal of his funeral. 26. and Tata. p. founder of the largest cotton mills "the Universal Provider. the Paris dressmaker who began as a London draper's apprentice. 448). A LIST Dexter. p. Samuel Crompton. in Lancashire. J. life successful textile Whitely. great Parsee textile manufacturer." of London. Eli Whitney. Knowles. the Other lives of makers and dealers are those of Rylands. 530) and was one of the incorporators of the Massachusetts 27 p. C. and Erastus Bigelow. p. N.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF TEXTILES If you turn to the Article Worcester 28. Timothy OF THE (Vol. the great English cotton manufacturer who was far ahead of his time and died of brain fever produced by overwork in 1804. (Vol. L. 6. p. p. 13. 23. p. F. the eccentric New England merchant of the 18th Century who beat his wife for not weeping heartily enough 8. 834). 28. J. Howe.

should be. the automobile is beginning to stimulate interest in practical mechanics. Before long the encyclopaedia 28 . and that machinery it is the exception to find in the cabinet which directs the affairs of any country. Germany or France that rep- — much more fied than government by lawyers. All other general encyclopaedias. The amount of space which the new Britannica devotes to mechanical subjects. were for a long time reluctant to recognize the growing importance of technical education. apart from technical education. are significant chines and in unreasonable complaints against manufacturers when improperly A from more than one used machinery fails to do its work. although it comes from one of the oldest of all universities. mathematics and pure or natural science. The same ignorance is conspicuous in newspaper offices. if it importance of this department of knowledge.CHAPTER VI FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF MACHINERY AN appreciation of the that has ever been published by a university. and the necessity. including earlier editions of the Britannica itself. seem to have been influenced by the old-fashioned fetish of "pure" scholarship and "pure" science. chiefly plication of the Britannica. Even the most dignified dailies seem unable to deal with any news that has to do with machinery without making ridiculous blunders. Until recent days the great universities of such important manufacturing countries as England. a single member who has any knowledge of mechanics. to learn some of the most useful of lessons. curious illustration of the general disre- point of view. the first to give full recognition to the science of mechanical engineering is so indispensable to the manufacture and sale of machinery that the reader of this Guide might simply have been referred to the chapter For Engineers as covering the industry. Greek and Latin. at school. for no one can attempt to drive his own car. ap- knowledge to the practical affairs of life. of giving the general student some knowledge of mechanics. Men machinery trade will welchange of attitude in the Britannica. too. And it is a significant fact that first in practice. the is. treating theory as a of study subject Change in gard of the subject is supplied by the fact as true of the United States as of England. not because they crave a public acknowledgment of the great share of the world's work that they are doing. Germany and France were almost exclusively devoted to the teaching of philosophy. history. The older universities of the United States. or even Influence of Automobiles obtain proper to service from his chauffeur and from garage workmen. but because public ignorance of mechanical subjects results in the abuse of ma- come were not that the Britannica contains (as the list at the end of this chapter shows) a great number of articles dealing with machines. and the great number of expert contributors whose collaboration was enlisted in this connecindividual tion. in this age of digni- the — resentative government A Public Opinion in the this Fortunately. without realizing that he failed.

swaging. In the manufacture of elec- apparatus Copper (Vol.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF MACHINERY authorities schools may responsible for our public realize that it is absolute barbarism to neglect mechanical teaching as they do. p. 743). 3. 463). p. Horner. p. 93). by J. 1. 312). 801). woodworking machines. appliances. upsetting. A thousandth of an inch is now considered a coarse dimension in the machine shop. illustrated. 7. and it is full of interesting facts about new admixtures. G. See also Graduation (Vol. p. p. "a clumsy workman is as much out of place in a modern machine-shop as he would be in a watch-factory. materials Iron and Steel (Vol. by J. whose skill. 10. p. 4. p. hammers and presses. There Welding is also (Vol. pinching. Howe of Columbia University. 12. with tO illustrations. p. written by Professor Dalby of the South Kensington College. 'table of added. is fully illustrated. and the question of the highest economies of machine moulding are among the practical matters considered. milling holes. 28). logically. The employed are. Horner. also by J. Hardening AND Tempering are described in J. The processes of Annealing. p. Rowland. G. Drawing Office Work (Vol. grinding machinery. 70). the American physicist. the first subjects upon which information will be desired. 704). An examination of the articles mentioned in detail in the following summary. discusses fullering. William Chandler Roberts-Austen. p. M. and die-forg- a separate article. Horner. by the late Henry A. A energy used in electric welding is See also Brazing and Solder- ing (Vol. Almost as important is trical Alloys Sir (Vol. portable tools. Horner's article under that title (Vol. 102) is largely employed. 556). many words. This authority explains clearly the difference between hardening and tempering and gives valuable advice as to the most efficient methods of hardening. prints scale with the originals are It identical in now made up to a length of 22 feet. . p. have lately been made. in which the section on Electric Welding is written by Elihu Thomson. reciprocating ma- machines with drill and bore machines. 663). is a mine of information about the properties and uses of the different 29 is Bearings (Vol. 477). for. 24. with a section on the Errors of Screws. weld- ing.000 tons per annum are employed. will show the comprehensiveness with which the Britannica treats all types of machinery. bending. and measurement. In the section on Machine Tools are discussed turning lathes. varieties of the indispensable metal of which 50. In regard to the last subject great advances chines. who invented the process. shearing and punching machines. The designer of machinery will find much practical information in Drawing. where gauges within one five-thousandth of an inch are often used. with 19 illustrations. Forging (Vol. to use the author's plies for the machine-shop. cutting-off. The whole subject is completely covered.000. machines for cutting the teeth of gear wheels. Founding (Vol. is a remarkable fact that 26. 8. sawing machines. shown in the construction of dividing engines of extraordinary precision and delicacy. The article Central Tool Technical (Vol. Its chief author. 27. 10. 14." Another article useful to the mechanic is Screw (Vol. This article is an invaluable manual and suphints which should be given to workmen. is length and has 79 illustrations. 578). G. by Professor H. is the greatest living authority on alloys. and for this reason alone the article has great value for the manufacturer. 33 pages in 14). G. p. made him famous the world over. and a glance at the long list of articles at the end of the chapter. and the new Britannica is already doing good service in stimulating public interest in the subject. and Sun-Copying Manufacturing Methods (Vol. p. ing. 2.

Thrash- It is a matter p. Arkwright. 26. Harrow (Vol. Worsted and Woollen Manufactures (Vol. The newest forms of internal combustion motors. 18. p. The article is written by Professor W. 28. 710). 818). 887). p. Hargreaves and Crompton. will be found under Plough and Windmill ing machinery see (Vol. (Vol. Designers and constructors of trical of the principle in 1831. C. 713). etc. learn In Hosiery (Vol. Sowing 850). contributes Air Engines and Engine (Vol. which explains fully how the dynamo is constructed and gives its history from Faraday's discovery George F. Reaping ing (Vol. Louis Bell. p. Electric on (Vol. 27). p. Zimmer. Cotton-Spinning Machinery (Vol. 22. 25. See also information. The (Vol. Water- by Professor Beare of Edinburgh University. p. 20. water-wheels. There is a separate illustrated Motors article (Vol. will be found under tical Spinning Weaving (Vol. Dr. In hundreds of articles on manufacturing and manufactured products there are excellent descriptions of the machinery employed. 13. p. 8. are described by Dugald (Vol. Lamb in 1863. The various machines and apparatus for sugar making are carefully described in Sugar. 25. W. writes Motors.C. and has been universally declared to be the best treatise on the subject that has yet appeared.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 30 The articles on the prime-movers are an important and noteworthy part of the new Britannica. 7. by Professor Fox. The latest designs in agricultural machines. 26. p. Oil Engine and Gas Engine 495). 301). 7. of Cambridge University. It is recorded that up to the middle of the 19th century only a flat web could be knitted. while an historical account of primitive machines as well as much prac- Ploughing (Vol. For machinery used the modern dairy see Dairy and Dairy Products (Vol. Hawkins' illustrated article Dynamo (Vol. p. The germ of the sewing machine dates back in to 1755. of interest that the first successful reap- ing-machine was invented by a Scotch clergyman in 1826. inventor of the Clerk cycle gas engine. (Vol. 10. turbines. the most modern type of all. all founded on the inventions of Paul. 750). 788) we and knitting warp-knitting machines. p. 443). illustrated article 805). p. 24. For mill- elec- Flour and Flour Manufacture (Vol. 11. of Manchester University. 744). Professor Ewing. 91) will be found complete information as to the construction of water-pressure engines. 443) and Steam En- Motors GiNE trated. 35). p. p. 23. Sugar Manufacture (Vol. and the whole story of velopment is told in (Vol. p. Under Hydraulics (Vol. its de- Sewing Machines The descriptions of machinery of various kinds are continued . p. p. 35) (Vol. has a section Weaving Machinery (Vol. 28. 28. author of Mechanical Handling of Material. p. both fully illuslatter has a most interesting preliminary historical account of engines from the aeolipile of Hero of Alexandria (about 130 B. 14. p. by machinery will be greatly interested in C. and also pumps. of the modern systems of spinning. p. Rope and Rope Making (Vol. 944). and that a circular knitting machine of American origin is the type of machine on which is produced the seamless hosiery of to-day. 21. Clerk. C. 1. by Thomas Woodhouse. p. about frame-work 13.) to the steam-turbine. with illustrations. and the articles are fully illustrated. p. as well as a history of their development. ac- Machinery count of the special for Special machinery and apPurposes pliances used in the manufacture of woollens is included in Professor Barker's Wool. p. Unwin. 685).. 25. 910). is richly illustrated with pictures of the most modern type of machinery for the manufacture of fibre and wire ropes. 764). 523). p. 548). of the General Electric Co. 382). gives details. An 28. with illustrations. p. This was introduced by J. of the Dundee Technical College.

Case-making Machine Gravity Stamp Grinding Machinery Casing-in Machine Dough Kneaders ery Barker's Mill Centrifugal Machines Dough Dividers and Gyroscope and GyroMoulders Chisel Barrel Organ stat Chronograph Dough Mixers Hackling and SpreadBearings Drawing-box Beating Machine Chucks ing Machine Drawing-frame Churn. p. Silk Manufac- ing (Vol.Flour-sifters Breaker Card chinery Flying Machines Brewing Machinery Cranes Fly-shuttle Bronze Crushing Machine Forging Bundling Press Cultivator Forging Press. p. Dredge and Dredging 562). Hori. 8. 31 102). 16. Paper 20. 16. p. 727). 26.ash Revolving Coal-weighing Machine Drying Machine. ing Operations (Vol. 19. 338). illustrated. p. Textile Printing (Vol. p. Electric Machines Dressing Machine Harrow Bessemer Convertor Clock Drill Coal-cutting Machines Hat-making Machines Bevel Bicycle Coal-wedging Machines Drop Hammer Hay Elevator Black .Drawing-office Hammer Dredgers clock Hand Drill. Manufacture (Vol. Printing (Vol. p. (Vol. Calender Machine and Tempering Damping Machines Gas Engine Archimedes. Hydraulic Acetylene Generator Aerating Apparatus Aeroplane Air Brake Alternators Alloys Ammunition Hoist . Modern Methods (Vol. 694). chines Conveyors Ice-making Machines Hoists Book-sewing Machine Copper Indicator Error of Screws Boring Tools Copying Machines Injector Fans. illus- Refrigerating and Ice Makp. p. 27. illustrated. Bicycle (Vol. de- machines are inof articles at the end of of cluded in the list the chapter For Engineers in this Guide. 27. Needle (Vol. Horse Comber Blast Furnace Holden Burner Blocking Machine Compressed . p. Typography.air Ma. 3.Dynamo Hydraulic Machines Dynamometer Boiler chines Hydraulics Eccentric Bolt . 25. p. A Vast Encyclopaedia of (Vol. 330). Hardening Calculating Machines Cutting Tools Furnace . Alkali illustrated.Dividing Engines Glass Press Machine ery Diving Bell Graduation Doublers Barbed Wire Machin. 350). Blowing and Machines Pin (Vol. Carpet. p. illustrated. Manufacture trated.spinning Ma. Modern Machinery Bellows 4. illustrated. illustrated. 396). 542). ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL MACHINES AND APPLIANCES DESCRIBED IN THE BRITANNICA AND GENERAL SUBJECTS AND ARTICLES ON MACHINERY Accumulator Brass Cotton-gin Fire-engines Brazing and Soldering Cotton . or Water. 3. 913). Brew- ture (Vol. 4.Continuous Press Lifts and Hydro-extractors Elevators. Machineillustrated. 23. p. 44). Typewriter (Vol. Leather (Vol. 705). 674). Mechanical Half-stuff Machine Beetling Machine Bellows and Blowing Clepsydra. 501). and are therefore omitted in the following alphabetical summary. 218). made Lace (Vol. Bookbinding.Hide Mill. Rotary Core-making Brake. (Vol. . illustrated. p. Lace. 5.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF MACHINERY under such headings as Brewing. 506). illustrated. illustrated. p. 1. 615). (Vol. p. Biographies of signers many and builders inventors. Screw of Calipers Dash Wheel Gas Plants Babbitt's Metal Calorimeter Depth Recorder Gas Producers Back-starching Mangle Carburetter Die Gill Frame Bale-breakers Carding Engine Differential Machines Glass-blowing Machine Band-knife Cutting Carpet-making Machin.screwing Ma. 30) Silk. 21. p. or DoubleCoining Press zontal Acting Stock Furnace Dye-jigger Hoe. Modern Practical Typography Machinery (Vol. p. HyBurner Current Meter draulic Butter Worker Curvometer Founding Anemometer Butyrometer Cutting Machines Friction Annealing. and Paper. illus- trated. 22. p.

32 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Integrators Iron and Steel Ironing Machines Jigger. Electric Winding Machines Windmill Wire-winding Machine Wiring Machine MaSugar-making Machin. Hydraulic Jigs Mule. Teasel chines Rounding and Backing Technical Education Machines Rusden Ma- Testing Machines and Eeles Thermodynamics Burner Thrashing Machines chines Patent logs Salt-cake Furnace.Planing Tools Metal-turning Tools Meter. chanical Patents Perpetual Motion Sawing Machines Phonograph Phosphor Bronze Pin Machine Pig-casting Machine Lever Ma. Electric Tool Drawing Turbine Screw Screwing Machine Plug and Ring Gauge Scutcher chines Pneumatic Hammer Separators Loaders Potter's Wheel Sewing Machines Lock Power-looms Shaping Machines Locomotives Power Transmission Shearing and Punching Loom Price-c Machines Lubricants Weighing Machine Shuttles Luggage-weighing maPrinting Presses Signal Lever chine.pressure En- gines Water Wheels Weaving Machinery Weighing Machines Welder. Electric Motor Vehicles Drill Tractors. Automatic Pulley Silk-reeling Machine Machine Slide-rule Pumps Machine Gun Purifiers Slime-tables Machine Moulding Rag Boiler.Wood . Physical Vacuum brake Valve Vanners Vernier Voting Machines Vulcanizer Washing Machines Wash Mill Watch Water Motors Water .Woolen Mule chine. Mathematical Rotary Washing Ma. Horse Manometer Reaping Machines Splitting Machine Measuring Machine a .making Hydraulic Linotype Machine Lifts.Tea-weighing Machine Oil Engine Oil Muffle Furnace Opening Machine Ore-Breaker Pantograph Paper . ^ Automatic Sugar .Sun Copying Me- Scalpers Screw cutting Screw .Steam Engine Reciprocating Mercerizing Machines Liquid-air Machine Lithographing Throstle ery chines Weighing Ma.Gill Frames Screw-thread gauge Planimeters omputing M Micrometer Microtome Milling Cutters Milling Machines Milling Stock Monotype Machine chines Rectifiers Reel Paper-Cutter Steam Hammers Steam Plough Steam Turbines Stentering Frame Reels Refrigerating Machines Still Remontoire Stocking Frame Strength of Materials Reverbatory Furnace Rifling Machine Ring-frame Rock Mowers Roller Milling Machine Sulphuric-Acid Plant Rod Gauge Steam and Turning Lathes Turret Lathe Type-setting Machines Typewriter Units. Crompton's Nail Machines Needle Machines Netting Machine Jute-Crusher Jute-Opener Jute-softening Machine Kier Knitting Machines Labour Legislation Lace Machines Lappet Looms Lathe. Automatic Laundry Machines Roller Washing chine Rolling. Mill Swathe Turners Sweep Rake Rope-making Machines Table.working Mortising Machine Motors. Oil Trepans Ma. Revolving Slotter Tools Mandrel Lathe Rag-breaking Engine Sowing Machines Mangling Machines Spinning-jinny Rake. Automatic Welding Welding.

tical terwoven that you cannot separate them. HARDWARE." The "layer. industries grouped in the present chapter you for example. the and pracaspects of an industry are so in- theoretical Knowledge in "Layers'* Proceeding to the next find technical information about the manufacture of these and all other goods. know absothat can be learned about the origin of his materials and the principles upon which his processes are based. in the Britannica. the soft- ening and tempering of metals. 135). a more convincing salesman and a better manager of the salesmen under him. of which the uses increased in the same ratio as cul- china or glass. you have been permitted to pass from the sample room into the factory. is. if you desire only to examine the finished products of any branch of industry. ture itself. 10. and thus to understand how temperature plays its dominant part in the most useful of It The manufacturer. which is not usually so easy of access. the great French varieties of. plated ware. and it is impossible for a business man who has got his foot fairly on the ladder to drop his work and go through an apprenticeship or take a thorough course at a technical college. It is for the reader himself to decide whether he wishes to begin his course of reading by a study of the article Heat (Vol. than among retailers. that "human culture may be said to have begun with fire. the insight he obtains lutely needs to manufacturing processes. p. says. and the allied articles to which it refers. unaided. he will for a few months devote his spare time to the studies he can pursue. But in the Britannica. you can turn 'to articles and sections of articles in which critical comment and elaborate illustrations put clearly before you the 33 of all course. the hardening of clay and the changes by which sand becomes glass. in his turn. 399). one of the most attractive it presents features of the Britannica that knowledge in layers. . GLASS AND CHINA ELISEE RECLUS. In text -books. in the Britannica article Fire (Vol. And in the scientific articles you arrive at the very substratum and foundation of knowledge. 13. most of whom begin as clerks. will be a shrewder buyer. you have what the experts in the factory could not give you if they would: the clear teaching that only the great masters of science can supply. student of the origins of civilization." all depend upon the curiously diverse effects of heat. If. p. Factory experience is hardly more universal among wholesale men. But the dealer.CHAPTER VII FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF METALS. of the ingredients that enter into their composition and of their manufacture. however. as you might see them and hear them described at an exhibition or in a manufacturer's sample room. indeed. if he knows the whole history of his wares.

you find that the scientific Some of the will give h«. member. Sir J. Ostwald. seven of these prizes. in 1902. A section is devoted to the action of chemical agents upon the simple metals. and in examin- ing the groups of industrial articles. should therefore re- in reading the Britannica. Lord Rayleigh. in 1909. and you cannot derive the fullest benefit from your reading unless you feel. devoted $9. H. of the University of Leipzig. Lorentz. Otto Henker and Dr. in 1904. 801). W. and the relative thermic and electric conductivity. that whether you are only going as far as the uppermost layer of knowledge. the most exquisitely finished product of any of the industries under discussion in the present section? To this question there can be but one answer: Optical glass. In physics and chemistry.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 34 a new value to all the knowledge up in the course of his business. for rolling and for wire drawing. Your next reading should be the great article Iron and Steel (Vol. those dealing with metals claim first consideraarticle Metal (Vol. H. the melting and boiling points. Birmingham. lecturer on metallurgy at Mason College. deal with all the methods of smelting ores. of the University of Berlin. Chemistry and the authority of the Britannica in those departments of knowledge is shown by a very striking You may remember that Alfred fact. Metallurgy (Vol. and other tables showing the ratio of expansion under heat. to be awarded. as you would feel if you were fortunate enough to be brought into personal contact with any of these great men. Dr. or reaching down to the very foundations of science. van't Hoff. Germany. 203). Van der Waals. for eminence in scientific research and in the cause of peace. p. Britannica contributors have won.000. every article in it is condensed. and would not occupy more than ten pages of this Guide. Electrometallurgy 18. in 1911. Prof. Prof. 198) is devoted tion. 14. of the University of Amsterdam. of Columbia Uni- . Thomson. 232). the great Swedish chemist. als. The departments of physics and physical chemistry are of course those in which the Britannica's scientific contents especially interest those to whom this Physics and chapter is addressed. that you have a privilege of which you must make the most. J. Very well. a table of comparative ductility under the hammer. p. M. Nobel.000 to the establishment of the annual Nobel prizes. Now apply another test. J. these winners being: in 1901. picks committee who Authorities award the Nobel prizes select for these unique distinctions the same men whom the editor of the Britannica selected as contributors. a table of elasticities. 9. in connection with the subject matter of this chapter. by Prof. irrespective of nationality. and by (Vol. p. reading Other chapters of this Guide also deal in detail with the scientific side of the industries mentioned here. G. Where is the best glass made? At the Zeiss Works in Jena. of the University of I^eiden. by general consent. of the University of Cambridge. What is. in eleven years. p. Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.inl906. It contains information as to the physical properties of the met- including a table in which the specific gravity of each of 42 metals is stated. Eppenstein. the men whose articles you are command the respect that you can pay to them by giving your very closest attention. Prof. Prof. 18. who made a fortune by the invention and manufacture of dynamite. In other words. Do not imagine that because the book contains forty-four million words. Howe. both of the scientific staff of the optical the Zeiss Works. wrote articles in the Britannica which deal with the lens and with aberra- You tion in lenses. Metals The to classification only. it is made to be skimmed. McMillan.

743). p. 12. 658). inventor of lustrations. 338). 102)." the men interested in the new product did not like to call it "wrought iron. 112). These four articles are by J. Horner. by Malcolm author of Pewter Plate. 26. 14). 21. 21. 27. is photomicrographic illustrations. 2. 767). 19. phosphor bronze. p. coined a new word for it. 428). "which lacked the essential property of steel. 314). also by Malcolm Bell. 2. p. p. 70). 11. and Brazing and Soldering (Vol. by Elihu Thomson. 237) describes the art that put an end to the Sheffield plate industry. 995). Coming now to the production of metal for the wares. 202). with a section on ElectroWelding. the hardening power. p. (Vol. p. 10. 18. Tin Plate and Terne Plate (Vol. (Vol. p. 805). 192). the microscopic examination and photography of metals and alloys is described. Horner. Pewter (Vol. with Sir W. 12. Fusible Metal (Vol. but they appropriated the name of steel so that today "steel" means either true steel or the low-carbon. also by Mr. Bronze (Vol. p. p. 10. 28. precious metals. 24. beautifully illustrated. 9. 663). p. Gold An- and. more modern electroplated ware is reSheffield Plate (Vol. the word "steel" was never applied to a metal that could not be hardened by tempering. The article London Mint. but the reader will find in it the clearest and most authoritative account of the industry which has yet been published. 25. of which Roberts-Austen. 639). timony Nickel (Vol. G. 127). Founding (Vol." "Mannheim gold. Howe disposes of the much discussed question as to the true distinction between iron and steel. p. p. p. 12. the article Metal. ferred to the article In regard to manufacturing processes there are the separate articles: Forging (Vol. yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag. versity. the process of electric welding and expert for the General Electric Co. and other combinations. AND Tempering (Vol.. 18. by 35 the same specialist. But when the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron. 28. 981). containing as would fill — Among on the commercial articles metals are Copper (Vol. as to which there has been great confusion. p. Among articles on the metallic compounds are Brass (Vol. 205). The article Tool (Vol.Work (Vol. p. (Vol. is of historical interest. 4. 433). p. p. The late . Zinc 1. and Gilding (Vol. and Platinum (Vol. slagless variety of malleable iron. CHINA AND GLASS much matter as 110 pages of this Guide. 11. p. 824). The art of making gold-leaf is described in Goldbeating (Vol. 4. another of Mr. Electroplating (Vol. has 79 illustrations and possesses special interest manufacturer of metal -ware as well as the dealer in hardware. while he who wishes to distinguish between the older and the Bell. Before 1860. in which "Dutch metal. p. and of value to the dealer or collector. Horner's valuable contributions. 26. 369) is an important compound. 1000). The article is divided into 133 sections. p.FOR MANUFACTURERS OF METALS. long chemist of the the chief contributor. C. is the work of three noted experts. HARDWARE. but also practical information as to the experiments which have been made recently with some of the newly discovered rare earths. because that name would confuse it with a lower-priced They ought to have grade of metal. p. on the (Vol. 500). 4. At the beginning of this article Prof. contains not only an account of the alloys already generally used in the metal industries. And see Welding (Vol. etc. p. 16. Tin (Vol. so that to analyze its contents would swamp this chapter of the Guide." which is what it really is. p. p. with 19 illustrations. which deals with steel bronze. p. Silver Lead Aluminium (Vol. p. 202). p. In the article its Metallography (Vol. Other methods of coating metals are given under Galvanized Iron (Vol. with 11 il- Hardening Annealing. 463). 7. (Vol. Alloys. 13)." "similor" and "pinchbeck" are described. p.

p. 24. France. will be found in » the article (Vol. Chisel (Vol. p. p. text-cuts. p. p. Jones. Venetian. A. Repousse Some of the work are de- (Vol. Coppersmith'' Work. 671) is one of the articles pertaining specifically to hardchief ware manufacture and trade. 20. in which (Vol. 28. See also Grille (Vol. author of Glass section and Painter- WcRK Japan general processes of manufacture are deand of allied interest are Knife scribed. and W. 16. Hall. The introductory by H. and J. 483). H. Inlaying (Vol. 10. p. Hammer (Vol. etc. Rosenhain. an expert metal worker. 850). 5. 53). writes on Methods of ManipuMetal-Ware lation in Metal Work and tells of the metal work of Greece. 776). an article by H. p. J. (Vol. 108). p. p. Windows. 188). ornamental forms of metal scribed in M. S. Plate (Vol. els. p. the Whitefriars Glass Works. Drinking Vessels (Vol. England. The necessary qualities of each kind are stated and the newest pro- tional manufacture described. a Book about both historical and It is its nature. 733). 23. Gardner. p. 384). G. p. 22. 800). by Spielmann. Methods of Union and Protection of Surfaces. Assyrian. with valuable formulas. are exhaustively described. Stuart Jones. 86) is most complete in its consideration of the entire subject. 105). Spoon 24. 12. Persia and Damascus. Wire (Vol. by A. 12. 815). illustrated. 2. descriptive in Stained by the (Vol. ject. p. in which he deals with Plater's Work. Powell and Alexander Nesbitt. late I^ewis F. A. with full information about materials. p. agricultural Glass (Vol. 21. and Damascening (Vol. Spain. 574).BRlTANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 36 H. Axe complete hand-book on work in sil- ver and gold of any class other than those of personal ornaments and coins. p. 407). The article Roman Art. 457). 897). author of Stained Glass. Geological Survey. Raised Work. London. R. p. deals with the manufacture of optical glass. Read. by H. is a concise. as well as the modern types. and Barbed Wire (Vol. Horner contributes the section on Industrial Metal Working. Roman. 14. J. Cast Work. Powell. 153). 7. 580). see also Lacquer Japanning (Vol. London.. 247). and the illustrations show many cesses of types. 15. deals with Modern Art Metal Work. 3. p. 19. chemist of the U. p. It is profusely illustrated with plates and showing many exquisite modand the reader can master the details of style in different periods and countries. the former being treated more fully in Assaying (Vol. mation about lacquering. Italy. has a section devoted to Work in Precious Metals (Vol. Middleton. Charles H. (Vol. p. p. p. 12. The subjects of the assay of gold and silver plate and hall-marks are discussed. p. p. Germany. Articles describing all forms of implements will be found under their respective headings. (Vol. 8. of the British Museum. 6. blown glass and mechanicallypressed glass. author of Old English Gold Plate. of Glassware Making. deals with ' . In connection with the last mentioned subJ. 15. Blair. H. (Vol. formerly editor of The Magazine of Art. 3. 789). Cutlery (Vol. Art. p. Egyptian. 15. The second part of the article is devoted to the History of Glass Manufacture. by Dr. p. 7. of the British Museum. Bohemian and Oriental glass. Scissors (Vol. S. 12. Chafing-Dish (Vol. p. p. 666). 23. 596). It is most valuable for its information in regard to styles of different countries and periods. Stuart Jones. who wrote the well-known Introduction to the South Kensington Museum Catalogue of Glass Vessels. (Vol. Further infor(Vol. 25. 783). p. director of the British School at Rome. The article is splendidly illustrated. describes old forms of glass cups and goblets. Razor Shears Nail (Vol. 738). of the NaPhysical Laboratory. 67). Stained glass is the subject of the sepa- rate article Glass. by Mr. Fork (Vol. and E. Day. 937). 275). Slade Professor of Fine Cambridge University.

il- by H. the use of glass in decoration. Instruments (Vol. by F. yields equally valuable information for those the decoration of with concerned china. J. The art of fitting and setting of glass is described in Glazing (Vol. 484). 703) will prove trated. C. Enamel those engaged in the chinaware. Walters. 26. including William Burton. and Painting has a section Painting with Coloured Vitreous Pastes (Vol. with the is artistic put. of Germany. by Percy Gardner. illus- by William Burton. ical archaeologist. p. of the Ashmolean Museum. Dennis Taylor and Sir David Gill. Photographic lustrated. 12. by James Bartlett. Kaolin (Vol. Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. of the British Museum. illustrated. will be found in such Aegean Civilization (Vol. 421). 472). W. the famous Cretan exand Greek Art (Vol. also practical facturer. 13) contains material on the subject of the gilding of pottery and porcelain. In Mural Decoration. both of the Victoria and Albert Museum. articles as etc. who erected the Eddystone and Bishop Rock lighthouses. 25. by Walter Crane and William Morris. 16. illustrated. illus- Alexander Fisher. 116).FOR MANUFACTURERS OF METALS. 421). the great article Ceramics (Vol. Ceramics (Vol. It is the joint product of Pottery and Porcelain a number of experts. Henry R. 16. of the Museum of Practical Geology. 617). Oxford. the different varieties of ceramics. illustrated. Gilding (Vol.000 words in length and contains over a hundred beautiful illustrations. by Prof. tion devoted to Wall-Linings of Glazed Brick or Tiles (Vol. 26. 12. by D. Jena. 470). 672). 633). tacles il- by James Waterhouse. illustrated. 9. both of the British Museum. 7. The following is a partial list in alphabetical order of articles and subjects in this field treated in the Britannica. Optical Appar- atus (Vol. 17). the class- Arthur plorer. both practical and artistic. which describes the use of these pastes in ceramics. 12. Objectives or Lenses' {Yo\. while use to which baked clay Tile (Vol. 15. Teleolas scope. their his- (Vol. p. 5. 971). 1. illustrated. 245). Material of great archaeological interest relating to earthenware. H. Tiffany in this country. and NichG. chief engineer to the Tyne Improvement Commission. p. Hogarth. pottery or porcelain manufacture and trade. 15. by Dr. Terracotta (Vol. p. describes the occurrence. including the productions of La Farge and L. Douglass. Flett. contains a table examples of important historical stained glass. Frank Brinkley. by Chinaware. systems of roof glazing and the use of wire glass. the methods of manufacture. p. by the late Capt. Hall and Robert Lockhart Hobson. G. 21. of the Carl Zeiss Factory. p. by W. and treats of the latest progress in the art. B. Crete. 362). Van de Put and Bernard Rackham. deals specifically with china clay and its preparation for the market. 6. p. deals trated. of Edinburgh University. p. Photography. p. p. illustrated. has great value for the present-day manu- trated. there is a sec- (Vol. It is 85 . p.. . Japanese ceramics are treated separately in Japan. decoration. J. p. etc. Archaeology (Vol. p. p. Brown. S. 20. 26. G. 19. 183). illusby William Burton and H. 561). chairman. and A. p. HARDWARE. p. lustrated. London. T. p. B. Clay (Vol. Evans. Rudler. Full information about glass for optical purposes will be found under Lens (Vol. 653). by Dr. Gedye. illustrated. CHINA AND GLASS painted and stained glass. Otto Henker. Lighthouse. 507). by p. To a revelation. composi- tion and properties of the various clays used in ceramics. Here We learn about the setting of window glass. Spec- 37 tory. It deals fully with the artistic and economic phases of the subject. including six plates in colour. p.

J. Brass Gimlet Girandole Medal China Gouge Gombroon Ware Ormolu Owari Ware Gouthitre. Sir Henry Hardening Dresden. John Royal Worcester Ware Lang-Yao Salt Glaze Salver Copenhagen Ware Beaker Fireback Firing Belleeck Ware Bidri Work Fire-irons Flint Glass Latten Lead Samovar Binocular Instrument Fork Saracenic Glass Biscuit Bohemian Glass Forging Founding Fusible Metal Galvanized Iron Lens Lighthouse Bottle German Basin Bismuth Bizen Ware Bow Ware (or Nickel) Silver Apparatus. I^. Ware and Tempering Drinking Vessels Antimony Dwight. Satsuma Optical Lock Scissors Lubricants Lustred Ware Majolica Sconce Screen Bradawl Gilding Meissonier. Pierre Painter-work Ware Saw Screw Scythe Sevres Porcelain Shears Metal Brasses. Alloy Steels Alloys Damask Hizen Steel.Mezza Majolica Caffieri. Porchaire Ware Pitcher Tin and Terne Plate Hispano-M o r e s q u e Plaque Ware Plate Tongs . or mascus Steel Damascus Ware Aluminium Delft Ware Delia Robbia Amphora Derby Ware Andiron Doulton. Ancient Bronze Shovel Glass-blowing Machine Metal Work Byzantine Glass Shuttle Glass Cutting and En. Stained Spade Morel-Ladeuil. Oiron. Jacques Minoan. Monumental Metallography Brazier Sheet Glass Glass Metallurgy Sheffield Plate Brazing and Soldering Glass. C. Harrow Objec. or Pin Tinker St.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 38 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES AND SUBJECTS IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE IN METAL. HARDWARE. Sieve graving Silver Candlestick Ware Glass. M. Ceramics Japanning Platinum Plough Porcelain Pot-hook Potteries. Painted Mirror Smith Capo di Monte Ware Glass-press Capronnier. Palissy Bernard Ware Table-ware Takatori Ware Tanagra Figures Tankard Tazza Instruments Painting Telescopic Grille Pen Hall-marks Persian Pottery Terracotta Thrasher Hammer Pewter Tiffany. The Potter's Marks Potter's Wheel Pottery Protection of Surfaces Jug Raised W^ork Kaolin Kashi Kiln Kioto Ware Knife Rake Razor Reaper Repouss6 Roman Art Kuang-Yao Kuft Work Rookwood Ware Royal Kutani Ware Lacquer La Farge. L. Ware Plated Da. Armour Plate Arms and Armour Arretine Ware Electrolier Assaying Enamel Painting Auger Etruscan Ware Faience Fender Awl Axe Barbed Wire Banko Ware Electroplating Electrum File Finiguerra. or Meissen. GLASS AND CHINA MANUFACTURE AND TRADE Adze Aegean Damascening Civilization Ainmuller. John Anvil Annealing. B. Cast Work Glazes Cellini. E. J. Benvenuto Spectacles Glazing Mural Decoration Ceramics Spit Goblet Nail Spoon Chafing Dish Needle Gold Chalice Spade Gold and Silver Thread Nickel Stone Ware Chelsea Ware Niello Gold-beating China.Hoe Maso Ware Plate-glass Plater's Work Horseshoes Ingot Inlaying Invar Iron and Steel Iron Work Izumo Ware Japan. William Coperta Copper Coppersmith's Crete Crown Glass Cup Cutlery Cultivator Work Palissy. or Kamares. Solder Monstrance Glass.Tiffany Glass Photographic Tiles Hatchet tives or Lenses Tin Henri-Deux. Art Chinese Porcelain Ware Chisel Graffito Churn Grate Greek Art Clay Cookworthy. A.

FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FURNITURE Tool 39 .

made for Louis At a XV supposed to be of modern origin is found Roman use of bronze beds. is the most effective that can be employed at moderate The all cost. Since then. metal work. Medes and Persians followed the same custom. and throughout the Middle Ages in West- in the was afterwards discarded for The bed of the Emperor Eliogabalus was of solid silver. upon which skins were laid. now in the Louvre Museum in Paris. p. Winant and Hervieux. and this art is one which does more than any other to "express and arouse" the home-cherishing emotions which solThe principles which idify family life. which was so long neglected. to whom many sidiary articles are also due. p. with bronze mounts by Duplessis. and it might therefore be said that the only course of reading in the Britannica which could fully justify the title of this chapter would be one which covered all The reader can. sculpture. later period. ern Europe. Lightly polished. by James Penderel-Brod- The keystone 11. style rendered in reviving the use of oak. the combination of an art with an industry of the most practical and useful kind. underlie architecture. The Egyptians had high bedsteads to which they ascended by steps. however. these diverse fields. 612). the Greeks used folding beds. have given pleasure to tens of thousands for every one whose home was enriched by the original products. Another ancient application of an idea commonly splendent piece of furniture ever constructed. 363) is article one of the greatest of living au- thorities. The English periods is of treated in the article (Vol. and an indication of the articles dealing specifically with Related Subjects furniture will at any rate serve his pri- Furniture (Vol. there has been no really "Art Nouveau" new departure except the "art nouSchool its veau" school. embroidery and the weaving of patterns all affect the design of furniture. therefore needing but few household appliances. of the sub- The 37 il- on plate paper include two views of the most famous and re- lustrations large Queen Anne and early Georgian craftsmanship and the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI brought the development to of high-water-mark. as vase-paintings show. fumed or waxed. 3. modern conditions We have. Rome and Greece. and went to bed as soon as it was dark.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 40 lived in chronic poverty. since its contours and surfaces are obtained by the application of the structural and decorative laws of all of them. in all in- prob- be less notable for its effect upon than for the very great service it ability. with a board at the head. and it was not until the 18th century that the art of the cabinet-maker was fully developed. then. painting." the chief among them Oeben and Riesener. fluence of the and the permanent movement will. oldest and most indispensable furnishings Bed mary purpose. which professed to be free from all traditions and to seek inspiration from nature alone. in the furniture busi- ness. this wood. and metal is so much more sanitary than wood for this purpose that it seems by a number of "artist-artificers. Beds and the Assyrians." The adaptation and variation of their ideas. with the assistance of other chapters of this Guide. The Renaissance was the first era of sumptuous and elaborately varied furniture. . The Greek bed had a wooden frame. The article explains the scanty attention paid to furniture in ancient Egypt. The revolution which was thus attempted was not successful. the cylinder desk. hurst. strange many it centuries. as due to the routine of life in centuries during which people spent their days in the open air. easily find his way to the Britannica's articles on each of these allied subjects. under of manufacture. and bands of hide laced across.

and were apparently closed by sliding partitions as well as by To our modern ideas. p. compact and easily moved chairs which will always be the more white. visits of his ministers the usual seats. 8. did not come into general use until. with its "tester" roof and its curtains. Until printing had cheapened books. and hair had not come into use. Sheraton numerous. The ecclesiastical chests. In Pompeii wallniches for beds. which was widely used until the middle of the 19th century. p. bore the inscripSheraton's satinwood bookcases tion. of a sovereign remaining in bed while he received the curtains. for in the 18th century pea-shucks and straw were the stuffing materials employed in houses of prosperous people. p." or series of slats mounted on canvas proved more serviceable. p. 221) had assumed a distinct form. are found. p. for we of learn from the (Vol. it was not the custom to mark the title on the back. 4. p. of great length in order that they might contain. 634) Bookcases and Desks was contain used to books long before the Bookcase (Vol. The chair. without folding. But it was the original Chippendale design (Vol. Mattresses developed very slowly. were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. but the "tambour. 7. and it was not until the 17th was well advanced that upholstery began to be employed for them. p. and the band of leather which closed the volume. like those still used in Holland. like the strap on an old-fashioned wallet. 25. was not much better. 4. descending arms. p. if upright. these two had long been Chairs and the still robe before hanging space and drawers were provided. were among the most elegant of all his pieces. It would seem that the old English makers of furniture went somewhat astray when they gave themselves the general designation. and was the original form of ward- lighter patterns of 41 The Cupboard (Vol. and courtiers. The Desk (Vol. and in the earlier bookcases the volumes were either placed on their sides. as the articles Bench (Vol. It is interesting to observe that the revolving chair. with its oval back and ample seat. are the most ornate of all the models of furniture which have been preserved from the 13th and 14th centuries. round-reeded legs and gay tapestry was the most beautiful and elaborate model that has ever been devised. article Cabinet elaborate surviving. 95) about the year 1750 had assumed the form which is now described as a library table a flat top with a set of drawers on each side of the writer's knees. The typical Louis XVI chair. The article Chair shows that chairs were everywhere uncommon until the middle of the 16th century. this arrangement seems to have been disgustingly devoid of ventilation. At first the cover was a solid piece of curved wood. church vestments stiff with embroidery. instituted by Louis XI of France. to us the commonest of objects. The article gives a full and interesting account of the quaint custom. commonly regarded as an office convenience of modern origin. 918) that the cabinets which have come down to us from the 16th. 3.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FURNITURE with counterpane and hangings of purple embroidered in gold. Dutch and French origin. 715) and Stool (Vol. and followed by many of his royal successors. has a pedigree of no less than four centuries. when its vogue was interrupted by the invention of the cylinder-top desk. and the American roll-top desk is now exported to all parts of the world. or. Other articles dealing with individual pieces of furniture — . 801) Hepple- and Adam that gave us the slender. 6. The Chest (Vol. but the fourposter. 106) was also used as a seat. 17th and 18th centuries are almost invariably of Italian. still "cabinet-makers". Chests and 967) indicate. 5. and it was in other branches of work that the English were most successful.

118). 575). and. 27. p. Manufacture (Vol. 28. 457). 324). 6. 23. 4. p. 15. 27. by Bartlett. 17. 143). p. and Carving and Gilding (Vol. 102). materials it industry. Cradle (Vol. 11. by Profs. silver and gold have been used 676). 16. p. the maker (Vol. p. 22). 13) fittings. p. by A. 5. The 12. p. 6. author of Gothic Wood-carving. Marble Flett. 433). p. p. Crallan. ideas and work will be of much value and interest to those who make or deal in furniture. 8. the metal-worker whose furni- Chippendale XV (Vol. see also James Joinery (Vol. and Mirror (Vol. 438) 4. A. Riesener (Vol. 1. Brass (Vol." several of whose ingenious mechanical de- Wood-Carving vices are described. Rontgen. J. p. The tions. 199). Of the more technical articles Timber (Vol. 14). For the French schools we get the essential facts about. 18. 188). Silk. Rep Hummel and Edmund Knecht. 154). 17. 16. illustrated. 857). and they are in- much Boulle new cluded in detail in the nica. beginning with that date. 791). 12. every variety of joint and dovetail. describes. It 'would fill 75 pages of this Guide. The mention of the last two ple. 28. p. 105). to whom Louis XV's famous desk owes its general plan. 15. Onyx (Vol. Side- (Vol. sculp- Decoration ern and Ornament more concerned with musicians of the accounts of their lives. Veneer Materials other than wood used for inlaying are described. 20. (Vol. (Vol. (Vol. who completed the desk. Plush (Vol. p. with numerous illustrations. p. p. Ivory (Vol. (Vol. advantages of all Technical Articles the varieties of wood used for furniture. S. by J. 4. as the list at the end of this chapter shows. (Vol. p. Cole. 25. Oeben (Vol. 8. p. 20. Such biographies. as anyone interested in the subject knows. David (Vol. (Vol. 237). The article will be most valuable to manufacturers and dealers who have to do with church p. p. p. and contains 79 illustra(Vol. (Vol. 757). and Alabaster (Vol. maker furniture will find in complete information about all the hand tools and machine tools used in the as to the domestic use of wood-carving. J. p. 7. p. 693). 185). Lacquer (Vol. 476). architects period. Lac (Vol. etc. as. both France and England produced a number of men whose renown is scarcely less than that of the great painters. 38). Weaving. 360). Industrial Technology (Vol. from antiquity for the decorations of furniture. Tortoiseshell (Vol. The art of inlaying is described in Marquetry (Vol. 23. Pearl (Vol. 12. Horner. p. in regard to which there is also informa- tion in the article Japan (Vol. 25. 27. bronze. is of great importance. p. p. p. Gilding (Vol. with practical diagrams. p. Although wood. 291). Dyeing (Vol. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 42 Wardrobe are board Dresser Cheffonier 577). 71). his more celebrated pupil. 26. p. p. for exam982). p. Buffet (Vol. p. for example. p. the maker of "harlequin furniture. 751) and Bombay Furniture (Vol. 21. 20. French Polish (Vol. p. are most difficult to find. impart knowledge of a practical nature as to these processes. 53). p. 21. and there is much information tors. Tapestry (Vol. ivory. and. p. 23. p. p. separate article by G. 28. 16. 25) for pearl and mother of pearl. precious stones. or Britannica's and GouTHifeRE ture mounts are among the most noted art products of the Louis periods. 323). J. In this article materials and methods are described. 26. p. and XVI p. Velvet- (Vol. (Vol. p. 92). 15. 403). . S. 35). Sound guidance for the workshop will be found in Glue Painter-Work (Vol. 321) Britan- was the most distinguished of modern cabinetmakers before the middle of the 18th century. p. 744). 4. there is a Tool on each kind. 11). (Vol. 978) shows the comparative p. p. mod- will be by F. 27. 466). naturally Biographical suggests the Articles Boulle name and Britannica's of the biog- raphy of that artist. 440). Lapis Lazuli (Vol. 979).

Pigments Pine Plane Plush Triclinium Tripod Turpentine M. or Linden Linen-press Screen Sequoia Acacia Damask Ash Bahut Dammar Bamboo Design Baroque Desk Divan Date Palm Barry. William Ormolu Ornament Ingle-nook Inlaying Iron Ivory Japan. Rococo Rontgen. Matthias Sideboard Silk Dresser Lowboy Mahogany Dumb-W alter Mammee Apple Sofa Spruce Bed Duramen Beech Dyeing Berain. A. whose taste at its best "was so fine and so full of distinction. 172). Charles Lac Ailanthus Alabaster Lacquer Alder Cretonne Crunden. INCLUDING BIOGRAPHIES. George Hickory Holly Huon Pine Ince. F. who left so deep and enduring a mark upon English furniture. or Mastich Teak Etagfere Mayhew. Sir John B. John Cryptomeria Lapis Lazuli Algum Cupboard Larch Sabicu Arabesque Arbor Vitac Armoire Arts and Crafts Curtain Cushion Cypress Leather Satin Leather. 841). Thomas Lock. so simple.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTUPvERS OF FURNITURE with whom arose the marvellously bril- liant school of English cabinet-makers. Thomas Tea-poy Fir Meissonier. Pierre Onyx Halfpenny. Robert Oeben. Art Stall Stool J. Robert Cradle Crash Juniper Kauri Pine Agate Cressent. 1. Wood Wood Settee Settle Shearer. Upholsterer Varnish Velvet Velveteen Vernis Martin Walnut Wardrobe Washstand Weaving What-not Japanning Jarrah Wood Prie-dieu Willow Window-cornice Window-seat Rep Wine Table Johnson. p. Artificial Le Pautre. Sir Charles Basin-stand Basket Lampstand Liquidambar Lock Rosewood Rousseau de tifere. Marble Bombay Furniture Elm Marot. David Adam. Henry Corduroy Marquetry Table Tallboy Tapestry Tea-caddy Mirror Gillow. J. Jean Lime. Robert (Vol. Osier Ottoman Overmantel Painter-work Pearl Pergolesi. la J. and Sheraton (Vol. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES. p. 13. Daniel Bonheur du Jour Embossing Encoignure Mastic. Thomas Sheraton. 305). Adam." whose extravagant creations marked the end of the great Many school. Glue Olive Gouthiere. William Hazel Hepplewhite. H. and the history of this school is continued under such headings as Hepplewhite (Vol. Thomas Coco-nut Palm Coffer Console Copal Copeland. is the subject of a biography describing fully the characteristics of his designs. p. Andre Charles Box Boxwood Carving and Gilding Casket Cassone Casuarina Cedar Chair CheflFonier Chenille Cherry Chest Chestnut Chintz Chippendale. J. IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA WHICH ARE OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS Riesener. Robert Maple Maple. 24. S. modest and sufficient that it 43 amounted to genius". Jean Fbony Birch Electroplating Manwaring. "the most remarkable man in the history of English furniture. Thomas Resin Wood-carving Rot- . William Tortoiseshell Nettle Tree Tray Oak Bookcase Boulle. cluded in the other biographies are in- list appended. Textile Printing Brass Footman Frame Brocade French Polish Buifet Furniture Gilding Throne Moreton Bay Chestnut Ticking Timber Morris. A.

but also to show how Britannica-reading will help them to realize the importance of educating the general public in regard to that business. do not know what lies beneath the surit. its most important service as a garment is to cover our feet. addressed to persons engaged in certain important occupations. while facts that explain why that article is adapted to a particular use. and why it is better than another article sold at a lower price will always receive attention. is About Selling Leather Goods about leather. one of the most interesting of all commodities. again. and yet so far an artificial product that when the hide has been removed from an animal. and under this a membrane which makes the natural Under 44 grain surface this. although few of those who use it. is tells Skin All this is especially true of leather goods. from any point of view. they will so What Skin Is resist the entrance of any tan liquor or other preservative fluid that they must be scraped away before the skin can be treated. is not only to show them of the how Britannica-reading will enlarge their aspects and relations of their business. In the direct personal intercourse between salesman and purchaser there is opportunity for the imparting of information which. as in man. Under these is consists of scales.CHAPTER IX FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS THE purpose of the department Guide in which this chapter appears. In cattle and sheep. Mere praise of an article is uninteresting and unconvincing. Both the leather merchant and the public would be delighted to hear some of the curious things that the Britannica yet ninetynine out of a hundred who use it not only used. it requires treatment in order that it may not lose the flexibility which makes it. but do not know that there is any difference in value between a natural grain surface and a mechanically grained false surface. these scales are so small as to be invisible. waterproof because its surface and although in most quadrupeds. and it is quite certain that nearly all the men and women who walk face of horny scales there is a layer of soft cells. the "true" skin. for the public ignorance on the subject of leather out of a store after buying skiver would be nonplussed if they were asked whether the upper or lower part of a split skin.was the best. and in order that it may not decay. is probably to tell the public what it really is and how it is really made. will be gladly received and will stimulate trade. lies of leather. ever stop to think how curious a relation there is between the original nature of the material and the qualities of the finished product. Nothing more universally abysmal. in . Adapted to our own use. This education of the public is not necessarily confined to advertising. for a thousand purposes. It is so far a natural product that no imitation of it possesses any of its chief merits. and perhaps as few of those who deal in it. which is. if it possesses genuine interest. or an article that is good at its price. more valuable than wood or metal. although the best form of advertising that can be knowledge of some used by anyone who sells a good article. the hide is a garment that covers every part of the body but the feet.

and describes the structure of skin in relation to the finished product. lie in bundles. and the process of skin development in the embryo. bound together by yellow fibres. save the horse. vacant. and author of Principles of Tanning and other After exstandard trade text-books. but perhaps they were not arranged in your mind plain in 45 a form in which you could ex- them to others as clearly as you will be able to do after reading the articles in the Britannica from which this general statement is summarized. equivalent to 50 pages of this Guide. varies in different animals.and goat -skins come from. and chamoised leathers. the weave of this innermost layer of skin. a third skin. Now make up the substance of for the articles in detail or the principal ones. The body of an old bull will have absorbed it. the under half is only fit for the light usage to which "chamois" leather is restricted. you probably knew all these facts already. from this jelly. The main article Leather (Vol. Tan liquor has the peculiar property of converting this jelly into a "leathery" substance. covers the comparative anatomy of the skin in all groups of animals. which are here coarser. as cells do. with illustrations from microscopic enlargements. tawed. and for this reason great care is needed in preparing the leather. p. The characteristics and pecuhides and skins from different parts of the world are thoroughly exlearn why hides from aniplained. its true structure the same in all animals used for leather. But however the quality.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS two layers. That is why old bull leather is not waterproof and is lacking in substance. 16. The chapter on Zoology in this Guide gives a list of the articles on the other animals whose skins are tanned for fancy leathers. and the fibres do not multiply among themselves. 188). 25. by Dr. of the skin is and durable. you will find that the Britannica goes to the root of the subject in the same thorough way in which it deals with the fibres and the jelly that leather. The articles mentioned in the chapter For Stock-Raisers tell you about the domestic animals whose hides are chiefly used for leather. but are developed. In the upper of these two. Again. And when you are reading about any other business. Parker. which is exceptional in possessing. or about any other subject of any kind. London. the others are suflficiently indicated by the list at the end of this chapter. catechols. which although it does not then assume the shape of fibres. G. and when the skin is split. vice-president of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. plaining the distinctions between tanned. principal of the Leathersellers' Technical College. becomes nearly as tough as the fibres themselves. the white fibres. In the lower. . As you are in the leather pliable business. Tanning Materials is the subject of the next section. as they are needed. it takes up the subject of sources and qualities of hides and skins. and where the finest sheep. lying next to the flesh. The spaces in the weave are filled with a soft jelly. and thus makes leather more solid and stronger than the original skin. and the virtue of leather depends largely on the presence of this jelly. which makes horsehide taken from this part of the body peculiarly waterproof. In sheepskin the fibres are very loosely woven. James G. just as fat absorbed in old the so that spaces in the weave of the fibre are left is Naturally Woven Fibres age. mals bred in mountainous districts are liarities of We the best. 330). is by Dr. These are classified into and subsidiary ma- pyrogallols. Parsons. F. over the loins. p. so that this layer is really a woven fabric. the white fibres lie parallel with the grain. Skin (Vol. very closely woven and very greasy. and (as the scaly outer surface of the skin has been scraped away to admit the tan liquor) any water with which the hide comes into contact will be soaked up. surface or thickness may differ.

18. . and the article describes composition and preparation by grinding. Glove Leathers. Separate articles go more deeply into the chemistry of dyeing materials used with leather. p. professor of Dyeing. In connection with depilation. 500). handling. p. (Vol. drenching (Vol. as well The art of Acid Currying has a section to itself. the varieties of basils. by the late J. p. p. p. 127). Mangrove mosa (Vol. puering. Wooling. 422) and full a interesting account of the insect produced vegetable excrescence which yields a high percentage of tannin. Leather. p. basic. p. J. Dyeing. 688). depilating. 345) is a separate article. (Vol. or tannic. Log- wood (Vol. 5. and some of the more important of these are Sulphonic Acids (Vol. 14. 26. p. For the catechol tannins see Hemlock (Vol. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 46 their terials. is a general account of the vegetable products which have the property of con- 399) verting raw hide into leather. 112). and Dr. p. Acetic plained. also the theory of the formation of the "bloom" and its removal. 16. Titanium (Vol. 11. Russia leather. 262). Dressing. used in the (Vol. or cotton. 958). by Francis H. skivers. and all 12. p. p. 65). 796). The processes of making heavy leathers are next dis- We cussed. Specific information about the materials from which pyrogallol tannins are obtained the will be found under Myrobalans (Vol. 3. and the preparations for tanning or dressing hides for trunks and suit cases by bating. and mordant dyes. 114). (Vol. Chemistry of Leather Manufacture 19. p. p. Butler. Galls (Vol. The tanning of light leathers. Catechu 507). and of fell- mongering (or dewooling) by liming. or Tannic Acid (Vol. 375). Parchment. Combination Tannages. 26. Artificial (Vol. such as Alum (Vol. Chrome Tanning. Prellers Helvetia or Crown Leather. Tannin. 1. direct. Sulphuric Acid (Vol. Brazil Wood Fustic (Vol. 26. oil these are described at great length in a valuable article Dyeing (Vol. p. 8. as the process of "scouring. to which the pleasant odor is due. 70). p. rounding and scudding. chrome tanning. 26. frog and kangaroo Japan and enamel leathers are fully treated. and laying away.of Technological Chemistry. 211). p. empyreumatic p. 114). Tar and Peat Tanning. Edmund Knecht. 1017). and Willow (Vol. 28. 8. Formic Acid (Vol. Mi- (Vol. 60). softening. 922). 13. p. Transparent Leather. 4. scudding. 463). 912). 572). Oak 931). and Dyeing seal. 11. p. profes^or. p. Chestnut DiviDivi (Vol. p. Tawing. snake. receive detailed attention. and finally the process of actual tanning in its three steps of colouring. 766). equivalent to 20 pages of this Guide. Iron (Vol. University of Leeds. p. p. (Vol. including the Tanning latest official meth- od of the International Association of Leather Trades Chemists. Staining and Finishing. etc. of tlie Royal School of Mines. p. plumping. 6. (Vol. learn the many ways cleaning. with explicit directions for their Processes of testing. 3. p. p. Oil Tanning (Chamoising). 26. Antimony (Vol. 1. and Bookbinding Leathers are some of the other sections of this excellent treatise. 668). leathers. p.. 744). 332). harness leather and other grades is ex- preparation of Russia leather." and splitting. 17. 16. Sumach (Vol. There are numerous articles in the Britannica on the chemicals used in the process of tawing. Larch Birch (Vol. Hummel. Glauber's Salt Bichromates and Chromates (Vol. University of Manchester. it is interit has been discovered that it is not the lime but the action of bacteria in the lime which causes the hair 19. The section on the Theory of Dyeing shows how the dyeing property of a substance depends upon its chemical composition. which esting to note that yields the to fall out. alligator. The finishing of sole leather. 10. 16. 135). 2. p. The chief classes of dyes used for leather are the acid.

Bookbinding (Vol.Indulines wooling Iron Chrome Box Antimony Iron Tannage Finishing Chrome Tanning Azo Compounds Janus Colours Colouring Pits. The flexible binding. to the English language was due to the unpleasant sensation that came from touching the rasping surface of this leather. (Vol. (Vol. or De. 992) contains an illustrated section on the Manufacture Saddlery and Harof Leather Shoes. cussed in such articles as (Vol. 769) about a species of untanned leather used for ornamental purposes. account of the skins and their prepTheir use as writing material was widespread at a very early period. p. is an interesting his- Shagreen (Vol. by Cecil Weatherly. by William Morris and Walter Shoe (Vol. p. or Cotton. 135) are treated both from an historical and a practical point of view. Dyes Bleaching Bloom Dividivi Bookbinding Bookbinding Leathers Dongola Leather Drenching Galls Gambler Glauber's Salt Glazing (Glac6 leather) Glove Glove I^eathers Grinding Machinery and Leaching Kips Larch Leather Leather. Maunde Thompson.Formic Acid Barkometer Japan Leather Frog Skin penders Basic. p. J. 507). 273). originated when vellum instead of paper was used for books. 19." says the torical aration. 23. 23. 11. 47). by C. "The Jews made use of them. or Tannin dyes Kangaroo Leather Combination Tannages Fuchsine Basils Kaspine Leather Fustic Crust Stock Bates Angols Aniline Currying Apparatus Bating Bichromates and Chro. Crane. Fuchsine and Safranine (Vol. of the British Museum. Principal Librarian. It is a tells 47 19). 20. British Museum. Com- paratively few of the coal-tar colours have as yet been adapted to leather manubut their characteristics are dis- facture. 14. p. p. 3. 216). 27. 81). H. illustrated. by Sir E. and lies flat without being held. p. Stamped leather for wall hangings is described in the section Stamped Leather of the article Mural Decoration (Vol. p. p. which has been applied for the first time on a large scale in the new Britannica. p. or Sus. Parchment (Vol. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES AND OF SUBJECTS IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE IN THE MANUFACTURE AND SALE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS Acetic Acid Acid dyes Aldehyde tanning Algarobilla Alligator Leather Alum Bottle-tanning Brazil Wood Canaigre Catechols Catechu Chamoising Chestnut Chestnut Oak Drum Dyeing Handlers. Artificial Levant Morocco Liming Logwood Mangrove . and it possesses the great advantage that a volume sewed in this way can be opened flat. or Double- Enamel Leather Acting Stocks Hide-powders Hides and Skins Dressing Erodin Fatliquoring Fellmongering. Davenport. and the old tradition has been maintained down to our own day. has p." for anxiety or annoyance. 24. 798). 4. ness (Vol. 12." The difference between parchment and vellum is ex- Synagogue plained. 474). p. 2. and it may be presumed for other literature also. requiring the Special Leathers rolls to be inscribed on this time-honoured material.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF LEATHER AND LEATHER GOODS and Tumeric (Vol. 24. p.Currying Processes Dash-wheel mates Depilation Birch Direct. article "for their sacred books. and Glove (Vol. curious fact that the addition of the word "chagrin. a great deal of interesting information about the leathers used in this art. p. or Floaters Heavy Leathers Dusting Material Dyeing Hemlock Hide Mill. 988). Indulines Azo-Compounds Aniline (Vol. 1000).

It is. smiled happily as she raised her clasp of a new chains. 364). de- purses and bags. or Tannic Acid Setting Pigskin Tannin Precipitation Shagreen Portmanteau Tanning Materials Power Transmission. the marriage ring and all the uses. such as And jewelry plays its part in the higher emotions as well as in the pretty vanities. at any rate. them on half of plate paper. of jewels as BY sells in its root form." have always sneered at women for loving Nile no doubt took his little profit. H. p. contains nearly a hundred ilSpecimens Reproduced brown arms to fasten the necklace. are so to the jeweller's customers that he ought really to keep his Britannica at liis place of business rather than at his house. the jeweller of Memphis on the as the jeweller of Memphis on the Mississippi takes his to-day. witness the engagement ring. in the oriental phrase. by A. which include examples of every period and every variety of the jeweller's art. with the illustrations in other articles mentioned in this chapter. that overhangs a thick Nubian lip is an expression of the same charming instinct that makes a child diversify the arrangement of her daisy- lustrations. a "DistribSour philosophers utor of delights. ears and most of all for piercing their and noses to vary its display.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 48 Golden or Mimosa. Wattle Mordant dyes Morocco Leather Myrobalans Oak bark Preller's Helvetia or Crown Leather Puering Skivers Tawing Snakeskin Splitting Machines Tiffany Bate Staining Sulphonic Acids Sulphuric Acid Pyrogallols Quebracho Roans Sumach Russia Leather Saddlery and Harness Sweating Tan Liquors Safranine Tanner's Beam Pullman Sammying Tanner's Hook Scudding Process Tanner's Knives Seal Leathers Peat Tanning Tannin. CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND MERCHANTS long established custom. but the nose-ring jewels. religious symbols. Shoe Tar Tanning Skin Belts Oak wood Tanning Parchment Payne and Oil Titanium Transparent Leather Tray Dyeing Turmeric Upper Leather Valonia Vellum Vidal Colours Waxing Willow Willow Calf Wilson Scouring Ma- chine Wool-rug Dressing CHAPTER X FOR JEWELLERS. watches and the higher grade of clocks form part of the jeweller's stock. all the more gladly for being. but to all intents and purposes he shares with the artist and art-dealer the distinction of making a living by adding pleasure to the lives of The very word "jewelry" carothers. and these. the idea of joy. 15. and when a Senwosri princess. Smith. scribed in the Britannica. amusing to recall that in a speech made by the Editor-in-chief of the Britannica. ago. on the occasion of a banquet given to celebrate the completion of the new edition. the official in charge of the great jewel collection in the British Museum. The article Jewelry (Vol. he remarked that when he had chanced to full of interest . and he a few other articles of utility. 43 centuries ries.

or when the surfaces are left absolutely plain but polished and highly finished. of which Prof. the metal employed being visible only as a setting. the ancient Romans regarding it as a pledge to assure the donor's fulfilment of his promise. Ring (Vol. 8. the design being wrought out by hamm. Egyp- three classes: tian. and in which the work in silver. the fact that the modern rheumatism ring had its medieval forerunner in the rings. or gold is really only a means for carrying out the design by fixing the gems or stones in the position arranged by the designer. 798) describes ear "ornaments" of the most grotesque size. but in England. and a recognition of the possibilities of personal art as at any rate an important factor in the business. Austria. Renaissance. The article divides modern jewelry into tannica) of the history of jewelry. is the chief contributor." The article. contains a full review. platinum. (3) when gold or other metal is alone used. (1) (2) when gold work plays an important part in the development of the design. 8th and 9th centuries. and those and Murder provided with a hollow point to which. CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND MERCHANTS 49 take home the proof sheets of this article.elling or both. Tiffany. Assyrian. on touching a spring. p. for silver brooches no less than 15 inches in length have been found in Viking hoards of the Ear-ring 7th. Germany. the stones and gems being arranged in subordination to the gold work in such positions as to give a decorative effect to the whole. C. which were of two kinds those merely affording. Brooch (Vol. casting. The long brooch is not a new fashion. Mycenean. a secret receptacle so that the poison might be always at hand Rings for Love for suicide. and the description of the old poison rings. In Borneo the hole in the ear lobe is stretched to a calibre of 3^ inches. to read them at night. providing space for thicker folds of cloth. any cost. being itself ornamented by engraving (now rarely used) or enam. and nothing like the beauty of design or perfection of workmanship could be obtained by hand at. Merovingian. long art director of the South Kensington Museum. is another copiously illustrated article. amplified by the results of the most recent excavations (some of them undertaken expressly for the archaeological purposes of this edition of the Bri- can. the venom ran as in a snake's fang. but the Masai .FOR JEWELLERS. probably. The Art" Movement have done more than any designers other than the French to extend this new movement. so far as the best class of trade is concerned. with many illustrations of typical specimens. Greek.ering in repousse. "Nearly every kind of gold chain now made is manufactured by machinery. EtrusOriental and Roman. Side by side with this development new standards have been established in mechanical work. which were worn as a preservative against cramp. school. 4. engraving chasing or by the addition of filigree work. p. Middleton. The second of these three classes includes the work which has completely revolutionized the theory of design. (Vol. objects in which gems and stones form the principal portions. there is the unromantic origin of the engagement ring (which may be cited by the jeweller to prove that it should always be a costly one). 23. in the United States. he carefully kept them out of his wife's sight lest they might suggest too tempting possibilities. to the modern ornament. 349). Russia and Switzerland there has been a notable increase of individual effort and purpose. p. the "fibula" or safety pin from its origin in Central Europe during the Bronze Age. since the Paris International Exposition of 1900 first drew general attention to the exquisite creations of Lalique and his L. 641) traces. in Belgium. and Philippe ''Personal Wolfers. in the bezel. so that the murderer could give a fatal scratch while shaking hands with his victim. equivalent in length to about 35 pages of this Guide. through the modifications which introduced the bow shape. Among the curious items of information it contains. blessed by the sovereign.

Bracelet (Vol. 14 ozs. 812). by Miss B. 287).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 50 tribes in equatorial Africa far outdo this. p. Armlets have always been conspicuous in the regalia of Eastern kings. in the section Archaeology of the article America (Vol. 343) describes the delicate jewel work of twisted gold and silver threads. including the famous "Sea of Light" diamond.000. 483). 704). is unique as possessing the finest lustre of any known specimen. Ancient Art (Vol. Mason. and China. as well as a detailed study of existing mines and of Precious Metals which is Silver (Vol. Norway and Swe- den. and the pair captured at Delhi and taken to Persia by Nadir Shah in 1739 contain jewels valued at more than $5. 1. 18. each. p. director of the British School at Rome. p. stretching the lobes. and supposed by some authorities to antedate the oldest Egyptian jewelry. 12. 8. 470). In India the filigree worker has retained the patterns used l)y the ancient Greeks and works in the same way they men did. p. This is weighed. by several well-known experts. 18. S. 805) are treated similar comprehensiveness. p. which discusses gold and silver cups. 176). Tylor of Oxford and Dr. 335). 12. by the late Dr. inci- upon the art of the and gold-smith. p. E. p. p. of Oxford. illustrated. p. Walter Lehmann. coined or rough. all of which the Authorized Version calls "bracelet. Egypt. all by noted authorities. author of A History of the Japanese People. Ancient Civilization (Vol. p. p. 192) is a thorough workshop treatise. 21. although it weighs only 186 carats as against the 516}/2 of the largest fraction into which the Cullinan stone was cut. 789). p. p. of the National Museum. p. p. Charles H. its own standard of p. p." although the original Hebrew has separate names for them. The 24 plate illustrations in the article Scandinavian Civilization (Vol. Dr. Work in Precious Metals (Vol. by Capt. by the famous ethnologists. of the Royal Ethnographical Museum. formerly Slade professor of fine art at Oxford. 24. coins. Stuart Jones. 580). by illustrated." if it can be so called. 2. with over 30 typical illustrations a most interesting historical account. 18. p. Frank Brinkley. B. 198). T. of works in gold and silver which belong to any class other than those of personal ornament and — and Drinking Vessels (Vol. 73). 15. Filigree (Vol. Munich. by W. 25. Sculpture and Carving (Vol.000. 112) and (Vol. 205). 10. The Platinum with articles Alloys ing (Vol. of a metal value. 21. (Vol. by C. O. illustrated. 203). Japan. 1. fully illustrated. 359) describes the three distinct models worn by the Israelites. 23. Phillpotts. Metal Metallography and Metallurgy (Vol. 9. which. 215). Assay- (Vol. Metal-Work (Vol. 18. by Dr. M. the influence their production exerts upon the "price. The article Gold (Vol. by Dr. p. Washington. Wandering work- are given so much gold. and this branch of dentally touches silver- the subject is also treated in such articles as Plate (Vol. 6. heated and beaten into wire. with a diameter of 4}^ inches. It is also curious to note the custom of some oriental tribes of wearing one earring only. Read of the British Museum. Bronzes (Vol. p. until they can wear stone ear-plugs weighing 2 lbs. Art. 18. 4. and also the "granulated" work which consists of minute globules of gold soldered to form patterns on a metal surface. H. Greek Art (Vol. Holmes. (Vol. 776). year after year. Roman Art. are full of information useful to the jeweller. p. Flinalso of ders Petrie. The worker reweighs the . collars and pins exhumed in Denmark. Mexico. and worked in the courtyard or on the verandah of the customer's house. show some exquisite designs of clasps. and they thus achieve the supreme elegance of making the two long flaps of flesh meet above their heads. 202). J. Percy Gardner. Mention must also be made of the description of American work in precious metals before the time of Christopher Columbus.

H. by L. Christian. Smith. p. colour. 560). the famous British archaeologist. 15. 108). p. chemical composition. 14. p. 19. The crys- formation of gems as well as their op- tical properties —characteristics by which the genuineness of precious stones may be tested are discussed and explained in the article Crystallography (Vol. Murray. The artificial duplication of certain gems by chemical processes which Synthetic Stones stones is yield products identical in composition and properties physical natural with the a subject of growing import- . in 18. 562). 574) are other articles dealing with certain processes in jewel work. illustrated. 5. etc. p. and editor of the Minstitions in regard to 51 Magazine. Gem. 23. p. Spielmann. British Museum. illustrated. deals with Mineralogy and General Properties. in is considered at The second Gems in Art and which diamond cutting historical much interest length. 189). by Dr. 24. H. of the Museum of Practical Geology. The two article Gem sections. and it has even been suggested by archaeologists that jewelry did not have its origin so much in a love for personal decoration. p. Maunde Thompson. p. p. p. 16. Cameo (Vol. CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND MERCHANTS complete work when finished and is paid Reat a specified rate for his labor. (Vol. including Cretan and Mycenaean intaglios.. S. deals in part with the ornamentation of jewelry by In Brazing and Soldering (Vol. tioned. Spencer. p. with over 100 illustrations. J. 659). section of the article (Vol. as well as in the articles on ancient and Oriental civilizations. pousse (Vol. LI. originating in Egypt during the Fourth rate articles. p. refraction. W. and Numismatics (Vol. Seals Intaglio (Vol. have exercised a lasting influence on the design and shape of gems. 24. Dynasty. Kunz. the Egyptologist. Griffith. illus- by Sir E. New York. the medical and magical powers with which they were reputed to be endowed. F. Here are discussed hardness. 11. 509). Stuart Jones. (Vol. of the British Museum. goes very fully and practically which into this interesting subject. The illustrations show more than 90 examples. gives an account of precious stones engraved with designs. by Dr. 680). the scale of hardness. 104). p. Rudler. This subject is further discussed in sepa- Scarab (Vol. 9. 869). p. and A. Medal ar- (Vol. p. Japan. Greek. and in Cement there is an account of Jeweller^s or Armenian Cement (Vol. p. and there is an interesting section on super- gems. formerly principal librarian. will be found esvaluable for reference in the workshop. seals. further discussed Enamel (Vol. already men- trated. of p. 5. 956) and Inlaying (Vol. p. p. 7. 883). Spielmann. Chasing (Vol. 569). and is most fully illustrated by Enamel designs inviting practical use. by Dr. These beliefs are very remarkable. which is by three specialists. and modern gems. 14. The jeweller also must not overlook two superb ticles. an account of the designs which. 11. Oriental. It gives. treats the subject in which the by F.. cameos. illustrated. J. among other things. George F. H. 18. an article — — of uncommon practical value. 1). 4. Spencer. 539). editor Magazine of Art. 362). the famous gem expert to Tiffany & Co. by M. Phoenician and Etruscan scarabs and scarabseoids. by Professor Mid- dleton and H. as in the belief that the objects used possessed magical virtue. Precious Stones London. such as 301). first (Vol. by Alexander Fisher. by M. 195). is Cloisonne Mosaic (Vol. The article Mineralogy (Vol.FOR JEWELLERS. specific gravity. 18. also by L. and nomenclature eralogical pecially and tal classification of minerals. this method. The cutting of gem stones is treated under Lapidary and Gem Cutting (Vol. crystaline forms and cleavage. 5. p. 463) the composition of silver solder used for jewelry is described. author of The Art of Enamelling on Metals. A.

prized and of above) and the chief "precious" varieties. p. of true of the Topaz (Vol. 25) and andrite for its by (Vol. when cut with a convex face is (Vol. distribution. 1. 792) tells how the luminous star comes to be seen in sapphires. and the latest developments are described in Gem. 27. Oriental emeralds. p. Miers. The Amethyst (Vol. gem (see 2. by the ancients as a which the Emerald Aquamarine (Vol. p. Ruby (Vol. the remarkable stone of p (Vol. p. amethysts. 569). 24. 376). the green . 237) much are the Tourmaline 103). London. The many varieties violet of the beautiful note that many historic stones described England is a spinel. 276) are carefully described and distinguished. of ine. remarkable property of appearing dark green 576) daylight. 979). 28. The name Emerald used for a which the most valued is not a true emerald at all. illustrated. Pearl (Vol. 8. p. electrical properties. The material in the Britannica on the semi-precious stones is as complete. 6. by H. scientists have now found the right method and that "there is no reason to doubt that. 25. interest to the physicist as to the on account jeweller. p. a variety of oliv320). 15. The same is number (Vol. p. or cairngorm. is and red by candle-light. p. topazes and zircons is also discussed. 804). 812). larger The diamonds will result. p. 27. p. 14. p. Descriptions of the several gem stones are found under their respective headings. Cinnamon. 6. and former editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. p. p. is often called "Oriental ruby" to distinguish it from Spinel (Vol. AlexStones stones). harder and denser than the stone from which it takes its name. so easily mistaken for a variety of zircon (the article tells Demantoid how to distinguish them) (Vol. towith Almandine (Vol. the most valued of gem stones. 852) is or purple quartz. see Corundum (Vol. 817). Artificial (Vol. its variety gether which. 332) is of stones. "Scotch" or "Spanish" topazes are yel- (Vol. principal of the University of London. 23. p. 11. 470). 21. 207). which makes it especially popular in Russia where green and red are the military colors. Sapphire (Vol. 24) discusses the results of the latest researches on the cause of pearl formation. 320). 7. 712). Beryl (Vol. 9. which alexandrite is a variety. 1. density and value. 7. 147). This famous chemist and authority on precious stones does not hesitate to declare that although the artificial diamonds so far produced have been microscopic in size.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 52 ance to the jeweller. like chrysolite. for artificial example Diamond (Vol. 23. Jargoon (Vol. by Sir William Crookes. rubies and topazes. often mistaken for chrysoberyl. Peridot (Vol. sapphires. 3. The great ruby set in the Maltese Cross in front of the Imperial State Crown of Zircon such as Hyacinth (Vol. 1. and gives a graphic account of pearl-fishing. specified in the list at the end of Semi -Precious this chapter. 11. p. p. p. the more prized Oriental topaz being a yellow corundum. p. There are many articles. 989). W. and the wonderful history of the most famous diamonds of the world. p. 158). 48). 21." production of rubies. Chrysoberyl (Vol. Here are given scientific its (especially characters." and the present name was formerly applied to lapis lazuli. 684). p. p.Stone (Vol. an aluminate stone of inferior hardness. as monster rubies were really spinels. working on a larger scale. as much stone. p. 2. the light red garnet. Asteria or Star Stone (Vol. Chrysolite (Vol. of the Museum of Practical Geology. It is interesting to low or smoke-tinted quartz. These valuable articles on the precious stones have been contributed by F. and the sapphire of a purple colour is often called an Oriental amethyst. 201) was known to the Greeks as "hyacinthus. p. Rudler. A. and Rubellite of its optical and much prized red Garnet (Vol. p. 6. for faceting softer its uses precious and mining. known as carbuncle. p.

testing of clocks. dead. BLOOD- Cairngorm (Vol. the origin of the "grandfather" clock. p. 181). p. if not commercially practical. If some way could be found to utilize this motion to work an escapement. since 1000 years must elapse before even half the small amount of radium used has disappeared. and Pyrope (Vol. by James the Penderel-Brodhurst. Electrified particles emitted by a radioactive substance separate two strips of gold leaf. The article Watch (Vol. 536) is by same distinguished authorities as Watch. 120). Sard (Vol. — — electrical clocks. In connection with long-period clocks. compensation adjustments and secondary compensation. the process being constantly repeated. 14. p. A de"radium" clock be found in Perpetual Motion scription of this so-called will (Vol. 21. 695). 715). miscellaneous clocks. which occupies in China the highest place as a jewel. 852). methods of compensation. 118). 22. 368). p. It is equivalent to 55 pages of this Guide and is fully illustrated. and Sir H. p. p. 20. p.18). 5. and these. 24. Jet clearly distinguished. p. 1. vice-president of the British ElecInstitute of trical Engineers. 4. the balancewheel and hair-spring. and whose many varieties are here garnet. J. p. 362). etc. and gravity escapements. p. pects The tells section on Decorative Asof cases and and development about styles mountings. with its many ornamental varieties such as Agate (Vol. p. Onyx (Vol. 85). Among the topics considered are the earliest clocks and their gradual improvement. 804) 15. CLOCK AND WATCH MAKERS AND MERCHANTS garnet from the Urals. Corunis dum. 5. RockCrystal (Vol. 122). 537). p. p. CunSTONE (Vol. etc. 23. 6. 20. (Vol. 7. anchor. Carnelian (Vol. Chalcedony (Vol. 6. ticle in an ar- flashes of (Vol. Moon- Cat's-Eye (Vol. There a very valuable historical account beginning with the invention of portable time pieces in the 15th century. Mocha Stone (Vol. and Sardonyx (Vol. The article Clock (Vol. detached or free. clock wheels. 807r. illustrated. 209). 28. including the use of the new nickel-steel alloy described in the article Invar (Vol. 477) has recently become very stone (Vol. p. device invented by the Hon. Haematite (Vol. we should have a clock that would go on indefinitely. p. the remontoire systems for abolishing errors in the force driving the escapement. Methods of correcting temperature errors are discussed. R. Quartz (Vol. 2. Chrysoprase (Vol. 803). 552). Strutt. pinwheel. attention should be given to the new and ingenious. 952). and methods of counteraction. p. striking mechanism. 320). 3. p. p. p. is full of interest. Lubricants (Vol. 15. with details as to the mainspring. a term applied to several distinct minerals of which Crocidolite (Vol. the mechanics of the pendulum. p. are extended again.FOR JEWELLERS. usually known as Bohemian Jade (Vol. p. p. falling together after the charge has been conducted away upon contact with metal. with an additional section on Decorative Aspects (p. p. 433). Amethyst AVENTURINE (Vol. . p. 12. (Vol. suspension of pendulums. in- cluding magical clocks and other curious designs. 1. . 637). 17. p. 232). Opal popular. H. church and turret clocks. The proper materials used for jewelled bearings are described in the articles Diamond. balance. p. p. and a simple means for demagnetizing a watch which has been near a dynamo is given. 13. The parts of a modern watch are described. different types of escapement. 18. 22. Watches and Clocks ynghame. 54). 5. 717) the barometrical error. 4. 88) contains a valuable paragraph on the 53 and preparation of the fluid used on the spindles of watches and properties oils clocks. 365). by Lord Grimthorpe. the great authority on watches and clocks. Heliotrope (Vol. 358) . p. the essential components of a clock. the watchman's clock. which the brilliant colour in this stone are explained. 18. 24.

op Aventurine Axinite Azurite Pearl Peridot Perpetual Motion Phenacite Phosphorescence Plagioclase Plate Plated Ware Platinum and alry Demantoid Diamond Dioptase Drinking Vessels Star-stone Dumortierite Ear-ring Egypt. Ornamenta Bronzite Brooch Cairngorm Artificial Spinel Spodumene Staurolite Sunstone Morel-Ladeuil. Electroplating Medal Bead Emerald Benitoite Emery Beryl Enamel Metal Metallography Metallurgy Beryllonite Epidote Euclase Felspar Biddery Bloodstone Bort Bracelet Metal-Work Mexico. Benjamin Galileo Galilei Mineralogy Miniature Mint Mocha-stone Garnet Monogram Cameo Gem Monteith Tassie. AND WATCHES lolite Aiguillettis Chrysoprase Cinnamon-stone Clock Albite Collar Jade Agat« Aigrette Invar Ivory Amber Congreve. CLOCKS. or Jacinth Hypersthene Chrysoberyl Inlaying Chrysolite Intaglio Cellini. Daniel Meissonier. Measurement of Carbonado Carnelian Gold Gold beating Cat's-eye GSthite Mosaic Nepheline Topaz Tourmaline Brazing and Soldering Fluorescence Fluor-spar Britain. James Tiffany. Ist Baron Haematite Hiddenite Hyacinth. Ancient Art Kunzite Labradorite Lapidary and Cutting Lapis Lazuli Leucite Line-engraving Lubricants Malachite Marot. Thomas Palladium Paste Zircon Zoisite . Archaeology Crocidolite Alexandrite Alloys .BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 54 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS IN JEWELRY. Campani-Alimenis. A. Art Jargoon Coral Corundum Jasper Costume Jet Jewelry Cressent. Ancient Maso Microcline Mineral Deposits Chiv. Benvenuto Onyx Opal Watch Weighing Machines Weights and Measures Orthoclase Wyon. Pierre Niello Turquoise Cement Greek Art Numismatics Chain Chalcedony Chasing Oligoclase Olivine Variscite Vesuvianite Ckessylite China. ization Filigree Finiguerra. M. Charles America. Moonstone Time. Gem. Art Grimthorpe. J. L. Standard Gouthifere.Seals Sheffield Plate Silver Sphene Franklin. C. Leonard Time. Sir William Japan. Almandine Ama»on-stone Knighhood Amethyst Cross Andalusite Crown Anhydrite Apatite Apostle Spoons Crystallography Cyanite Aquamarine Arabesque Arts and Crafts Diallage Assaying Asteria.PoUaiuolo Prehnite Gem Pyrope Pyroxene Quartz Regalia Repouss^ Ring Rock-crystal Roman Art Rubellite Ruby Sapphire Sard Sardonyx Scandinavian Civiliza- tion Scarab Civil.

and a reference to the Index of 500. deals section of this article is by Sir J. (Vol. p. or as to its uses. fully illustrated. with metallic. of which the Edison apparatus is a well known type. 240) and Electrokinetics (Vol. and Accu- mulator (Vol. technic. in 1906. The alkaline accumulators. the ap- and Operation and action of electricity outlined in the article Electricity ject of the nature sup- main groups cf The apparatus by which plies include three of this Guide. for the first time. (Vol. 179). one of the world's foremost authorities. 531). The whole sub- and Dynamos Cambridge their electrical properties. p. by W. but he may at any moment desire to review or to supplement his general knowledge in connection with some new appliance which. The whole duction of subject of the chemical prois discussed in electricity Electrolysis (Vol. 9. In a space equivalent to hardly more than 30 pages paratus by which current is transmitted and. One article will explain the method by which the same principles are applied to a number of different machines. dielectric and gaseous conductors. of the London Polythe secondary types. Electric p. whether he wants to know how the machine is made and operated. 210). Whetham. J. p. 1. employed chiefly 000 entries (Vol. of the staff Battery 3. in Conduction. 29) will at once guide in for the conduction of electricity is the subject of Wire a separate and the on the individual metals deal with article. London. deals of Univer(Vol. p. with all the forms of primary battery. p. 9. 126). the field covered in detail by many other and you get a complete view of the theoretical and practical developments by which electrical science and industry have reached their present position. winner. 217). and. 738). the reader who turns to the name of any electrical appliance to either kind of information he desires at the moment. 855). p.CHAPTER XI FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES ELECTRICAL machinery and appliances: is Prof. 9. Fleming. non-metallic. 9. of the University of electricity is originally generated. A. also illustrated. and the infinitely various appliances for its final employment. articles Batteries technical reader to whom this chapter is addressed is already familiar with the general subject of electricity. Another article will deal with a group of appliances all used for similar purposes. information may be needed as to its structure and its mechanical or electrochemical method of operation. and in the treatment of these two aspects of a vast number of subjects the advantages of the encyclopaedic plan of the Britannica are obvious. In connection with any one of the latter. by Walter Hibbert. of the The form for Physics. J. if necessary. 28. C. 55 with all . modified before it is used. The same contributor then articles is so concisely clearly surveyed that considers Electrostatics (Vol. D. The sity. Thom- Nobel Prize which metal is son. applies to commercial use one of the many and intricate laws of electrical vibration. One p.- Construction by (Vol. 6. or what kind of work it does and how eflSciently it does it.

419). special class of electric light supplies discussed in Lighthouse (Vol. 1. p. mission. p. p. accounts of the appliances by which the current is taken from trolley wires. 233). carbon brushes. The commercial supply of current is covered by a series of articles of which the first to be read is Electricity Supply (Vol. commutators. series-wound interdependent current and potential. and of the types of motors and conCrane (Vol. This brings you naturally to the article Dynamo (Vol. illustrated. p. 34). section on electrical article Units. the first article to read is ElectromagNETisM (Vol. This article divides continuous current motors into five rent classes: Separately excited. p. 22. Electric (Vol. and shunt-wound con- Alternating current mo- Potentiometer (Vol. air-gaps. Having thus covered the subject cooling surfaces of ob- taining current. The article gives. 22. 239). Louis Duncan. Hawkins. 9. Electroscope (Vol. 502) and Trans- sion. illustrated. illustrated. 28. by the aid of which steam and hydraulic cranes can be displaced. graph (Vol. 879). 764). The appliances used to convert cur- back again into the mechanical energy from which it had been derived are described in the article Motors. another practical expert. illustrated.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 56 are the subject of a special section. and Oscillo- illustrated. 8. lap-winding. 14. contains a units. 659) deals with arc.. discusses continuous current dynamos. Galvanometer (Vol. both for trolley cars and heavy railroad traffic. repulsion commutating. 7. 740). Turn- ing to mechanically produced electricity. p. tors are similarly classified as Synchronous Amperemeter (Vol. 27. T. The general Physical (Vol. potential. article (Vol. who designed the first electric locomotives employed with large loads those introduced in 1895 by the Baltimore & Ohio R. Lighting. p. trollers employed. forgings and castings for magnets. p. is by Louis Bell. Electric (Vol. and with wiring. 16. p. Gedye. chief engineer of the General Electric Co. who erected the new Eddystone and the Bishop's Rock lights. stant potential. describes the peculiar type of "crane-rated" motor. field- magnets. p. 28. p. induction-polyphase induction monophase and series-commutating. p. 910). series-wound constant potential. 9. for its track in the tunnel under Baltimore. and by N. and contains details as to the use of full both two-phase and three-phase generators in transmis- Induction Coil (Vol. 18. 9. 27. Boston. trated. Electrical (Vol. 16. by Walter Pitt. in- constant constant potential. 28. the group of articles next to be considered is that dealing with its measurement and the examination of resistances. 118). armature cores. 205). by W. 428). Lighting Appliances formers (Vol. to which Emile Garcke. p. 193). 9. illus- constant potential. Wattmeter (Vol.R. 226). p. 173) are both fully illustrated. Meter. conduits and third rails. 627). 18. by Prof. is p. 291). p. 584). 206). 20. with many mechanical diagrams. 27. p. G. Electrometer (Vol. Voltmeter (Vol. 234). Power Transcontributes a section. p. Then come candescent and vapour lamps. by C. Electric (Vol. p. 20. in length equivalent to 50 pages of this Guide. author of one of the best practical textbooks on the This copiously illustrated arsubject. p. C. Douglass. illustrated. series-wound constant current. 11. Ohmmeter (Vol. p. p. and alternators. ticle. Machinery for applying electric power to transportation. The section on household work gives excellent practical information A about the b est arrangements of lights . 347). is described in Trolley Cars and Railroads the Traction p. Wheatstone's Bridge (Vol. The electric furnaces used for the reduction of ores and for manufacturing processes in which exceptionally high temperatures are re- — . the famous electrical engineer. 368).

Jones. 692). chemicals and other materials sold by dealers in electrical supplies. equivalent in length to 70 pages of this Guide. 208). Electric Electroscope Electrotherapeutics Fluorescence Fuze. 3. Nitrogen. 26. Electrophorus (Vol. 26.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES are treated in quired. 9. Such. 20. 23. p. 5. by H. tholomew's Hospital. by James Bartlett. p.Leyden Jar Machine Electricity Supply static. Am- Armature Battery or Electrokinetics Electrolysis Electromagnetism Bichromates and Chro. L. Under Surgical Instruments p. M. p. 795). 912). Dublin. 296).^? /eciricaZ Lighting Meter. Carbon 305). are Electrical or Electrostatic Machine (Vol. 887). Electric Motors. Compounds (Vol. for instance. of Trinity College." special applications of the microphone. p. p. 9. lurgy (Vol. Ross. Bell Carbon matic exchange 57 Surgical Instruments Telegraph Telephone Thermometry. p. 27. in which burglar alarm devices are described. p. and fully illustrated. Information as to other medical and surgical apparatus (Vol. (Vol. and their properties and uses. 19. Lead (Vol. The appliances used in Electrotherapeutics are dealt with under that heading (Vol. Electrometalby W. 65). R. p. to the General Post Office. 9. in alpha- betical order. or Fuse Dielectric Galvanometer Gutta Percha Dynamo Induction Coil Electricity Lead Copper and with "selectors. London. ery for the refining of metals is dealt with in the article Electrochemistry (Vol. 694). 528). is by a number of contributors. 981). 102). Electric machin- lecturer lan. The metals. p. Cotter. p. X-Ray Treatment by Dr. 28. A number of other electric appliances are discussed in separate articles. p. 26. M'Mil- on metallurgy at Mason Birmingham.Electrometer Electrophorus mates Chromium Condenser Conductor. Bichromates AND Chromates (Vol. 1011). are described in Copper (Vol. R. 12. Electric Ohmmeter Tramway Oil Engine Transformers Oscillograph Potentiometer Power Transmission Vacuum Tube Units. 715). Bar-. p. Appa. p. Compounds Traction. London. Sulphuric Acid (Vol. 26. 16. G. p. Kempe. (Vol. p. p. Zinc (Vol. 314). 176). 510). There are also a number of appliances used mostly in experimental and educational work. 9. 10. Tele- phone (Vol. p. and Flu- orescence (Vol. 237). Compounds (Vol. 341). with many illustrations. includes a full description of the transmitters and receivers employed in the various systems of wireless telegraphy. 28. The following is a partial list. Sal Ammoniac (Vol. is a description of the apparatus used for cautery and for illuminating parts of the interior of the body. 249). 35). 9. 575). Rubber (Vol. 547) deals with the and portable instruments. Fan (Vol. and Leyden Jar (Vol. Telegraph (Vol. H. 59). p. Compounds Sulphuric Acid Zinc Sal . 3. or meter Electrical. p. the new autofixed Accumulator Amperemeter. Electric Nitrogen. College. anddis- Telegraph and Telephone cusses both land lines and submarine ca- The section on by H. 25. and Gutta Percha (Vol. 743). electrician bles. p. by Prof. Chromium (Vol. 133) there will be found under Rontgen Rays (Vol. 16. instruments. p. p. p. 6. while sparking plugs and other ignition appliances are treated under Oil Engine (Vol. Sodium. and Ventilation. of St. J. 23. the batteries and switchboards. p. p. 24. of articles of peculiar interest to dealers in electrical supplies. Physical Ventilation Rontgen Rays. 232). p.Voltmeter ratus Wattmeter Wheatstone's Bridge Rubber Ammoniac Wire Sodium. such as Bell (Vol. Electro. 7.

Another theoretical article which will be found ture. Walter Nernst. and the 75 on manufactured products call most immediately for attention. and. of Cambridge University. is divided into 6 Articles on sections. p. Sections 5 and 6 deal. nomenclachemical equations and chemical changes. University of Berlin. countries. states article equivalent to 135 pages of this Guide. as he must. our clothing. and yet the future of the world's wheat supply probably depends upon processes. we come into the world and go out of the world with the odour of chemicals about us. Electrolysis has been in use since 1804. with cross references to all articles dealing with their preparation and properties. respectively. p. The first. and to-day no chemist would venture to fix the limits of its industrial possibilities. as yet hardly beyond the experimental stage. professor of physical chemistry. the uses of the Britannica are so manifold that this whole Guide might be devoted to them. The variety of raw materials from which chemical products are derived. 26). The (Vol. and there is not a line in it which will not prove of value in some way or other to the chemical manufacturer. 6. But the 40 general articles on chem58 formulae. our food. etc. by W. of utilizing atmospheric nitrogen. Chemical products are employed in our buildings. p. author of Theory of Solution. with Analytical and Physical Chemistry. are almost Only a century has as bewildering. It provides a brief but complete introduction to the terminology and methods of the chemist. which deals specifically with the nature of chemical forces and deduces the laws of chemical statics and kinetics. he is facing all the problems of all the indus- the aid of other chapters in the Guide. 6. In connection with so comprehensive an industry. and there is hardly a scientific article that would not be helpful. the reader who desires to go further will easily materials find his way. with istry. passed since coal-tar was first distilled. Chemicals History. . but it supplies essential for almost every branch of manufacturing. is the author of Chemical Action (Vol. to reckon with A Factor in the channels of deAll Industries mand that will arise in the course of new applications of chemical products. traces the general trend of the science from Its Infancy to the foundations of the modern theory. The manufacturer or dealer cannot analyze all the influences that affect his market. Dr. to consider the future of the trade. treats of tries. giving a history of the subjects and the principles underlying the structure of compounds. Of interest and importance in connection with the manufacture of chemicals is Solution (Vol. business. and the activity with which new sources are discovered and developed. 33). The second cities are full of rele- vant information. 368). Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to Inorganic and Organic Chemistry. 25. The articles on and Chemistry section.CHAPTER XII FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF CHEMICALS AND DRUGS THE chemical and drug industry is not only in itself an enormous the 350 on chemical compounds. Articles on every manufacturing process touch upon the use of chemicals. C. D. Whetham. and when he tries. Principles.

technical chemistry. by Dr. London. and is a general explanation of the common names used in the therapeutic classificais tion of drugs. wherein all poisons are classified Thomas Stevenson. 714) explains the new process for the commercial manufacture of nitric acid from atmospheric air a matter of enormous industrial importance and also the conversion of nitrogen into ammonia. illustrated. are fully given. Ralph Drugs. professor of materia and Manu- medica and facture peutics in the Uni- thera- versity of Glasgow. properties. There is also a classification of drugs according to the latest and most scientific methods into twenty-eight groups. For further details see the chapter on Chemistry in the most important of all chemicals. 21. As a key to the subject of the and manufacture of drugs. Origin origin article by Dr. London. 232). p. 21. which has been done successfully only within the past — — few years. L. 1. Sir lecturer on chemistry and forensic medicine at Guy's Hospital. of St. should not be overlooked. 19. p. by E. stance. professor of ing with chemical manufacture. howon the elements. that the articles noted. yields much interesting and valuable information about the pharmacist. p. reactions and manufacture 59 of James Walker. from bacteria up to man. 674). An appendix to the article. A short history of pharmacology given and a large part of the article concerns the action of drugs. 793). and electrolytic. H. Hennessy. and that and diachylon plaster. etc. by Prof. together with others dependent upon them. 9. gives direction as to the preparation of prescriptions. 22. The manufacture of chemical products by the use of electricity is the subject of Electrochemistry (Vol. G. 11 pages in length tions. hydrochloric acid. p. by Dr. 26. But in addition to this there metallic sideration to their are many noteworthy contributions deal- For inAlkali Manufacture (Vol. and their antidotes are indicated. 9. ammonia-soda. The and with 10 illustra- chief processes described are the Leblanc. the article Therapeutics (Vol. by Dr. the 26. Pharmacy (Vol. by Dr. is entitled Terminology in Therapeutics. by Dr. and a still larger field is covered by Electrometallurgy (Vol. Since therapeutics is concerned with the remedial power of drugs and the conditions under which they are to be used. M. Bartholomew's Hospital. p. and non-metallic. 65). of the Pharmaceutical Museum. Sir Lauder Brunton. Modern Therapeutics. p. and author of the well-known treatise. p. London. invented by Mene- . Stockman. cesses. We learn that an Egyptian papyrus of the date 2800 B. describes the Britain. Potassium (Vol. presents a great amount of interesting and valuable information on the action of chemical substances (apart from foods) on all kinds of animals. It may be ever. of Edinburgh University.C. Zurich Polytechnic. M' Millan. formerly secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Great Sulphuric Acid (Vol. is largely historical in its nature. including the more modern contact pro- this Guide. 893). Lunge. Georg Lunge. 197) treats of the commercial compounds of this metal in the same manner. Holmes. Both of these valuable articles are by W. and sulphate of soda. mention only a small amount of the material dealing with the manufacture of chemicals. Pharmacology (Vol. nor Poison (Vol. how these are made and how used in the arts and in medicine. The facts about the manufacture of the carbonate. give much concompounds. 21. p. hydrate. p. 26. Nitrogen (Vol. 804). chlorine. 355). At the end of this chapter Manufacture there is a fuller alIt possible here to is of Chemicals phabetical list. 208). 347).FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF CHEMICALS AND DRUGS widely useful is Thermochemistry (Vol. p. describing the effects of each group.. p.

777). 6. 353). Mint Mustard (Vol. (Vol. 725). Pharby Mr. 649). p. . HoREHOUND Hop (Vol. R. 241). p. Iceland Moss (Vol. In the list at the end of this chapter are noted the numerous separate articles on drugs. p. especially article MACOPCEiA (Vol. p. 17. Anise (Vol. 158). (Vol. Powder of Acenaphthene Alizarin Acetic Acid Alkahest Aceto-Acetic Ester Alkali Acetone Alkali Manufacture Acetophenone Alkaline Earths Acetylene Alkaloid Achard. 25. 12. (Vol. p. Alcohol Alcohols Aldehydes Amines Ammonia Ammoniacum Archil Argol Balsam Barium Base Baum6. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND SALE OF CHEMICALS AND DRUGS Abel. 14. Curie. the noted expert in technical chemistry. Coca (Vol. LiEBiG. 21. p. p. A great deal of curious knowledge about ancient remedies. to Joseph L. 369). 2. Alembic Acacia Algaroth. tells about the pharmacopoeias in use in different countries. such as the thigh bone of a hanged man. 799).I. 114). 801). Arrowroot (Vol. and Glauber. 7. 13. 16. 18. Pasteur. the great physiological chem- first ist. p. von (Vol. 4. p. p. 1. 16. 644). 7. Baron J. Alkanet Acid Allantoin Acid Amides Alloxan Aconite Alloxan tin Acorus Calamus Allyl Alcohol Amygdalin Amyl Amyl Aristolochia Alcohols Nitrite Anaesthesia and aesthetics Analysis Arnica Arrowroot An.D. 200). 97). (Vol. or Albumen Aloe Antimony Alum Antipyrine Aluminium Antiseptics Bdellium Amidines Apothecary Araroba Powder Becher. 16. Separate sections dealing with pharmacology are found in the articles on very many plants. Peppermint etc. 661). p. p. whose work and teaching the present importance of the manufacture of antiseptics is largely due. renders this crates in A. p. Mention should be made of the articles on the elements. J. p. p. the ashes of the head of a coal-black cat. 19. p. moss grown on a human skull. p. F. 17. Adolf von Balard. Chemical Albumin. 18. p. 22. Marie Curie the physicists who announced the existence of radium. 321). Pierre. the German chemist who made a living chiefly by the sale of secret chemical and medicinal preparations. p. 653). 892). p. (Vol. Potassium Sodium Bromine (Vol. Lunge. 720).Arsenic Asafetida Asparagine Anatto Andrews. 633). 13. entertaining. 11). 614).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 60 is used for the same purposes to-day. C. 14. 6. p. 678). 557). 55). 126). Baron (Vol. such as Iron (Vol. owing to familiarity with the names. Asphodel Azoximes Acridine Almond Anise Anthracene Anthraquinone Adenine Adipocere Affinity. p. Antoine J. etc. Lobelia (Vol. 343). Louis (Vol. Mercury Iodine (Vol. p. Mme. 14. Thomas Aspen Angelica Aniline Azo Compounds Anim6 Baeyer. p. 2. (Vol. Bismuth Magnesium (Vol. 128). their preparation and use that appear in the Britannica. also Holmes. J. 837). the standard- ization of drugs. The scientific biographies include not a few subjects which will be of interest. 590). to those engaged in the Biographies chemical and drug of Eminent business. etc. 692). Cinchona (Vol. p. Antoine Jacob Belladonna Benzaldehyde Bell.. such as Aloe (Vol. Among Scientists these are Lister. Dandelion (Vol. p. 4. Arsenic (Vol. p. Sir Frederick A. Georg (Vol. 20. p. 2. 6. CoLCHicuM (Vol. (Vol. already mentioned as a contributor to the Britannica. 21. (Vol. p. and (Vol. J. p.

Hellebore Helmont. J. W. von Butyl Alcohols Butyric Acid Columbium Cadmium Caesium Caffeine Cajuput Oil Calabar Bean Calcium Calomel Calvert. Crace Camphors Cannizzaro. or Formalde. S. John Hall Carbonates Cyanide Cyanogen Geber Gelatin Electrolysis Carbon Carbon Bisulphide Carbonic Acid Gay-Lussac.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF CHEMICALS AND DRUGS Benzine Benzidine Benzoic Acid Benzoin Benzophenone Cerium Dewar. von Fr^my. J. D. Brucine Colcothar Collodion Colocynth Buchu Colt's-Foot Bunsen. M. J. P. Coco-nut Palm Cod-liver Oil Brande. John Carvacrol Cassia Castor Oil Dammar Catalysis Dandelion Catechu Daniell. Sir James Chamomile. J. or Guao Guaiacum Guarana Fir Emil Rudolf Fischer.Dextrine mile Flowers Diazo Compounds Charcoal Didymium Chemical Action Digitalis Chemistry Dill Chevreul. Chromium Betaine Chrysene Betel Nut Cimicifuga Bhang Bibirine or Bebeerine Cinchona Bichromates and Chro. Sir Edward Hippuric Acid Hofmann. Johann R. Wilhelm Fresenius. Gerhardt. 61 Formula Henbane Fourcroy. Harcourt. von Fulminic Acid Fumaric and Maleic Acids Fumitory Furazanes Furfurane Disinfectants Coumarin Coumarones Cresols Crookes. W. or Glucinum Chloroform Chlorpicrin Berzelius. J. Dragon's Blood Gadolinium Galangal Drug Galbanum Dulong. Otto Linne Ginseng Ergot. Davy. Creosote Cumin Fruit- Gamboge Durene Earth Ecgonine Fehling. Electrometallurgy Fenugreek Fig Cubebs Gallium Gannal. F.. Charles . Henry Cayenne Pepper Cellulose Decolourizing Depilatory Dessication H. Beryllium. C. J. A. Spirits of Hashish Fluorine Formalin. F. Chlorine BerthoUet. W. Oliver Wolcott Ginger Erbium Erdmann. William Thomas Colchicum Bromine Brown. or Spurred Rye Gladstone.Fluorescein nates Gibbs. Thomas of Paradise Greenheart Guaco. or Cuca Acid Cocaine Boron Boussingault. N. L. F. Comte Henna Henry. A. Thomas Cloves Coal-tar Borage Borax Boric Acid or Boracic Cobalt Coca. B. Fittig. Karl R. Jean B. Gallic Acid Garlic Elaterium Elecampine Electrochemistry Carbolic Acid Curie. Christopher Glauber. F. Glucinum Glucose Glucoside Glutaric Acid Glycerin. A. Huaco. Stanislao Cantharides * Capsicum Capsule Caraway Combustion Condenser Conine Copaiba Copal Copper Copperas Coriander Corrosive Sublimate Distillation Dividivi Fusel Oil Dobereiner. Glaser. E. B. Pierre Gelsemium Gentian Element Geoffroy. or Glycerol Glycols Gmelin (family) Gold Graham. Joseph Citric Cinnolin Acid Clark. Homoeopathy Friedel. M. Edmond Homberg. E. mates Bismuth Cinnamon Bittern Black. Sir Humphry Caustic Cavendish. L. J. W. Sir William Crotonic Acid Croton Oil Crystallization Fructose. Elixir Elm Epsom Germanium Salts Equivalent Erythrite Esters Ether Ethers Ethyl Ethyl Chloride Ethylene Eucalyptus Eugenol Euphorbium Eupion Europium Cytisine Dalton. Sir Joseph Hermann von Grains Fennel Cyanic Acid and Cya. or Camo. Vernon Hartshorn. Carbazol Carbide Carbohydrate or sugar Fuchs. Johann N. P. Pierre Louis Dumas. William de Herb Foxglove Frankland. Torbern Olof Chloral Chlorates M. Nicolas Flavin Fluoranthene Fluorene Guelder Rose Guimet. J. van hyde Hemp Formic Acid Cyanamide Cardamon Gilbert. Glauber's Salt Guanidine Filter Flamel. Gum Guyton de Baron Morveau. Charles F. Diphenyl Benzyl Alcohol Berberine Bergman.Cinnamic Acid Berthelot. Jean B. John F.

K. John A.62 BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES Hop Ho rebound Litmus Lobelia Olefine Oleic Acid Houseleek Hydantoin Hydracrylic Acid Hydrastine Lunge. Jean C. Niobium Lead Le Blanc. Ludwig Ketenes Ketones Morphine Mucic Acid Murexide Murray.Claire Deville. Salicinum Saliscylic Plattner. Kamald Kekul6. Lime Linseed Liquorice Ivister. H. R. Piperonal Kolbe. W. H. G. Nicolas Nitre Propiolic Acid Propyl Alcohols Proust. Purin Purslane Pyrazines Nux Vomica Pyrazoles Officinal Pyrene Pyrethrum OiU M. V. Scandium Schcele. G. Sal Ammoniac Salep Salicin. A. John Indicator Indigo Medical Jurisprudence Medicine Mellitic Acid Mandel^eff. T. von Lowenstjern. von Nitric Acid Nitrobenzene Nitro Compounds Nitrogen Scammony Potassium Priestley. Louis Iceland Moss Imidazoles. Georg Opium Madder Magnesium Orpiment Hydrate Hydrazine Hydrazone Hydrocarbon Hydrochloric Acid Hydrogen Magnus. Salt Saltpetre Podophyllin Poison Polymethylenes Sandalwood Sandarach Samarium Naphthalene Naphthols Naphthylamines Nepenthes Newlands. J. Hermann Mustard Platinum Kopp. W. Hermann F. L. John Roscoe. C. William Prussic Acid Ivactic I^aevulinic Acid Lanolin Lanthanum Laudanum I>emon Baron Liebig. Rose Rouelle. Lothar Meyer. Perfumery Retene Perkin. A. G. Sir W. F. Rouge Rubidium Ruthenium Saccharic Acid Saccharin Safflower Saffron Safranine Sainte . F. Max Resorcin J. or Krameria Pharmacy . Roebuck. John Kino Musk Kelp Kermes Myrrh Kunckel Myrtle or Kunkel. Pelouze. J. Sir H. J. Schiitzenberger. J. August Molybdenum Mond. Joseph Pumice Nitroglycerin Nobel. Phenacetin Phenanthrene Phenazine Phenol Phenolphthalein Phosphates Phosphorus Phthalazines Phthalic Acids Picene Picric Acid Picrotoxin Pilocarpine Pimento Rhodium Rhubarb Richter. Pipcrine Klaproth. H. H. Joseph Louis Prout. S. Schhppe's Salt Schonbein. Henri Iodoform Ipecacuanha Iron Isatin Mitscherlich. H. Senega Senna Sesame Silica Silicon Silliman. Nicolas Lemery. and J. P. Friedrich Moissan. F. Jules Indazoles de Mastic Indene Mayow. B. Mustard Oils Kousso Radium Ramsay. Pettenkofer.Marignac. Dmitri I. E. E. Silver Benjamin Snake-root Soap . Pomade Santonin Potashes Sarsaparilla Nickel Primuline Lavender Nightshade Lavoisier. E. Rhamnus Purshiana Rhatany. Pasteur. Mercaptans lines Indium Indole Indulines Inulin Iodine Mercury Isomerism Mesoxalic Acid Methyl Alcohol Meyer. Victor Microcosmic Salt Mineral Waters Isoxazoles Mint Jaborandi Jalap Juniper Mohr. M. or Glyoxa. M. K. Root von Pharmacology Pharmacopoeia Pine Piperazin Muspratt. Naphtha Acid Lactones Sir William llaoult. Malic Acid Mallow Malonic Acid Malt Mammee Apple Mandelic Acid Pyridine Pyrimidines Pyrocatechin Pyrogallol Orcin Oxazoles Oxide Oximes Oxygen Oxyhydrogen Flame Hyposulphite of Soda Mandrake Manganese Palladium Palmitic Acid Hyssop Mangosteen Paraffin Hydroxylamine Pyrones Pyrophorous Pyrrol Pyruvic Acid Quassia Quercitron Orris-root Oxalic Acid Quinazolines Quinine Quinoline Quinones Quinoxalines Manna Paraldehyde latrochemistry Marggraf. P. Andreas S. K. Alfred B. Frangois Pennyroyal Peppermint Pepsin Rare Earths Regnault. Baron Lithium J.

Atwater. Xanthic Acid Xanthone Xylene Sugar Thiophen Thomsen. H. Cathcart. their fuel value. p. But on these he may glean a wealth of information that will be of greatest value to him. hygienic and pecuniary economy of foods (with tables showing the percentage composition of common food materials). W. Tartaric Acid Tellurium Tennant.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS Tincture Veronal Soap-bark Talc Sodium Viburnum Spirits Titanium Tamarisk Tannin or Tannic Acid Toilet Powders Toluene Tantalum Tonqua Bean Tar Tooth Powders and Taraxacum Wenzel. by Otto Hehner. Julius Thomson. O. F. L. Food Preservation an formerly president of (Vol. N. 8. L. Smithson Sterochemistry Stero-isomerism Stoichometry Terpenes Triphenylmethane Trophine Tungsten Turmeric Stramonium Tetrazines Tetrazoles Upas Uranium Strontium Strophanthus Strychnine Thdnard. E. Charles Stearic Acid Tennant. J. This article deals with the composition and nutritive values of foods. Witch-hazel Wohler. p. Vaseline Vauquelin. for example. Solution Spectroscopy Spikenard. of taxation. Williamson. discusses more particularly digestion and the utilization of the different food constituents. C. E. J. both of the University of Glasgow. Milner. also of that Department. Valerian Valeric Acid Yew Vanadium Vanilla Van't Hoff. Paton and Dr. of agriculture. Friedrich WoUaston. N Thyroid Tin 63 Young. A. p. J. 612). J. quan- nutriments needed. Here he will find only the chief articles on the subjects most closely related to the study of food products. who was in charge of the Nutrition Investigation of the U. For all such subjects as these he is referred to other chapters of this Guide. by the late Dr. conditions of digestibility. it is of great interest to everyone in the business to consider the subject of 10. Department of Agriculture. D. stock-raising and fishing. S. 214). Thomas Sulphonal Sulphonic Acids Sulphur Sulphuric Acid Sumbul. and from them he can turn readily and with profit to a survey of the larger area covered by other chapters. P. S. or Nard Vitriol Weighing Machines Weights and Measures Weldon. Wine Wintergreen Winter's Bark Wislicenus. As a general introduction to the subject the student should read Dietetics (Vol. the Society of Pub- article . Walter Sponges Tartar Squill Stahl. Stas. or Carbamide Wormwood Styrolene Succinic Acid Thiazines Thiazoles Urethane Urotropin Valency Wurtz. Therapeutics Thermochemistry Urea. K. by Prof. G. and R. or Sumbal Supra-renal extract Pastes Terbium Thorium Thymol Triazines Triazoles W. and other matters of equal Nutrition (Vol. H. 19. W. D. importance. After establishing the value and relative importance of the various substances tities of used as food. 920). James Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Veratrum CHAPTER Xin FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS THE manufacturer of or dealer in food products must of necessity be interested in questions of transportation by land and sea. A.

p. (Vol. beer. p. iflustrated. 30). p. Citric which terials are Acid (Vol. Chicory (Vol. cocoa and chocolate. 649). 5^5). (Vol. 10. p. 174) both of these articles by the late Professor Ward of Cambridge and Professor Blackman of the University of Leeds. flour and bread. 20. densed milk and milk powder all fall The within the scope of this article. L. 12. Lightfoot. p. p. although not strictly speaking an adulterant. 26. we oils. by ChemFood icals . 93). preservation of food by cold is described in fuller detail in the article Refrigerating AND Ice Making (Vol. Baker. 3. Sago (Vol. Bacteriology (Vol. p. 766). p. 43). p. cheese. The objections to the use of some of these chemicals are discussed in Adul- teration. by Drying. 4. especially for the material relating — to the nature of toxins (p. p. 474). p. tea. Paraffin (Vol. 218). 243). by J. of the University of Edinburgh. illustrated. 63). by Otto HehThis article is about as long as 50 ner. p. 7. 1. 131). Oils (Vol. p. 69). p. The effects upon digestion of the chemical preservatives mentioned above are shown in the light of the very latest investigations. 8. 20. 24. 1. 47). 333). There ouring matters are described in separate articles. the various other colouring matters will be found in the article Dyeing (Vol. such as milk (with tests for borax and formaldehyde). and Aniline (Vol. provide adulterants of cocoa. p. such as Glucose (Vol. p. 3. Among these are Fermenta- chemist. with information about harmless and harmful dyes. and Germany. p. 1. sections sugar. 11. 756). Preservation by Refrigeration . 109). Formaldehyde p. p. and unwholesome. wine. and the last part of the article considers adulteration as recently applied to the more important articles of food. which describes the copper salts used for colouring canned vegetables. In- 29). 667). cream. Littlejohn. Sir Thomas Stevenson. 970). p. Sulphur. Another group of articles will be found particularly useful in connection with the an interfrom which manufacture of certain classes of food learn that the first legal statute in tion (Vol. Anatto and Turmeric two harmless vegetable colouring matters. p. The properties of adulterants and col- is which the adultera- Adulteration tion of food is no- ticed dates from the reign of There is King John in England an elaborate account of (1203). 27. zoic Acid (Vol. 23. lard. marmalade and jams. Compounds (Vol. A full list of (Vol. coffee. which many consumers insist upon using in their coffee. Among the separate articles on preservative ma- 141). with its information about molds. author of the standard technical book on that subject. much employed. Fungi (Vol. 18. 32). 744). 135). 96). p. and vinegar. often used with weak and unstable flours in bread making. Saccharin (Vol. Copper. London. by T. 943) (Vol. The sterilization of milk. Salicylic Acid (Vol. p. 1. p. The diseases of animals which affect meat are described in the article Veter- . p. by the late Dr. the United States. Medical Jurisprudence. 24.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 64 lie Analysts. Food Poisoning (Vol. non-alcoholic drinks. p. 24. 10. Formalin or Ben- (Vol. 6. B. by Prof. and T. by Pickling. 893). con- butter. p. esting historical introduction. spirits. H. p. products. 752). 397). H. of Guy's Hospital. Salt (Vol. 23. 23. Vinegar (Vol. p. gram. 2. Alum (Vol. 6. the noted English analytical and consulting pages of this Guide. 21. Sugar Borax (Vol. 275). 156). Saltpetre (Vol. 87). There is a section on colouring matter in food. A. 1003) and Arrowroot (Vol. 1. p. Acetic Acid (Vol. which is sometimes added to coffee when it is roasted. p. p. in which there are separate on Preservation by Heat (which includes all canning processes). pounds (Vol. all the subsequent legislation in Great Britain. Com- Alcohol (Vol. 2. and Poison (Vol. 28. 26.

992). 28. 838). 145). See also Chocolate (Vol. The author points out chemistry. which. and baking ovens. The 65 Starch (Vol. they were erally known baked on hot stones. 35) is by practical experts. 15. p. 898) describes an important industry which until the middle of the 19th century was part of the druggist's business. p. Pleuro-Pneumonia. 11. author of Animal Plagues. for "wich" an old English word meaning saltThis article contains an interesting section on the Ancient History and is spring. making ]\L^CARONi (Vol. p. Vermicelli (Vol. 546). for example why starch-glucose is an ingredient and not an adulterant of these products. and Gluten (Vol. possesses the property of clarifying wines. flavour and colour of baking powders. The two tine (Vol. 649). by George Fleming. flour. p. 23. 25. 26. in all probability. 548). but also gives the history of milling from the earliest times. p. p. besides its gelatinous qualities. The machine bakeries of the present day are described. by Otto Hehner. (Vol. 12. (Vol. 554). and Cassava Tapioca (Vol. p. history and statistics of this important food product as well as with the cultivation of the sugar cane and beet. p. article a very from which the chief food starches are 23. many things of interest. leavened. p. 26. 10. . p. Sago (Vol. 150). 14. and other systems). p. p. beers. (Vol. permits the utilization of about 873^% of the wheat berry in bread making. with illustrations showing the appearance under the microscope of the substances which pass commercially under the name of arrowroot or farina. 465). 617). p. 4. or Lung Plague . There are also articles on Biscuit (Vol. Irish Moss (Vol. not only describes the processes of milling and of Special Foods dressing and bleaching the flour. 2. p. There is Bread full article (Vol. 938) has information about the manufacture of oatmeal. and deals with the special customs of different countries. 15. p. and in Isinglass (Vol. (Vol. 5.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS iNARY Science (Vol. Oat (Vol. 413). 192). 106) Foot AND Mouth Disease (Vol. 10. p. 1003). which contains sections on diseases of cattle. and other information in Gelatin (Vol. 348). and other liquids. materials Zimmer. John MacQueen of the London Veterinary College. 872). and there are sections on sanitation of bakehouses. 259) and — Jujube Salt (Vol. 7. and Prof. 17. 2). 27. The author says that. and the recently invented Apostolov process. and Rinderpest (Vol. together with the latest types of machine kneaders. 448). It is not genthat there are in existence remains of cakes made by the Swiss lakedwellers in the Stone Age. p. The article Sugar Flour and Flour Manufacture (Vol. It is curious to note that the termination "wich" in English place-names points to localities of ancient salt manufacture. p. A complete modern bread-making plant is described. by George F. 6. The article treats of the made are described in Maize Arrowroot (Vol. 2. 457). 14. methods of dough (the ferment-and-dough. p. by the same contributor. p. and there are separate articles on Anthrax (Vol. unleavened and aerated bread. p. 794) manufacture of this most important alimentary substance. quality. Alfred and Valen- W. p. 6. 19. Chapman. p. Among articles on the products in the manufacture of which sugar is employed is Jams and Jellies (Vol. dough dividers and mixers. the sponge-and-dough. p. 87) covers the manu- facture of salt very fully. Confectionery (Vol. p. 1024). 21. and he shows the baselessness of the prejudice against the use of beet sugar in their manufac- The manufacturer of jellies and preserves will find separate articles on all the fruits employed. sheep and pigs as well as on the principal parasites of domestic animals. in ture. 24. which among other advantages. It deals with the manufacture. p. p. 3. 795) as to the properties of vegetable gelatin.

26. 6. p. Cotton. 96). etc. 6. 562). 22. p. and Waxes. This beverage. and Guava (Vol. Coffee consumption. American Dairying. chup Chutney (Vol. 589). p. Julius Lewkowitsch. 332). Dairy Products burgh There University. Freeman. Butter and Butter-making. author of Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils. namely the people of the United States. p. 648). Tea and torical introduction. 27). p. William of EdinFream. Ket7. became the national beverage of the Arabians. 15. by the late Dr. 19. 16. 21. p. the term is A list of all oils and fats. and applied in commerce. Other articles on foods deal with the preparation for the market of such products as Ginger (Vol. 5. Caviare dis- (Vol. Fig p'. roasting and adulteration are also discussed. It is a curious fact that whereas 35 years ago China practically supplied the world with tea. to-day Russia alone takes half of her export. etc. William Robertson Smith. 27. The same completeness is displayed in the Britannica articles on beverages. (Vol. also refining and bleaching. p. The preservative qualities of salt were held to make it a peculiarly fitting symbol of any enduring compact. including those that are edible. p. is given. (Vol. deals with the fixed oils and fats. p. 97). 127). 864). p. 476). 10. others. Tea Adulteration and Effects on Health are other sections of this valuable article. 260). 12. Rendle and W. p. 91). p. 704). The Milk Trade. by John McEwan. and Italian cheeses being also described). late Dr. German. 582). are sections on Milk Production. 646) is treated in very similar fashion by A. 43). 649). 90). Canada and Australia "are almost at the foot. 737). p. p. There is an article 214). and finally appeared in Europe in the 17th century. B. Fats. (Vol. Cotton-seed Sesame flower (Vol. 665). 20. methods of testing. It is of interest to note that while one branch of the AngloSaxon race. Currant (Vol. p. 7. p. using only about . 17. p. with the different varieties Cayenne Pepper Vinegar (Vol. p. Cofifee The characteristics of all vari- eties of tea are given and the main facts about the cultivation and manufacture. 518). etheral or volatile oils. It was not until the middle of the 17th century that the English began to use tea. p. and the oil and fat industry may be considered as old as the human race itself. 21. 85). real leaf lard is. by Dr. p. Must- ard Pepper (Vol. p. 350). French. 584). p. 6. Pickle Raisin (Vol. Oils (Vol. showing how what on Lard (Vol. (Vol. p. of these are among the most important articles of food. in spite of fierce religious opposition. illustrated. 376). 6. G. has an admirable his- Beverages. 12. (Vol. p. la (Vol. from which we learn that the finer grades rarely find their way out of Russia. 7.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 66 by the Religious Symholism of salt (p. especially Great Britain. The three processes of oil extraction are described. Adulteration of Dairy Produce. 28. p. 7. is near the head of the list of coffee consumers. Coffee (Vol. Cheese and Cheesemaking. the wholesome butter subthe subject of a separate ar- "perfectly stitute" is ticle (Vol. tinguished. Tea (Vol. For the chief oils used as food see Olive (Vol. including Canadian and American factory practice and the Babcock and Russell investigations in Wisconsin which have opened up a new field for commercial exploitation (the varieties of English. (Vol. and Some essential. (Vol. The reason for this is ex- plained. p. Butter and cheese manufacture fall under the article Dairy and Dairy Farming (Vol. 22. 5. 102). The physiological action of coffee has a section all to itself. Cinnamon Cloves Pimento (Vol. 24. Vanil- (Vol. Sun- Poppy Oil (Vol. Prune (Vol. (Vol. Curry (Vol. 894). 22. p. Margarine. 26. p. 761). and in more than one part of the world cakes of salt have been used as money. Dairy Factories. 21. 614). 20. 701). p.

Modern lovers of chocolate as a beverage (which is the same as cocoa save that the fat has not been extracted) will envy the digestive powers of the — Emperor Montezuma of Mexico who had. and there are most interesting sections on the wines of France. art of Wine (Vol. wine-making is thor- oughly described. p. member of the Institute of Brewery Council. the earliest writer to mention it as scorned by the Romans. and The 67 by the late Dr. (Vol. 15. Philip Schidrowitz. Kirsch and Vermouth (Vol. by Dr. 28. Italy. p. p. 75). and very complete in article 499). is a general article covering the subject of the distillation of fermented saccharine and starchy and liquids. and discusses the effects upon digestion of their use. Dr. 25. Austria-Hungary. 628) is an interesting and valuable article on "the food of the gods" the great beverage and dietary substance which America has given the world. and he thought it a more sinful drink than wine. 23. p. 3. 28." In the United States "the average consumption per head is about 11 or 12 lbs. 6. Spain. 4. Rum (Vol. p. 642). CuRAgoA 1. 825). where we also learn the difference between a "cordial" and a "liqueur. 744). Germany. Irish and American in — — is carefully explained. 5. (Vol. p. who It is and there are many illustracurious to note that Pliny. 642). The account is both historical and technical. Benedictine Chartreuse (Vol. who looked upon it as only fit for barbarians. classifies all The appended number of articles list includes producers. 26). per contributes the article annum. editor Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 506) this same author enters very fully into the manufacturing operations. 28. Spirits (Vol. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE ENGAGED IN THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF FOOD PRODUCTS Absinthe . 428). the chemical composition of beers of different types. p. of coffee per head each year. Schidrowitz. and their value in medical treatment. 18. each day. p. "So exquisite. flavoured and sweetened forms of alcohol are described in the article Liqueurs (Vol. 636). p. The English and foreign systems are described tions. p. 677). p. which the difference between three main types Scotch. (Vol. Cocoa (Vol. and information in regard to production and consumption. p. 50 jars of chocolate prepared for his personal consumption. 517) the great springs according to their mineral constituents. In Brewing (Vol. 27." on Brewing Chemistry an is The very In connection with Brewing on Malt (Vol. illustrated. confines itself to the history of this important beverage. Portugal. p. 591). 4. p. Whisky (Vol. 12." 716). 17. Schidrowitz also 13. p. 954). its treatment. 2. p. Fream. Mineral Waters (Vol. p. p. 721). Beer (Vol. p. 3. 1 lb. The many (Vol. 1029). Ling. 7. 16. United States. illustrated p. 170). 834). Arrack (Vol." he says. also by Dr. by Arthur R. Gin Vodka (Vol. p. that they have invented a method to make is beer. describes water itself section valuable.FOR MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS one on Hop (Vol. 694). and there are separate and more specific articles on Brandy (Vol. including chemical and flavouring a large of interest to the food compounds extracts." There are separate articles on Absinthe (Vol. "is the cunning of mankind in gratifying their vicious appetites. Wm. classifying the different varieties and affording a full survey of the industry. there is produce intoxication.

68 .

FOR INSURANCE MEN Truffle 69 .

for articles on insurance tophave already been mentioned. many of which will bear more or less di- Conflict Bonus Bounty elect- The principal ics Assets Austria Barratry Boarding-out System mandatory or workmen. France.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 70 — say is. Life Insurance. B'nai Brith. Victoria and notably New Zealand. Separate sections of the article deal with Casualty (or accident) and Miscellaneous Insurance.C. although there were a few instances of insurance in the 16th and 17th cendid not become a regular business until the 18th century and was not widely extended until the 19th century. if one judge by the introduction of postal savings-banks and the adoption of the parcels-post system. and Marine Insurance. the Index facilitates and accelerates reference to anything in the Britannica that bears on any desired topic. The section on British Post-Ofl5ce Insurance will give to the American insurance man a knowledge of this innovation in the post-office to Abandonment Accident Actuary Annuity which the American seems to be tending. Denmark. In the same way the article on Employers Liability and Workmen's Insurance will give him a wider grasp of the subject post-office may of state insurance. In the same way the article Old Age Pensions will make you acquainted with another radical measure which has been adopted in Great Britain. Life. and other states of the United States. A. life turies. Observe. ive. however. that this is a gain that That cannot be expressed in figures. with fuller description in the article New Zealand." article definition of that a distinction The general history of insurance traces marine insurance back to Greek commerce in the 4th century B. then subheads. Fire Insurance. Among these and sub-articles are: Charity Co-insurance F. that the article Friendly Societies is supplemented by such special articles as Free Masonry. New Jersey. P. and under the subheads special topics arranged alphabetically. Workmen's. Liabilities Labour Legislation Friendly Societies Land Combination Gaming and Wagerinj Liability Communism of General Insurance Guarantee Halley's Table Average Baby-Farming Co-operation Housing Emigration Employers' Liability Eugenics Fire and Fire Extinc- Illegitimacy Casualty Insurance Census etc. Title.. Marine. to 28 new articles. that the actuary will find important information in the mathematical articles Mensuration and Probability. The importance of the subject to the American insurance man lies in the fact that similar schemes are under consideration or actual operation in Massachusetts. First there is a main head Insurance. but shows that modern methods of marine insurance were unknown until the 14th century. Odd Fellows. Building Societies. Burial Societies. that fire insurance dates from the 17th century and especially from the Great Fire of London in 1666. Laws tion Fire Insurance Foundling Hospitals Registration Life Insurance Lloyd's Insurance Maritime Insurance Mendicancy Mensuration Mutual Insurance Mortality Rates Negative Values Net Inability Interest factor Net Premium Japan Non-forfeiture Income Tax Industrial Insurance Infanticide ar- . The index references are classified. Fire. Germany. and that. The Insurance opens with a word and with drawing between it and "assurance. rectly ticles on the subject. In brief. too. it British Post Office Insurance. additional gain. In the Classified List of Articles in the Index Volume the student of insurance will find on page 893 a list of articles in the field of economics and social science. It is to be noted.

FOR ARCHITECTS Northampton Table Probability Novation Old Age Pensions Production Pauperism Pawnbroking Policy Poor Law Population Post Office Premium 71 .

p. 99. dating from the 12th century. The article deals with: reliefs in marble and stone. p. Flinders Petrie) and Sphinx (Vol. 15. principal of the Central (London County) School of Arts and ject. 134. 25. and all his studies of early architecture. the Jew's House at LinAn coln. Primitive (Vol. John Henry Middleton. Stonehenge (Vol. 16. (Vol. 21). painted cloth. in the articles Pyramid (Vol. 13. 137. 98. 132. 344). 683). 810). including four particularly fine examples of "half timbered buildings. he should read the articles Archaeology. if that is possible. p. each deeper than their breadth. 138) English Churches English Public Buildings English Domestic and Street Architecture Recent French Architecture Germany architec- little art. figures (3 plates). H. p. 962). Phene Spiers. 22. and in some cases (as at South Dahshur) reminding the observer of horizontal leaves with sloping edges. 136. ." and one English house. accompanied by seven illustrations. 2. (by W. there about reading on 19. and painting. glazed bricks or tiles. 133.000 or 5. 25. Statham author of a well-knov^n book on the subEarlier sections are by R. Supplementing the 4. the thirty stones weighing more than 30 tons each. 1. Before continuing his more systematic read the article may well House with 12 (Vol. 16) is Mural Decoraby a remarkably distinguished trio." But neither Stonehenge nor the pyramid was really as in an engineering problem. p. poet. late Slade professor of fine art. 662) by Francis p. Crafts. 9. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 72 Gothic Revival in France know about Queen Anne Style times. R. 961) and Stone Monuments. in 81) and Karnak (Vol. William Morris. Petrie's estimate that "in Pepi's pyramid it is of three layers of stone beams. artist or engineer will find religion and worship the aim and the reason of the building even more. interesting article tion (Vol. 25. Engineering problems will be the most Other Countries interesting in a large part of the student's The part of the article dealing with Modern Architecture is by H. marble veneer. hard stucco.000 words Early Oriental on this subject unArchitecture der Architecture. stamped leather. Here. Cambridge. M. p. Lake Dwellings (Vol. 680)." The massive character of the roofing of the sepulchral chambers is indicated by Prof. p. 136. printed hangings and wall- villa of papers. the articles Abydos (Vol. in the buildings of prehistoric which there was ture in the sense of a fine " Free Classic " Style Arts allied to Architecture Craftsmanship Ideal Architecture in United States (Figures 97. usually greater in thickness than in height. craftsman and painter. the well-known illustrator and decorator. resting one on another. —the last two of particular interest to the building engineer because it is so puzzling a problem how these great blocks could have been brought such distances and set in place without modern appliances. 91). If the student of architecture would Llewellyn Griffith. p. with sections on the Romanesque and Gothic in France by W. another well-known Egyptologist. Lethaby. 131. p. sgraffito. late master of the Royal Academy's Architectural School. is much Egypt information (Vol. and Walter Crane. In the former article the author points out that the outside and inside work on all the pyramids was excellent and that the casings were not a mere veneer but were "of massive blocks. and historical readings the student illustrated Egyptian architecture. This is illustrated with 16 figures in black and white and with a reproduction in colours of a wall-painting from a Roman the early Empire.

supplementing the treatment under Architecture. 869) and the diagram in that article. 3. square. 108) on Art. 26. p. 470. p. In Assyria great palaces of the 9th. p. high. to 70 equivalent pages in this Guide. and his palace shrine. 8th and 7th centuries B. and the reader should gives plans study the article Parthenon (Vol. with seven storeys. distant. pre-emiof the arts as Roman utility with beauty. an tion of architecture 73 Art Greek (Vol. written by Percy Gardner. Here too the func- was shown The largely as aid to religion: as in the article many of them half-tones. One temple was 272 ft. 707). base suggests the support of a great weight. lines is (3) Rigidity of simple avoided scarcely any outline is actually straight. It is interesting to note that even in Assyria architecture was trammelled. and these are probably the earliest large buildings of any architectural importance not religious in their purpose. 23. Egyptian and Assyrian temples. 471-472) in a discussion of the architecture of Greek temples calls attention to four basal principles of Greek architecture sculptures and and half god. p. Stuart Jones. . (4) Elaborate decoration is reserved parts of the temple which have. is outlined 476-477 especially) and the main point in regard to Roman architecture is brought out as follows: "the specific combining (pp. p. p. written by H. C. the first probably 45 ft. as well as Hebrew. Although the main treatment of Greek and Roman architecture is in the article Architecture. and none in Babylonia. The article Roman Art (Vol. have been found. although there was no need of such construction in Assyria. but this distinction must not be carried too far. or seem to have. 20. (1) Each member of the building has one function and only one. author of Grammar of Greek Art) and Roman Art (Vol. for the king was sacrosanct. In the article Babylonia and Assyria there is a brief section (Vol. 23. each smaller than the one below and thus surrounded by a terrace. governed by Babylonian styles and using brick and clay because Babylon did.FOR ARCHITECTS than in the great European cathedrals of comparatively recent times. C.474) probably the first brief and authoritative treatment of a topic long overshadowed in popular interest by the earlier art of Greece and the later art It begins with a history of of Italy. the articles and Rome . 142) and the two plates which accompany it. p. Columns are not equi- mountain in the was a — — (Vol. article illustrations. their perpendicular flutings emMoulding at a column's phasize this. director of the British School at Rome). built probably 40 or 45 centuries B. and the total height 160 ft. and keeping the heavy brick platform foundation which the Babylonian architects had adopted because of the marshy character of their country. is recent research. the student should read Greece (p. reactionary. 12. 19. (2) Simple and natural relations prevailed between various members of a construction. and the article Pergamum (Vol. equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide. The article Temple (Vol. nently the most Architecture. no strain laid for those upon them. makes clear the dependence of the other fine arts in Greece on architecture and on religion in showing that the greatest were adjuncts to temples. 21. although there was stone in Assyria. and this function controls even the decoration of Pillars support archithat member. traves. each coloured a separate tint. 474. p. each dedicated to a planet. 603) and general information about Greek and Roman sacred architecture. with its description of the "ziggurat" or artificial half priest on Greek Art contains 82 It Nippur shrine.

Ravenna. especially because the Modern influence of the By- Architecture zantine was so strong in the early church. 537) Indian (Vol. an expression of reverence for governmental p. p. 232) Hittite (Vol. 28. it should. however. 906. 6. 7. for Gothic in other countries.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 74 Roman architect artistic application of a new set achievement was the of principles of the —those which are expressed in the arch. 441 and p. and the article Constantinople (Vol. Before taking up modern architecture as distinguished from ancient. cannot be separated from religion. 6 illustrations) will interest the architect as well as the contractor or engineer. Denis NoYON for French Gothic Senlis Sens Reims Le Mans OviEDO Leon AviLA Segovia Lerida Toledo Burgos Seville Salamanca for Spanish Gothic . part of the article Aqueduct which 297). The arch. Byzantine Romanesque. 428. described in the articles p. particularly the triumphal arch. Milan Pavia Brescia Bergamo Bari MoLFETTA Palermo many Genoa 15. 181-182) Chinese (Vol. 214) Byzantine (Vol. the student will do well to examine the architecture of some more remote peoples plates) Lombard Romanesque Parma Modena monreale Cefalu Aztec (Vol. and Triumphal Arch (Vol. Arch (Vol. 150). for Romanesque Romanesque in Ger- Assisi Orvieto for Italian Gothic Verona Perugia Siena In the same way. pp. 3) The last topic will serve as a transition to the modern architecture of Europe. 2. p." as contrasted with the rectilinear buildings of the Greeks. p. The deals with churches. Pisa and Venice. p. p. 677) Abyssinian (Vol. 5. p. the vault and the dome. with 2 plates. 12. 2. p. 241-243. for the student should read: Aix-la-Chapelle Le Puy Angouleme Arles NiMES St. p. 4. the latter with eight figures. with 4 for > Piacenza pp. Vitruvius (Vol. p. is specifically a Roman product and is besides in being specifically Roman authority. Japanese (Vol. 391) may well for Southern Romanesque ^ ' for Sicilian WuRZBURG. The study of the Italian Romanesque and Gothic in an elaborate section of Architecture (Vol. ) j Messina read the article on the Roman architect and writer on architecture. 2. be remembered. 14. 13. The following list is roughly chronological. whose book so strongly affected the Renaissance. the cities named first being those in which there are the oldest Roman aqueducts (Vol. And he should for instance. 342) be supplemented by reading the articles on the Italian cities in which this art is preserved. Among the most important of Roman sculptures and particularly reliefs are those of the arches. with 2 plates). —which. 27.

FOR ARCHITECTS
Durham

7S

Jacopo Sansotino

Lincoln
Salisbury
Gloucester,

for English Gothic
etc.^

Aix

Mainz

Worms

for

German Gothic

MiCHELE SaNMICMKLE
Andrea Palladio
Barocchio da Vignola
Galeazzo Alessi
Lombardo
DOMENICO FoNTANA
Baldassare Peruzzi

Spires

Cologne
Tournai, Louvain,

etc.,

for

For

and in general, the articles Cathedral,
Nave, Aisle, Choir, Apse, Chevet,
Lady-Chapel, Vault, Flying Buttress, Pinnacle, Clerestory and TriFORiuM.

The

article

Cathedral has

plans of Canterbury, Salisbury, Durham,
Ely, Chartres, Sens and Angouleme and
a perspective of Amiens cathedral.
In the same way the student of the
Renaissance architecture may supplement the section in the article Archi-

tecture

408, etc.)

the articles on
great Renaissance buildings stand. But
now "the career of the individual has to
be taken into consideration," so true is
it that the Renaissance in architecture
as in scholarship was intensely indi-

The

vidualistic.

article

this period, less individual

Architecture

points this out and in this section is
largely biographical in its treatment.
The reader should study the following

than in
study

Italy, the reader will find it best to

the geographical articles.

Let him read

Blois (noting Plate VIII,
in the article

fig.

84,

Architecture)

Tours

Chambord
Orleans
Chenonceaux
Fontainebleau
Paris

Spanish Renaissance

by

reference to
the cities in which the

(p.

The French Renaissance

Bel-

gian,

Granada
Valladolid
Saragossa

Malaga
Salamanca

(Plate
Architecture)

Seville (Plate V.,

V.,

fig.

fig.

73

in

74 in Archi-

tecture)

EscoRiAL (with plan)
Madrid (Palacio Royal)

separate articles also

English Renaissance

For Italian Renaissance

John Thorpe

FiLippo Brunelleschi

Inigo Jones

Florence
Leone Battista Alberti
MiCHELOZZO Dl BaRTOLOMMEO
Bramante

Sir Christopher Wren
St. Paul's Cathedral (see Fig. 58

Rome

(for St. Peters: see Fig. 51
in

Architecture)

Borgognone
Baccio. d'Agnolo

Sangallo
pollaiulo
Michelangelo

in

Architecture)

Greenwich (for Hospital)
Nicholas Hawksmoor
Sir John Vanbrugh

Dean Henry Aldrich
George and James Dance
William Kent
Robert Adam
Sir William Chambers

BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES

76

German Renaissance
RoTHENBURG (town-hall)

The Last 50 Years

George Frederick Bodley

Augsburg (town-hall)
Heidelberg (see Plate VII

R.

Ar-

in

chitecture)
Renaissance in Belgium and Holland

Antwerp
Amsterdam
Rotterdam
Haarlem

On Mahommedan

Architecture the stu-

Architecture

(with

in

97,

98,

article

Ar C KITE cture)

Classical Revival in

Germany

Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Berlin (and Fig. 87
ture)
Potsdam (and Fig. 88

in

Architec-

in Architecture)
Munich (and Fig. 89 in Architecture)
Gottfried Semper

Mecca
Kairawan
Cordova
Alhambra

French Classicism

Tabriz
Isfahan

Adolphe Theodore Brongniart
Jacques Ignace Hittorff (Plate
XII in Architecture)

On

the more recent period, the 19th
roughly, the student should
supplement the last part of the article
Architecture by reading the following
century,

English " Commonsense "
Sir Charles

articles

Classical

Revival

in

Halifax

the

Barry

(Fig.

90

in

Architec-

ture)

British Isles

Dublin

99

3 diagrams)

Constantinople
Damascus
Jerusalem

the

and XVI, and
'Figs.

4

Cairo

For

England

(and see
Plates XV

Russell Sturgis
Steel Construction

plates, 17 figures)

Mosque (with
Minaret

[^

United States

1

H. H. Richardson
Richard M. Hunt
Charles F. McKim
Stanford White
William R. Mead

dent should read not only the section
(Vol. 2, pp. 422-427) in the article Architecture, with eight illustrations, but
the separate articles

Indian

Norman Shaw

William Morris
Harvey L. Elmes
Charles R. Cockerell
Liverpool (and Fig. 86
in Architecture)

Westminster

(see also Fig. 85 in

(Houses of Parliament; see Fig. 91 in Architecture)
Budapest (Fig. 92 in Architecture)

Archi-

tecture)

Edinburgh
Sir John Soane
English Gothic Revival

The

A. W. N. PUGIN
Sir George Gilbert Scott

George S. Street
William Butterfield
John Loughborough Pearson
Alfred Waterhouse
France (Figs. 122-129 in
chitecture)
L. P. Baltard
J. L. C. Garnier

article

sections

of

the

article

Archi-

tecture dealing with France and Germany in the last two generations may best
be supplemented by a study of the articles Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and Budapest.

Ar-

The

following

is

a brief alphabetical

and topics
including topics for
the builder and contractor.
list

of architectural articles

in the Britannica,

FOR ARCHITECTS
Abacus
Abated

Battlement

Chevron

Bay

Chimney

Abbey
Abutment

Bed-mould
Belfry

77

Dodecastyle
Dog-tooth

Dome

Acroterium

Bell-cot

Adam, Robert

Belvedere

Chimneypiece
Choir
Chresmographion
Cinque Cento

Aedicula

Bema

Cleithral

Donjon
Door
Doorway
Dormer

Clerestory

Dormitory

Cloaca

Dosseret
Dovetail

Bench-table
Aiwan
Bevel
Leone Battista Albert! Bezant6e
Alcove
Sir A. W. Blomfield
Galeazzo Alessi
G. W. Bodley
Alley
Bonding
Almery
Giuseppi Bonomi
Almonry
Francesco Borromini
Almshouse
Bowtell
A lure
Bracket
Aisle

Ambo

Bramante

Cloister
C. R. Cockerell

Coenaculum
Coffer,
and

Dams

Cogging
Colonnade
Placido Columbani

Column
Compluvium

Ambulatory

Brattishing

Amphiprostyle
Amphitheatre

Composite Order
Sir Reginald Bray
Brick, and Brickwork Compound pier

Andron

Bridges

Conch

Angel-lights

Concrete,

Antae

Broach
Sir I. M. Brunei

Ante-chapel
Ante-choir
Ante-fixae

Filippo Brunelleschi
Building
Charles Bulfinch

Consisterium
Construction

Anthemion
Apophyge

Bungalow

Corbel
Corbie
Cornice
Counterfort

Apollodorus

WiUiam
of

Butterfield

Da- Buttress

Coping

Apteral

Aqueduct

Camber

Araeostyle
Araeosystyle

Crest
Campanile
N. le Camus de Me- Crocket

Arcade
Arch
Architrave
Archivolt
Arcosolium

Arena
Arris
Ashlar
Astragal
Astylar

ziferes

Canal
Canalis
Cancelli

Candelabrum
Canephorae
Canopy

Concrete

Piers, etc.

Cable moulding
Luigi Cagnola
Caissons

mascus

Apse

Dowels
Drafted masonry
Coffer Dredging
Dripstone

Dromos
Dungeon
Early English Period
Eaves
Echinus
Eiffel

Tower

Elevator
Elizabethan Style

H. L. Elmes
James Elmes
Embrasure
Engaged Column
Entablature
Entasis

Ephebcum
Epi
Epinaos

Coursed Rubble

Epistyle

Cramps

Estrade
Eupalinus
Eustyle

Crenelle

Exedra

Crossing
Cross springer

Crypt
Crypto-porticus
Cubicle

Cuneus
Cupola

Cantilever Foundations Curvilinear
Cusp
Capital

Extrados

Fagade
Facing
Fan Vault
Femerell
Fenestration
Feretory
James Fergusson
Festoon

Carpentry
Cartouche

Frangois de Cuvilles
Cyclopean Masonry

Caryatides

Cyclostyle

Flamboyant Style

Casement

Cyma

Flfeche

Baccio d'Agnolo
Back-choir
Bailey

Castle

Cyrto-style

Cathedral
Cathetus

Cyzicenus

Balcony

Cauliculus

Floor
Flue
Flying Buttress
Pierre F. L. Fontaine

Ball-flower
L. P. Baltard

Cavaedium
Cavea

Balustrade

Cavetto

Banker-marks

Ceiling
Cella

Atrium
Attic
Attic Base

Baptistery

Barbican
Bargeboard
Giacomo Barocchio
Bartizan
Base

Basement
Basilica
B atement-lights

Baths
Batter

Cements

Daedalus
Dais

Dance (family)
Decastyle
Decorated Period
Dentil
Diaconicon
Diastyle
Diaulos

Chalcidicum
Sir William Chambers Diazomata

Chamfer

Dikka

Chancel
Chapter-house
Charnel-house
Chateau
Chersiphron
Chevet

Dinocrates
Dipteral
Philibert

De I'Orme

Fillet

Finial

Domenico Fontana
Footing
Foot-stall

Formeret
Foundation
Fountain
Charles Fowler
Frater
Free-stone
Fret
Frieze

Frigidarium

Discharging Arch

Frontispiece

Distyle

Gable

Docks

Gablets

78

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

Galilee

Joggles
Inigo Jones

Gallery-

Owen Jones

Gargoyle
J. L. C.

Gamier

Garret
Garretting

Jub6
Keel-moulding

Keep

Gate
Gatehouse
Gazebo

Keystone
Label

Girder
Glazing

Laconicum
Lacunar
Lady-Chapel
Lancet
Lantern

Glyph
Glyptothek

Godroon

Labrum

Ordinance
Oriel

Orientation
Orthostatae
Orthostyle
Oubliette
Ovolo

Pythis

Painter-work
Palace
Palaestra

Quadriga
Quoins
Rag-stone

Palladian

Random

Panel
Pantheon

Rear vault

Parament

Regula
Reredos

Guilloche

Lintel

John Henry Parker

Gutta
Gutter
Joseph Gwilt

Loft

Parquetry
Parthenon

Granite
Griffe

Groin

Gynaeceum
Hagioscope
Half-timber Work
Hall
Halving

Hammerbeam Roof
A. Hansom

J.

Nicholas

Hawksmoor

Heating
K. A. von Heideloff
Helix
Heuiicyclc
Herring-bone
Hexastyle

Hip-knob
Hipped roof

Hippodamus
Hippodrome
Hittorff
H6tel-de-Ville

J.

I.

Louver (Louvre)
Lucarne
Lunette

Parclose
Pargetting

Respond
Rib
George Richardson
H. H. Richardson
Thomas Rickman
River Engineering

Patio

Machicolation

Pavement

Rubble

Maksoora
Manor-house
Marble
Mastaba
Mausoleum
Megaron
Merlon
Meshrebiya
Meta
Metope

Pavilion
J. L. Pearson

Rustication
Sacristy

Paruzzi
Pedestal

Saddle

Mezzanine
Mihrab
Minaret

Perpendicylar Period
Perpent Stones
Perron

Minbar

Philon
Piazza
Pier

C. F.

McKira

Minster
Modillion

Module

House

Mosque

Hypaethros
Hypocaust
Hypostyle
Hypotrachelium
Ichnography

Mouldings

Imbrex
Impluvium
Impost

Parapet
Parascenium

Refectory

Road
Rood
Rough Cast

Monotriglyph
H6tel-Dieu
Hot-water Heating and Mortar
Mortice
Supply-

Iconostasis
Ictinus

Quatrefoil

Andrea Palladio

C. G. Guarini

Grange

Pyramid
Pyramidion

Pagoda

Lanterns of the Dead
Lectern
Libon
Lighting
Lightning Conductor
Limestone

Gothic

Philon
A. W. N. Pugin
Pulpit
Purlin
Pycnostyle

Parvis

Patera

Pediment
Pendant
Pendentive

Pergamum
Peripteral
Peristyle

Sangallo (family)
Sanmichele
Scabbling
Scaffold
Scamilli impares
K. F. Schinkel
Sir G. G. Scott
Scotia
Sedilia
Gottfried Semper
Sepulchre, Easter

Severy

Sewerage

Pilaster
Pile Foundations
Pillar

Sexpartite vault
Shaft
R. Norman Shaw

Pinacotheca
Pinnacle
Piscina

Sill

Shoring
Skeleton Construction
Slaking
Slip Joints
Slype

Moving Stairs
MuUion
Mural Decoration
Mutule
Narthex
Nave

Podium
Poppy Heads

Solar (Soller)

W.

Porch

Sommer

Newel

Porticullis

Niche
Notching

Portico
Postern

Nymphaeum

Presbytery
Prick Posts
Propylaea

E. Nesfield

Plan
Planceer
Plaster
Plinth

Sir

John Soane

Soffit

Indian Architecture
Intercolumniation
Interlaced arches
Intrados

Obelisk
Octastyle

Odeum

Proscenium

Jacobean Style

Oecus

Jamb

Ogee

Jesse
Joinery
Joints

Oillets

Prostyle
Prothesis
Pseudo-dipteral
Pseudo-peripteral

Spandril
Sphaeristerium
Spina
Spire
Spire light
Springer
Squinch
Squint
Stag Bars
Stage
Stained Glass

Order

Pteron

Staircase

In-antis

Ogive

FOR BUILDERS AND CONTRACTORS
Stairn

Tabularium

Stall

Stanchion

Steam-Heating
Steel Construction

Steeple
Stele

Stereobate
Stillicidium
Stilted

Stoa
Stone, Stone

Wash

Storey
G. E. Street
Russell Sturgis
Style
Stylobate

Bartolommeo Suardi
Sudatorium
Surbase
Surveying
Suspensura
Systyle

Tabernacle

Tablinum

79

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

80

"the casings were not a mere
veneer, but were of massive blocks, usually greater in thickness than in height"
in other words, that the construction
was of the best character.
But the builder must be a far betterinformed man under present conditions
than ever before. To give him the necessary information there is a large and
growing literature ranging from builders'
and contractors' pocket manuals to
special periodicals. This literature is expensive, and like all special literature puts
the intending purchaser in a diflBcult position, for if he buys it all, he must pay
much more than the returns from his purchase warrant, and he will then have to
read it all and use his own judgment in
deciding what is best. If he does not buy
all, he must be an expert, not merely in
every branch of his business but in the
bibliography of his business, to make a
wise selection, and if he is sufficiently
expert for this he will probably need no
such library. But he will find, to a remarkable degree, the best of all that
there is in such special literature in the
the
with
Encyclopaedia Britannica,
strongest assurance of its being authoritative, and with the certainty that for an
outlay, small in comparison with what
he would make for such special information elsewhere, he will get the guidance
bricks,

that he needs for his work and also information as excellent on any other
subject that he or any member of his family may wish to pursue.
The key or foundation article for the
builder or contractor is Building (Vol. 4,

by James Bartlett, lecturer on
construction, etc.. King's College, Lon-

p. 762),

don,

who has

on related

contributed other articles
The article deals with

topics.

good

access,

relation of building to architecture and with building laws and
special types of plans according
to local governmental require-

ments

The

conditions necessary for a sucease of
cessful building, namely

good service,

Fire-resisting construction.

This general article is supplemented by
the following articles:

Foundation, containing 13 diagrams and paragraphs on: load
trial boring; conconcrete piers,
types
pile foundations, concrete piles,
plank foundations, caissons, well
foundations, coffer dams, dock
foundations, cantilever foundations, building on sand (at Cape

on foundation;
struction;

Henlopen, Delaware)
Caisson
18 diagrams, and
with special treatment of tools,
including hammers, mallets, saws,
chisels, setting tools, hoisting appliances; of seasoning stone; of
setting stones of use of mortar
of bonding; slip joints; footings;
walling; random; coursed rubble,
ashlar, etc.; backing to stone
work; pointing and stonewash.
There is also a brief vocabulary
of technical terms and a discussion of methods of facing; joints;
cramps; dowels; joggles; stone
arches tracery and carving and
the articles Ashlar, Rag-stone,

Masonry, with

;

;

The

light,

pleasing environment and approaches, minimum cost with true
economy, and, for office buildings, ease of arrangement to suit
tenants
Construction, its general principles
Materials of construction, especially
stone and brick
Particular objects of construction
Foundation walls
Footings to walls
General procedure for an intended
building
Builder's sphere
American building acts

;

Random
Cement, with

3 figures; description

and analysis of Pozzuolanic and
Portland cement; mixing; loading of kilns; types of kilns; cement clinker; testing; hydraulic

FOR BUILDERS AND CONTRACTORS
lime

Roman cement

;

ments

;

hydraulic cement;
phate cements

alyses of typical granites

;

;

iting; strength; durability; convenience and appearance; resistance
fire;
artificial
to
cost;
stones; steel concrete, including
columns, piles, beams, floor slabs,
etc. ; concrete arches

Mortar, with

on slaking;
hardening; magnesia in mortar;
sections

strengths
adhesion, decay, effects of salt and frost; legal restrictions; limes and cements for
;

mortar

Lime
Brick, with sections on brick-clays
and brick-making
Brickwork, with 15 diagrams; sections on hollow walls; materials

and labor;

varieties

of

bricks;

strength of brickwork; mortar;
pointing; footing; binding; prevention of damp; arches and
plates chimneys and flues brick
;

;

paving

Basement
House, with 17

illustrations

Bungalow
Carpentry, with 36 diagrams showing

descriptive article, about

4000 words long
Granite, with descriptions and an-

;

Concrete, with 16 illustrations and
paragraphs on constituents; proportions mixing moulds depos;

Marble, a

natural ceuses of
calcium sul;

Passow cement

81

notching,
cogging,
housing, halving, mortise, tenons, wedging, dowelling,
turning-piece, lintel, floors, strutting, partition, half timber construction, braced frame; and descriptive text on these and other
joints,

dovetail,

topics

Limestone, about 2500 words
Timber, with paragraphs on:

Cedar, Birch, Beech, Chestnut, Walnut, Elm, Teak, Mahogany, Maple, etc.

Half-timber Work
Chimney-piece
Scaffold, with 4 figures; sections
on bricklayers' and masons' scaffolds, material, erection, gantries,

derrick towers, cradles, chimney
scaffolds, accidents

Shoring, with 8 figures
sections
on raking shores braces, hori;

;

zontal or flying shores
needle,
and dead, shoring; rules
and sizes for all shores
Staircase, divided into architecture
and construction, the latter having 4 diagrams, description of
dog-legged or newel stair, open
newel stair, geometrical stair,
circular stair, spiral stairs; a defining vocabulary
of technical
terms; concrete and stone; moving inclines; local building laws
;

vertical

Baluster
Balustrade
Elevator, with

3

illustrations;

paragraphs on history; construction, essentials of design;

vSteel Construction, with 4 illustrations
sections
on skeleton
and steel-cage construction; local
laws protection from corrosion
columns
girders
floors
windbracing
floor-filling
materials
partitions; time and cost of construction
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Stone, with sections on constitution, colour, testing, preservatives,

natural bed, seasoning, varieties,
artificial stone

fell-

ing timber, conversion of timber
with diagram of bastard and
quarter sawing; seasoning; defects;
preservation
of
decay;
timber; varieties, with description of the principal coniferous
and hard woods and separate
articles on Pine, Fir, Larch,

devices ;
traveling
freight elevators

safety

staircases

Parquetry
Ceiling
Roofs, with

23 figures and two
plates; with sections on forms of
roof, trusses, open timber roofs,

mansards

roofs, covering
corrugated iron,
zinc, lead, copper, " tin," slate,
tiles, miscellaneous
weight of
roofs, building laws; and sepa-

materials

;

iron

felt

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

82

rate articles on Slate, Tile, Tin,

Ventilation, with sections on rate

Tin Plate, etc.
Plaster Work, with paragraphs on

of air consumption, ventilation of
buildings, with table; chimney
draught; other outlets; inlets;
window and door ventilation arrangements in barracks, in public
buildings, exhaust cowls ; extraction of vitiated air ; fans
water
spray ventilation; extraction by
hot-air shaft; measurement of
air; systems in public buildings

lathing, metal lathing, limes, hair,
substitutes for hair, sand, exter-

;

nal work, rough stucco, roughcast or pebble-dash, sgraffito, internal work, three coats, moulding, cracks, slabs, fibrous plaster.
Joinery, with 13 illustrations, and
treating such topics as: tools and
materials; joints, mitre, dovetail,

warping;

etc.;

moulding;

floor-

including wood block and
parquet; skirting, dados; picture
ing,

rails

windows,

;

shutters

shop-fronts

;

windows

bay
;

doors

church work; ironmongery,
cluding hinges, locks, etc.

in-

Door
Doorway
Casement
Windows
Glazing
Stained Glass

Wall

Coverings, with sections on
marble wall-lining, mosaic, tiles,
metal sheeting, tapestry, wall-pa-

—and

pers
tion.

see

Mural Decora-

Painter-Work, dealing with paint
bases,

vehicles,

thinners,

driers,

pigments, enamel, paints, wood-

work

paints,
varnish,
gums,
French polishes, putty, tools,
workmanship, graining, marbling,
painting on plaster and on iron,
repainting on old work, blistering
and cracking, distemper,
gilding, etc.
oil,

Lightning Conductor
Heating, with sections on open

gas

will

financial relations with their clients in

the article Building Societies, of which
the American part is by Carroll D.
Wright, late United States Commissioner
of Labor.
The contractor will find the following
articles of importance to him, in addition
to those of more particular interest for
the builder:

Surveying
Geodesy
Bridges

Cantilever
Caisson

Cofferdam
River Engineering
Harbour
Divers and Diving Apparatus
Docks
Dredges
Breakwater

Tunnel
Canal
Road
Irrigation

Reclamation of Land

and the

fires,

closed stoves, gas fires, electrical
heating, oil stoves, low pressure
hot water, high pressure hot water, steam heating, hot water supply, safety valves, geysers, incrustation, Lockport central steam

supply

Both the builder and contractor

find valuable information to govern their

Lighthouse

Sewerage
Lighting, with sections on
and electric lighting

;

article Railway, with the other
on railway construction listed in
the chapter For Railroad Men in this
articles

Guide.

For an alphabetical list of the principal
and topics of interest to builders
and contractors, see the end of the chapter For Architects in this Guide.
articles

CHAPTER

XVII

FOR DECORATORS AND DESIGNERS

THE

decorator and designer is a
purposes rather

followers.

specialist in his

scribe,

than in his methods, and his taste
and judgment must be based upon a wide
range of information. His selection and
combination of decorative factors call for
a knowledge of architectural design, of
sculpture, furniture, textiles,
pottery, enamels, embroideries, laces and
all the other arts, crafts and products
that contribute to the perfecting of "the
house beautiful." The variety of the
materials at his command offers him infinite possibilities of successful achievement, and as many temptations to incoherence and exuberance. The highest
success in decoration can be attained only
when the designer
All the Arts
the
repossesses
in One
sources of all these

and

crafts,

painter,

designer,

wood-engraver,

dyer,

weaver and, finally, printer and papermaker; and, having effectively masteredthese crafts he could effectively direct and
criticize the work of others."
Obviously,
few men can afford to devote forty years,
as Morris did, to the close study and actual practice of all these pursuits, and
still fewer could hope to develop so many
manual dexterities. But any earnest student can become a competent critic in all
these varied fields, and can retain an
equal appreciation of all the materials and
methods employed, if he will enlarge and
refresh his knowledge by constant reading of the best authorities. The comprehensiveness of the Britannica makes it,
for such purposes, invaluable to the designer and decorator, no matter how

painting,

arts

He was

illuminator,

many technical books
may contain.

and

perhaps comes oftenest through
too exclusive a use of one medium of expression because it is the one with which
the designer feels he can most competently deal. The ideal should be not only
to employ, but to enlarge, the scope of
every contributory medium of form or
colour, as Wagner found new possibilities
in the use of every musical instrument in
one orchestra. This practical usefulness
of versatility is clearly indicated in one
of the articles, characteristic of the Britannica, where one great expert writes
William
about the work of another.
Morris and Walter Crane have been the
leaders of the modern revival of artistic
interest in the daily accessories of life;
and Crane in the Britannica (Vol. 2, p.
701) says of Morris that his influence is
to be attributed to his having "personally
mastered the working details and handling
failure

his

working library

Since harmony of proportion, the essence of architecture, is also the primary
law of interior decoration, the reader of
the present chapter
may well begin his
The Influence
reading with a numof Architecture
ber of the articles
described in the chapter For Architects, of
which only those dwelling most upon the
use of ornament and colour need be separately mentioned in this connection. The
article Architecture (Vol. 2, p. 369) is
by R. Phen^ Spiers, formerly master of
the Architectural School of the English

Royal Academy, with sections on

special

periods and schools of architecture by
other famous authorities. Oriental architecture, with its elaboration of detail,

is

peculiarly suggestive to the decorator,

who may be

surprised to find, in the
Britannica, treatises so highly specialized

of each craft he took up in turn, as well as
to his power of inspiring his helpers and

as
83

Indian Architecture

^Vol.

14,

p.

with a practical section on Modern Mosaic (p. editor of the standard book on the subject. Art (Vol. 275). The article Design (Vol. 18. walllinings of glazed brick or tiles. noted for his accomplishments in decorative art. with description of the characteristic schemes of mural art in ancient and modern times. principal of the 95). the recently revived sgraffito method. W. Brown. 470). 19. AH (Vol. H. whose work in the great British Museum collection has made his reputation as one of the foremost modern critics. Slade professor of fine art at Cambridge University. 15. the chapters on Fine Arts. p. W. See further. Middleton. Lethaby. (Vol. p. is properly utility. by the noted Egyptologist. is accepted as an evidence of originality. is and its outlook. by Professor Middleton and H. J. tion in colour of a wall painting preserved leather. and House (Vol. p. p. especially appropriate to 14th and 15th century Italian style. with a section on classical wall paintings by Prof. 24. The end of design. stamped delightful reproduc- in the National Museum at Rome. of great antiquity among the Hindus and Chinese but not common in Europe until the 18th century. by Central School of Arts and Crafts. deals with the subject in (Vol. Art and Archaeology (Vol. painted cloth. and methods of exe- cution. for the moment. Flinders Petrie. p. 181). p. plates. p. p. R. wallpainting. but alone they show that the work can practically serve the designer. (Vol. Stuart Jones. the History of Indian Architecture. B. 279). tiles. Stuart Jones. 488). Here the distinguished contributors give an interesting account of marble and stone reliefs. house with reference to the conditions the of room. 23. Greek Art Gardner. "Modern use has tended to associate design with the word 'original' in the sense of new or abnormal. the use to which it is to be put. p. 8. G. by Sir William Blake Richmond. of Kings College. 5. by Capt. 65). 214). 6. 810). but is always the cause of subsequent dissatisfaction and complaint. In further connection with this subject the reader should turn to Egypt. should be a discovery of tvhat seems inevitable. by -Lawrence Binyon. fitness and delight. and its other illustrations. Mosaic (Vol. by Professor Middleton and other authorities. marble veneer. 459). and . an inspiration arising out of the conditions. p. architecture are Capital Order (Vol. coverings of. London. and wall-papers. 888). it invention in the sciences. by James Bartlett. the architectural part of China. All these articles are richly illustrated. M. its the Floor lighting aspect. used in rooms of the 16th-18th century period. James Burgess." These fifty words are but a millionth part of the contents of the Britannica. 12. and other authorities. printed hangings tical its relation practo The Wall and furnishing. Painting and Sculpture.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 84 by Dr. with its exquisite full page 13. 883). the oldest method of wall decoration. p. of Edinburgh University. of Wall-Coverings (Vol. 176).hard stucco. 20. dealing with the decorative aspects of 428). Painting (Vol. Roman Art by Percy (Vol. There much ment information about the employof marble. London. however. Frank Brinkley. Sculpture (Vol. The "furnishing" much and wall-papers. metal sheeting. p. p. tapestry. 474). 9. contains a passage which the decorator may Design and well bear in mind Mural when he has to conPainting tend against the typical client's unreasoning demand for the sensationalism which. 20. whose many years of study in Japan have given him an exceptional mastery Among other articles of the subject. 28. and Japan. p. mosaic. by H. by Prof. and parallel to // a discovery. 16). is by William Morris and Walter Crane. Mural Decoration with its point of view is considered under other headings (see below).

and Carpet (Vol. 676). Fox. devoted to descriptions of carpets and rugs as designed and manufactured in Europe and Oriental coun- and immense of fabrics. S. p. 744) illustrated. The decorator and designer must be familiar with all manner the contains Britannica 11 Parquetry (Vol. described. 888) indicates over 75 articles on separate pieces of furniture. J. Industrial Technicology and Machinery (Vol. 5. Leather (Vol. Tapestry (Vol. 8. gauze. Cole. p. marks of makers. the modern tapestry weaving. brocade The classified Table of Articles in the Bri- tannica (Vol. p. a most interesting and valuable There are many illustrations and flax weavings. Round. necessary for the student. etc. Bayeux Tapestry (Vol. Archae- tries. 363) with 36 illustrations by J. J. All etc. Furniture of typical designs of silk. that this has been prepared . p. and with an elaborate classification of colouring matters acid. PenderelBrodhurst. G. 4. Tile. is appended to this chapter. 17. p. direct. 26. Consequently. 555) is an interesting historical account by the antiquarian. 5. See 751). 3. ing Furniture. The first. H. illustrated. 801). p. compound cloths. which is in two parts. p. Some of the noteworthy separate articles. (Vol. half-brother of William the Conqueror. illustrated. 694). It is and Art. p. fine series of articles The fact (Vol. ties of design. Cole. 8. 612). For purposes of study a beginning would perhaps here be made with the article Weaving. 10. and developed colours. by A. also and Bed Marquetry Table (Vol. an expert knowledge of the character and effect on any texit is in order to acquire product which he wishes to employ. Finishing (Vol. by Dr. 392). repps. p. 403). by 527). W. illustrated. p. by J. p. 3. an fund of information Textile in regard to the na- Fabrics manufacture ture. an admirable historical account. Flett. p. account of the origin of various textiles. 26. 440) with 28 illusby T. For those who wish to preserve unity of style in furnishing a room. velvets and plushes. p. 17. these articles will A full list prove of the highest value. to have access to the information in the tile articles trated. p. 861). 16. Mercerizing (Vol. from which we learn the distinctive weaves of plain cloth. 49) illus- 18. describing periods and styles. illustrated. and giving information on varie- 85 and use of textiles. is Very useful will be found the classification of weaving schemes into groups. is written by A. illustrated with two plates contain- views of the tapestry. p. 378) — illustrated. damasks. 28. weaving machinery is The second part. p. 26. p. A. satins. p. 971). p. S. ology The next group of topics begins with the article Furniture (Vol. professor of textiles in the University of Manchester. many with interesting facts about the origin and use of different pieces of furniture from the earliest time to the "art nouveau" of very recent date. 29. trations. but in this general treatise we have a concise history. Cole. Parker. 330). Dyeing Bleaching (Vol.FOR DECORATORS AND DESIGNERS separate articles will be found on the following materials: Marble (Vol. twills. 20. p. 10. of this venerable relic executed by order of the it is and the reader should consult the chapter this Guide For the Manufacturer of in by William Burton. piled fabrics. Wall and Floor (Vol. ' indications of date. which have been written by Mr. fully illustrated. Desk (Vol. In the matter of Floor-coverings there are the articles Floor-Cloth (Vol. G. are Chair (Vol. (Vol. and the periods to which they are appropriate. 150). S. PenderelBrodhurst. 11. S. p. (Vol. and Textile Printing 26. chenille. 95). The investigation of woven fabrics reveals the fact that the almost endless variety of effects obtained is due in part only to the method of weaving. 325).

10. p. Cole. 4. 96) illustrated. A. by Professor Middleton of Cambridge Uni- with sections Metal-work by John S. Gold and Silver Thread (Vol. Repouss# (Vol. author of The Art of Enamelling on Metals. S. S. Cole. and the pictures alone will enable the student to distinguish the different varieties. by the well-known English analytical chemist.work. also by A. Japan. Technical Dundee. Horner. p. 3. 620). 9. technological chemistry. 275) will be found descriptions of many cotton fabrics. (Vol. 7. p. embroidery and twisting and with plaiting or lace. 25. There are separate articles on Brocade (Vol. 1) illustrated. Handicraft workers will find valuable material. p. J. late vice-president of the Society of Arts. S. and has over 60 illustrations. 93). 6. Metal(Vol. 16. p. examiner in basket-work for the City of London Guilds and In- Embroidery (Vol. Spinning (Vol. Professor Fox. 12. formerly editor of The Magazine of Art. on Modern Art Gardner. and Medal the article is of the highest interest throughout. 12. 7. Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace. 805) illustrated. keeper of the Victoria and Albert Museum.work. 438). professor of University of Manchester. p. p. (Vol. p. 5. 700) Mr. Muslin (Vol. Linen and Linen Manufactures (Vol. Stained (Vol. p. Crallan. by Alexander Fisher. by Thomas Okey. S. 309). 37) is must be the Arts and Crafts many and called to articles of great value to those engaged in all arts and crafts. by Arthur Mellor and other authorities. assisted by noted authorities like the late J. Cross. Gauze (Vol. F. 108). by Lewis Foreman Day. 339) . head of the weaving and textile designing department. p. 223). Basket (Vol. p. p. fully illustrated. Worsted. A. p. 9. 19. Those who desire a closer scientific knowledge of fibres may obtain it from Fibres (Vol. 205) illustrated. H. p. Work (Vol. of art used in interior decoration In the matter of the fabrics themselves. Barker of Bradford Technical College. Industrial Metal Work author of Practical versity.. p. p. Hummel. has 18 illustrations and describes the characteristics of the art as practised by different nationalities. etc. of these materials is appended. under Cotton. 16. 5. 9. furnishing. and on by J. 481) with an account of the basket-making industry and methods employed. Cotton Goods and Yarn (Vol. p. Cretonne (Vol. illustrated. 18. Chintz Canvas (Vol. 431). and see also Silk (Vol. 685) by Chasing Embossing (Vol. by F. author of Gothic Wood-carving. methods and in tools. University of Leeds. stitute. There exists no better manual on the subject than this. p. p. 28. threads and gimp used in connection with varieties of weaving. p. 23. F. 362) a very complete historical and technical article. attention Wool. Glass. 308).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 86 by Dr. p. by Prof. full 357) and other textiles. It is written by A. 309) by A. p. Enamel (Vol. of dyeing. author of Embroidery and Lace. Cole. A 11. p. whose success depends upon a sound knowledge of methods and the principle of design. Turning. p. 2. p. Kendrick. p. Cole. and A. College. 724) by Thomas Woodhouse. C. Carving AND Gilding (Vol. Edmund Knecht. 200). list The article Lace (Vol. p. 791) fully illustrated. 956). and Woolen Manufactures (Vol. 18. 19. is of the gold Before taking up the specific objects and value. Needlework Woodcarving (Vol. by M. 25. Walter Crane gives an account of the recent movement in the arts of decorative design and handicraft that has for its object the adornment of the house. a guarantee of their great interest is a general and historical account and silver strips. F. 28. 5. Metal one of the most notable contributions to the Britannica. Cloisonne . A full history of lacemaking is given. 105) illustrated. discussing designs. G. 235). (Vol. In Arts and Crafts (Vol. professor and A. Spielmann.

and E. Grinling (Vol. Louis C. 15. p. p. p. Lethaby contains a section. T. Penderel-Brodby the late J. deals with the use of this material in architecture and sculpture. and Screen 477) are likewise useful articles for the decorator and furnisher. describes its manufacture. H. 966). Ivory has a well-illustrated section on Ivory Sculpture and the Decorative Arts (Vol. 366). of the National Museum. author of Pewter Plate. p. p. p. H. J. 189). Powell. p. with the exception of Japanese ceramics. p. 18. and Textiles (Vol. p. Crane. further treated under Japan. potter's marks. 213). Hall. p. 338) and Sheffield Plate (Vol. 21. 871). p. 168) Mirror of Ivories. p. p. p. p. Portable Ornaments 703). 24. and describes the art of pottery and porcelain manufacture. author of Ancient and Modern Furniture and Woodwork. Maskell. Glass (Vol. 6. H. La Faroe. 15. 10. etc. Washington. . six of which are This magnificent colour. O. p. 1. Scandinavian Civilization(Vo1. Hogarth. Stuart Jones. Frame (Vol. 26. Mason. p. Sir times (Vol.FOR DECORATORS AND DESIGNERS Inlaying (Vol. will be referred to constantly by all who ities facture (p. (Vol. Pollen. them there is Ceramics (Vol. as well as China. 305) Sheraton. 188). 10. These articles are beautifully illustrated. of are John (Vol. George (Vol. B. author (Vol. Oriental handiwork A great number of the biographies in the Britannica will possess much interest for the decorator and designer. author of Old English Gold Plate. Read of the British Museum. 5. p. including especially Painting and Engraving (Vol. R. 810) by the late O. Walters of the British Museum. p. Some of the articles on art objects have already been mentioned. p. p. Art (Vol. of the British Museum. 13. 2. p. Ceramics (Vol. G. 18. 6. and William Burton. p. with over 100 p. 4. the explorer. R. Plate The 53) is subject of Lacquer (Vol. formerly director of the British School at Rome. 910). which. 15. Fan hurst. Ivories. 12. etc. equivalent to 133 pages of this Guide. p. It contains unusually full information about hall-marks. 824) by Malcolm Bell. 936). by H. Alfred Jones. 24. 86) has a section on the History of Glass Manu- Lacquer (Vol. 552). 789) illustrated. 26. (Vol. (Vol. 344) by Dr. 64). 11 p. Charles H. p. knowledge about irimshapes and designs may be obtained Enamel (Vol. and America. 172). 7. Metal Work. p. Richmond. 575) 773). p. 23. 14. Aegean Civilization (Vol. 287). 245) by D. Thomas (Vol. etc. 15. 15. is the joint product of H. article is the joint contribution of six special author- section Decorative Aspects by G. Art. illustrations including 10 full-page plates. Byzantine Art by W. 653) illustrated. are also separate articles on Pewter (Vol. 841). Walter (Vol. 237). are interested and design.. 95) by A. 1. Archaeology (Vol. 574). 16. for which see Japan. 24. p. devotes special attention to styles of fan painting. 6. 16. in addition to Clock has a 87 24. the White- London. friars is The authors trated. There in William (Vol. a part of a very elaborate discussion of all forms of Japanese art. p. 21. itive Much from Archaeology (Vol. Gibbons. William Blake (Vol. 183). Tiffany. p. in all countries and at all periods. 97) in which glassware from the primitive vessels of ancient Egypt to modern discussed and illusof this valuable account are Alexander Nesbitt. of Works. Glass J. p. 307). Terracotta (Vol. Hepplewhite. (Vol. and H. Thomas (Vol. and contains an historical and critical discussion of subjects and types. Chippendale. Some of the noteworthy Biographies names modern Morris. who wrote the descriptive catalogue of glass vessels for the South Kensington Musew^ares um.

J.Frame French Polish Damask Fresco Darly. Matthias Decorated Period Delacroix. Grinling Gilding Gillow. William Early English Period Ear-ring Egypt.China. Giovanni Console Brasses. DESIGNING. Alb Alexander. W.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 88 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THOSE ENGAGED IN DECORATING. J. Archaeology Cameo Cowl Fender Amice Candelabrum Festoon chinery Felt Amphora Candle Andiron Candlestick Cox. Henry Electroplating Goldbeating Copper Corduroy Embossing Embroidery Gouthi^re. Stained Drill Drinking Vessels Duck Bracelet Flannel Flannelette Flock Floor Floorcloth Cupboard Dumbwaiter Dwight. Brazier Brocade Brooch Monumental Footman Dam. A. Cosmati (family) Costume Cotton Cotton Manufacture MaCotton . Jean Bap. Basin-stand Basket Basso-relievo Bead Beaker Bed B^rain. Lorenzo Ghirlandajo Gibbons. J. Blum. Delia Robbia Frieze Denim Gargoyle Design Gauze Desk Gem Diaper Die Dimity Diptych Dog-tooth Domenichino. F. Kenyon Cradle Crane. Jacques Calender Cornice Corregio Ainmuller. Finishing Aquarelle Aquatint Architecture Armoire Art Arts and Crafts Art Teaching Bagging Bahut Baize Carding Carpet Cartoon Cartouche Carving Carving and Gilding Caryatides Casket Cassock Cassone Ball-flower Ceiling Cellaret Baroque Cellini. V. or askeening Maso Fireback Cretonne Cross Cinque Cento Box Bracket Filigree Capital Cressent. M. J. Walter Angerstein. Sir Henry Furniture Fustian Gant6 Artificial Gesso Ghiberti. Robert Aegean Civilization Bunting Byzantine Art Cable-moulding Caffieri. E. John Dyeing Composite Order Flag Flamboyant Style Crunden. F. Andr6 Charles Chintz Chippendale. Canopy Crape Fine Arts Antimacassar Apostle Spoons Canvas Crash Finiguerra. Buckram Corner Copiae Enamel Acroliths Buffet Encaustic Painting Adam.Crest tiste Arabesque Arch Archaeology Fibres Cookworthy. F. Art Blondel. Pierre Gouache . Zampieri Gem. sine Bonelace Bonheur du Jour Bookbinding Bookcase Book-plates Boulle. INTERIOR FURNISHING AND ALL FORMS OF ART HANDICRAFT ' Abbey. Jean Bezel Biretta Bleaching Benvenuto Ceramics Chair Chandelier Chasing Chasuble Chatelaine Cheese-cloth Cheffonier Chenille Chest Chevron Chimere Bombay Furniture Chimney-piece Bombazine or Bomba. E. E.spinning Encoignure Engraving Etagere Etching Faience Fan Almuce Calico Alto-Relievo Cambric America. Charles Capronnier. Pierre Curtain Cushion Dais Dalmatic Damascening. Doulton. Robert Dowlas Drawing Gimp Dresser Giotto Girandole Girdle Glass Glass Cloth Glass. Thomas Cimabue. John Cloth Coffer Column Fire-irons Crozat. Archaeology Cope Gingham Glue Gobelin Goblet Electrolier Gold Gold and Silver Thread Copeland. R.

Leonardo da Vinci Le Pautre. Settee Parquetry Settle Pastel Pearl Pedestal Shagreen Shawl Sheffield Plate Shearer. J. F. P. George Heraldry Meissonier. L. Leather. H. John Lampstand Lantern Parchment Seals Servan. Josiah What-not Window-cornice Window-seat Wine Table Wood-carving Wood Engraving Wyon. Veneer Sculpture Ivacquer Papier Mach6 Lacrymatory La Farge. Thomas Jug Jute Kashi Knitting Oeben. Sir W. N. Hepplewhite. J. Thomas W. Tea-caddy Tea-poy Palissy. Thomas Yarn . Daniel Marquetry Matting Gunny Halfpenny. B. B. H. Lawn Table Tallboy Tassie. Matthias Longcloth Greco. Raphael Sanzio Tempera Relief Terracotta Rep Textile-printing Repousse Reredos Ribbons Richmond. M. Lac Lace I>eather Copying Tapestry Tarpaulin Tartan Pot-hook Prie-Dieu tiere. Artificial Pediment Pendant Lectern Pergolesi. Ring Robes Rococo Roman Art Rontgen. J. Print Process Puvis de P. S. Robert Marble Grotesque Gu^ridon Guido Reni Marot. Scandinavian Civiliza- Utamaro Varnish tion Scarab Vase Scarf Sconce Screen Velvet Velveteen Painting Scrim Vernis Martin Bernard Pantograph Vestments Walker. Mazer Medal Hallstatt Hamerton. Riesener. May hew. O. Mercerizing Metal-work Hessian Hiroshige Hokusai Holland Mezzotint Michelangelo Miniature Mirror Honeycomb Horn Mohair Hosiery Moleskin House Huckaback Monogram Icon Illuminated Manu - scripts Illustration Impressionism Ince. Tile Tintoretto Titian Tool Torchere Torque Tortoiseshell Tracery Rubens. Pietro Silk Silver Pewter Photography ufactures Linen-press Phylactery Sofa Soutane Spinning Lithographing James Tazza Chavannes. Art Japanning Jewelry Order Ormolu Ornament Osnaburg Ottoman Overdoor Overmantel Padding Pagoda Johnson. William India.Tripod ufacture Triptych Salt cellar Salver Trivet Samovar Tulle Twill Tudor Period Sampler • Uniforms Sargent. J. Jean Line Engraving Linen. Wall-coverings Thomas Figures Weaving Wedgwood. J. F. El 89 Lowboy Plate Plated Ware Platinum Greek Art Macabre Plumbago Drawings Sun Copying or Photo- Grille Grisaille Majolica Plush Poplin or Tabinet Popp^-heads Surplice Porcelain Portiere Poster Tankard Graffito Manwaring. and Linen Man- Perpendicular Period Perugino. S. G. L.FOR DECORATORS AND DESIGNERS Grate Lock. C. Peter Paul Tray Rug Triclinium Sacking and Sack Man. A. Indian Architecture Ingle-work Inlaying Stencil Stole Stool Pigments Plaque Thomas Sideboard Spit Spoon Wardrobe Washstand Wax Sheraton. A. Tiffany. David Rousseau de la Rot- Throne Ticking Tiepolo. Mosaic Mouldings Mull Mural Decoration Museums of Art Muslin Nankeen Needlework Net Intaglio Niello Iron-work Ivory Numismatics Jack Jacobean Style Japan. G. C. Costume Monteith Morel-Ladeuil.

The key the railway systems. all prepared for the Britannica. service. and also an account of the contour of Europe from the railroad man's point of view.CHAPTER XVIII FOR RAILROAD MEN THERE are no less than ing for through traffic as well as for sub- six dis- tinct classes of articles in the new urban Encyclopaedia Britannica which contain information of peculiar interest 4. plans of men: on continents contain authoritative and original accounts of transFor excontinental routes and traffic. author of British Railways and editor Engineering Supplement of the Times. another table comparing railroad developments in the various parts of Europe. Ray Morris. It is written by the foremost authorities on the subject both in the Old World and in the New. Frank HaigiI 90 Dixon.. discussing the mountain ranges pierced by tunnels and the passes over which lines have been carried wholly or largely in the rail' 6. open. showing the direct distance. on the individual states of the Union. presi- dent of Yale University. ample the article Europe has a table in Articles by sea and the distance by from point to point. 22. in the communication. Yorke. C. of . described in other chapters of this Guide. of which a brief account is given in the present chapter. Prof. 20 feet above the street. The articles devoted exclusively to the subject. A. article Berlin there is an account of the Stadtbahn. to railroad 1. The articles on various branches of engineering and mechanics. Lt. the distance cities. and author of Railroad Transportation. 819). carried through the heart of the city. traces their lines article is Railways (Vol. equivalent in length to more than 120 pages of this Guide. The maps including: Arthur Twining Hadley. The articles on cities show the relation of each centre to the general railroad system of the country and describe the terminals and the methods of urban For example.B. formerly managing editor of the Railway New York and of the London Age Gazette of author of Railroad Administration. p. chief inspecting officer of railways of the English Board of Trade. and the extent to which direct state ownership and management has been adopted. H. and Hugh Munro explains the financial system by which they were constructed. 2. Col. For example. provid- Ross. and on colonies contain detailed accounts of French many which were specially management. are complete treatises on the technical subjects connected with railroad construction and which the 19 chief avenues of trade are analyzed. 2. the concessions Technical Authorities granted to them by the French government. Six Classes of Articles as well as the of 5. the present development of railroads in all parts of the world. are those to which railroad men will naturally first turn. The articles on separate countries. show much more clearly than does an ordinary atlas. the arFrance detide scribes the six great railroads.

17. early mine transportation in America is described) and the way in which their use induced the development of high speed locomotives and how the first American trans-con- The tinental . formerly chief engineer to the New York City Rapid Transit Commission and advisory engineer of the Royal Commission on London TraflBc. B. — — (4) Intra-Urban. Braman Blanchard Adams. and with car-couplers and brakes. Draught. Vol. Curves. and is of in- with contemporary The safety of railway transportation is treated in a section containing in compact form the Relations. and has illustrations.. and formulae.railroads were built. This section of the article it is a little longer than the preceding. foundof the Engineers. and rails). especially in the Far West since 1896. The Steam Engine.. formerly chief engineer of the New York Rapid Transit Commission. Engine Efficiency. gine Resistance. C. the principal British authority on locomotives. Railway Stations (for passengers and for freight). etc. wood and metal. This treatise on construction is equivalent to 22 pages of the type and size of this Guide. William Ernest Dalby. Cable Railways. professor South Kensington Central Technical College. of engineering in the Maj. managing director of the British Electric Traction Co. by W. Gradients. The following on economics and section is legislation in general. their weight and speed. with freight cars. fish-plates and other rail joints. Cuttings and Embankments. and author of The Balancing of Engines. Piston Speed. p. Permanent Way (including ballast. namely: Construction. Methods of Applying Locomotive Power. and is in itself an adequate brief manual (1) for the use of the construction engineer. Gen. sleeping. er of Institute Electrical Emile Garcke.FOR RAILROAD MEN Dartmouth College. elevated and underground. opens with an introductory summary which describes the with valuable illustrations in the text. Bridges. dealing with din(3) ing. ties. Train Resistance. their heating and lighting and their weight and speed. Of even greater importance to the technical student are the remaining sections of this great article. tables. Classes of Locomotives. Mono-Rail Systems. It is written by Prof. William Barclay Parsons. Rack (or cog) Railways. 903. Ltd. with subsections on Location. passenger and vestibule cars. Tractive Force. Compound Locomotives. and Switching Yards. A section on Financial Organization compares American and British conditions in a most illuminating way. Rolling Stock. stu- dent will find next a section of general statistics of railway mileage for the world. followed by separate treatment of British railway legislation and of American railway legislation. would fill 25 pages of this Guide. Gauge. (5) Light Railways for rural and in- . (2) Locomotive Power. Balancing of Locomotives. Round Houses for Locomotives. The great problem of government control and operation of railways as practised in various European countries is also discussed terest in connection American tendencies. Current Developments. The article historical 91 most valuable classified statistics. Switches and Crossovers. ciate editor of asso- New York Railway Age Gazette. author of Manual of Electrical Undertakings. including use of railways or tramways before the invention of the steam lo- sub-sections on Fundamental The Key comotive General Locomotive Efficiency. EnMaximum Boiler Power. Vehicle Resistance. Dalby. with a summary of American railway building. or city street rail- ways. Webber. Analysis of Article tricts in the in in mining disEngland (just as Mauch article Chunk. Parsons. author of State Railroad Control. E.

of the for the rate cases of 1907 (Vol. 316. steam. Nebraska for the maximum freight rate of 1893 (Vol. especially pp. pp. 475). and H. p. Wisconsin on radical rate legislation and on physical valuation for ad valorem tax of railways (Vol. 27. p. 118. legis- the student should read the article Interstate Commerce (Vol. Frank A. 399). has a section on Communications. p. with electric traction and thus supplements the article Tramway. A. and that articles on cities and towns give accurate and minute information about railway service. Steam traction. The equipment engineer will add to the topics already listed (cars. George and Robert Stephenson (Vol. 14. § Railway Signalling (Vol. p. 27. history. p. The engineer engaged in railway work will profit by reading. by Prof. 80). 740). etc. The next article to be read is Tramway (Vol. which would make about 30 pages if printed in the form of this Guide. p. and especially on rate lation. in separate 841). the sections notably gives special information about rail corrosion and ventilation in tunnels.) the article Signal. In pursuing the study of legislation bearing on railways. The three classes. 27. Oliver Evans (Vol. especially pp. and Brake (Vol. 9. open conduit and closed conduit. 406. engineer-in-charge of the Boston Subway and of the East Boston Tunnel. 4. different types of and there are summaries of legislation and of commercial results. p. with general statistics. p. 394. On the history of railroading and on Railway Age the statistics there is much information in the Britannica in local articles.. 818). Ross. (Vol. Fetter of Princeton University. 414). p. engines. 10. American and English. in the article Steam-Engine (Vol. and with modern street railways. 334). 324). p. The biographical articles in the new Britannica also have much important information for the student of railways. street cars are discussed. M. besides the articles already mentioned: Professor W. 28. 778). J. dealing with railway bridges. p. 4. 407. 25. as treated in the section on Locomotive Power in the article Railways. 19. p. Unwin's article (Vol. Matthew BouLTON (Vol. 744). cable last —sur- and electric. Peter Cooper (Vol. 27. 25. 315. equivalent to more than 20 pages of this Guide) is by Louis Duncan. 395. of New York University (formerly of Cornell). 329). Among the names of inventors whose Biographies article classifies tunnels into river. 396. tain on laws and North Carolina lives are outlined are Thomas Newcomen James Watt (Vol. 256). B. Dalby. without locomotive power. may be studied further in the It deals principally Gazette. 19. by Prof. parts of the article on the same history of the United States. of London Times Engineering Supplement. Jenks. 888 and 889). the being subdivided Other Major into Articles overhead or trolley. face lines. dealing with the earliest railways used in coal mines. as long as 15 pages of this Guide). 545 and 547 seq. 533) on civil Bridges. C. and. This mounand town (subway) tunnels. p. It has already been reLegislation marked that eaoh article dealing with a state of the United States. by B. 73. W. . volume. or any of the commercial countries of the world. and Sir Marc I. 25. and the article Tunnel (Vol. p. and especially that part of the article which deals with locomotives (§ 104. 414). 4. a part at least of the article Trusts (Vol. p. by Prof. John Ericsson (Vol. 711). p. p. p. p. giving railway mileage and describing the principal railway lines in the area. formerly head of the department of electrical engineering in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 7. Adams. 27. 367. Carson. by H. 19. 2). Richard Trevithick (Vol. and state articles. 28. 353. The article Traction (Vol. 159). p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 92 tenirban service and portable railways.

4. 789) Sir William Fairbairn (Vol. A. Asa Packer (Vol. the reader In such articles as Outs (Vol. 7. studying railway economics as affected by the relations of labour and capital. p. p. 129) Sir John Fowler (Vol. and of sections of articles. 682). of interest to will find valuable assistance in all railroad men: Horse Power Hydraulics Iron and Steel Location Locomotive Power Maximum Roof Semaphore Sewerage Shaft Sinking Shoring Boiler Power Shovel Masonry Methods of applying Locomotive Power Monorail Systems Mortar Motors. 8. 450) and among railway financiers. Sir John Hawkshaw (Vol. 23. among the names of engineers and railway and bridge builders George Parker Bidder (Vol.FOR RAILROAD MEN Brunel" (Vol. 23. Commissioner of Labor. p.Roads and Streets Coal Roadbeds ficiency Cog Railways Rolling Stock Compound Locomotives Gradients Car Cement p. 27. William Kingsford (Vol. p. and E. p 817). John Rennie (Vol. Analysis of Train Re. p. 3. p 398).Current Developments Ballast tives Blasting Bearings Cuttings Dock Bogie Draught Dredge Boiler Elevators Boring Brake Brickwork Bridges Cable Railways Embankments Caisson Canal Cantilever Engine Engine Efficiency Engine Resistance Felloe Fire brick Fish-plates Foundations Freight Fuel 93 Gould (Vol. Thomas Brassey (Vol 4. 12. 20. p. 140). Wright. For marine transportation see the next chapter in this Guide. 18). 284). p 99). 6. 13. 441) H. p 625). The following is a brief list of articles. late U. p. each with American sections by Carroll D. Tramway Tunnels Vehicle Resistance Ventilation Welding . 25. John Cockerill (Vol. p. Roebling (Vol. 13. 435). BiLTs (Vol. 15. 761) James Henry Greathead (Vol. Strikes and Lock 1024) and Trade 27. the Vander- — — . Harriman (Vol. p. 19. 101) and J. p. 174) James Buchanan Eads (Vol. Unions (Vol. 918). to take only a few American names. Electric Oil Engine Signalling Siphon Sleeper Smoke Steam Engines Steel Construction Pier Piston Speed Stone Strength of Materials Switches (or points) Switching Yards Rack Railways Ties Rafter Timber Rail Traction Tractive Force Permanent Way Railways Railway Stations River Engineering Classes of Locomotives Gauge General Locomotive Ef. Jay 12. p. p. Sir Robert Gillespie Eeid (Vol 23. p. S. 10. p. Erastus Corning (Vol. p. 50). 885).Concrete Anthracite Conveyors Cranes Atmospheric Railway Cross-overs sistance Curves Balancing of Locomo.

A course of reading should always begin with the study of general principles. in Great Britain and in Germany may vi- position of neutrals in wartime are dis- cussed by the highest authorities. in conjunction with the articles on the history tally affect the movement of freights. but also important. and such questions of international policy as the command and the of steel. lanes marine in- surance. No one kiiows to what inProblems of the Near dustry the United Future States may next apply the methods by which the country has created the age ships. Germany. cold trans- conceivable subject with shipping men are concerned. the management of shipping lines. and in order that in your subsequent more detailed examination of the field. the Britannica articles on these and similar subjects contain historical sections which. in the article . Transatlantic passenger traffic. the building docks. ship canals and canal locks. the right of search. Whether — may your present position or the position you are endeavouring to make for yourself in relation to shipping is such that this coming period of transition promises aerial instead of marine. Technical Subjects middle of the century. of rivers. exports. No one knows what changes the Panama Canal may make in the movement of freights within the first ten years of its operation. of the sea. and armed. Japan and China will be able. prepared to keep what you have or get what you want. France. the uttermost alertness of outlook is merely elementary prudence to affect you favourably or unfavourably. In addition to all this. within a few years. be displaced as factors in marine transportation. new Britannica reviews all the many fields of knowledge which are of importance in this connection. have affected commerce. the relative importance of each fact that you master may be appreciated. warehouses and dry docks. you need to be forewarned and fore- on the part of everyone engaged in the business of marine transportation. of one believes that England. of all countries. before the lighthouses. Sweeping tariff changes in the United States. The financial and legal as- pects of the business are exhaustively covered. show how past changes. as sweeping as these which are now anticipated. —every light- buoys. Tariffs. industries. Russia. not only a huge business in itself. It supplies technical information regarding the construction of ships. so long as it is sea-borne.CHAPTER XIX FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATION MEN THE velopment of harbours and the dredging immediate future of marine and embankment commerce cannot fail to be very greatly affected by changed con- No ditions. Austria. — Confronted by the approach of a period so full of changes. legislation affecting marine transportation. navigation. marine engines of every kind. the de- the The Britannica 94 provides. to establish a stable adjustment of the international difficulties which surround them. shipboard and waterside appliances for the handling of cargo. of traffic. in its effects become upon transatlantic freights. Articles by contributors in twenty different countries. imports and port which shipping. deal with all the world's ports. Coal and the steam engine may both.

766). The article Shipping is by Douglas Owen. used in the South Pacific and not found elsewhere. and yet it will give you such a grasp of the whole of interscience for it is a science national trade that you will spend another hour in assorting and classifying." chairman of the Federation of Shipbuilders. valuable either as a text-book or a work of reference for the ship builder. lecturer at the Royal Naval War College and author of Ports and Docks. both text and illustrations. They are by the most eminent authorities. make up a remarkable book on the subject. and authorship. The evolution of boat building is traced. all in volume 24. An Outline of Sea Trade The would not fill more than 16 pages of this Guide. These ful results three are Ship. Ltd. 403). 6. you will see how harbours receive and send on to the inlands the influences as well as the manufactures of the more advanced communities. director of naval 95 construction for the Navy. it is interesting to notice that there were local variations which never became general. editor of The Historians' History of the World. these three articles in length. so clear is it) in an hour. and equivalent to about 420 or 425 pages of this Guide. p. a mass of impressions you had article — — received before. From these articles you should turn to the three great articles which deal with the methods by which these wonderare accomplished. p. by Dr. 6. There is no book in existence which outlines the subject so fully and clearly as does this one brief article about one five-thousandth part of the total contents of the text — Britannica. Egyptian vessels we may study in the outrigger excellent early tomb-paintings still pre- .FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATION MEN Commerce view of (Vol.or skin-covered frame. well-known as a writer on nautical history).. you can read it (and digest it as you read it. built Story of the Ship — — modern racing-shells sometimes ribs and then skin laid on and sometimes In shell first and then ribs inserted.. & Co. provost of Eton. a bird's-eye the whole subject of marine transportation. contents. You will realize that the man who has any part in the vast shifting of cargoes from one part of the world to another is distributing ideas and ideals and ambitions as well as commodities. It suggests that shells floating on the water or the nautilus may first have suggested the use of a hollowed tree-trunk for transportation the first boat or "ship" (the word comes from the same root as "scoop") as distinct from a raft. and the progThis article will arouse in the direct relation ress of civilization. These three articles contain hundreds of illustrations. In brief. in your own mind. your interest between commerce. such as the and weather platform. designer of the Dreadnoughts and the Super-Dreadnoughts of the British Navy. Shipbuilding and Shipping. the marine engineer or the student of shipping.000 words on the early developarticle ment of ships. Henry Smith Williams. at school or in the course of casual reading. the Ship begins with a section of nearly 10. wrote the articles Shipbuilding and Ship (except the history of ships before the invention of steamships. which is by Edmund Warre. past. like first spite of the great length of the period during which such boats were used of course they are still used by more — primitive peoples. more than forty being full page plates. and in the article Civilization (Vol. and naval architect and director of the warBritish shipbuilding department of Armstrong. impressions which have not been so useful to you as they should have been because they had not been systematically arranged. Whitworth — Taking the articles separately. present and future. from dug-out to bark. as well as of the "Mauretania" and the "Lusitania. Sir Philip Watts.

and the employment of smaller crews. The Phoenicians did more than the Egyptians to develop ship and navigation. — Passing quickly over the remainder of the earlier period. had been reduced to thirty days or The fastest of the sailing tea-clippers less. but that galleys (propelled by oars) were long the only type for warships. In the meantime the invention of gunpowder and the development of brought about changes in size and in form. greater speed. with a notable tendency to more masts and a greater spread of sail. We have besides descriptions. fitted with oars and a mast in two pieces which could be lowered and laid along a high spardeck. required about three months to bring the early teas from China to Great Britain. & O. to Britain for tin. showing that increased length in proportion to beam gave in the ships. all tended to increase the size artillery and efficiency of sailing ships. while permitting the use of lighter rigging in proportion to tonnage. At- now run between England and America which maintain speeds of 25 and 26 knots over the whole course. showing the point of view of the engineer or architect. There were some galleys even in the Spanish Armada of 1588. and with crews taught to row in a framework set up on dry land they manned a fleet which was launched in sixty days from the time that the trees were felled. of records of Athenian dockyard superintendents for several years between 373 and 324 B. things improved and we find clippers from Aberdeen and the Clyde beginning to hold their own on the long voyages to China and elsewhere. from the figures on coins and vases. and from the discovery in 1834 at the Peiraeus. as compared lantic liners with about 12 knots before the introduction of steam. But after the repeal of the Navigation Laws in 1850. The article gives a critical account of the Greek types of vessels. which took about thirteen weeks. Greek ships and shipbuilding we know from a full and varied national literature. the port of Athens. the voyage to Australia.1000 B. A fivetiered Carthaginian galley which had drifted ashore served the Romans as a model for their first war-ship. and their trade suffered accordingly. C. service in five weeks. The Phoenicians probably sailed out of the Mediterranean. and in 1910 the fastest vessels could do it in four and a half days. The English shipyards were for a long time unequal to the task of producing vessels capable of competing with those of their American rivals. the voyage from Great Britain to America lasted for some weeks.C. The introduction of iron for wood began about the same time as the sub- . Similarly. such as was in use from 3000 . he should notice that Mast and Sail the sailing vessel came into use gradually for merchant use. written by Roman served. is shown in an Assyrian wall painting. The end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century marked the highest point development of American sailing "The Americans with their fastsailing 'clippers' taught the English builders a lesson." The revolution in marine transportation by the introduction of steam is summed up by Sir Philip Watts as follows Before steam was applied to the propulsion of ships. C. or even around Africa. The growth of Roman shipping seems to have been due primarily to political reasons and to have advanced slowly but surely. which the reader will find treated in full in the article Ship.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 96 and one of these shows a ship. The discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries and especially the consequent expansion of trade in the 17th century. in 1910 they were brought to London by the ordinary P. not a canoe or large boat. and a Phoenician galley of the 8th century B. practical devices being introduced to solve special difliculties in a field and on an element where the Romans were far from being at home. partly technical. at the beginning of the 20th century the time had been reduced to about six days. authors.

ships to — — — the American- 97 Naphtha by Electricity. and the first steam- make long triple- Merchant Vessels Full details are given in regard to the ships used for canal and river navigation in Great Britain and the United States. Train Ferries." etc." the "Great Western. B. But even to-day wood is preferred for the construction of ships for scientific expeditions to the Polar regions where the slightest disturbance Iron of the compass is to be avoided. mainder of this article Ship can be given here. soon caused jetpropulsion to be abandoned. It was proved that fouling of iron bottoms from weeds and barnacles might be remedied by frequent cleaning and repainting. This was Iron Hulls due not merely to the sentiment attaching to the oaken stitution of timbers that typified "hearts of oak. But while iron was coming into use largely because it is more durable. " Enterprise the Early which went from Steamships London to Calcutta in 1825 in 103 days (64 under steam). Lifeboats." In all seriousness it was objected that iron would not float! It was feared that iron bottoms would be more easily perforated when ships grounded. Ice Breakers. Ferries. The most serious objection against iron was that it affected the compass. Liners on : : other Routes. Jet propulsion had been suggested by Benjamin Franklin in 1775 and was tried several times with some success. the "Sirius. but this was found not to be the case when construction was careful. or Barges. Statistics of shipping for all countries are given in tables and diagrams equivalent to 18 or 20 pages of this Guide. Yachts). Lightships. but in 1839 Sir G. Emigrant Vessels. greater ease in securing the necessary general and local strengths. Special Vessels (Dredge. ginning of the 20th century. Cross-Channel. by by Internal Combustion Engines War Vessels Battleships and Armour Protec- . Airy laid down rules for the correction of compass errors due to iron in construction. and steel (first used in ship-building to any extent in 1870-75) have three advantages over wooden ships: less weight. Steamers Passenger River and Sound. Propulsion tion of steam vessels on the Irish and English channels. All these were propelled by paddle-wheels. Brigs and Brigantines Steamships Types: Turtle-back. Engines. there was a great increase in the durability of wooden ships. greater durability. first built about expansion in 1874. Surveying Vessels. Cargo Modern Developments. due to the improved knowledge of wood-preserVation. the gearing used with paddles was soon given up for direct-acting engines —compound A brief trips — summary outline of the reis all that Sailing Ships Cutters. Ocean Liners (Atlantic: Canadian. Motor Tank Vessels. Ships Great Lake Freighters. At the end of the 18th century 15 or 20 years was the average life of a wooden ship. etc. but there are several instances of ships built in the first decade of the 19th century or even earlier which were still in commission at the be- days using steam only a part of the time. Smacks Schooners.FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATION MEN steam for sails. the comparatively rapid adop- "Savannah" which crossed the At- 1854. perfected by Colonel John Stevens and Captain John Ericsson. The screwpropeller made possible and was quickly followed by great improvements in engines. Coastguard and Fishery Cruisers. Oil Tank Steamers. and there was even more prejudice against it." or to the "Wooden Walls of England. Pacific Liners). But lantic in 1819 in 25 the greater success of the screw-propeller. Salvage and Fire Vessels.

Instructions 24. The struggle for supremacy in the Atlantic trade and in commerce with China and the Far East between the United fire tion. Monitor. Geometrical Properties. Stability Equilibrium. Netherlands and England. Third-Class. Longitudinal Stability. 24. : The article Shipping (Vol. Curves of Stability. the work of Sir W. the shipment other foods. the Refrigerating preven- making machinery. Metacentric Experiment. Dynamical Stability.Builder Guide. Submarines in different navies. Methods of Reducing Roll- — . was marked by the adoption of steam as a motive power. Stability in any DiStability : of rection. of The tonnage doubled between 1666 and 1688. Effect of Beam. England. The third of the main articles Shipbuilding trade. for the Philip Watts. Effect of Freeboard." The freight rate question and increased tonnage. Resisted Rolling. treated in the article. Germany. and more than articte is equivalent to 200' pages of this the illustrations include 120 working drawings. may be catmerce. Armored Cruisers. White. etc. the history of shipping was primarily a contest for trade between France and England. by Sir The Ship. Sir Nathaniel Barnaby in H. especially in the period after the discovery of America. Stability when Damaged. It outlines is History of Shipping the early period of and the contest for trade among Spain. Argentina." States and Great Britain was won by the — the American ship-builders clung to the sailing clipper too long and they were too slow in adopting iron instead of wooden latter largely for this reason — The American hulls. finally won by the latter. " Liners " and " Tramps. was followed by a rapid growth English shipping. etc. emigrants. p. Rolling of Ships : Unresisted Rolling Froude's Theory. Austria. France.. Dreadnought Cruisers. The "Dreadnought " in England. as has already been seen in the article Ship. Inclining Large Inclinations. and Germany's merchant marine. " Development of Some of the Leading Features of Notable Armored Battleships from 1860 to 1910. confining the trade between England and her colonies and the British coasting trade to English ships. Sir E. brief outline of the article is all that A can be given here. inventions of Holland andNordenfeldt. when the prizes of commerce became suddenly so much richer. French efforts to get trade. Portugal. the Goubet System in France. with Table. type United States. Japanese merchant vessels. Reed and the Brit- Navy Turret Ships American ish . The Navigation Act of 1651. In the 18th century and into the 19th. War was an American com- Civil additional set-back to Other great factors during the 50 years in the jdevelopment of shipping. Small Inclinations. The 19th century.. 983) devoted to the history and practice of maritime transportation. J. — Brazil. Equilibrium. Second-Class Cruisers. Japan.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 98 tion. Cruisers in Different Navies Improved apparatus for Gunboats and Torpedo Craft and Torpedo-boat Destroyers Submarines American experiments in the 18th Century. Cruisers. 922) is (Vol. Sailing Ships. Development from 1885 to 1902. last alogued here: The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Italy. Heights. Russia. Effect of Position on Centre of Gravity. Transverse Stability. Special passenger transport: tourists. possible meats of The shipping combine of 1902. p.

Cavitation. British cargo steamer. Frictional Resistance. 299) and Shipping The following and refer to the chapter is For Naval Officers. Differences between ships. The student should read the article Navy and Navies A Dictionary of Ships (Vol. Experimental Results. Great Lake steamer. At- New Models Laying-ofif Sheer Drawing Fairing the Body Contracted Method of Fairing Fairing the End Stern Mould Displacement Calculation Frame Lines Cant Frames Double Canted Frame Swell for Propeller Shaft Mould for Boss Frame Casting Shaft Struts Anchor 99 lantic liner. Heel when Turning.FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATION MEN Sight Edges in Body Plan Inner Bottom Inner Surface of Frames Outside Double Bottom Deck Lines Framing and Plating behind ing (Bilge-Keels. Conn. Propulsion: Experimental Armour Re- Laying off Armour of a Warship Order of Work sults. Strength: Longitudinal Bending. Gyroscope). Steering: Nature of Forces when Turning. Resistance: Components of Force. 19. Types of Rudders. articles in . a partial list of the the Britannica of particular value to the marine transportation man. Water Chambers. p. Model Experiments. Process of Design Registration Societies Board of Trade Supervision Keel Transverse Frames Scrive-Board Shoring Ribbands Deck Beams Longitudinals Bilge Keel Drawings Laying Keel Blocks Keels and Frames Load line and Freeboard Loading of Grain and Timber Ship-yard Work Shell or Outside Plating Structural Parts Materials Cranes and Gantries Course of Construction Structural Arrangements Longitudinal System as used in London. Transverse Bending. Law of Comparison. . Auxiliary war and merchant Machinery. Wake. Experimental Results.

but at any moment his work may bring him into temporary relation with allied subjects which they do not cover. print. the transportation of the finished iron or steel depends upon the skill of the engineers who construct railroads and ships. but even then it served for a long time chiefly to describe surveying. and its mag- upon which all our work depends. for the advice and — — . electrical is concerned with the ore. specialized knowledge of engineers of one kind or another directs or facilitates every branch of industry. has become the most indispensable of all substances save air and water. the construction of fortificathe trenching and saptions and Then ping needed for their capture. The engineer of each class has his own text books. as the Britannica article Iron and Steel shows. the ing and bridge building. we cannot carry our examination very far before we find that almost everything we possess begins with a bluesites indicated eer. the structural engineer shapes our buildings from the girders and erects them on the engineer by the surveying enginthe sanitary engineer makes them wholesome. The services rendered by the 73 engineering experts German. The mining properties. Various primitive races have believed that the earth is supported upon the back of a tortoise. and in connection with which he may need trustworthy information. which. but when we begin to look into the origin of the surroundings we have made for ourselves. "Engineering" was originally used to describe a mere branch of military science. road-makTo-day. that the more a man's profession tends to specialization. because we can find What no substitute "Engineering" that Includes strength. and yet it is true. limiting his daily vision to but a small circle of the broad sky above him.CHAPTER XX FOR ENGINEERS THE history of a word will some- times supply the key to the gradual development of an art. He finds it necessary to dig so deep that the shaft he sinks must perforce be of narrow diameter. Consider for a moment the handling of iron. There is certainly no other book which surveys so authoritatively and minutely as does the Britannica the whole field of applied science. an elephant. the more help he can get from the comprehensiveness of the Britannica. the hard- ity we can netic for it possesses its ness and the pliabilgive to it. and the electrical engineer provides them with the many convenient appliances we need. or a fish. It seems a paradox. French and Italian who collaborated in the production of the work are not to be measured only by the articles they wrote. American. about a century and a half ago the use of the phrase "civil engineering" came into use to indicate the broadening of the engineer's functions to civil pursuits. the mechanical engineer with the machinery employed in its treatment. English.

by in the special field of civil engineering the following partial list of articles will convey some idea of the scope of the material to which the professional has immediate access. author of Hydrographical man University. 535) by Dr. 22. 27. 101 M. Henrici. lus of Variations.FOR ENGINEERS assistance many of tors in planning the them gave the edibook as a whole. (Vol. p. M. Applied Dynamics. graphical Surveys. which may be described as text-books of the most concise and useful nature. by Dr. Dr. Love. (Vol. etc. 8. Geodesy 607) by Col. author of Foundations of Geometry. and Dr. (Vol. etc. Whitehead of Trinity Col11. Units. p.N. 756) by Professor Lamb. Sheppard. is discussion of the subject Articles for Civil Engineers a thorough by Dr. 736). 620) Euclidean. R. James Clerk Maxwell. emeritus professor of engineering. Nautical. J. by Dr. p. Topo- work (Vol.. Dr. A. University of Manchester. by Dr. with 72 illus- diagrams. (Vol. 8. by E. profes135) sor of electrical engineering. 27. and W. p. 16. 533). Glaisher. will be useful to all engineers. Sheppard. is by Professor of 27. L. 8. Axioms. 868) by Dr. 915). Rankine.. p. E. p. 4. Calculus of (Vol. Analytical. 718) by Alexander McAulay. 4. Diagram (Vol. England. The engineer will naturally turn first to the mathematical articles. by Vice-Admiral A. Levelling. Geodetic Triangulation. Mathews. DeHenrici. Theory of Machines. 18. with 24 illustrations. R. E. formerly superintendent of Frontier Surveys. lege of (Vol. late professor of Glasgow University. Projective. by Dr. 142). by of p. City and Guilds civil engineering. W. p. F. Mathematical (Vol 26. professor of civil and mechanical engineering. 27. Differences. and describes all the typical structures from the timber . 972). Theory of Structures. Logarithm (Vol. Clarke 11. Russell. Macmahon. p. Elliott. etc. E. William C. 8. Field. W. and Prof. A. p. University London. p. 738). Horner. A. p. formerly president of the London Mathematical Society. Infinitesimal Calculus H. Helmert of the University of Berlin. 599) is by Dr. article Drawing-Office (Vol. Waynflete professor of pure mathematics. India. p. professor of mathematics and physics. 556). W. by B. lege. Mathematical Articles Algebra (Vol. University Col- North Wales. scriptive. B. p. p. Surveying. formerly professor of mathematics. p. editor of the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Math- ematics. 14. Oxford. Mechanics (Vol. Dimensions of (Vol. These admirable the treatises as well as Drawing. University of Tasmania. by Dr.. secretary of the London Math- ematical Society. professor of mathematics. Dalby. London Institute. Kinetics. 26. by Sir Joseph Larmor. Horace Lamb. Unwin. J. Geometry (Vol. Physical (Vol. Line. Hobson of Cambridge W. J. professor of mathematics. secretary of the Royal Society. Central Technical College of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Glaisher. etc. Calcuby Dr. p. N. Dynamics (Vol. Love. Units. 675). 1. Cambridge. p. of the survey. L.. and G. F. W. Bridges trations. 325). en- sured such treatment as an engineer would desire of many subjects indirectly connected with his work. p. by Dr. 17. (Vol. by Joseph G. Statics. Sheppard. the noted Mensuration physicist. Algebraic Forms by Major P. 1. and Calculating Machines (Vol. This article covers the whole theory of bridge design. Central Technical College. A. and Geographical Sur- and by Sir Thomas Holdich. 955). White- head. written by leading mathematicians of the age. Trigonometry (Vol. British ordinance R. p. A. author of Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs. W. 146). 223). B. Surveying veying. 271) by Dr. Quaternions (Vol. by Dr. J. City and Guilds of London Institute. A Fleming. Table. p.

388). 14. p. p. chief engineer to the Tyne Improve954). trations. also by Prof. ment Commission. with 29 illus- Breakwater bour Reclamation of Land Railways and Transportation for . p. 550) by Sir E. p. Williams. Canal (Vol. F. to the Manhattan Bridge over the East River at of civil engineering. many readers to learn American Railway Legislation. illustrated. T. by E. p. C. by Ray Morris. p. including discussions of water-motors and turbines. 14. Dock (Vol. Frank H. is an interesting article. Cais- (Vol. 387). Hill. 667). 159). Douglass. M. p. 922). p. by Prof. with 13 illustrations. Ltd. p. 119). by James Bartlett. illustrated.. 17. consulting engineer for Waterworks to Crown agents for the son New York. by Prof. and Pier (Vol. president of Yale University. p. with 16 illustrations. — with 125 illustrations a complete treatise on the subject by Sir Philip Watts. p. (Vol. and author of Railroad Administration. illustrated. Irrigation (Vol. with 59 illustrations. p. Only a year later the King of Spain was strongly urged. 359). a magnificent composite article. diagrams. in a memorial presented by De Gomara. Traction (Vol. p. 24. Shipbuilding (Vol. Water Supply (Vol. 475). F. 27. former- the Liverpool Water Supply Aqueduct. Ventilation Sir Alfred Tunnel (Vol. 15. Economics and Legislation. p. (Vol. 2. 16. Louis Duncan. such as Panama Canal (Vol. 588). illustrated. the section dealing with hydraulic machines occupying 25 pages. A. by H. London. fully illustrated. ly engineer-in-chief many (Vol. p. Woolwich. p. 14. The last five articles are by Professor VernonHarcourt. formerly professor of mathematics in the Ordnance College. 35). Har(Vol. that the project of a ship canal across Central America was considered as early as 1550.. . 23. professor Colonies. by Dr. Canal (Vol. p. the bridge Horatius defended. and maps. with Technology. 27. 1008). Carson. River Engineering (Vol. 244). with 20 illustrations. 21. 819). p. (Vol. 935). of . 8. with 6 illustrations. by the L. the Spanish historian. with 213 by Prof.. 27. 12. etc. p. 8. late Roads and Streets (Vol. by James Bartlett. by Emile Garcke. editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Hydraulics illustrations. Sewerage (Vol. 562). 22. formerly of the Railway Age Gazette. 24. 4. to undertake the work. by W. chief engineer of Manchester Ship Canal during construction. 115) by George Greenhill. managing director of the British Electric Leader Williams. Vernon-Harcourt. 22. when a book demonstrating its feasibility was published in Portugal. 27. p. by William Hunter. p. p. 22). Leader Traction Co. 13 illustrations. 374). VernonHarcourt. illustrated. p. 399). 627).BRITANNIC A READINGS AND STUDIES 102 Pons Sublicius of ancient Rome. Manchester Ship Canal (Vol. by Arthur T. Ross. with . G. New York. 26. 957) 4. of Dartmouth College. 353). of the Massachusetts Institute Tramway (Vol. p. 735). in which the Introduction and the sections on Construction and Rolling Stock are by H. by Sir E. in charge of designing and constructing the Boston Subway. W. Modern Construction (Vol. General Statistics and Financial Organization. ^nd author of Rivers and Canals. P. p. Deacon. Hadley. 168). with 26 illustrations. Dixon. are brought fully up to date by the designer of the first water-motors at Niagara. There are also separate articles on great engineering undertakings. Hydromechanics (Vol. Unwin which the whole theory and practice of water-power. Lighthouse (Vol. Jetty (Vol. director of naval construction for the British Navy. Dredge and Dredging plans and illustrations. p. 20. 841). with illustrations and plans. University College. who erected the Eddystone and Bishop Rock Lighthouses. 23. Railways (Vol. 28. Suez It will surprise 5. p. and Nicholas G Gedye. is an article in (Vol.

25. 818) by Prof. and Elasticity (Vol. with up-to-date section on turbines. by Dr. Masonry (Vol. Timber (Vol. by F. Howe. by B. Cement Section of Interna- tional Association for Testing Materials. illustrated. formerly president of the Institute of Marine Engin- fold eers. 958). 733). formerly chief engineer. 4. p. with 32 diagrams. p. p. by Prof. 9. Concrete (Vol. but in the special field of mechanical engineerThermodynamics (Vol. p. and Emile Garcke. Georg Lunge. illus- 23. illustrated. In regard to construction. . p. with 42 diagrams and illus- trations. with 18 illustrations. Fuel (Vol. engineers will find most valuable for reference and study the elaborate treatises Strength OF Materials Structural Engineering (Vol. by Gaseous Fuel. 710). p. 5. 17. p. Beare. Railway Age Gazette. Steam Engine (Vol.FOR ENGINEERS author of State Railroad Control. 521). 35). This article. inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas Engine. also by Dugald Clerk. 25. by W. by 141). p. 801). (Vol. Webber of the Royal Engineers. hon. 24. Royal College of Science. Horner. p. and Steel Construction (Vol. 11. by Dr. p. p. Oil Engine (Vol. by James illustrated—the Bartlett. Ewing. in this connection are Iron and Steel (Vol. But such articles are all the more useful because they form part of one great library of universal knowledge. p. Liquid Fuel. Love. and Light Railways. illustrated. Gas Engine (Vol. p. and many articles are of use to all engineers alike. illustrated. illus- by T. 808) with 68 illustrations. Stone (Vol. Callendar. It is imFor the possible to indiMechanical Engineer cate the exact lines of demarcation between these branches. 443). by Sir James Fortescue-Flannery. The Engineering Section of the new Britannica provides an equal wealth of authentic material for members of other branches of the profession. by James T. Foundations (Vol. 26. p. p. Brickwork (Vol. associate editor. with 13 illustrations. 875) . M. A. H. 861). 570). 495). is one of the many in the engineering department of the Britannica which have been said by technical critics to merit separate publication as text-books. London. more than 30 pages long. by C. p. 279) illustrated. 25. 18. Solid Fuels by Hilary Bauermann. B. (Vol. by Dugald Clerk. with 23 illustrations. p. Registry of Shipping. 14. Woolwich. illustrated. Windmill (Vol. Mortar (Vol. Regius professor of engineering in the University of Edin- burgh. 3182). of the Ordnance College. A. 26. New York. No book on the subject has ever before contained so great a collection of expert knowledge as this article presents. ing there are p. Columbia University. 4. with 15 illustrations by James Bartlett. president. Roofs (Vol. on construction at King's College. Notable arti- J. London. also by Professor its these four articles Ewing. (Vol. E. illuscles It is interesting to note that early in the 19th century a tall shottower was built in New York city by erecting a braced cage of iron and filling trated. E. 25. 1007). H.Western Railway. with 16 illustrations. Boiler (Vol. Budapest. with 20 illustrations. p. 653). Shor- trated. 14. dock engineer of the London and South. 103 ing (Vol. author of Plating and Boiler Making. Intra Urban Railways. last six p. H. 835). 11. Injector Water Motors trated. illustrated. B. by Bertram Blount. 28. 841). Parsons. p. 697). L. 24. p. professor of metallurgy. 1004). 28. 141). 274). 978). p. H. 1. 6. Cement (Vol. 20. Wentworth-Shields. Rapid Transit Commission. E. Scaf- Professor Unwin. Prof. and Joseph G. 10. chief engineer surveyor to Lloyd's in the panels with masonry. Ewing. Accident Statistics. Adams. professor of physics. by Dr. Other mechanical articles are Air Engine (Vol. Mil- lecturer ton. p. p.

illustrated. (Vol. 210). 645). 192). 413). p. p. p. Electrostatics tromagnetism p. 428). 179). 584). Meter. chief engineer of the General Hydraulic Power Co. chief engineer. 8. superintendent of the North Star Mining Co. F. illustrations. and a chapter on its commercial aspects. Watt(Vol. by W. which contains also an account of the development of electric Engineer 233) by Dr. by Edward Smith. S. 764). Lighting. 1. p. illustrated. 22. Electrokinetics (Vol. 224). editor of The Commercial Motor. An admirable historical sketch of electricity will be found in Electricity (Vol. illustrated. 22. illustrated. 659). p. 22. 9. with 16 by Professor Fleming.. D. 879). by . 240). p. p. Pulley (Vol. 263). Ohm(Vol. by Professor Fleming. Units.. Electrical at the immediate service of the elec- Kempe and Emile trical engineer there also stand Dynamo (Vol. p. Professor Fleming. 21. p. Gyroscope and Gyrostat (Vol. Mechanical. by Emile Garcke. Garcke. Traction. Electricity Supply (Vol. p. 9. (Vol. by Emile Garcke. GenConduction. 27. 28. Motor Vehicles (Vol. with 15 illustrations and diagrams. meter meter meter meter p. by Profes- Hawkins. p. Locomotive Power (Vol.. and Wheatstone's Bridge (Vol. C. 14). sor Fleming. Railways. Telegraph (Vol. 205). 368). a Nobel prize-winner and professor of experimental physics at Cambridge. Horner. p. Elec(Vol. 234). p. Electrolysis (Vol. by Professor Dalby. 740). Volt(Vol. by G.. Rolls. 28. in Gases. For the Emile Garcke. Transformers (Vol. Ellington. Electrometer illustrated. 16. illustrated. p. 9. by Sir J. p. p. 9. Pneumatic. 206). Professor Duncan.. Thomson. p. Gas. author of The Dynamo. London. and Commercial Aspects. Whetham. p. 9. with 79 illustrations. p. etc. of the London Polytechnic. with 24 illustrations and diagrams. 9. by 490). 26. by C. Electrical (Vol. 226). 4. Elevators (Vol. 914). Accumulator (Vol. methods of charging. 18. 12. Ernest G. Louis Bell. 547). Conduction in Solids 6. by Walter Hibbert. by Edward B. C.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 104 professor of technical chemistry at the Zurich Polytechnic. Electrical Units (Vol. by Sir Alfred Greenhill. D. author of Mechanical Handling 21 illustrations. professor of mechanical Engineering in the City and Guilds of London Technical College. 20. 419) all of these by — Potentiometer (Vol. 1. by Dr. Foote. p. illustrated. 865) by H. Pneumatic Despatch (Vol. 27. 28. with by Walter Pitt. Power Transmission. 22. late director of the Rolls Heavy Commercial Royce Vehicles. p. Coker.. illustrated. p. 291). 9. illustrated.. p. managing Co. p. 510). joint author of Lubrication and Lubricants. by Professor Fleming. R. Ltd. Elec- eral Electric Co. Cranes (Vol. Kempe. by Electric Power Transmission Dept. 126). The key article describing the general principles of electrical engineering is S. Electric (Vol. Kempe. Motors. Electric (Vol. illustrated. illustrated. illustrated.. p. by Joseph G. also A. Light. 842) by Professor W. Galvanometer (Vol. Deeley. 769). Telephone testing meters. Land and Submarine Telegraphy. by Dr. 217) by W. p. illustrated. by H. M. in Liquids. C. by Professor Lunge. of Material. Lubricants (Vol. by Professor Flemiiig. J. by H. 120). Brake (Vol. C. 22. R. E. p. theory. Electric (Vol. Electric (Vol. tric (Vol. Ampere- 11. Pump (Vol. electrician to the General Post Office. Tool (Vol. by Professor Fleming. 26. Ltd. Power Transmission (Vol. de W. 89) by R. 173). with 37 illustrations by the Hon. Louis Bell. 22. (Vol. 27. Zimmer. Gas for Fuel and Power (Gas producers) (Vol.. wiring of houses. illus9. 18. 855). 18.. 7. p. 910). p. p. Wireless Telegraphy. p. 641). p. 34). 27. p. 'Physical. trated. p. with 42 illustrations. R. p. illustrated. p. 11. illustrated. but (Vol. Dalby. illustrated. California. p. Whetham. 17. fully illustrated. Hydraulic. illustrated.

' is p. illustrated. and Francis H. 24. but as a rule the engineer knows little or about the lives of the great nothing ornaments of profession. p. 28. (Vol. 4. 504) by Dr. p. 18. Neville. with 11 illustrations. illustrated. 1.FOR ENGINEERS pursued in It is typical of the policy making the new Britannica that the Editor placed the mining section in the American hands of American experts. formerly state geologist of New York. p. Horner. 995). 18. 569). the splendid heroes of peace who have done much more than the soldier and the artist to create the world of to-day. 1. who invention. 11. Professor Howe's exhaustive article Iron and Steel has already been noted in another part of this chapter. p. S. 192). 712) by Dr. 238). 103). 112). The mining engineer or metallurgist the new Britannica constantly at his elbow a complete series of articles dealing with the mining and metallurgy of all minerals and metals. 663). Metallurgical Section (Vol. professor of geology. p. Richards. 767) by J. illustrated. Geological Survey. A few of the other important articles are Copper have will in (Vol. Ristori. p. R. 981). 22. p. 2. is also writes by Joseph G. Alloys 704). Ore-Dressing (Vol. Gold (Vol. is the 18. professor of mining in Columbia University. 7. Lead (Vol. Electric Welding. illustrated the last three by Robert Peele. H. p. professor of mining in Columbia University. Furnace (Vol. (Vol. by Andrew See also Metal Metalography (Vol. tute of Metals. fully Smith Munroe. an account new and important method of of micro- and metals William Chandler Roberts-Aus- scopical examination of alloys by Sir ten. 16. Tin (Vol. with 8 illustrations. p. 18. Insti- (Vol. The material on Fuel has already been mentioned. illustrated Blasting (Vol. A. 25. professor of mining and metallurgy. is also by the authors of the article Metall(Vol. 4. tries are familiar with the and deeds of great soldiers. 314). 766). Forging 105 Biographies of Engineers careers of their favorites. p. This covers every branch of the subject. Zinc Manganese (Vol. 10. p. p. illustrated. p. p. p. Metallurgy (Vol. member of Council. 203) de- scribes in outline the general sequence of operations. lovers of and Uterature know something of the lives art Blair. p. J. which has 19 Founding (Vol. 198). Silver p. Aluminum (Vol. 44). illustrated. Henry key-article 528). 26. James F. with unique photomicrographs of alloys and metals. Horner and Elihu Thomson. p. tire section is The Mining (Vol. 202). p. ography. This en- universally re- a worthy monument to American learning and practice. | The mining latest Military men coununder their re- statistics of all are to be found spective headings. Boring (Vol. F. 501) is by J. p. p. p. ShaftSinking (Vol. 23. 18. 70). since they Practice in are Mining garded as the best in the world. 358) describes and illustrates all the latest designs. QuarH. 28. 998) is written by Hilary Bauermann. 10. The reason for this is that engineering biographies are very scarce. Merrill. who writes on his own (Vol. p. 17. and Rolling-Mill (Vol. is by Dr. 251). 18. 20. formerly chief chemist U. Safety-Lamp (Vol. Welding (Vol. and in this connection the new Britannica j^^^s a positive gap in the enginThere are considerably eer's library. p. E. living and dead. Hardening and Tempering (Vol. 743). Kemp. 12. 468). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. p. rying Columbia University. 23. by Dr. more than 100 biographies of great engineers. Annealing. Assaying 776) The (Vol. illustrations. but further discussion of its special phases is continued in Mineral Deposits (Vol. G. p. written in the his most interesting fashion by authorita- .

p. p. 3. S. 23. 9. Arkwright. Sir Hiram (Vol. I. and Trevithick. Contour-line Conveyors Coode. p. 190). Charles Cinematograph Bridges Circle Bridgewater. 25. Claude Chart Cylinder Arkwright. Sir Marc Bazalgette. A. 616). John (Vol. Aeronautics Aether. Thomas (Vol. Thomas Cubitt. Sir William Architecture Boring Boulton. 26. 25. Sir George Compass Battery Bush Concrete Condensation of Gases Conduction. or Ammeter Anchor Angle Annealing. W. . George Parker Biddery Binocular Instrument Binomial Biquadratic Camera Lucida Camera Obscura Camus. 573) McAdam. Telford. Screw of BoUer Catenary Cubitt.) Cofferdam Cold Colour Combinational Analysis Conchoid Conduction pf Heat Cone Congreve. 28. (Vol. Sir John Copper Copying Machines Cordite Corning. . (and J. J. Sir Joseph William Bearings Cab Cable Henry Caisson Bellows and Blowing Ma. Brunei. Among these articles are Watt. Hardening and Tempering John K. Caustic Cautley. or Ether Aggregation Agonic Lines Air Engine Algebra Algebraic Forms Aliquot Alloys Aluminium Amicable Numbers Amperemeter. . 2. 494) by Henri G. p. Matthew Brachistochrone Causeway Cunard. p. 8. Sir Barker's Mill Buoy Acoustics Barometer Barometric Light Building Burns. p. John (Vol. Lesseps. p. p. 789). John L. p. Ericsson. Ferdinand de (Vol. 414) by Professor Ewing. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO ENGINEERS James Aberration Abrasion Baker. 101). (Vol. 823). Sir Proby Curricle Thomas Cement Cycloid Chain Chappe. James (Vol. Henry Tracey Cramp. 3rd Duke of Cissoid Bright. p. Eads. Richard (Vol. 28. 918). 888) Bessemer. Sir Charles Clark. Sir Joseph (Vol. Acceleration Balloon AccumiJator Achromatism Banket Brunei. Andrew Carpentry.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 106 tive contributors. Charles Henry Cranes Bisectrix Cardioid Carnegie. 450) Siemens. 946). p. Electric Actinometer Adhesion Adjutage Adze . Stephenson. Edmund Cash Register Cube Aqueduct Archimedes. (Vol. Erastus Coxwell. Joseph Brass Brassey. Sir Henry Bicycle Bidder. (Vol. George (Vol. Brindley. p. 1st Baron Artesian Wells Assaying Atmospheric Electricity Atmospheric Railway Auger Autoclave Awl Axe Axis Axle Bradawl Brake Bramah. Sir Henry (Vol. Samuel Bloom Bogie Cartwright. Ferdinand Bessel Function Bessemer. . Sir Benjamin Baird. chines Calculating Machines Bench-mark Caledonian Canal Berlin Calorescence Calorimetry Berthon. Sir William (Vol. Edison. Josiah Latimer Sir Samuel Curve Cyclometer Damascening or Damaskeening Damask Steel or cus Steel Density Destructors Determinant Diagonal Damas- . 23. des Canal Cantilever Capillary Action Car Cockerill. 27. Sir Richard (Vol. Thomas A. F. 556). Thomas Brazing and Soldering Breakwater Brick Brickwork Chisel Chronograph Chubb. p. Roebling. p. Sir William Conic Section Conoid Continued Fractions Contour. John A. 256). de Blowitz. 47) by Professor Ewing.Caisson Disease Bell. Crank Anthracite Anvil Aperture Blasting Cart 'Crompton. 17. Sir Richard Armature Armour Plates Armstrong. Rennie. Whitworth. James Clock Coal Abscissa Ballast Bronze Bronzing Absorption of Light Ballistics Brown. 8. p. 740) Maxim. Edward Lyon Berthoud. 17. p. James B. 16. .

William Line Liquid Gases Hodograph Lock Holden. or Gage Electricity Geodesy Electricity Supply Geoid Electric Waves Geometrical Continuity Electrochemistry Invar Electromagnetism McAdam.Fortification craft ratus Fossick Dock and 107 Hydrodynamics Hydrography Siege. Electric Labour Legislation Ladder Motor Lamp Murdock. James Buchanan Earth Currents Earth. Sir John Magnetism. James Navigation Hachure Latitude Latten Equation Hammer Lead Nitroglycerine Ericsson. or Object Glass File Filter Hawkshaw. S.FOR ENGINEERS Hodgkinson. Alfred Mortise. Laws of Motors. Partition of Numeral Life-boat Light Lighthouse Lighting Lightning Conducto! Objective. Thomas Nixon. Flight Dielectric Differences. or Condenser gustus Newcomen. Strophoid. Theory of Mineral Deposits Mining Mirror W. Sir Isaac Horse. Thomas Henry Mechanics Mensuration Meridian Metal Metallography Metallurgy Meter.Leyden Jar. Robert Dynamometer Eads. Sir Charles Au. 1st Baron Groups. John Noble. James Figurate Numbers Lemniscate Lens Lesseps.H. Thomas Alva Galvanized Iron Galvanometer Elasticity Electrical. Cyrus Hall Ismay. Philippe Heiu-i de Joist Electrokinetics Electrolysis Map Maxim. Thomas Dry Rot Friction Dupuy de Lome.Power Hose-pipe Hydraulics Locus Logarithm Diagram Diamagnetism Fire and Fire Extinction Heating Heliostat Firebrick Diameter Firth. Thomas Hawser Heat Finlay. John Fowler. Frustum Icosahedron Magnetometer Illumination Inclinometer Magneto-Optics Manchester Ship Canal Dynamics Dynamite Fuel Manganese Manometer Dynamo Function Furnace Fusible Metal Fusion Fuze. William Myddelton.C.Hydromechanics Hydrometer Logocyclic Curve. Sir Daniel Goodyear. C. Oliver Harbour Harmonic Harmonic Analysis Harrison. Electric Metric System Microscope Jacquard. Sir William Felloe Ferguson. Ferdinand de Lever Hartley. H. Calculus of Differential Equation Diffraction of Light Diffusion Dimension Mark John and Flying Flume Flux Focus Folium Forging Dispersion Divers and Diving Appa. John Evans. Sir Andrew Number Numbers. John Lima^on Optics Octahedron Ohmmeter Oil Engine . Fitch. Sir Hiram Mill Electroplating Electroscope Gold Gooch. Model Motion. James Henry Grimthorpe. Baron Masonry Dodecahedron Drawing Dredge and Dredging Foundations Drill Fulton. Eaton Lindley. Jetty Geometry Joinery Gimlet Joints Girard. Terrestrial Magnetograph Drummond. Charles Kaleidoscope Kiln Kinematics Electrostatics Gouge Kinetics Kingsford. or Mortice Electrum Elevators. or Electrostatic Gas Engine Galling. Figure of the Edison. Sir Hugh Guncotton Lantern Gyroscope and Gyrostat Lath Gunpowder Lathe Vehicles Nasmyth. or Foliate Longitude Loxodrome Lubricants Lubrication Hydrostatics Founding Hyperbola Hypsometer Magic Square Magnetism Fourier's Series Hysteresis Fowler. Electrotyping Graduation Knife Molecule Gramophone Hoists Graphical Methods Knot Mortar Krupp. John Loudon Irrigation McCormick.L. or Fuse Induction Coil Infinitesimal Calculus Ingot Injector Interference of Light Interpolation Masham. Joseph Marie Glazing Electrometallurgy Electrometer Electron Gnomon Mathematics Matter Maxima and Minima Inversion Involution Iron and Steel Jenkin. John Engineering Epicycloid Explosives Fairbairn. Lifts or Ellipse Ellipsoid Embankment Employers' Liability Energetics Energy Engine Gravitation Greathead. Sir George Heathcoat. Sir John Hawksley. Richard Jordan Machine Gauge. F.

Sir Charles Panama Canal Mark Refraction Refrigerating and Ice Making Reid. PuUey Pump Pyrometer Quadra trix M. Thomas Shadow Tetrahedron Shaft-sinking Theodolite Shears Ship Shipbuilding R. John Traction Radiation. Theory of Typewriter Stephenson. Robert and Stone Vacuum Tube Strength of Materials Valve Strutt. Spiral Starley. Mathematical Series Tacheometry Polygon Serpentine Polygonal Numbers Polyhedral Numbers Sewerage Sewing Machines Sextant Shadoof Tangye. William Semaphore Table.108 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Ordinate Railways Smoke Tramway Ore Dressing Random Solder Oscillograph Rankine. Richard Oval Painter-work Palanquin Palmer. Rennie. Sled. Sir Robert G. W. J. or Syphon Sleeper Sleigh. or Sledge Rafter Smeaton. Robert Units. Thomas Trevithick. Eli of Whitworth. A. George Units. M. J. Quarrying Quaternions Telford. Scaffolding Scantling Schichau. C. de Shoring Shovel Shuttle Siemens. Jacob Permeability. Phonograph Photography Photometry Saw Strong-rooms Vaults Safety-lamp Physics Pier Piston Plaster-work Scaffold. Dimensions of Stephenson. or Per. Sir Joseph Time. Sidiey Gilchrist Tide Timber Time. John River Engineering Pantograph Parabola Parachute Sounding Spade Spectroscopy Triangle Tricycle Speculmn Trigonometry Sphere Trisectrix Spherical Harmonics Trumpet. James Wattmeter Wave Wedge Weighing Machines Weights and Measures Weir Welding Well Wheatstone's Bridge White. Sir William H. Sir Robert Polyhedron Porism Potentiometer Power Transmission Prism Tunnel Turbine Tweezers Tongs Topography Zero Zinc . Ferdinand Science Pneumatic Despatch Pneumatics Scissors Screw Polarity Polarization of Light Pole. Jedediah Vaporization Stucco Variations. F. Measurement Wagon or Waggon Water Motors Water Supply Watt. Speaking and Hearing Spheroid Sphereometer Tube Motion Pedometer Rivet Perkins. or Photo Ventilation Copying Vernier Surface Vision Surveying Voltmeter Seppings. Sir William (Karl Wilhelm) Sieve Signal Therm odynamics Thermoelectricity Thermometry Thomas. Rawlinson. Standard Wilkinson. Physical Stereoscope Stevenson. of Calculus Suez Canal Vector Analysis Sun Copying. Sir Richard Technical Education Telegraph Telephone Probability Projection Prony. Magnetic Roebling. Sir Robert Reclamation of Land Reflection of Light Sound Transformers Tredgold. John Tin Windmill Tin-plate and Teme-plate Witch of Agnesi Silver Tire Tool Radiometer Siphon. James Statics Steel Construction Rolling-mill Steam Engine Permeameter Roofs Parallel Roads and Streets Perpetual Motion.Roulette petuum Mobile Perspective Safes. G. Whitney.

too.500 separate audiences. Of these four periods. which began less than a hundred years ago. hand-printed books. in another aspect. is as into four stages the period before writing. a producer of author. his product. will present itself very forcibly to your mind. however. BINDERS AND PAPER-MAKERS AND ALL WHO LOVE BOOKS N even an immortal from the economic -point of view. they get the diffused light of our age of culture. You are sometimes brought into contact with absolutely illiterate people. the period before printing. all that the Britannica does.000 articles. without the use of printing. we can. weighing only 80 lbs. if you try to imagine 1. and the period of the power-press. until it has undergone the industrial and commercial processes of reduplication and distribu- undeveloped as the seed lying hidden in the winter soil. indeed. waiting their turns to read the 40. The history of civilization might.500 contributors to the book. assembled each day to listen to lectures by the 1. and occupying only about two cubic feet of space. Instead of your 29 volumes. the walls of a large room would be lined with partitioned shelves on which the 300. to some extent reconstruct. the 1.000 typed sheets and the 7. The second period. be divided tion. Let it be assumed that for some reason the printing of the new Britannica had been enjoined by the law courts. but that the original typoscript was available for consultation say in a public library at : — New York or Chicago. a. But they live in shadow.000 illustrations.CHAPTER XXI FOR PRINTERS. What a mob of students there would be. and from the educational point of view. the first is almost unimaginable. and by one fantastic supposition we can even bring it into the focus of our 20th century.500 specialists who laid their usual work in order to write these articles would never have combined their efforts if this vast public aside of all educated English speaking people 109 . would be ranged. Any attempt to imagine the Britannica doing its work in any way but the way in which it does makes you realize. not in total darkness. raw material. the period of costly. the From Manuera of books in manscript to Book uscript. that if it were not for modern methods of spreading knowlSupply and Demand Interacting there would be no such system edge. what a mass of notebooks would be filled each day! The impossibility of accomplishing. when libraries of manuscripts were almost exclusively the property of kings and priests. on cardboard. is. of assembling and co-ordinating knowl- edge as finds its fullest development in the Britannica. It is not only for commercial reasons that the demand must be sufficient to justify the supply. genius." says the Britannica article Publishing.

W. The section on Manufacture in the article Paper. p. by Sir in Spain at Xativa. 743) 20. As the warp of cloth carries the weft. esparto. dates back to an early period in China. Manufacture especially the section director of the Paper. with the result that hand-made paper is now used only where great durability is the chief requisite. The industrial arts which make it and to possible to produce books swiftly sell them at low prices are obviously subjects of interest not only to those who do the producing and selling. some Chinese paper-makers were taken captives in Samarkand by Arabs. as for bank-notes and drawing paper. already mentioned. Paper was manufactured in Europe first by the and conand Paper suiting chemist. p. F. E. the first article to be read is Fibres by C. by in Moors in it on Paper-making This describes the treatment of cotton and flax for writing and drawing papers. like that of so inventions. . And. blotting-paper. Wyatt. and. because the necessarily inelastic supply was no longer sufficient. wrapping paper. and Parchment (Vol. both by deal with these earlier writing materials. the well-known analytical W. p. other interesting points in regard to the history of paper are: water-marks as a sign of age. author of The Art of Making Paper. can sometimes be chemically restored and deciphered. Cross. old papers. The history of many other great paper. and the name "paper" was transferred from the Egyptian rush and the writing material made from its fibres to the new product. The change from hand-making to machinery began in France in 1798 and was accomplished in England in 1803.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 110 were not to have been enabled to avail themselves of the result. p. Actual paper manufacture may be divided into two processes: the preliminary cleaning and reduction to pulp. as the articles mentioned in this chapter show. 606) by C. wood and straw began to be used as substitutes. 725) equivalent to 35 pages of this Guide and is illustrated with 15 diagrams. Garrett Fisher. 5. 798). Manufacture^ by J. In taking up the study of paper manufacture. and (Vol. The articles Papyrus Among (Vol. F. 20. 633) describes the processes by which writings which have been scraped or washed from sheets of vellum. Maunde Thompson. who thus learned the methods of its manufacture. were the principal materials used for paper in Europe until the middle of the 19th century. linen or cotton. Valencia and Toledo in the 12th century. and India History. etc. cellulose and cereal straws for printingpaper. these arts are in themselves among the most ingenious and curious of all processes. In the 8th century of the Christian era. paper came to the Western world only after many years and only by chance. etc. so the raw material of printers' paper and printers' ink carries the "raw material" Literature in this of the writer's thoughts. Here it is stated that rags. 20. Cross. 312). The Arabs and the Persians used linen as a base for the paper instead of the cotton the Chinese used. so that the material might be used again. See also the article Cellulose (Vol. as is the case with almost History of every great contriPaper bution to civilizawhich came tion from China. esparto-grass. p. p. 10. should next be read. and into Italy also it seems to have been brought by the Arab occupation of Sicily. Palimpsest (Vol. The article is divided into three parts: is Edward Maunde ThompBritish Museum. but to all who profit by the use of books. so that in a double sense they merit the attention of everyone to whom the chapters on Guide would appeal. wood pulp. The article on Paper (Vol. and then when prices rose. when paper had been made China for 1000 years. variation in prices of paper. 20. son.

000 copies of this "Oxford India i:)aper Bible " had been sold. scribed the in esparto boiler. The history which closes and description is with a brief of India paper. sizes (with paper of the best books on table). reel straining. paper machine. colouring. when subjected to severe rubbing." but "the extraordinary properties of this paper are due to the peculiar care necessary in the treatment of the fibres. volumes of 1500 pages were suspended for several months by a single leaf. of super-calender and of paper cutters. loading and colouring are then explained. besides other books. and the volume closed as well as ever.FOR PRINTERS. nine mills (two each in England. Just where the paper came from is not known. in contradistinction to a hand-made paper. etc. which cannot be made of a greater size than the frame employed in its production. and there are cuts showing rag-boiler. surfacing. were printed on the Oxford India paper. without yielding. . In this true India paper. after the pulp has been prepared. machine power. "the material used is chiefly rag. the trade. Sizing. and a list article Paper paper. cutting. of particular interest because of the adoption India Paper and successful use of this paper in the new Encyclopaedia Britannica. there are The first and Jordan beaters and a description of them and of drawings of the Taylor the Kingsland beater. esparto bleaching and beating plant. "Indian ink" or in the name "Indians" as applied to the American aborigines when their home was thought to be a part of the East. wide was found able to support a weight of 28 lb. Many other editions of the Bible. by In 1871 a copy of this Bible fell into the hands of Henry Frowde. grades. rag-breaking engine. surfacing.th of August 1875 an impression of the Bible. press-pate or half-stuff machine. BINDERS. shake. standards of quality. the paper had not stretched. and a strip 3 in. The paper. 111 and the name India was used merely express this Oriental sizing. The other main topics of the section on manufacture are: hand manufacture (with two illustrations). Paper-making proper. assumed a texture resembling chamois leather. and experiments were instituted at the Oxford University paper mills at Wolvercote with the object of producing similar paper. process is beating. glazing or surfacing for better cutting. the demand was enormous. sheeting. Reduction to pulp is detreatment of esparto. and besides the esparto bleaching and beating plant. to making the sheet or web. and paragraphs on forming the sheet. with pictures of the paper machine. and the Porion evaporator and the Yaryan multiple-effect evaporator for soda recovery. and. This book was only onethird the usual thickness. and there were. similar in all respects to that of 1842. Holland and Belgium) in which India paper was being produced. In addition to technical information in regard to paper the student of the manufacture of books must know something about ink." The first India paper was brought to England from the Far East in 1841 by an Oxford gradu- origin. was placed on sale by the Oxford University Press. Germany and Italy. as in much attention by its lightness and the opacity of the thin tough paper. tub-sizing. in 1910. when they were examined at the close of the exhibition. and in a very short time 350. as thin as tissue. pressing and drying. is next described. The success of the Oxford India paper led to similar experiments by other manufacturers. It was given to the Oxford University Press and was used in printing a very small English Bible in 1842. of the dandy roll. and attracted beating. straw and wood. instead of breaking into holes like ordinary printing paper. The feat of compression was regarded as astounding. PAPER-MAKERS AND BOOK-LOVERS the methods of converting pulp to paper —induding ate. Its strength was as remarkable as its lightness. and the marvels of compression accomplished by its use created great interest at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. which are specially beaten in the beating engine. one each in France. India paper is mostly made upon a Fourdrinier machine in continuous lengths. it was found that the leaf had not started. water marking and couching. described under bleaching. On the 24.

marking ink. Massa- nila in 1590. gold and silver inks. Dickens draws heavily on Bill of vowels. Greek. 571) with special descriptions of writing inks. with fac-similes of 13 different and characteristic faces between 1445 and 1479. Etruscan. 11. treatise in itself. lean-faced. parts: The History of Typography. and the longer. Ornaments and Flowers. and with the following topics: Material characteristics of Type. probably. by John Southing equivalent to ward. Fount consist of 275 " sorts " or characNumbers of sorts vary with differters. 739) and should notice the great difficulty surrounding the whole question of the "invention. and Modern Practical Typography. . to most students of printing Practical book-making. Bastard Italian. counter. Music. ascending. long. shank. is a very important and elaborate contribution to the knowledge of early printing. feet. and. 12. The former. back. 1638 or 1639. p. Macaulay on consonants. page by page. On these first developments the student should read the same writer's Gutenberg (Vol. Gothic. inferior. influence of William Morris Kelmscott Press. Logotypes or word character as distinct may — — from letters. logwood ink. Varieties of face: Roman. Russian. The second part of the article Typography. sanserifs or grotesques black script old style Cas. and Hugh Munro Ross. Mr. a good sized is 27. Ethiopic. nick. Species of letter short. Slavonic. superior. Armenian. Parts of a type beard. Samaritan. China or Indian in the article Ink ink. while others seem to be forgeries by two librarians of the city of Mainz who were eager to prove the claims of their fellow citizen Gutenberg to be the inventor of printing with movable metal types. and with different styles ent languages and writers. will Typography deals It be of more value. in- sympathetic ink. Syriac. . The former part of the article." obscured by the fact that so many of the documents on Gutenberg exist only in copies. etc. descending. editor of The (London) Times Engineering Supplement. and they printed books. of the most importance for our delible or incorrodible ink. in The early had only a few types of each character in a fount. AngloSaxon.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 112 The necessary information he will find Ink (Vol. tannin inks. lon . In Mexico and 1440 was established in 1544.. and the . on Modern Practical Typography. author of A Dictionary of Typography and its Accessory Arts. belly. by John Henry Hessels. but it is interesting to note that the article gives information about the history of the earliest types Gothic. chusetts. Scandinavian. in Maand in Cambridge. The honour of the invention of Hessel's article p. Vale Press. 509). Typogarticles: Printing raphy (Vol. belongs to Lorens Janszoon Coster of Haarlem and between printing its date was somewhere 1446. article on Johann Fust (Vol. copying ink. See also Mr. type or scheme how computed. kern. Roman. Hessels decides. aniline ink. red and blue ink. Coptic. printing inks. Hebrew. . — face. bastard. stem. typography. Characters for the of — Blind. p. This topic is treated in two main one dealing with type and the other with presses. author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation. Arabic. Sizes: classification by names and by point-system. Burgundian. present purpose. The process of putting ink on paper is a subject which in the Britannica takes much more ink and paper than the subject of ink or of paper. be- more than 135 pages It is divided into two of this Guide. 14. fat- — faced. shoulder. even small quartos. Runic. p. 373). burr and batter. serif. Irish. and of different styles and alphabets Italic. Initials. printers This whole treatment of the history typography is too elaborate to be summarized here.

swelled gelatin process. T. BINDERS^ PAPER-MAKERS AND BOOK-LOVERS Manufacture of type: type metal. for further information in regard to "printing" apart from (and before) actual press work. Wood-Engraving (Vol. (3) rotary type-casting machine. side- Distrib- uting. 9.. the Monotype. art director of Cassell & Company. illustration. George Clymer. (Vol. p. built which closes with the story of Bullock's machine (1865) for printing from a continuous web of paper. and of the Albion. See also the articles Electrotyping (Vol. p. it would occupy about 20 pages of this Guide. 22. as well as that of the Blaeu press. Ltd. greater which was used by William Morris at Kelmscott. and its workings. 785) including offset printing. and it is illustrated by a plate showing the three-colour The process. its — . Type-setting by hand. p. justifying. It had power with smaller expenditure of labour. Earlier machines Paige (in which Mark Twain lost a forDistributing machines Delcamtune). monotype. p. correct the word. Fraser. . The reader should next turn to the Engraving (Vol. may be readily understood from the illustrations in the article. three colour blocks. typographic etching. and Stereotyping. p. Monotype (the machine used for the Encyclopaedia BriType-setting — and — — tannica) with illustrations of perforated strip. Jacobi. 113 nearly two hundred years later. 9. Linotype with diagrams and description. Barth. as did the "double platen" machine of a little later date. Shells. stick. 252) and Electroplating lilectrotyping Turtle. Power presses began to be made at the ^nd of the 18th century. 798)— method is still magazine America where this used for some book and illustration —to Lithography (Vol. thus using printing in the narrower Press-Work and more sense of changes in machinery. and Process (Vol. (1) — article describes: processes. The cylindrical eight feeder by Augustus Applegath in 1848 for the London Times and the Hoe Type Revolving Machine are described in the section on the history of power presses. with description and picture of the Wicks puncli. processes. Type case. Signatures. Another hand press is the Columbian. 645). line blocks. and still in use for heavy hand work. The article Printing (Vol. drive and matrix (with illustratype-casting by hand and mations) chine. with Composition. collotype or phototype. In relation to lithography there is further information in the biographical sketch of Senefelder. The article gives of of a history of the printing press. Wicks. Thome. 22. 408). shooting-stick. Linotype by machine. colour relief filters (2) — intaglio processes. quoin. Forme. p. position.FOR PRINTERS. half-tone processes. which was practically unchanged for a century and a half. bre. 9. 28. Wood's Autoplate process. The last-named of these articles is by Edwin Bale. blanketing. The first important metal press earlier ones were of wood was invented by Lord Stanhope — — articles special reference to includ- stannotype. p. electrotype. author and The Printer's Handbook article is Printing. Line-Engraving (Vol. Dow. until the Dutch map-maker Blaeu greatly simplified it. 16. 721). and it contains 9 illustrations of presses. 16. In length this article equivalent to 25 pages of this Guide. 350) deals entirely with the subject of presswork. p. steel-facing. Im- inventor. P'long. inventions of Bruce. Empire. foot-stick. is The by C. but the presses invented by William Nicholson (1790) and Friedrich Konig (adopted by the London Times in 1814) printed only on one side at a time. heliotype and photolithography. invented in 1816 by a Philadelphian. Simplex (with cut). Trade Recipes. — planographic ing woodburytype. 237).

princi- ticularly in the article p. par- ject will find Leather (Vol. 4. article closes Proof-Reading (Vol. blocking machine are shown in the illus- trations. printing both sides. 216). a casing-in machine and a sewing. Besides a historical sketch of book-binding the article treats of the following topics: Modern methods and modern binding designers. and a paragraph on the management of a printing house. so that this article. H. and author of Leather for lege. — — — — These seven classes are next described and the article illustrates them all. with a list of the principal types of presses still in use. like all the other articles on the subject of bookmaking. for proof-pulling or limited editions. machine rounding and backing. sub-editor of the Athenaeum and of Notes and Queries and former secretary of the London Association of Correctors of the Press. A cut of an Albion press is given in an early part of the article. and blocking. head press reader of the 10th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. recent development in printing with cross references to the article Process. and the possessor of the Britannica will be interested to know that the leather bindings used for its volumes were all made according to specifications drawn . The other illustrations show machines and processes used in binding. —small platen machines job or commercial work. Daven- port.revolution machines with one cylinder two-colour machines. A bookbinder or a student of the suba great deal of very valuable information elsewhere in the book. p. etc. wiring. cylinder machines (3) — for (2) single (4) (5) (6) (7) — (" Wharfedales ") printing one side only.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 114 The on devoted to a de- closing section of the article printing Modem is script ion of modern presses. perfecting machines. showing typical fine bindings. The article occupies the equivalent of 55 pages of this Guide. is written by eminent practical authorities on the subject. pal of the Leathersellers Technical ColLondon. This article is illustrated with 14 figures. 330) by Dr. This is by Book-Binding Cyril J. Libraries. which are classified under the following seven heads : — iron hand-presses like the Albion or Columbian. usually two cylinder. but two printing surfaces and two sets of inking apparatus rotary machines for printing from curved plates upon an endless web of paper principally for newspapers or periodical work. Gordon Parker. A case-making machine. etc. including 8 in halftone. 438) by John A. which is p. and John Randall. 22. J. with one cylinder usually. assistant keep- er of books in the British Museum and author of History of the Book. The same is true of the article BookBinding (Vol. 16. casing. but with two distinct operations two. the student is referred to the article Proof-Reading It opens Presses (1) From article with a discussion of the following very practical topics: the preparation or "make ready" for printing. which naturally follows in a systematic course of study. machine binding. and the other six presses shown in the cuts are: in detail The Golding jobber platen machine Payne & Sons' Wharfedale stop-cylinder machine Dryden & Foord's perfecting machine The Miehle two-revolution cylinder machine & Sons' two-colour single cylinder machine Hoe's double-octuple rotary machine Payne The this closing paragraph and the on Printing. Black.

Articles keeper of books in the British Museum. p. 628) explains that publishing and book-selling were for a long time carried on together since "booksellers were the publishers of printed books. p. The article Publishing (Vol. by A. 221) also Castle. The article also outlines the methods of publishing in the United States and gives particular prominence to the effect on the British market of the introduction of American books and of American book-selling methods. three- The pre- posterous price of 10s. Pollard. the . the greatest authority world on tanning. form a combination of the very latest perfections of every department of the inIt striking lessons to be learned — — dustry. as they had previously been the agents for first the production and exchange of authenThe separation tic manuscript copies. E. a volume had been adopted during the first popularity of the Waverley Novels and had continued in force for the greater part of the century. PAPER-MAKERS AND BOOK-LOVERS up by Dr. W.Selling for a description of their functions the student should refer to the articles on publishing and book-selling in the Bri- tannica. Parker. 214) by Alfred William Miscellaneous Pollard. . BINDERS." of publishing from book-selling is due to "the tendency of every composite business to break up. curing and in the dyeing leather for book-bindings. The importance work of the dwelt upon in this article which sketches besides the growth of the Society of Authors in England and of the formation there of the Publishers' Association and the Booksellers' Association. is supplied by the consideration of the Britannica itself. 4. 4. in relation to the improvements and economies effected by the application of the most modern processes to the manufacture of books." and the article Bibliography and Bibli- . the article Book Plates (Vol. The extent of the composition and machinery involved. illustrated with ten cuts of book (which are so well chosen that book plate collectors have not infrequently asked the publishers of the Encyclopaedia Britannica for extra copies so that they might include them in their plates collections) . Among other articles of interest to the manufacturer of books are the following: publisher's reader of the is Book Historical and (Vol. 4.FOR PRINTERS." To-day. "About 1894 the number of medium-priced books was greatly increased in England by the substitution of single-volume novels at 6s. p. the article Bookcase (Vol. well printed copies of these novels sell for Is. 22. 4. may be added that one of the most from the Britannica. assistant gives a general historical description of 115 books and in particular calls attention to the great change in book-prices in the last thirty years. 221) experience by W. each (subject to discount) volume editions at for 31s. the accuracy of the proof-reading. Gladstone in the Nineteenth Century for March 1890. in England and for 35 cents in the United States. the novel employment upon a large scale of India paper and flexible bindings. 6d. the beauty of the illustrations. The last stages in getting the author's raw material "from him to the ultimate consumer" are those in which the publisher and bookseller Publishing and play their part. Read too Book-collecting (Vol. from which the reader may be surprised to learn that "the whole construction and arrangement of bookcases was learnedly discussed in the light of p. and. and Book." As publishers became a separate class the work of their also broke up into departments proof-reading and the reading of manuscripts submitted by authors or the work of prinliterary assistants — specialized — ters' readers and publishers' readers. the low price at which the product is sold. above all. as it expands. 6d. 230) by Egerton p. into specialized departments.

Incunabula article number (Vol. 3. W. Robert Imposition Incunabula Indelible Ink Indian Ink India Paper Ink Intaglio Process Italic Type Jordan Beaters Justifying Kelmscott Press Kern Kingsland Beater Konig. Paper Rag Red Ink Wicks. William Nicholson. Frederick Woodbury Process Standards of Wood Engraving Wood's Autoplate Writing Ink Yaryan Evaporator . 14. Augustus Autoplate Process does not profess to be complete. The articles following and alphabetical list Backing Cutter Dandy Roll Delcambre Machine Distributing Distributing Machines Dow Machine Barth. Fried rich Lanston Monotype I>eather Line-Engraying Linotype Rotary Presses Rounding Matrices Miehle Press Ruby Minion Monoline Scheme of Type Senefelder Monotype Serif Morris. William Sewing Shake Nick Nonpareil Octuple Rotary Sheeting Paige Fount Book-collecting Lithography I^ogwood Ink Old-style Eraser Machine Fust Glazing Golding Machine Gold Ink Book-Plates books Forme Book Book-Binding Book-case of topics connected with the general subject of the manufacture of Engraving Esparto Evaporator Face Flong Boiling Composition Copying Ink Coster Couching of sections of articles.Sizing chine Soda Recovery Paper Stanhope Press Papyrus Stannotype Steel-facing Parchment Pearl (type) Stem Perfecting Machine Stereotyping Photolithography Phototype Pica Planographic Process Platen Point System Porion Evaporator Power Presses Pressing Press Plate Press-work Straining Super Calender Surfacing Swelled Gelatin Process Sympathetic Ink Tachytype Tannin Ink Thorne Machine Three Colour Process Tub-sizing Turtle Type-case Primer Price of Paper Printing Printing Ink Process Proof-reading Publishing Typograph Typography Vale Press Water mark Wharfedale Presses Pulp Punch Wiring Quality. 369). although Albion Press Aniline Ink Applegath.Electroplating liology Bill of Type Binding Black Type Blaeu Press Blanketing Bleaching Blocking Blue Ink Electrotyping Empire Machine English Type Book-selling Bourgeois Breaking Brevier Bruce.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 116 OLOGY (Vol. will give the student some idea of the large it Shells Ma. George Collotype Colour Filters Colour Process Columbian Press Reel Paper Cutter Relief Process Machine Presses Marking Ink Roman Type Goodson Gutenberg Half Stulf Half-tone Heliotype Hoe. 908) supplemented by the by A. p. p.Signature Silver Ink Simplex Machine chine Off-set Printing Sizes of Paper Type Composing Ma. David Burr Case-making Machine Casing Casing-in machine Caslon Type Casting Cellulose China Ink Chinese Paper-makers Chiswick Press Clymer. Pollard. Henry Drive Bastard Letter Drying Batter Bibliography and Bib.

" he makes as difiicult matter of course. He endeavors to write as concisely as possible. smooth road. when he groping for his facts. the first essential is to form the habit of getting your "something to say" absolutely plain to your own mind before you attempt to say it." the musical prose in which sounds are adjusted as artfully as in verse. and it is impossible. in great measure to a change in the pace at which people read. He knows that those who ride in automobiles do not peer under tufts of leaves to look for roadside violets. the investigation by which you amplify 117 . in an art you recog- gallery. in convincing the reader that you have something fresh to say. albeams and valves you never saw. in thousands of homes. for all.CHAPTER XXII FOR JOURNALISTS AND AUTHORS NO— writer can consider the use he will make of the tools of his trade and the Britannica is certainly the chief among them unless he has very definite views as to the particular kind of work he is trying to do. the fidelity of portrait. The modern professional writer adapts himself to the existing conditions. A writer deliberately strives to be wordy and vague when he is trying to misrepresent facts. although you never saw the a per- son portrayed. due. today. Where writing is regarded as a business. Britannica article on Rudyard Kipling speaks of his "pow"Vitalized ers of observation vitalized by imaginaObservation' * is tion. Such readers are rare. In developing the power of clear and concise statement. But he also knows that they want a straight. and there lias been a change in public taste.007. He gets a swift impression of the complex framework of a ship or of the intricate machinery of a locomotive. that he should The avoid wordiness and vagueness. But the juggling with words. before he writes "The Ship that Found Herself" or ". and always guard himself against the temptation to relax his standards. the art of writing is the art of being read. perhaps. nowadays. Thirty or forty years ago it was a — is made once fully as hard. yet to when you read the story. and Kipling's observation is rapid observation arrvplified by deliberate investigation. His imagination so vitalizes the reading has trained the eye and the mind to swifter consumption. Writing is none the less one of the fine arts: the modern writer must form his style with the utmost care. The Development of Style makes and he can work write so clearly that every point he Newspaper elaborate a technical study as if he were writing an engineering article instead of a story. rather than in arousing his admiration of your way of saying it." —as if he were aiming at the most elaborate ornament. presuppose readers to whom these elaborations are delightful. The custom has almost disappeared. for some one member of the household to read aloud to the others. the "rhythmical sequences of recurring consonants. in forming its simple talents fully as a style that pleases by directness — or. A book does not "last" as it did." It would be to find a phrase more tersely describing the ideal equipment of a writer. and apply great. In using the Britannica. you recognize the accuracy of result that though it describes his technical description as nize. and then. that pleases because the reader does not think of it as "style. and the art of being read lies. better.

formerly editor of the Evening Post of New York. and it may be supplemented by brief extracts from one or two letters to the publishers.] The work is a liberal education. is rendered more and stimulating by your study of the Britannica articles in which the work of all the world's great writers. if he ever had had it. of the York World. is analyzed by the most in forming your profitable brilliant Models of you have Style Fourth. in the Britannica such examples America as presents among editors and my children. You may remember the new interest you felt in natural science when you first read an essay by Huxley. But the reader forcible. been influenced style. compacted English as cannot often be found in contemporary books.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 118 your personal observation helps you in four ways. In one of these Horace White. It is not within the province of this Guide to institute detailed comparisons between these articles by the leading literary men of the day and other writings from the same in-chief of the Britannica had all world's greatest experts in all fields itself scholarly. that his articles are not merely "last word" information but interesting and alive. in some clever phrase. that no ordinary library presents information in a form as stimulating to the writer who uses books It is not only true that library of as the tools of his trade. but it is as true. Third. spoke highly of the practical utility of the Britannica. will discover for himself that the editorial policy which demanded rigorous concision has stimulated. in Meyer or Brockhaus or some other German encyclopaedia. past and present. pens. you amplify your own observations. First. for a third type of encyclopaedia which should be "German-thorough" and — . so strikingly put. that it was the phrase and not the fact that you had got and you felt that the Frenchman had hidden the fact. [He afterwards ordered six more sets. so brilliantly written. the best of their productions. Or did your search end by finding the fact in Larousse or La Grande Encyclopedie. causes and relations of the events or opinions you are about to discuss. but I do not regret the outlay. The foregoing summary of the uses of the Britannica to writers is based upon reviews of the work which have appeared in the daily and weekly press. for I have been richly repaid. Perhaps you have ransacked a public library for some out-of-the-way fact and finally found it. the reading by which you have. the distinguished writers whose Britannica articles are. because he had the power of creating enthusiasm. shortly before wrote: "I want to thank you New death for the inhis enjoyed this winter examining this extraordinary production. the Britannica has been written by Huxleys. and as relevant. Whatever your may subject be.'* Practical no ordinary would supply the information to be found in the Britannica. you find information so you cannot question authoritative that Second. you correct your facts if they need correction. not hampered. critics. There never was a handier book for a desk or a more readable one. in skeleton form." John Habberton wrote: "The sets in new edition of the Britannica has already cost me Tests hundreds of hours that I should have given to my work. in this sense. consciously or unconsciously. It is a justifiable figure of speech to say that. He chose in each instance the expert whose knowledge was so thorough. in case after ease. in his epigram? You may have wished. Joseph Pulitzer. I have already distributed a dozen tellectual pleasure I in The editor- the of human knowledge and endeavour to choose from. written by men whose reputations give their opinions great weight. you discover the underlying it. and whose correlation of his special knowledge with related branches was so complete. then. and in crabbed German.

Frederic Harrison on Ruskin. Henley and Kipling. W. and he can get it quickly." Such a combinamore authoritais the Britannica.. He may remember Robert Louis Stevenson's story of how he played "the sedulous ape" to the great stylists. the scope. and in that part of the article United States which deals with the country's economic history. or of many re- among them the work news on such lines that each may work in a field with which he is intimately acquainted and in which he is porters dividing of gathering particularly versed. the action and the tests of the drug by turning to the Britannica instead of hunting for (and then through) a text book on medicine.. Walter Besant on Froissart and on Richard John Burroughs on Walt Whitman. Edward Everett Hale on James Freeman Clarke and on Edward Everett. Austin Dobson on Fielding. use how is work he to it? been suggested that he and recent information on any topic connected with the subject on which he is writing. Richard Garnett on T. Moliere. And if. Stanley Lane-Poole on Richard Burton.. he will find in the article Tariff. L. further lic libraries and the rural newsfrom good pub- financially less able to have a large office library.FOR JOURNALISTS AND AUTHORS "French-interesting. It would be interesting to see or at least to imagine It has already will find authoritative — 119 —how largely the Britannica might be used as a source for fiction. W.. Richardson. than any other book. If he has to write a "murder story" in which some unusual poison has been used. etc. Peacock and on Satire. Cable on William Cullen Jefferies. paper is. reporter or editor. the information that he wants. Prince Karageorgevitch on Maiie Bashkirtseff. Sidney Colvin on Giotto. Lord Macaulay on Bunyan. etc. William Price James on Barrie. Israel Gollancz on "The Pearl". the interest and the convenience of the Britannica make it just the book to fill these varied needs of the newspaper man. Henry van Dyke on Emerson. The authority. G. more tive. etc. Here he has the writings of great masters of English. or the next. Lucas on Jane Austen and Charles Lamb. Gold- . on Ibsen. he must write an editorial on the tariff. his friend and a well-known essayist. in the articles Free Trade and Protection. Leonardo. Andrew Lang on Ballads. If the Britannica is evidently the of reference for the writer. He may read Matthew Arnold on Sainte-Beuve. interesting. and can be sure of its being authoritative. This is especially true of the man on the smaller newspaper which does not have the luxury of specialnalist's on ists ics Needs its editorial staff. Henley on James Fenimore Cooper. It has already been suggested that the writer will find in the Britannica the clearness and conciseness of style which he cannot but wish to attain in his own work. etc. Edmund Gosse on many Literary Criticism literary genres. John Fiske on Francis Parkman. A newspaper man. on the same day. E. A novelist with an appetite for human documents like Balzac's or like that of Charles Reade with his many albums full of newspaper clippings. Hogarth. and in the Britannica he can read not only an excellent sketch of Stevenson by Edmund Gosse. taking his characters "from — — and historical arfrom its geographical life" in its biographical ticles and his setting articles. — tion more up-to-date. V. but Stevenson's own article on Beranger. Henry Cabot Lodge on Albert Gallatin. the use. could satisfy himself with the Britannica. he can find a full description of the origin. E. Kerchever Chambers on Shakespeare: Ernest Hartley Coleridge on Byron. must be informed at a moment's notice on any one of so large a number and so wide a range of top- The Jour- that the best library of reference obtainable can be none too good for him. And besides. Edmund Bryant.

Sir Leslie Stephen on Browning and Carlyle. Any newspaper writer or contributor to the periodical press should read such articles as: Newspapers (Vol. already mentioned. Saintsbury on French literature. Macaulay and Thomas More. W. Canada. Congreve. United States. Mallarm^. Charles Lever. Brander Matthews on Mark Twain. Trent on Sidney Lanier. Marlowe. Ward on Drama. Arthur Symons on Hardy. Sociology. William Minto on Dryden. lications of deals with the pubsuch societies and classifies them (with geographical sub-classifica- tion for each head) under Science Generally. Stedman on Whittier. Browning. John Addington Symonds on the Renaissance. Verlaine. Viscount St. Agriculture and Trades. Australia and New Zealand. Johnson and Pitt. Physics. and if he will read the articles on great authors written by great authors. Naval and Military Science. editor-in-chief of the Britannica. The more you know of the subjects or authors in this list the more likely you will be to say what a Western professor of theology said. Thomas Seccombe on Boswell. and an elaborate historical account of British. Mark Pattison on Casaubon. E. Greece. by Henry Richard Tedder. with sections Newspapers and on the price of newspapers by Lord Magazines Northcliffe. by H. he will have a doubly valuable course in biographical criticism by the ablest of literary critics. 544. and G. 309). W. A. Mineralogy and Pal- aeontology. Denmark. also and Learned other Countries. Balzac. Gaskell. Humphry Ward on Lyly. Geology. Chemistry. librarian of the Athenaeum Club of London. etc. etc. Anthroand Surgery. equivalent to 40 pages in this Guide).. Spain. History and Archaeology. Italy. Austria. Alice Meynell on Mrs. Mrs. in reviewing the articles in the Britannica dealing with the Bible "They are the very authorities that I would have chosen to write these articles!" But the Britannica will serve fessional author in other giving him information the pro- ways than by in special fields and by keeping before him admirable models of style. 21. W. C. France. R. p. Spenser and Wordsworth. Periodicals (Vol. Zoology. Walter Pater. Carl Schurz on Henry Clay. Bot- any and Horticulture. Cyres on Fenelon and Madame Guy on. Mary. and pology. Richard Henry Stoddard on Hawthorne. Charles Eliot Norton on George William Curtis. Scudder on Lowell and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Wycherley. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 120 smith. He might well follow any of the courses suggested in the chapter on Literature in this Guide. Tasso. Portugal. Arthur Waugh on William Morris. Sonnet. Holland. Mathematics. Machiavelli. India and Ceylon. C. E. Russia. Engineering and Architecture. Medicine Geography. Microscopy. p. H. Borrow. Queen of Scots. Pollock on Thackeray and de Musset. etc. Woodberry on American Literature. on illus- trated papers by Clement Shorter. Germany. Erasmus. 151. Hugo. American and foreign newspapers. 19. (Vol. Rabelais. Montaigne. Theodore Watts-Dunton on Poetry. Richardson on Bronson Alcott and John Fiske. P. Dickens. Tedder. Local information in regard to newspapers and journalism will be found in . W. Whitelaw Reid on Greeley. Rossetti on Shelley. Astronomy. Meteorology. H. Belgium. Crabbe. W. Swinburne on Beaumont and Fletcher. Landor. Sweden. by Hugh Chisholm. Skeat on Layamon: E. F. equiva- lent to 125 pages of this Guide). William Sharp ("Fiona McLeod") on Thoreau Clement Shorter on the Brontes. general information on American newspapers. David Masson on Milton. West Indies and British Crown Colonies. 25. Literature. Societies. Norway. M. treats the subject under the heads: British. South Africa. John Nichol on Robert Burns. W. Matthew Arnold. Cowper and Mrs.. Pope. . Quiller-Couch on Thomas Edward Brown.

740). 477). E. Mass. A. . 1. 3. 22. p. 24. The newspaper man should read the biographies of great American printers and editors : William Bradford (Vol. 6. p. Dana 20 pages in this Guide). 652). advertising writer will find a valuable and stimulating article on Adver- The tisement (Vol. Henry J. Alliteration and signs. 27. Hawley (Vol. equivalent to 225 pages of this Guide. p. p. 26. p. full list of articles of particular usefulness for the author. such as Albany and Springfield. and in the articles on smaller cities. 217). The reading of these biographies will give the student many interesting starting-points for studies in American poli- economics. Watterson (Vol. Literary Biographies Guide). 23. p. Horace Greeley (Vol. 28. Childs (Vol. p. if his field is that of the publicist. etc. p. Philadelphia. p. Gamaliel Bailey (Vol. 23. 28. James G. John BiGELOw (Vol. p.FOR JOURNALISTS AND AUTHORS separate local articles. W. deals with posters (Vol. . p.. Samuel Bowles (Vol. Literature in this Guide. Birney (Vol. 506). James Gordon Bennett (Vol. Whitelaw^ Reid (Vol. 12. Raymond (Vol. William Cullen Bryant (Vol. 20 Thomas Noah Webster (Vol. 466) Gideon Welles (Vol. p. 3. 791). The author should also read the article American Literature (Vol. Benjamin p. 28. p. 13. including newspapers. 28. 141). 52). 933). L. and the allied articles to tics. 1. p. 121 Joseph R. p. 101). which gives a history of the subject. 370) Franklin (Vol. 831. Thus under Boston. periodical advertis- and For a ing. p. 698). circulars. 7. 11. 3. Carl Schurz (Vol. which he is referred from that. George W. 363). 4. p. 4. 174). 3. he should read the article on the history of the United States (Vol. George William Curtis (Vol. reform movements as widely separated as abolition and the introduction of the merit system into the civil service. legal regulation and taxation. equivalent to 35 pages of this Guide). 531). 922). 235. see the chapter brief list may serve The following as the basis for a pre- liminary course of reading. p. p. 663). and Henry 344). p. Garrison (Vol. New Orleans. 4. (Vol. 11. p. New York City. p. L. C. literature. p. 418).. . p. San Francisco. Woodberry. p. 24. GoDKiN (Vol. E. there is valuable information in regard to these cities as literary centers and about their principal periodical publications. George Ripley (Vol. equivalent to Thurlow Weed (Vol. 386). and. 463). 7. 867). Isaiah equivalent to pages of this p. by Professor G. 12. there are valuable historical sketches of the local press of each. 988).

Its authority is doul)ly vouchsafed. it is equally true that many of the most puzzling questions with which the teacher is confronted arise in the teacher's own mind. yet always the least satisfied. The fact that the Britannica is published by the University of Cambridge (England). an ingenious evasion of the issue. believed or studied. a careless response. of all the teacher's pupils. and is to be considered not only in connection with the use of the work for reference. to-morrow morning. one of the world's oldest and most famous seats of learning. And All Questions thisquestion-answering power lies in three characteristics of the work. It is. and may be measured by the extent to which the three are found in it broad scope. And. how the few books available (and they are likely to be a very few if there is no public library at hand) are searched in vain! That is not all. The Teacher's : 122 . who knows how hard the is teacher works. apart from these malicious pitfalls. ity and influence. not for the teacher. When you are trying to make your pupils master a text-book. And then how a fagged brain is tormented that evening." the margin by which the strength of materials must exceed the stress it is expected to encounter. everything that mankind has achieved. The question-answering power of the Britannica is therefore of cardinal importance to the teacher. and of them asks you a question about the subject with which the textbook deals. is. in itself gives such a most of a favorite pastime of parents ** Factor of to send a child to Safety" school primed with some question "to ask Teacher. A rebuff. Its scope covers the whole range of human knowledge. and never content with the progmade. or. and yet is never satisfied with the teacher and that pupil is the teacher's self. attempted. children themselves seem. the volume seems to contain a — most stupendous mass of learning. quite innocently. worst of all." is the phrase with which a conscientious teacher often meets such a contingency. incalculable. is fatal to the teacher's authorcourse. If it be true that the teacher is the most diligent. that particular point is sure to be one that the text-book does when one cover. but in the case of the teacher a "standard" is supposed to indicate no more than an indispensable minimum. For every other learner there is a limit to the amount of knowledge to be acquired. "Ask me that again. but also in the selection of such courses of reading as may be expected to supi)ly information of the kind that Answers to questions often demand. unimpeachable authority and convenient arrangement. What engineers call the "factor of safety.CHAPTER XXIII FOR TEACHERS teacher has one EVERY harder than any tries yet ress pupil who of the others to absorb knowledge. to hit upon questions of extraordinary difficulty." selecting an enigma that has been for centuries a battle-ground for scholars or scientists.

chiefly. that another relation. been reprinted. in a form less clear and vivid than the originals. similarly The writamong them. ers of the Britannica have. lectures should fail to use the Fortunately. Chapman and others. for against the existence of the errors of commission there is a further guarantee. done so large a share of the world's recent work in research and criticism.500 contributors." and adds: "I hope you will not be sued at law for an attempt to monopolize the market for profitable German calls it and entertaining literature. a need for co-ordinated knowledge. including the foremost specialists in every department of knowledge. by means of the Britannica the youngest teacher in the most isolated village is brought into stimulating contact with the great leaders of the teaching gives it profession. and it is impossible to say how many have been paraphrased. very course of that routine. and. Its arrangement the advantages of a universal library. and the practical head of a business school in Pennsylvania says: "By its purchase.FOR TEACHERS guarantee as no other Encyclopaedia has ever offered. recently difficulties A professor in an eastern college wrote to the publishers: "It has become 'the collection of books' which Carlyle might term 'the true university'". Professor Shotwell. and the assurance thus given may be regarded as showing. the Britannica is In 123 the articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica which deal with industrial processes as a substitute for a text-book in one of my courses in Social and Industrial History and have especially in mind the splendid treatment of the cotton industry by Professor S. that there are no errors of omission. in the course of a lifetime." A well known professor of "a Hausschatz of amazing richness and variety. in itself. the system of monthly payments has enabled teachers to purchase the Britannica to an extent which. providing the varied courses of reading outlined in this Guide. The articles are signed by 1. in view of their limited resources. word for word." A laVge number of Britannica articles have. for use as text-books. daily service to anyone engaged in educational work. an instrument as directly productive as a technical library is for a doctor or a lawyer. a collection of separate books which would contain anywhere near as much information. of Columbia Uniwrote to the publishers a letter in which he said: "I shall use versity. Among this army of collaborators. for the teacher. it is certain that the Britannica is.000 entries instantly leads the enquirer to any item of information in the 40. a vast collection in the there is also of text-books. by permission." The presi- . that no one who is engaged in writing a text-book or in preparing a course of work as a check to test the completeness and the accuracy of independent investigation. In some cases two and even three teachers have combined their efforts in order that they might jointly possess But whatever may be the of the work.000 articles. No teacher could hope to form. J. The index of 500. presented in a form available for use in teaching." a reserve of knowledge beyond that which is directly called for in the ordinary routine of the class But room. It has already been remarked that the teacher needs a "facLibrary of Text-Books tor of safety. is a striking evidence of their earnest desire to perfect their professional equipment. and those also of a work of reference which yields an immediate answer to every conceivable question. A to be overcome. of a more advanced kind than that in the text-books with which pupils are provided. employed. And the Britannica is. chosen from twenty countries. I have secured access to a university education. there are no less than 704 members of the staffs of 146 This means universities and colleges.

Scholastic education is considered especially in relation to the first great European universities and the schools of the Dominicans. It discusses old Greek education with special attention to Spartan practice. Franciscans and Brethren of the Common Life." and narrows the meaning to definitely personal work. B. largely summed up in The contest be- and barbarian inroads stifled the Carolingian revival under Alcuin in the 8th century and the scholastic revival (11th to 13th centuries) of Abelard. the education of feudalism. Plato's theory and Aristotle's. the movement away from the classics. and that on the United States by Nicholas Murray Butler. — 'The section on educational theory might equally well be styled a sketch of the history of education and will prove valuable to the teacher preparing for a licence-examination in this subject or for a normal training course. 951). This valuable of Education article begins with a discussion of the meaning of the term "Education. which is the equivalent in length of 120 pages of the size and type of this Guide. Pestalozzi. and the consequent growth of Jesuit schools. slaves. M. the true "working" definition for the practical teacher. and given by father to practical contrasted with the later son." ex- rhetorical and by Greek largely Quintilian's Institutio. the one book to own. notably those of Rousseau. language and biology. largely umes printed on India paper one weighs no more than two monthly magazines tween the pagan system and Christianity is shown to have culminated in monas- — — may be easily held at the proper angle for eye-focus on a large page. The remainder of the article Educa- . handy vol- training. literature. The key-note of the story thereafter is reform. such as history. The older Roman education. In this chapter we suggest a general course. and the gradual change from the point of view of the city-state to Hellenistic cosmopolitanism. The Renaissance is treated at greater length. Aquinas. and of which the first part is by James Welton. about which it is as yet extremely difficult to find material in books. and this is followed by sections on the influence of the Reformation on education. assistant secretary of the London Board of Education. the sections on national systems by G. volume by volume. toward natural science. ticism. I have found the Encyclopaedia most useful. by means of new methods and theories. Coore." A teacher in a theological seminary exclaims: "What a university of solid training it would be for a young student." And a Harvard professor says: "I have been particularly interested in some of the recent phases of European history. and in contrast to chivalry. Concerning some movements. president of Columbia UniversThe Theory ity. The teacher will find in this Guide valuable suggestions about particular subjects which he may wish to teach or study. especially after the French Revolution. 8. professor of education in the University of Leeds and author of Logical Bases of Education. and Arabic workings over of Aristotle. is Hellenized Britannica.. etc. Specialists in school-hygiene and school librarians have also noted the advantage of the light. if you can own but one. if he would spend an hour each day reading the work. and.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 124 dent of a southern university wrote: "It is the first book to consult. which — Let him begin with the article Education (Vol. and including all the articles except those of a technical nature belonging to other departments than his own!" This is what teachers have said of the value to them of the Encyclopaedia cludes John Stuart Mill's extension to everything which "helps to shape the human being. p. Froebel and Herclassical culture until — bart.

p. the Carolingian revival: Alcuin (Vol. 810). 727). 535). 604). 10. On 5. p. The Schools of Charles the Great. p. p. Scholasticism (Vol. 6. p. (Vol. Manuel Chrysolaras (Vol. 15. 894). cially p. Dutch. Scotch. 337). The 125 Jerome (Vol. Schools (Vol. with an excellent bibliography. MoNASTicisM (Vol. 23. QUINTILIAN (Vol. Columbia. Swiss. Cassiodorus (Vol. John (Vol. California. 308). for American universities. 7. . education: (Vol. (Vol. p. p. 231). 320). 22. Glasgow. p. Aberdeen. p. summary 808). 2. p. p. Michigan. 346). on the Paedagogus). p. 153). Gregory (Vol. Angilbert (Vol. 15. 1. Melancthon Luther (Vol. German. Erasmus (Vol. by Daniel Coit Gilman. Charlemagne —to supplement —he should read Then. p. with especial attention to their early pagan education and their attitude toward it as Christians. Bede (Vol. Thomas More (Vol. 529). English. p. 17. 133). Petrarch (Vol. 18. Augustine (Vol. p. 2. particularly p. articles. p. Manutius (Vol. La Salle (Vol. 609. p. 359. p. Harvard. 1. the Scholastic revival: Abelard these general Sparta (Vol. p. 681). 611). p. and on the great by a reading of arti- universities. BoccAcio (Vol. 601). of Salisbury (Vol. 487. Thomas Linacre (Vol. p. 27. 17. 871). Cornell. 21. 4. p. Jr. 18. p. p. national systems are also treated from another point of view in the articles on the separate countries. 12. 810). p. 250). particularly p. These. 14. p. 22. equivalent to On of what known is who gives a of Greek. be followed by a study of the article Universities (Vol. Roman and English schools. 566). 761). Dante 6. 16. St. 23. the Renaissance Renaissance (Vol. Rabelais (Vol. 488. Education should natur- article 5. author of English Schools at the Reformation. 23. p. Oxford. 4. p. On Roman 6. 310). 9). Dublin. 449). 342. late presiArticles on dent of Johns Hop- Great Schools cles kins University. 24. St. p. The student should then turn to the article Yale. and other. 40). p. Albertus Magnus (Vol 1. espe812 (on Meno) and 818 (on the Republic). 12. Martianus Capella (Vol. 249). Cato 2. especially p. as for instance. Welsh and American.. 687). p. p. 83). p. Roger Bacon (Vol. 5. 27. Isidore (Vol. p. Wisconsin. p. 24. early Christian education: Clement of Alexandria (Vol. p. John Colet (Vol. 720).) and. Reuchlin (Vol. Trotzendorff (Vol.FOR TEACHERS TiON deals with national systems of education: French. 4). p. 326). 1. Leland Stanford. etc. p. 18. Ambrose (Vol. p. 5. Jesuits (Vol. 16. about 40 pages of this Guide) by Arthur Francis Leach. Belgian. On Greek Plato On education: (Vol. On Reformation period Counter-Reformation the Reformation and (Vol. etc. BoETius (Vol. p. On 2. 102). Andrews. 769). 3. 798). 116). Aristotle (Vol. Thomas Aquinas (Vol. p. p. p. 88). p. 3. 907) and 701). 459). 204). 9. 822). especially p. p. 624). p. if printed in the style of this Guide) by James Bass MuUinger (author of the History of Cambridge. p. Irish. France (Vol. Princeton. 617). (Vol. 2. 748 about ally — 100 pages. 25. 615). 15. 891. 21. AscHAM (Vol. Cambridge. Pennsylvania. Grosseteste (Vol. p.

p. Ward's article. 759). an elaborate article. 336). p. 2. whether the object desired is to review the entire subject. (Vol. 887). 22. 66). 13. 13. to get a general grounding in the subject for — which a careful study of Henry Barnard (Vol. 410). special topics are listed 869). Voltaire (Vol. p. p. p. 7. 587). Washington (Vol. 10. Horace Mann (Vol. 684). T. 21). A. 16. 547. The systematic Andrew Bell The Study treatment Joseph of Psychology subject in this article is particularly (Vol. Q. 802). dustrial Education. Rousseau (Vol. Morrill (Vol. the of this one article make one's self more certain of his comprehension of any part of the subject. Gallaudet (Vol. F. 17. Alexander Melville Bell 3. p. Co-Education (Vol. p. 875). 684). dent taking the licence-examination or for a teacher taking an examination for a higher grade licence or a principalship. p. Infant Schools (Vol. Booker T. 3.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 126 On the Moaern period: CoMENius (Vol. p. James Blair (Vol. 64). p. John Fitch (Vol. 147). 416). the Britannica contains many briefer articles on special topics. president of the education section of the British Association. p. Technical Education p. p. p. 487). Lancaster (Vol. p. 4. 13. so that the teacher will find not only an excellent text-book of the subject in Prof. p. p. for the stu- Besides the general article with its systematic summary of the subject. 15. by Sir Philip Magnus. 38). 199). 11. 11. H. sharpening one's impressions from a longer course of reading. is a course in Psychology in the Britannica. (Vol. 26. Barnard P. 4. p. 344). about 40 pages in the form of this Guide. p. 22. General analysis of the subject this course of education. 3. Blindness (Vol. 19. 21. 28. C. but also an elaborate dictionary or encyclopaedia of psychological terms or topics. 775). 28. p. equivalent in length to 200 pages of this Guide) by James Ward. Justin S. p. It is not practicable will suffice. p. 13. 23. p. 60). Museums Museums of Science (Vol. Kindergarten (Vol. Deaf and Dumb (Vol. This will be found largely in the great article on Psychology (Vol. Pestalozzi (Vol. p. p. Armstrong (Vol. p. p. 18. p. of Art (Vol. Herbart WiLHELM VoN Humboldt (Vol. 19. in 1907. author of In- member of the Royal Commission on technical instruction (1881-1884) and. or to to give an outline but a few of below: its of this article here. p. 6. p. Polytechnic (Vol. p. Froebel 284). 14. 637). S. Mark Hopkins (Vol. Harris (Vol. 591). 684). 3. 633). 409). (Vol. (Vol. Of equal importance with on the history Attention Theory of presentations Sensation Perception Imagination or Ideation Mental Association Reminiscence and Expectation Experimental Investigations on Memory and Association Feeling Emotion and Emotional Action Intellection Self-Consciousness Relation of Body and Mind Comparative Psychology (Vol. Sir 438). 238). 34). William T. valuable to the teacher. Among the topics treated in this " Dictionary of Psychology" are: .

James Wundt. R. Alexander Baldwin. Herbert Herbart. The Great Preachers which the knowledge and the improvement of the human soul. F. in the present age. M. Thomas Law Hoffding. Sully. Francis James. David Helmholtz. CHAPTER XXIV FOR MINISTERS THE minister or candidate for the ministry will find a valuable course of reading laid out for him in this Guide under the heading Bible Study. A. Hugo Hartley. George Henry Locke. Berkeley. G. Hermann Reid. like every other true specialist. — all the circle of the sciences. Touch Vision Weber's 127 Hobbes. W. E. Arnold Smell Hamilton. George Clifford. it might be nearer the specialist truth to say that. G. Self Sensationalism Geulincx. John Lotze. and should be considered as including merely a few topics not covered in the chapter on Bible Study nor in the other courses which. educa- something of the fine arts. Thomas Ribot. G. Democritus Epicurus Fechner. James Mark Beneke. tributary to his specialty. and still more of social science and economics. tion. should the minister. he must make all knowledge. F. if he has looked up the biographical articles mentioned in connection with the history of education. This he will already have realized. Mill. much of law and political science. Immanuel Ladd. H. general history. almost as fully. and of comparative religion and folk-lore. psychology. F. Johann F. Lange. much more truly. Robert Aristotle Bain. James Mill. Leibnitz. If the schools of the Middle Ages could truly call all the arts and sciences hand-maids and helpers to Theology. W. Subject Parallelism Perception Personality Denotation Recept Dream Relativity Reminiscence Retro-Cognition Hearing Idea Imagination Imitation Immortality Individualism Induction Instinct Intellect Introspection biography: Phenomenon Pleasure psychophysics Extension Furthermore. William Kant. T. von Spencer. T. but. The is suggestions that follow must necessarily be fragmentary. William Suggestion Taste Hucheson. K. lit- erature. A. In a period of specialization he cannot afford to be a or. and it might be said with little exaggeration that any systematic course of reading in the Encyclopaedia Britannica should add to the efficiency and power of one who would be an ideal pastor.FOR MINISTERS Affection Apperception Association of Ideas Attention Category Cognition Concept Connotation Deduction Intuition noumenon Object. know not merely the history of the Bible and of the Church. Harold Will Hume. The following is a brief outline course in psychological Mnemonics Motive Definition Adamson. J. Johannes Peter Miinsterberg. Lewes. philosophy. S. as has just . Miiller. the results of modern criticism. the teacher will find the Britannica a valuable biographical dictionary. Wm. in order that he may minister truly. David James Ward.

p. 13. p. p. p. p. W. (Vol. 114) S. so that the articles supply the basis for a study of the world's great preachers. 4. Benjamin Whichcote (Vol. 17. 5. 26. 673) is House John Donne. and when the theatres were closed at the Commonwealth it grew to be the only public form of eloquence. 5. 672) John Donne (Vol. p. 884) Richard Mather (Vol. p. 16. p. 13. DoANE (Vol. p. 28. 612) Robert Leighton (Vol. 6. 10. p. G. 17. 5. 600) Archibald Campbell Tait (Vol. 4. 28. 435) Matthew Simpson (Vol. 444) Henry Ward Beecher HosEA Ballou (Vol. 17. p. 363) Benjamin Jowett (Vol. 14. 129) J. Brute (Vol. 860) Archibald Alexander (Vol. 921) Benjamin Hoadly (Vol. 19. 6. 26. p. p. 7. 847) John Hales (Vol. 603) Thomas Chalmers (Vol. in the middle of which. 28. 28. 6. p. 885) Increase Jonathan Edwards (Vol. 135) Demetrius A. 527) (Vol. p. 667) John Keble (Vol. p. 809) Edward Irving (Vol. to quote his article. 8. 26. p. 463) John Tillotson (Vol. 20. 3. 9. 392) Ralph Cudworth (Vol. Thomas Browne. 1048) Nathaniel W. 15. 127) John Winebrenner (Vol. John Wycliffe (Vol. p. p. p. 4. of Lords. p. 421) Alexander Campbell (Vol. Muhlenberg (Vol. 759) John Woolman (Vol. librarian of the biographer of Jeremy Taylor and Dr. G. 5. 639) p. 664) Moses Stuart (Vol. p. 976) Edward Stillingfleet (Vol. p. M. 152) James Freeman Clarke (Vol. DE Cheverus (Vol. p. 882) Thomas Boston (Vol. 17. 2) (Vol. 16. 957) J." Each name on the following list of great preachers is accompanied by volume and page reference to the biographical sketch in the Britannica. 715) Peter Cartwright (Vol. 26. 13. 742) ably pursue. 12. p. 627) George Whitefield (Vol. 15. p. Cotton Mather (Vol. 11. 551) Thomas Manton (Vol. p. p. 2. p. p. Adoniram Judson John Hughes p. 28. p. 854) Edward Bouverie Pusey (Vol. p. 25. The writer is especially conversant with the English literature of the 17th century. F. 25. p. 834) Edmund Calamy (Vol. 843) W. p. 1. 282) . L. 517) Henry Edward Manning (Vol. John Fisher (Vol. p. William Ellery Channing p. 469) Isaac Barrow (Vol. 710) John Henry Newman (Vol. 13. 3. 17. (Vol. 961) Frederick Temple (Vol. 17. p. Hugh Norman Macleod (Vol. Maurice (Vol. p. p. p. p. 587) Thomas Adams (Vol. 967) p. John Carroll (Vol. 440) Robert South (Vol. 12. 543) (Vol. 26. 289) John Wesley (Vol. 3. 1. 398) Jeremy Taylor (Vol. 180) Richard Baxter (Vol. 242) John Knox (Vol. 15. 507) George Muller (Vol. 472) Leonard Bacon (Vol. p. 24. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley p. A. 689) John Clifford (Vol. 17. 3. 25. 860) Andrew M. p. 5. containing criticism of the preacher and a bibliography of his works and of works about him. 349) 21. 28. p. 8. p. p. 409) 2) L. p. p. p. 25. 695) John Witherspoon (Vol. 10. Fairbairn (Vol. 24. p. 3. 777) D. p. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 128 been suggested. 883) Mather (Vol. p. Sermon by Edmund Gosse. p. 729) William A. p. 878) Richard Hooker (Vol. p. p. "the sermon became one of the most highly-cultivated forms of intellectual entertainment in Great Britain. p. 817) Samuel Seabury (Vol. 18. 607) John Owen (Vol. Gallitzin (Vol. 531) Francis Asbury (Vol. Edward Payson (Vol. (Vol. 868) 427) Hugh Latimer (Vol. p. 25. a minister might profit- Charles Haddon Spurgeon The article (Vol. 22. 262) American. 417) Joseph Hall (Vol. p. British. 4. 910) Price Hughes (Vol. Taylor (Vol. p. 642) Joseph Butler (Vol. p. p. 25. 18. p. 15. p. p. p. p. 28. p.

Andrew Lang. 4. p. it must be sought conjecturally through psychology". 14. p. 4. Barrow as a mathematician. 287) that is known of this subject. Mythology. 197) James Gibbons encyclopaedia of comparative and of church history. author of Kinship and Marriage in Australia. in his day. Magic. transition to polytheism. 11. p. p. Ritual. 802) article Religion (Vol. . 71) Theodore Beza (Vol. in the article The minister will find the Britannica an all Marett. p. etc. 13. 205) John Fletcher Hurst (Vol. Supplementing what has been said above about the necessity of the minister's being a well-rounded man. author of the Threshold 960) Washington Gladden (Vol. and RobR. p. p. 904) John Calvin (Vol. p. equivalent to 50 pages of this Guide). B. p. 839) which St. p. This John Gerson (Vol. Certain primitive religions are separately treated. with the newest and most authoritative information on any subject in this field. For a brief outline course in these topics let him religion Charles Force Deems (Vol. ethics These lists could easily be made longer and fuller. Animal Worship. 20. that Cudworth was known as the founder of tlie Cambridge Platonists. p. 957). Another class of articles comprises Ancestor Worship. Folklore. monotheism. 18. 239) Reuben Archer Torrey (Vol. F. revelation. 825) David Swing (Vol. 13. of Religion and contributor to the Britannica of articles on Prayer. W. Prayer. Marett. p. and a section on the higher religions which Louis Bourdalous (Vol. Ritual. 27. 63) John Ireland (Vol. Oxford. etc. p. written by such authorities as N. Savage (Vol. Chamberlain. 14. 873) Phillips Brooks (Vol. Fetishism. 17. 706) MiNOT J. 329) Esprit Flechier (Vol. 694) Henry C. p. fellow and tutor of Exeter ert College. and McCook as a great ticle naturalist. Oxford. 13. 26. and concluding that "the origin of religion can never be determined archaeologically or historically. especially pages 471-473).* 12. 10. Edward Everett Hale R. Worcester. North American (Vol. p. 120 of Manchester College. DwiGHT L. polytheism. p. 742) John Joseph Keane (Vol. 4. 25. 61. 10. BossuET (Vol. 11. 61) French. 936) (Vol. 12. 3. Clark University. 23. S. and Jowett as the translator of Plato. excellent 649) (Vol. Joseph Estlin Carpenter. 940) J. Storrs (Vol. were poets as well as preachers. p. p. Moody (Vol. Serpent-Worship. p. Totemism and Tree. p. 2. 915) discusses developments of animism. principal T. article is made up of: a general introduction sketching the history of the study of religions. Stanley Arthur Cooke and R. Francis of Sales (Vol. by Dr. p. p. Doane and Muhlenberg. 194) Robert Collyer The 7. 17.FOR MINISTERS Horace Bushnell (Vol. Edward Everett Hale as an essayist and writer of short stories. 380) Isaac T. 4. 867) Jean Siffrein Maury (Vol. a section on primitive religion. 17. 491) Jules Mascaron (Vol. 921) Edwards Amasa Park (Vol. p. p. p. Animism. (Vol. only to Isaac Newton. Thomas. second. but the articles mentioned give such a view of the great preachers of the world as cannot fail to stimulate any minister. ligions. 24. especially in the last century. in a less degree. 237) Michael Augustine Corrigan (Vol. Hecker (Vol. 5. 26. DeWitt Talmage (Vol. Sacrifice. classification of re- and eschatology and bibliography. McCook (Vol. p. it may be worth while to notice that Donne and Keble and. by A. R. especially Hawaii (Vol. p. 7. 832) 969) read: (Vol. as in the article Indians. p.Worship. 88). p. 6.. assistant professor of anthropology. 15. 836) Jean Baptists Massillon (Vol. in the ar- Australia pages 87. p. the order is a remarkable summary of of nature (a half-way stage to monotheism). p. 17. p.

Oxford. W. 9. 280. profesMarburg. 13. Sikhs as authoritative. all by the same author and all of particular value as throwing side- — lights on Hebrew Religion. and author of History of the Bab. W. 12. etc. by D. 12. It begins with an outline of the work of the great church historians and divides the subject into three parts first. this part and the general introduction are by A. Brahmanism Roman Religion Cyril Bailey. McGiflFert. SiKHisM. professor tory of of philosophy Union Theological York. author of Modern Europe. pp. by W. Sydney. equivalent to 45 pages in this Guide). fellow of Davids. 501). Assur and GilGAMESH. Margoliouth. author of Buddhist Paul the Apostle gospels. editor of the New (Berlin) Hieroglyphic Dictionary. Hartford Theological Seminary. by L. 13. S. and The Modern Church. the Church in the Middle Ages. by Albert Hauck. Mahomet. by Rev. Stanton. Great Mother OF THE Gods. Cambridge. by Allan H. On Church History cellent (Vol. Oxford. Alison Phillips. Jews. Laudian professor of Arabic. 6. Fama. .C.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 130 On higher religions there are the following separate articles (among many): Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. Mahommedan Religion (Vol. by Morris Jastrow of the University of Pennsylvania. Joseph Armitage Robinson. warden of Camden College. professor of church Mansfield College. Professor of Sanskrit. by G. Jesus Christ religion. Bona Dea. Rhys T. equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide). equiva- by G. by Max Macauhffe. Faunus. Arval Brothers. 20. and the articles Anai. R. is volume 6 an ex- 331. author of The Religions of China. Hermes. p. duism (Vol. p. fellow of Exeter College. p. H. p. 23. IsHTAR. p. Oxford. and the valuable articles on Eastern cults in Rome. Babiism. 48-56). by Karl Geldner. Mahommedan Institutions and Mahommedan Laws. James Vernon India. by E. p. by James Legge. Hecate. 17. Greek Religion (Vol. Cambridge. Juno and Jupiter. by ing. Church of (p. Themis and Zeus. Owen Charles Whitehouse. sor at 417. Cambridge. pro- Hebrew. 527). (Vol. Zoroaster. second. G. Farnell. and author of The Religion of Ancient Rome. Egypt (Vol. and such articles as Anna Perenna. p. and such articles as Demeter. 577). articles on the separate of this Guide). Confucius. Attis. and the article Parsees. 176. New York City. Ea. etc. by Balliol College. Gardiner. p. Knox. professor of Semitic languages. C. New Seminary. and the articles Hebrew Literafessor of ture. p. Oxford. key article in there history. and his- lent to 35 pages of this Guide). 4. This sketch may be filled in by reference to the following — articles : (among many) Church Armenian Church Abyssinian Roman Catholic Church Papacy Orthodox Eastern Church Reformation England. V. by W. Hera. Buddha and Lamaism. S. Nike. Marduk. Gospel (Vol. Dean of Westminster. by the Rev. equivalent to 45 pages of this Guide). 265). Mithras. 938). etc. Phoebus. Thatcher. and Hin- Julius Eggel- Edinburgh. Ely professor of divinity. up to 590 B. Hebrew Religion (Vol. 348. Browne. by Professor Grant Showerman of the University of Wisconsin. equivalent to 35 pages by the Very Rev.. Christianity (Vol. professor of church history in Union Theological Seminary. Cheshunt College. by Dr.. whose book The Sikh Religion is accepted by the Bartlett. (Vol. Buddhism. Concordia. professor of church history at Leipzig. 15. Macdonald. Hestia. 381) (Vol. professor of Arabic. by D. Church of Ireland. author of Cults of the Greek States. p.

Feast of Antitype Asceticism Apocalypse. Episcopal Church in Lutherans Baptists Presbyterianism Cameronians Congregationalism Infallibility Inspiration Methodism P'riends. p. Confession Aquarii of Arabici Augustinians Almoner Almuce Ambrosians Ambrosiaster field: Antinomians Ascension. equivalent to 45 pages in this Guide). Church of Scotland. 26. but it will serve to show the value of the book Atonement Baptism Confession Confirmation Conversion to a clergyman in his Abbess Agnosticism Anthropomorphism Abbey Abbot Agnus Dei Agrapha Alb Antichrist Abbreviators Abecedarians Abgar Ablution Abrahamites Absolution Abstemii Abyssinian Church Acephali Altar Adiaphorists Amora Adoptianism Advent Adventists.Atheism tions Athos. Knights of Ascitans Albigenscs Allah All Saints All Souls Day Allocution Acerra Acoemeti Acolyte Adamites own Aristides. Robert Mackintosh of Lancashire Independent College. Dr. 772. Society op Penance Calvinistic Methodists Disciples of Christ German Baptist Brethren Predestination Purgatory Sin Transubstantiation Mennonites Moravian Brethren doukhobors Worship On German Catholics Old Catholics Religious Orders: Abbey Friars United Brethren United Presbyterian Church Monasticism Monk Nun A brief course in theology and dogma contained in the following articles: Theology (Vol. Feast of Apostolic Fathers Asterius of Cappadocia Apostolical Constitu. Second Advocatus Diaboli Ampulla Agape Agapemonites Agapetae Agapetus Agnoetae Amen Amice Anabaptists Anathema Angel Angelus Annates Annimciation Apologetics Ash-Wednesday Apostasy Apostle Asperges Archbishop Archdeacon Arches. Court of Archimandrite Augustinians Canons Augustinian Hermits Autocephalous Archpriest Anglican Communion Anglo-Israelite Artemon Asaph Assassins Apostolic Canons Assumption. preachers and theologians. Sisterhoods is and see also the names of different orders and hundreds of biographical articles on saints and heretics. by the Rev. Mount Apostolici Atonement Apotactites Attrition Apotheosis Augsburg. Manchester.FOR MINISTERS 131 Dogmatic Theology eschatology Eucharist Excommunication Grace Immaculate Conception Scotland. The following alphabetical list includes only a part of the articles in the Britannica on religious topics. Apology of Theory Arius Ark Armenian Church Auto da F6 Auxentius of docia Azan Azymites Bdbiism Cappa- .

tion Diptych Dirge Donation Cluny Cohen Commendation Common ticus Fathers of the Church Feasts and Festivals Febronianism Ferrara-F 1 o r e n c e Council of Ember Days Habdala Encyclical Haggada Energia England. Poor Clergy Clerk Broth. Confession of Basel. Cowl Cowley Fathers land Free Church of Scotland Free Church Federa- German Docetae ren. Synods of Carthusians of Congregation Congregationalism cils Cathars Cope Catholic Catholic Copts Apostolic Church Corban Corporal Celestines Corpus Celibacy Cenobites Cerdonians Chalcedon.Grandmontines sioners Great Awakening BishElder Gustavus A d o 1 p h u Elvira. Church of Enthusiasm Ephesus. Society of Gallicanism tine Order. . Synod of Union of Catechumen Cassock Catechism will Baptists Free Church of Eng- Doukhobors Doxology Consistory Consistory Courts Constance.Grace tion Gradual Ecclesiastical Commis. Council of Hagiology Hajj Halakha Halfway Covenant Ephod Halisah Epiphany. Shepherd of Hermeneutics Hermit Crozier Faldstool Familists Hesychasts Hierarchy Hieronymites High Place Hippolytus. Council of Basilian Monks Beatification Beguines Benedictines Benediction Benedictus Bethlehemites Bible Christians Biretta Bridgittines Brothers of Life Cistercians Clares. Feast of Episcopacy Eschatology Essenes Establishment Hallel Eucharist Evangelical Alliance Feast Evangelical Association Evangelical Church Conference Evangelical Union Exarch Excommunication Hanukkah Haptara Harem Hebrew Religion Heidelberg Catechism Helvetic Confessions Hemerobaptlsts Heresy Hermas.132 BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES Babylonian Captivity Bagimond's Roll Chaplain Chasuble Chiliasm Curia Romana Curate Cyprus.) Catholics Evangelical Synod of America North Ghazi Giaour Glasites Glory Gnosticism Easter Golden Rose Ebionites Good Friday Ecclesiastical Jurisdic. The Christian Science Diocese Christmas Diognetus. Council of Chaldee Chalice of Council Chambre Ardente Chant Chantry Chapel Chapter Christi. or Free- Gaon German Baptist Breth- Dossal Confessional Confessor Confirmation Confirmation ops Franciscans Frankincense Dispensation Dissenter Donatists Conclave Concord. II Bangorian Controversy Chrism Baphomet Baptism Baptists Basel. Deacon Christ Deaconess Christadelphians Catholic Dean Christian Decretals Church Dedication Christian Connection Endeavour Deism Christian Dervish Societies Devil Christianity Didache. Synod of The Golden Flagellants Friars Friends. Council of CounConstantinople.Clementine Literature Common Cadi Calf. Consuetudinary Convent Conversion Convocation Fraticelli Free Baptists. The ons of Culdees Fasting Holy Creatianism and Traducianism Credence Creeds Cross and Crucifixion Exorcist Extreme Unction Fakir s Can- . Dogmatic Theology Dominicans of Constan- of or German German S. Book of Concordat Confession Font Disciples of Christ Book Dort. Church of Dalmatic Bairam Chimere Bambino. Epistle to Church Dionysius AreopagiChurch Army Church Congress Church History Churching of Women Churchwarden Ciborium Bidding-Prayer Bishop Black Veil Bogomils BoUandists Boy's Brigade Breviary Bridgebuilding erhood Davidists Calvary Calvinlstic Ministers Camaldulians Cameronians Candlemas Canon Canoness Canon Law Canonization Capuchins Cardinal Carmathians Carmelites Carnival Carthage. Dogma Brethren (U. A.

Book of Com- mon Prayers for the Dead Preaching Prebendary Limbus Necrology Precentor Limina Apostolorum Neo-Caesarea. Synod of Plymouth Brethren Poissy. Colloquy of Oratory of St. Councils of Index Librorum Pro. Philip Neri.. S. Synod of Jesuati Jesuits Jesus Christ Jews Jihad Jubilee. Colloquy of Hospice Houri Hours. Council of Pistoia. Councils of Nimes. Year Year of Ka'ba Kabbalah Kermesse Keswick Convention Kismet Koran Jerusalem Church Year's Day Nicaea. Canonical Housel Humanitarians Humiliati Hussites Hymns Hypostasis Iblis Icon Iconoclasts Ignorantines Illuminati • 133 Legate Lent Libellatici Liber Diurnus Liber Pontificalis Morse Mortuary Mozarab Muckers Mufti Libertines Mysticism Lights. The Minister Miracle Miserere Missal Missions Lamb Mitre Pentecost Lambeth Conferences Laodicea. (German) Reformed Episcopal Church Regium Donum Pax Regular Pectoral Peculiar Peculiar People Pelagius Relics Religion Melchites Midrash Millennium Paten Patriarch Koreshan Ecclesia. Lectionary Moravian Brethren Lector Mormons Pietism Pilgrim Pilgrimage Pirke Aboth Pisa.FOR MINISTERS Holy Water Holy Week Lavabo Monophysites Piarists Lay Monothelites Homiletics Laymen. Synod of Preconization Lincoln Judgment. Congregation Marcion and the Marcionite Church of the Order. The Kosher or Kasher Kyrie Labour Church.Mahdi hibitorum Mahommedan InstituIndulgence tions Indult InfallibiHty Innocents' Day Inquisition. Synod Rochet Rogation Days . Order of Montanism Lection. Holy Maronites Marprelate Controversy Orphrey Orthodox Eastern Martyr Martyrology Church Pallium or Pall Matins Palm Sunday Maundy Thursday Pantheism Maurists Party Royal Mechitharists Passion Week Pastoral Letter Pastoral Staff Patarenes Presbyter Presbyterianism Methodist Church Prior Procession Procession Path Prolocutor Proselyte Protestant Protestant Episcopal Church Protestantenverein Provision Purgatory Purim Puritanism Qaraites Quakers Quietc?m Rabbi Ramadan Ranters Rawendis Rector Recusant Mendicant Movement and Orders Mennonites Messiah Methodism Methodist New Con- Patron nexion Metropolitan Paulicians Reformed Churches Reformed Church Vu America (Dutch) Reformed Church in U. Church of Islam Jacobite Church Jansenism Jehovah Jerahmeel Jerusalem. Councils of Primate Nonconformist Primitive Nosairis Novice Nun Nuncio Oblation Oecumenical Mahommedan Law Mahommedan Religion Offertory Mandaeans Official Manichaeism Maniple Old Catholics Manse Marabout Olivetans Ophites Oratory Marburg. A. Ceremonial use Mythology of Nazarenes Pope Prayer. St. The Inspiration Installation Institutional Church Interim Interdict Investiture Ireland. Synod of Peter's Pence Lateran Councils Moderator Monarchianism Monasticism Laud Monk Penance Penitential Penitentiary Pew Philadelphians Phylactery Remonstrants Requiem Reredos Retable Reverend Ritual River Brethren Robber. Houses of Homily Monsignor Monstrance Lazarites Lazarus. Jubilee. The Neophyte Predestination Image Nestorians Prelate Imam New New P remonstratensians Litany Liturgy Imitation of Christ. The Logia Immaculate Conception Low Churchman Immortality Low Sunday In Coena Domini Lutheran Incumbent Luther League Independents Lyons.

Councils of Sardica. "Working library" is. and it is used here to mean only the handof medical science. Church of Episcopal Scotland.Stole salem Testamentum Domini Tetragrammaton Teutonic Order Theism Templars Church Sponsor Salvation Army Saragossa. United Synazarium Transubstantiation Trappists Trent. physiology. Councils of Tertiaries Martyrs Scotland. medical education. books which constitute an irreducible minimum. the few without which no beginner would venture to establish . It is also true that the writers who sign these articles are specialists of worldwide authority. the Britannica does not profess to take the place of the elementary working library in daily use by every professional man. Church in Scillitan Ursulines Vallombrosians Vatican. Council of Venerable Tenebrae Suifragan Schism Theocracy Theology Theosophy Therapeutae Silvestrines Stations of the Cross Stigmatization Jeru. it is desirable to define the limits. therapeutics. notwithstanding all this wealth of matter and of international collaboration. It is true that the 644 medical articles. Court of Rubric Sabbation Sabians Sacerdotalism Sacramentals Sacramentarians Sacrarium Sacred Heart John of Reformed Sufiism Sunnites Verger Vespers Vestments Viaticum Vicar Tonsure Supererogation Superintendent Surplice Syllabus Sect Secular Synagogue. cover the whole field of anatomy. surgery.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 134 Roman Rosary Rota. medical jurisprudence and medical biography. and that the total number of words and illustrations in these articles is as great as would be required for a complete encyclopaedic handbook But. Council of Vigil Wahhabis Waldenses Wesleyan Methodist Church Westminister Synods Whitsunday. many of which might be described as books in themselves. however. or Pente- Trinitarians Trinity Sunday Tunicle Symbol Synagogue Syncellus See Sepulchre. pathology. in outlining the services which the work can render to those engaged in the prevention and treatment of disease. Canons Reg. Council of Vienne. an elastic term.Synedrium Synod ular of the Holy Ulema Ultramontanism Unction Unitarianism United Brethren Talmud Servites Thurible Tiara Tithes Toledo. Council of Scotland Methodist United Church United Methodist Free Churches United Presbyterian Church Universalist Church Shrove Tuesday Soutane Spanish Sacrament United Free Church of Targum Sin Sion College Sisterhoods Skoptsi Rum Saint Tanna Catholic Church Shiites Shrine Rood cost Worship i Christ Yezidis Young Men's Christian Association Sexton Shakers Zenana CHAPTER XXV FOR PHYSICIANS. of the plan adopted by the technical assistant editors to insist to whom the Editor-in-chief entrusted the control of this important part of the undertaking. SURGEONS AND DENTISTS THE Britannica adds so largely to medical literature that. pharmacology. rather than upon the extent.

physics. Certain manuals to the practitioner. 75 on pharmacology. however legitimate they may be. or find so helpful. 135 himself other are. and it is not the function of the Britannica to duplicate what the practitioner already posseses. botany. at Method its institutions. constituting broad systematic surveys of the various provinces of the subject: 103 articles on anatomy and physiology. (6) Chemistry. zoology and psychology. are no proof of his capacity. 21 on public health. A consultation of the list appended . On the other hand. of technical collabora- in the Britannica. to administrative and legislative provisions re- garding public health. as the Britannica. which. in addition to the articles on dentistry and on veterinary science. (1) tion The system is. The sister sciences of chemistry. The contributors were selected with a view to their recognized ability only. to do and when he can add anything nothing he will use so often. for example. professional he must to the bare modicum of medical literature with which The he may have been Encyclopaedic with public which where obtain. specialists (7) of Apart from the (8) The Britannica not only enlarges the medical library of the practitioner. surgeons and men who devote themselves exclusively to re- information his best. biology. have much to offer him. to hospitals and the broadly from twenty a scope which the private writer cannot attain. and the insight which the physician may thus gain will often be of service to him. and the members of his family. (2) The Britannica articles were written for the sole purpose of being used in their present form. definite occupational diseases (fully discussed in the Britannica). there is often a relation between the pathological results of overwork and the routine of the patient's business life. before dealing in detail with the articles included in this course of reading. and retains too much of its first form to be satisfactory to the professional man. nor yet.FOR PHYSICIANS. and 170 biographies. (3) The articles are all based upon an original and recent survey of knowledge. SURGEONS AND DENTISTS in practice. and thus contain information which cannot be found in reprints of standard medical works insufficiently brought up to date by additions to earlier editions. psychology sciences field of the highest authority. no man restricts himself a day to longer than is first. but gives him. there it. 265 Scope of the articles on patholMedical Section ogy. what mathematical tables are to the engineer. the medical and surgical section of the Britannica comprises 3 general articles. gives search. the use of the only complete library of general information. they men access to cannot bacteriology. its professional uses. Specifically. (5) The great number of biographies of physicians. whereas the publication of medical works is too often an outcome of the writer's ambitions. Every branch of industry and commerce is treated in detail in the Britannica. A great part of current medical literature originates in lectures to students. botany. It may be well to define in general. to include a pharmacopoeia in a book used by the general public. But this comprehensive scheme does not by any means include all the material of value to the medical man. gives professional forced. contributions different countries. else- general and other allied to the more immediate medicine are fully treated by biology. (4) In relation to statistics. which are partly surgical. international character of the Britannica. organized and coordinated with a completeness which gives the medical articles an authority and impartiality often lacking in isolated treatises.

15. 13. 19. 19. F. p. 19. 27. Allbutt. p. 663) Blood (Vol. 16. 129). Sherrington. lecturer on Anat- Britain noted authority also writes detailed and illustrated articles on the anatomy and embryology of the Brain fully (Vol. dean of the medical faculty. Haldane of Oxford University. from the pen of the celebrated Prof. p. H. 44). 1. 287). general article Physiology (Vol. and Respiratory System (Vol. 4. etc. p. p. p.000 words. a useful reference article by Sir John Batty Tuke. fications of Dr. professor of physiology in the University of Liverpool. homicide. p. 188). Superficial and Artistic specialists. 77) Lymphatic System (Vol. and Dr. The . There are discussions of questions affecting the civil or social rights of individuals. Ear 392). P.41) containing about 35. 196). 25. 6. 483). Hennessy. This deals solely with that branch of the science which has to do with the application of medical knowledge to certain questions of civil and criminal law. . extensive and detailed accounts of the physiology of the Brain (Vol.|7 Anatomy. E. Parsons. Littlejohn. Brodie of the Uni- article is p. H. 25. 25). 26. p. Lon- don. G. Hans A. Embryology. and injuries to the person. Vascular System (Vol. Dr. vice-president the Anatomical Society of Great and Ireland. p. Medicine University of Edinburgh. 958). (Vol. Prof. Joints (Vol. the function of the physician in questions of mutilation. Hamilton and Richard Muir . by noted p. Ingram. Dr. including Dr. Max Verworn of the University of Bonn. Spinal Cord (Vol. history from the earliest known times to the middle of the 19th century. It must suffice here to call attention briefly to some of the more important contributions. 329). W. p. 23. 314) and Dr. 21.D. p. p. Chalmers Mitchell. 91). 19. p. L. Muscular System (Vol. 25. completes this review with a section on Modern Progress (p. This deals with the history and development of the science. Howell.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 136 to this section will show how the needs of the physician and surgeon are served by the Encyclopaedia. Charles S. p. Hill. Frederick G. Respiratory System (Vol. Drs. p. by H. versity of Toronto.. Dr. and Sir T. p. Nervous System (Vol. J. (Vol. Vascular System (Vol. ThomHospital. 27. 169). T. p. E. 23) is necessary to the practice of medicine in Europe and America. 17. 929) Alimentary Canal (Vol. furnishing data on the educational 'quali18. 4. 166). lecturer on physiology at the 920) which goes deeply into its history. Skull (Vol. 926). p. 9. 184) and on the Skeleton (Vol. Sympathetic System (Vol. and Dr. 129). Payne of the Royal College of Physicians. by Dr. omy and Physiology as's at St. p. Driesch of Heidelberg University adds to it a section Physiology of Development (p. and to this there are closely p. p. London. p. 51). Of high practical value is Medical Jurisprudence or Forensic its (Vol. C. J. 77). L. 554) is according to the new plan of the Britannica. 18. (Anthropotomy) and This Anatomy. p. Johns Hopkins University. professor of forensic medicine. 25. Medical Education (Vol. . Skin and Exoskeleton (Vol. and T. infanticide. contributes the general article Anatomy (Vol. etc. 791) Olfactory System (Vol. professor of physic in Cambridge University. 4. Connective Tissues (Vol. Reproductive System (Vol. first. 8. Muscle and Nerve (Vol. p. 403). 1. G. 10. Taking up. Brodie of the Uni- Human Anatomy versit. and Nerve (Vol. linked. 23. of Toronto. traces articles. Eye Heart (Vol. treating of the laws that govern the development of the organism. J. p. Dr. T. p. A. S. Adam Sedgwick writes a most excellent general and historical account of Embryology (Vol. Dr. the more general there is Medicine (Vol. and has further sections on Modern London Hospital. Another valuable anatomical 394). 400). 55). 23. H. poisoning. 20. 187). p. 672). p.

Sir J. (Vol. 12. p. 28. the Calmette eye-test in tubercular diseases. A. Harriet L. by Disease (Vol. L. L. consulting physician to St. Errors of Refraction and Accommodation (Vol. p. London. late senior Brighton and Sussex Throat and Ear Hospital. p. of University College Hospital. 18. 4. p. Cambridge University. Therapeutics by Dr. The subjects of Electrotherapeutics (Vol. for example. to which branch of medicine an admirable introduction is furnished by Veterinary Science (Vol. by Sir the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. G. Fisher. p. C. H. Baber. includArticles on ing coloured plates. fully illustrated. George A. but. Bruce. by Dr. and Dr. This includes veterinary diseases. Diseases also (Vol. by Drs. hon. p. Pathology (Vol. John Batty Tuke. 1. L. Edmund Owen. famous Bladder and Prostate Diseases (Vol. burgh and M. 14. not only discusses both rational and empirical therapeutics. Mott. 165). specific details there of articles on and ailments under is the different dis- their common names. vaccine therapy. the Bradford London. p. etc. president of 25. 3. general 26. 3. 14. Hennessy. Ernest Clark of the Central London Ophthalmic Hospital. Baths (Vol. p. and editor of the Archives of Neurology. 195). by Dr. SURGEONS AND DENTISTS are the authors of a brilliant summary of the whole subject of Pathology (Vol. C. p. p. author of numerous articles on this subject. Respiratory System. 794). Pathology The whole story of the elevation of the science dealing with the theory and causation of disease from a mere philosophical abstraction to one of the natural sciences is admirably told. 132). Broadbent. p. Diseases (Vol. taking up the different parts of the body considers in detail the therapeutic measures most commonly employed in the treatment of disease. Edinburgh. Paton of Edinburgh UniverDigestive Organs. The last is by Dr. Vision. J. by Dr. F. p. Neuropathol- — ogy (Vol. R. Jones. p. Frederick Peterson has written a section on Hospital Treatment of the insane. p. the distinguished pathologist to the London County Asylums. p. for this article the noted American specialist Dr. Blood. author of Heart Disease and Aneurysm. 13. 27) Venereal English surgeon. Gulland of Edinburgh. H. 597). surgeon oculist to his Majesty George V. 887) have separate articles devoted to them. 23. 8. Sims 137 of is the author Gynaecology For more complete eases list (Vol. Gillespie of Edin- Kidney Diseases (Vol.. . Eye. Heart. p. Hennessy (Vol. E. p. p.FOR PHYSICIANS. p. 913) with over 50 illustrations. 28. by Dr. 284). 20. H. 429). 142). 764). by Dr. 8. 784). author of Studies in Clinical Psychiatry. 19. 9. 270). p. by Dr. p. 17. 2).. 190). J. auTherapeutics thor of Modern Therapeutics. and Dr. etc. 15. Sir Lauder article 793). George Fleming and James MacQueen. Diseases of (Vol. G. 20. F. Berry. Bartholomew's Hospital. 10. Meta- Woodhead. L. 82). surgeon. 28. serum treatment and its latest developments. Hydropathy Aerotherapeutics (Vol. p. The (Vol. Thomas Harris. In the articles on diseases there will be found accounts of the latest methods of diagnosis and treatment. D. of pathology. Pathology (Vol. etc. 4. 514). one of the notable contributions to the Britannica. and medical director of the New Staughton Hall Asylum. Dr. 27. For the pathological details of various diseases and groups of diseases the reader is referred to Parasitic Diseases p. 249). Macpherson. fully illustrated. by Dr. by sity. 863) and X-Ray Treatment (Vol. 770). Pathology (Vol. Brunton. p. 262) Prof. Ear. 983) —these by Dr. L. Owen. professor bolic Diseases (Vol. Skin Diseases two (Vol. N. Insanity (Vol. Dr. Massage (Vol. and Dr. by Dr. 94). p. clinical lecturer on medical elec- . p. W. 195). Balneotherapeutics (Vol. by Dr. as.

p. p. use of radium. 398). and Haemorrhoids (Vol. bloodless operations. p. writes on the history of Surgery (Vol. 18. great Arab physician and philosopher AviCENNA (Vol. 12. by Stockman of the University of London. 276) we learn how the gods of Greece effected cures." both date from him.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 138 on Can- at St. 132) is fully illustrated. 277). on Tumour (Vol. p. with a special account of cancer research. 722). p. John (Vol. etc. the article Bone. 62) should not be overlooked. Hennes- section. 962). Simpson. p. 1. 7. p. 907). 13. p. and Haller. Charles Creighton of King's College. Sydenham. Surgery Dr. 26. teacher of anaesthetics at St. tability" possesses 15. 200) and many accounts of diseases and disorders that come within the province of the surgeon. Dr. University of Edinburgh. p. p. p. William (Vol. 3. structive course of reading Medical Biographies biographical articles alone. p. 920). 217). Edmund Owen the section Modern Practice of 129) in which are discussed antiseptic and aseptic surgery. (Vol. Rontgen Surgery (p. 13. For information about the theory that disease originated from an irregular or inharmonius motion of the body corpuscles we turn to Asclepiades (Vol. 21. (Vol. too. Impor- tant and interesting. The article Surgical Instruments and Appliances (Vol. Diseases and Injuries (Vol. p. Louis Courtauld. Dr. Pharmacology (Vol. 347). 125) and the famous English Surgeon. An account of the man "out of whom the greater part of medicine has flowed" is found in Galen (Vol. 805). the father of English medicine. In connection with the subject of therapeutics. 2. rays. p. cian as we now understand it. The work of Morgagni (Vol. 939) and Hahnemann. Crouch. Varicose Veins (Vol. and H. p. 749). C. emeritus professor of midwifery and the diseases of women and children. of the Epidemiological Society. 13. 319). 831) in pathological anatomy marks an epoch in medicine. tricity Professor Glasgow. 4. Owen also contributes articles on the surgery of the different organs. writes on Obstetrics (Vol. 855). this valuable material Dr. are the biographies of Harvey. —a in Therapeutics (p. p. Thomas (Vol. nor the story of the revolt of Paracelsus (Vol. A most and An- unusual and inon the history and development of medicine may be based on the interesting.C. 518) is worthy of we now note. 372) . 27. 26. p. and the description in Cullen. von (Vol. Middlesex Hospital Cancer Laboratories. p. p. 19. 12. S. Perito- nitis 171). The life story of Hip- pocrates (Vol. Sir Alexander R. London. mention must be made of cer. fication into and a 28 groups with a descrip- To tion of the effect of each remedy. drainage tubes. 21. A. for- merly research scholar. 370). 27.F. 12. 352) planation of the common Terminology general ex- names used in the classification of drugs. in which will be found an teresting history of drugs. p. L. Dr. p. 616) of his new doctrine of "irri- a distinct interest. 10. p. while among the great names of the 19th will be found the . Fistula (Vol. William (Vol. Bartholomew's Hospital. p. for the "medical art as the character of the physi- practice it. p. In Aesculapius (Vol. The accounts of Jenner. Arthur Shadwell. 819) describe momentous events in the history of medicine at the close of the 18th century. p. Dr. The biography of the 11. The list at the end of this chapter indicates the separate articles on drugs and on materials from which the principal drugs are obtained. 13. such as Appendicitis (Vol. Thomas's Hospital. p. 2. 42). p. 20. on Anaesthesia aesthetics (Vol. Hernia (Vol. Edward (Vol. whose work marks the beginning of modern physiology. 438). Hunter. sy in- classi- has added a H. Cambridge. 1. 26.

p. 7. H. the late Prof. of the University of Pennsylvania. Temperance (Vol. a very complete and up-to-date scientist. 26. 954). 534). 544). p. 171). Dr. W. D. N. Biology (Vol. 16. 214). It has already been noted that the Britannica will prove an invaluable help to medical specialists in fields of knowledge other than their own. 201). Suggestion (Vol. 14. 6. G. 13. 26. p. also 350). Bromley. chemistry. Phrenology (Vol. formerly of the U. Acclimatization p. 19. 880). Deaf and Dumb by Rev. Dept. principal Royal Normal College London. p. Robert Muir of Glasgow University has written. Atwater. mechanics and other subjects with which the dentist is concerned. by Prof. Cambell. Josiah Old- chemist Pasteur (Vol. 3. 10. 28. article on Vivisection (Vol. 21. It is. 20. by Prof. which is the readily available. 499). SURGEONS AND DENTISTS Nutrition (Vol. p. V. F. 3. 26. 48). by Professor Macalister of Cambridge. The regret is The Allied often expressed by Sciences physicians that it is not easy for them to study subjects outside their profession. by the late Prof. the medical man now enjoys a magnificent opportunity to obtain a full acquaintance with many subjects that he knows will assist him in the work. be found under Teeth (Vol. Psychical Research (Vol. field. D. p. 15. Mendelism Mitchell. 974). Hypnotism (Vol. 153). Mitchell. and Longevity both by Dr. p. p. p. Ward of Cambridge and Prof. metallurgy. 547). Evo- lution (Vol. p. Stephen Paget. R. Vegetarianism (Vol. 892). Paton and Dr. O. Microscope (Vol. Blackman senior physician to the Lady Margaret Fruitarian Hospital. Parsons. Koch. 10. p. and with its highly authentic information skillfully compressed into reasonable space. only too true. by Dr. by Dr. 60). 16. unfortunately. p. 967). p. p. by Prof. p. 392) . 135). S. Washington. A. a brilliant study of the foundations of an exact knowledge of the physiological process of heredity. P. of the University of Leeds. Faith Healing (Vol. M. p. however. and the attention of the physician and surgeon is directed to Bacteriology (Vol. by Sir Francis J. Rudolf . A. (Vol. Russel Wallace. p. H. 8. 50) is covered by the highest American for the Blind. even when these are closely connected with their work. a classic article by the 139 key to a series of 25 remarkably interest- ing articles covering the entire subject. and a full account of the anatomy of the teeth will authority. p. but the alphabetical list at the end of this chapter includes them. 777) and Virchow. Climate in the Treatment of Disease (Vol. and R. by the renowned (Vol. by Andrew Lang. Robert (Vol. 526). It is. P. Arthur Shadwell. by Dr. 28. p. (Vol. It would be impossible to name all the articles here. p. 115). 22) (Vol. by Dr. Edward C. 27. and especially the section Pathological Importance (p.FOR PHYSICIANS. in connection with bacteriology. 22. 578). Dr. Blindness. Punnett of Cambridge. C. p. 110). Cathcart of Glasgow University. H. Chalmers late Professor Heredity (Vol. which Prof. Psychology (Vol. rathe^ than in connection with the technics of his profession. The subject of Dentistry (Vol. E. Payne. 885) Lister (Vol. Huxley. revised and brought up-to-date by Dr. 114). 1. p. 18. Causes and Pre- vention (Vol. p. p. 4. James Ward of Cambridge. by Dr. Milner. 156). Mitchell. of Agriculture. that material for such study is not But with so complete a work of reference at his disposal. Kirk. 921). that he will desire to make use of the Britannica. 22. p. p. . formerly of the National Deaf Mute College. by the world-famous authority on this subject. 8. 18. Dietetics (Vol. . (Vol. p.

Paul Ammonia Balsam Barthez. John Brown-S^quard. Burns and Scalds Busk. Edward Bronchotomy An- Hospital Bedsore Bell. Appendicitis Apyrexia Araroba Powder Aretaeus Acne Aconite Catabolism Catalepsy Catarrh Catechu Caul Caustic Cephalic Index Chadwick. Pietro d'. Abattoir Abdomen Abercrombie. Lorenzo ism Bence-Jones. Gaspard Amuck. G. Camphors Cancer. Richard Asphyxia Brodie. Jean Martin Charity and Charities Diseases Blane. W. David Hayes Ague Asthma Bromine Ala Albumin. E. Sir B. Alimentary Canal Aloe Robert Acid Clark. Thomas Caldani. Amman. Neil Boil Cholera Arrowroot Bone Borax Christison. Baldness Balneotherapeutics Amaurosis Ambulance Amman. J. P. Paulus Aerotherapeutics Aesculapius Aetius Sir Cinchona Coroner Acid. Gas. A.Bright's Disease pa ro Brocklesby. Sir Charles Cod-Liver Oil and Coelom Colchicum Colic Collodion Colon Colt's Foot Combe. C. P. Claude Anodyne Bhang Anthrax Bibirine Bichat. Charles Cleft Palate and Hare- Boyer. G. or Asselio. Phenol Carbonic Acid Carbuncle or Corpulence Corrosive Sublimate Craniometry Cramp Cremation . P. B.Bellini. C. A. F. Club-foot Coal-tar Coca. J. C. Ankylosis Ankylostomiasis Bernard. V. Sir James Arytenoid Asafetida Adulteration Aegineta. Henry Angina Pectoris Bennett. Hermann Chloroform A. L. G. Luigi Anderson. John Hughes Animal Heat Benzoic Acid Anise Benzoin Cartilage Carus. C. Elizabeth G. Bartholinus. Abercromby. K. Sir Astley P. John Constipation Convulsions Cooper. Caesarean Section Caffeine Caisson Disease Cajuput Oil Baths Calabar Bean Beddoes. Sir Bow-leg Agnew. Andrew Connective Tissues Connor. Brown. or Albumen Albuminuria Astruc. Dominique Belladonna Aneurysm. M. Antipyrine Abernethy. J. Abortion Abscess Abscission Abu-1-qasim Aphasia Aponeurosis Apophysis Acclimatization Acetic Acid Apoplexy Apothecary Ackermann. Antiseptics Aphemia Apnoea J. or Bethelem Calomel Nitrite Andrew Clay. or Aneur. George Alum Bacteriology Baldinger. Bell. William Blister Chirurgeon Blood Chloral Chlorates Chemistry Chicken-pox Chilblains Acromegaly Acron Arm Arnica Boerhaave. Bernard Conolly. or Cuca Cocaine Cock. Bunion Burdon-Sanderson. J. or Carcinoma Cantharides Copaiba Corn Cornaro. Alexis Brain Ascites Brasdor. Acupuncture Adam's Apple Arsenic Arteries Arthritis Articulation Addison's Disease Adenoids Adolescence Blood-letting Borelli. Boric. X. Sir Edwin Bert. Bedlam. A. Sir H. D. Abercromby. Acland. Biology Bismuth Blackwater Fever Bladder Bladder and Prostrate Chamomile Charcot. F. M. Sir John S. E. J.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 140 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF SPECIAL INTEREST AND IMPORTANCE TO MEMBERS OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION Abano. Bilharziosis Billroth. Pierre Asclepiades Breast Aselli. Running Amyl Anabolism Anaemia Anaesthesia aesthetics Anatomy and Lip Climacteric Climate CHnic Clot. Sir Gilbert Blindness Cheselden. G. Actinomycosis Acupressure Arnott. C. Jean Athetosis Athletic Sports Bronchiectasis Bronchitis Alcohol Atrophy Aldehydes Alexander of Tralles Aurelianus Caelius Auscultation Alienist Autopsy Avenzoar Baby-farming Broussais. or Boracic Clark. T. John Anel. J. Crfeche Ankle Castor Oil Creosote Beri-Beri Capsicum Carbolic Serous Membranes Coma Cabanis. P. G.

Hufeland. A. Hieronymus Gynaecology Face Haematocele Faith Healing Haemophilia Dengue Dentistry Desault. J. P. W. John C. SURGEONS AND DENTISTS Cretinism Croton Oil Ether Ethyl Chloride Ettmiiller. Sir J. Sylvester Infancy Guaco.Hewett. Evolution Excretion Extract Dandelion Death Goodsir. Baron Liston. E. Isaac Hahnemann. F. Ernest Abraham Hartshorn.FOR PHYSICIANS. G. Sir John E. and Endothelial Gastric Ulcer Glandular Tissues Epsom Salts Equilibrium Ergot. Sir Joseph Fergusson. and Austin Life Floyer. William Eugenol Cupping Euphorbium Curling. John liaryngitis Dwarf Formic Acid Hinton. Incu- Insomnia Eye Delirium 141 S. Royal Embalming Embryology Sugar Fumigation Galangal Hunger and Thirst Linseed Galbanum Lip Emetics Galen Emphysema Gall Empyema Gallic Acid Enteritis Galvani. Caesar Henry Hay Fever Fistula Head Kitazato. J. F. William Heel Koch.. J. or Formalde. C.Henle. von Graham. Edward Jenner. G. John Hippuric Acid Leontiasis Ossea Eczema Foundling Hospitals Hoffmann. Huaco. baron hyde Hilton. Jean Frangois Feuchtersleben. Lead Poisoning Dyspepsia Foster. Friedrich Leprosy Elaterium Fracastorc. R. E. or Guao Influenza Guaiacum Insanity Guarana Guinea-worm Gull. Humane Society. J. Erysipelas Esmarch. Girolamo Holland. Forbes. C. von Fever Fibrin Dipsomania Filariasis Disinfectants Diuretics Finger Hart. D. von Esquirol. Fauces Favus Diarrhoea Dietary and W. Robert Saving Food Kousso Drug Foot Lactic Acid Drunkenness Foot-and-mouth D i s . Joseph Lister. John Hunter. Hydrastine Hydrocele Hydrocephalus Hydrochloric Acid John Gangrene Epistaxis Epithelial. Sir William Gymnastics Fabricius. G. Albrecht von Grafe. K. Albrecht von Hallucination Jaborandi Jalap Jaundice Hammer-toe Jaw Hand Jenner. or Spurred Rye Erichsen. Largus. Sir William Fermentation Fernel. F. or Lynaker. Robert Ivithium Litmus Liver Hydrophobia. Sir John Herpes Lanolin Ductless Glands Formalin. or Farcy Glauber's Salt Glycerin. F. or Glycerol Goitre Hypochondriasis Hysteria latrochemistry Ibn Usaibi'a Lumbago Lung Good. Sir John Kala-Azar Kamald Kidney Diseases Kino Heart Heberden. Langenbeck. or Fruit Hospital Elixir Elliotson. ben Solo- mon Hall. Shibasaburo Health Knee Dietetics Digestive Organs Digitalis Dilatation Dill Dropsy Drowning Flint. Scribonius Dupuytren. Sir Willianj Joints Diphtheria Fayrer. Gastritis Gelsemium Giant Ginseng Hydropathy Life Ligament Linacre. Thomas Ling. Intestinal Obstruction Intestine Intoxication Iodine Iodoform Ipecacuanha Haemorrhage Iron Haemorrhoids Israeli. DuBois-Reymond. Emil ease Hernia von Duchenne. Michael Eucalyptus Eugenics Croup Jean Cruveilhier. B. Sir Henry Lethargy Elbow Freind. John Illegitimacy Gout Imbecile Incubation bators Grafe. B. Per Henrik Liquorice Lister. K. or Rabies Lobe Hygiene Lobelia Hypertrophy Locomotor Ataxia Hypnotism I^ongevity Glanders. Sir Michael Hippocrates Leg Ear Fothergill. T. James Laudanum Dysentery Hip Forster. Luigi Epilepsy Gamboge Hunter. Sir Prescott G. John Mason Icthyosis Lupus Lycanthropy Lymphatic System . or Gabriello Fusel Oil Diaphragm Fallopio. Marshall Haller. Dextrine Diabetes Diaphoretics Fallopius. William Hutchinson. Spirits of Harvey. A. William Hashish Hawkins. B. John Homoeopathy Lichen Electrocution Electrotherapeutics Elephantiasis Friendly Societies Hop Frostbite Horehound Fructose. Cubebs Cullen.

or Struma Scurvy. Sir John Prognosis Malaria Opium Malta. Sammonicus Pringle. Benjamin Saccharin Vitus St. Sir Hans Paralysis. Ambroise Pasteur. S. Archibald Neuralgia Pityriasis Versicolor Neurasthenia Placenta Neuritis Plague Neu ropathology Pleurisy. or Pleuritis Nicotine Pleuro-pneumonia. or Sumbal or Sunstroke Supra-renal Extract Surgery Surgical Salep Instruments and Appliances Salicin. or Palsy Paranoia Quinsy Parasitic Diseases Radcliffe. Richard Measles Medical Education Medical Jurisprudence Medicine Mendelism Ozone Marshall.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 142 Lymph Oesophagus Lymph and Formation Officinal Sewerage Protoplasm Shock. Percivall Poultice Spirits Spleen Sprue Squill Resorcin Stammering. P. or Nard Radium Spinal Cord Paraldehyde Smallpox Smith. William Peppermint Mott. Respiratory System tering Rhamnus Purshiana Rhatany. or Scorbutus Sea-sickness Seborrhoea Semmelweiss.Taraxacum Scalp Scarlet Fever. John Meniere's Disease Meningitis Mercury Mesmer. von Rontgen Rays Rush. or Itch Sympathetic Sj'stem Syncope Tagliacozzi. Silas Weir Monster Morphine Paget. Valentine Mouth and Salivary Pepsin Glands Peritonitis Murrain Muscle and Nerve Muscular System Psychology Puerperal Fever Pulse Mortification Mumps Sibbald.Reproductive System asis Pellagra Pelvis Pemphigus Perspiration Phagocytosis Pharmacology Pharmacopoeia Pharmacy Mustard Pharyngitis Mutilation Pharynx Myelitis Phenacetin Myxoedema Phlebitis Naevus Narcotics Phosphorus Phrenology Navel Phthisis Physiology Picrotoxin Nepenthes Nerve Pinel. T. C. A. Metabolic Diseases Metabolism Microscope Midwife Milk Mineral Waters Mitchell. J. Florence Lung-plague Nitroglycerin Pneumonia Podophyllin Nose Nosology Poison Nostalgia Polypus Nursing Possession Nutrition Potassium Necrosis Obstetrics Skeleton Skin and Exoskeleton Skin Diseases Pyrocatechin Quain. B. Parasitism Par^. Chorea Sal-ammoniac Sulphur Sumbul. Sir Robert Simon. Thomas Syme. Louis Pathology Radioactivity Soranus Spikenard. Sir James Y. or Nightingale.Oils Old-age Pensions liam Mackenzie. or latina Sciatica Scrofula. or Phthiri. Philippe Nervous System Pinto Nettlerash. Senega or I. Sir Morell Olfactory System Pruritus Prussic Acid Magnesium Psoriasis MacCormac. Sinew Pott. Matrix Mead. Sir Richard Quarantine Quassia Quinine Mushroom Nux Vomica Law Pain Pennyroyal Pepper. Sneezing Sodium Somnambulism John Raynaud's Disease Relapsing Fever Pediculosis.Piperazin or caria Pitcairne.Orfila. or Collapse Shoulder Wil. M. Sir John Simpson. Sir Ophthalmology Serenus. Scabies. F. Dance. nean. Gasparo Tannic Acid Tapeworms Tar Scar. Sir Henry Thorax Sepsis Throat . Urti. Tartar Tartaric Acid Teeth Temperance Terpenes Tetanus Therapeutics Senna Thompson. Sir William S. or Mediterra. or Krameria Starvation Stethoscope Root Rheumatism Rheumatoid Rhubarb Stut- Stomach Stramonium Arthritis Strophanthus Strychnine Rickets Rinderpest Sugar Ringworm Suggestion Suicide Sulphonal Rokitansky. Sir James Purpura Palate Pancreas Paracelsus of Skull Slaughter-house Sleep Sleeping-sickness Sloane. Salicinum Salicylic Acid Sweating-sickness Sweetbread Sydenham. James Salt Sanatorium Sandalwood Sandarach Santonin Sarsaparilla Savory. Fever Osteology Psorospermiasis Psychical Research Mammary Gland Ovariotomy Oxalic Acid Ptomaine Poisoning Puberty Massage Oxygen Public Health.

He . which the client is ble of explaining. They explain to the lawyer the details of his client's own business. jects. builders and contractors. sound advice is in greater demand than brilliant oratory. commercial and financial subFifteen hundred of the world's industrial. Lawyers was in the charge of a father or "papa" of the Russian orthodox church.FOR LAWYERS 143 Whooping-cough Upas Urea Veins Venereal Diseases Willis. Thomas Tumour Typhoid Fever Typhus Fever Ulcer J. and questions of fact are. and Rufus Choate quoting Justinian at Salem. Verdigris Wilson. Sir Thomas S. In a mining town in Alaska. where the Servians. Bankers and engineers. in the mine. They show the lawyer what he has to hope or to dread from client's expert evidence. of the Supreme Court at Washington. were listening to Webster's thunder. success at the bar depended upon elaborate rhetoric and a close study of the Reports. Witch-hazel Vivisection tion Trichinosis Thomas X-Ray Treatment Water-supply Weights and Measures Yaws Yellow Fever Wells. The Servians had a church. and the Servian congregation won its suit for the use of its church workmen were mostly building. A Buffalo lawyer in a recent letter to the publishers of the Britannica told of his being retained in a case involving the qualities of materials used in the construction of automatic car couplers. is the one great Digest Its articles cover all scientific. physicians and surgeons and manufacturers of every kind describe the work which they have themselves successfully done. Sir Veronal Veterinary Science Windpipe Toxicology Urethane Uric Acid Urinary System Urotropin Viburnum Wintergreen Tracheotomy Trachoma Trance Vaccination Valerian Variation and Thymol Thyroid Tincture Tongue Tonsillitis Voice Selec. on the ship's deck and in the ship's engine-room. but with the practical application of knowledge in the laboratory. The Volumes which in the absence as Used by of the Servian priest. in the railroad office and on the railroad line. a lawyer recently had an unusual case. E. when Chancellor Kent was the days INon the bench scrutinizing precedents in New York. The Britannica of Facts. Wine Wound Wrist Wry-neck Wart Varicose Veins Vascular System Vaseline Vegetarianism Tuberculosis W. as a rule. foremost specialists. the machine shop. To-day. The Britannica was recognized as an authority by the court. chosen from twenty different countries. Zinc Whitlow Zymotic Diseases CHAPTER XXVI FOR LAWYERS when Marshall and Story. deal not only with all knowledge. The lawyer brought into court the Encyclopaedia Britannica to prove the independence of the Servian Church from the authority of the Russian Church. and he tried to exclude from their church the entire congregation because they disobeyed him. more important and more perplexing than questions of law. almost always incapa- They enable the lawyer to test his client's knowledge and his good faith.Wakley.

16. That the police powers of the states are gers. with the important exception of terparritory formerly French or Spanish. p. and by the commercial assimilation of the South to the North. tional international law at Yale. and accurate information on. by Simeon E." etc. win's article points out the general identity of origin of American and English law. "In my opinion the work is invaluable to any person who read means of handy reference to. which has been the basis of so many recent cases in the Supreme Court and has "readjusted and re81 1) . 1. Hawaii. p. Governor Baldwin points out that the judicial department has been made partly administrative by the artificial distribution under most state constitutions of governmental powers into executive.)." Similar testimony from lawyers all over desires the the world to the usefulness of the Britannica could be adduced in great volume. under the articles on the separate states (as well as on Alaska. 74. and late ambassador to the United States) on the Constitution and Government of the United States and of the states (Vol. set the whole system of the American law of personal rights" by transferring final jurisdiction from state to Federal courts. The article on American law is supple- mented : a general way by the valuable contribution of James Bryce (author of (a) in The American Commonwealth. and making the courts the interpreters of statutes and giving to them the power of deciding whether or not statutes are constitutional. in connection with the preparation of a case. an article which would fill 27. Laws 1911. immediate and authoritative information on subjects not purely legal." He adds. but "the article that to me was most instructive was that on Iron and Steel in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. a consideration of the great part played in American jurisprudence by the Civil War and the consequent changes in the Federal Constitution. overlooking the administrative. especially when the student remembers that in the last year or so certain states (notably Washington. also. Philippines and Porto British — by the description of the state or with an outline of charFor acteristic and peculiar statutes. the the law student will find information. Within the Southern states the Reconperiod affected local law in various ways: by putting political povv'er into the hands of outsiders ("carpet bag- struction by the social revolution consequent on the abolition of slavery. especially the Fourteenth Amendment. A brief reference to the different parts of this Guide will show in a general way the contents and value of the Britannica in the many fields in which an attorney may need. gover- suggestive article on 828). p. more and more liberally interpreted by the Federal Supreme Court is an interesting tendency. Compensation of Injured Workmen) have definitely stated the police power as the basis of acts which the state supreme court might otherwise have declared unconstitutional as depriving of property without due process of law. Baldwin. Rico). and Edward Livingston (Vol. But on legal topics. 57) ticularly Louisiana. He lawyer or much valuable should read the stimulating and American Law (Vol. nor of Connecticut. Besides he calls attention to the fact that the state and not the nation is for the most part the legislative unit and the And this leads to legislative authority. 646 about 50 pages of this Guide). American Law professor of constitu- and private and formerly chief justice of the Supreme Court of Governor BaldErrors. local constitution . legislative and judicial. any topic. 17.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 144 many technical works to get information on this subject. (b) more particularly. — —a point on which the reader will find fuller information in the articles Louisiana (Vol. Connecticut. c.

William Pinkney (Vol. liquor laws. and in Insurance (Vol. 189 U. W. which deal with purely American legal topics. 28. 28. author of Law of Bankruptcy. former Legislation. Oxford. p. 812) Luther Martin (Vol. Legare (Vol. 969) Levi Woodbury (Vol. by James Williams. practically disfranchising the negro with a summary of Giles V. 7. 639). Navigation Laws. p. 4. Bankruptcy. (c) by special articles. H. S. 16. 17. women and child labour : — laws. British Army. well. p. quadrennial. J. author of State Railroad Control. 792) John Lowell (Vol. p. p. by Prof. 794) Theophilus Parsons (Vol. sheriffs whose prisoners are lynched may be impeached. 711. 583) Richard Rush (Vol. p. there is a general sketch of the constitution and government with particular attention to these points term of judiciary. relating TO. p. by Sir John Scott. 24. following list of legal topics The American jurists does not include all American lawyers about whom there are separate articles in the Britannica. p. legislative sessions. homestead exemptions. 9. 5. 258) Benjamin F. 294) Robert R. 12. Temperance and Pleading. by Prof. 847) Reverdy Johnson (Vol. 17. 22. S. Jim Crow law. of Lincoln College. Livingston (Vol. 813) Daniel Webster (Vol. 344) Roger Brooke Taney (Vol. grandfather clause. 945) Samuel. 548) Henry Wheaton (Vol. disfranchisement for votebuying or selling. 735) Edward Livingston (Vol. F. 336) (Vol. 294) John Jay (Vol. Criminal Law. 25. 662 c). anti-pass law. 14. in the article 1. executive may not succeed himself. Dixon of Dartmouth. p. by Prof. 16. in Employers' Liability . the great American authority on the subject. 20. 10. Original Package (Vol. Chase (Vol. 13. law against lobbying. both by Carroll D. but Biographies will serve to suggest a of Lawyers brief course of biographical readings which the lawyer could not duplicate even in a special and expensive work on the American bar: Samuel Sewall (Vol. p. wife's earnings separate property. p. Medical Jurisprudence. 733) John Rutledge (Vol. F. 627) Lemuel Shaw (Vol. p. 462) Hugh S. Frank A. 790) James Hall (Vol. p. p. 14. p. by Arthur Shadauthor of Drink. especially p. the first in the Britannica on a separate state State Statutes of the Union. p.FOR LAWYERS instance. the section on American Legislation. 459). 857) John'Bouvier Joseph Story (Vol. p. Press Laws. 956) Francis Dana (Vol. Craies. 24. Fetter of Princeton (formerly Cornell). Alabama (Vol. p. Littlejohn. 15. 16. and (f) by sections and paragraphs on American law in hundreds of articles on —for list see below. p. editor of Archbold On Criminal Liquor Laws. freight rebate law. 542) Horace Binney (Vol. 145 deputy judge-advocate-general. 373) RuFUS Choate (Vol. p. p. 12. 949) James Wilson (Vol. 273) and Interstate Commerce (Vol. 28. (e) by general legal articles like: Com- mon Law. 13. professor of forensic medicine in the University of Edinburgh. 811) Bushrod Washington (Vol. (d) omic by legal sections in general econ- articles. 770) Edmund Randolph (Vol. late U. 20. 28. by H. p. 23. 693) 21. p. p. 26. Seamen. equal to about 10 pages of this Guide). p. by Edward Manson. such as Home- stead AND Exemption Laws (Vol. Harris. p. 3. Military Law. in Trade Unions and in Strikes and Lockouts. in Trusts. for instance: in Railways. H. 6. Jenks. Australian ballot law. 76) Oliver Ellsworth (Vol. Laws. 886) James Kent (Vol. p. p. 396) Samuel Hoar (Vol. Butler (Vol. etc. p. p. peonage. 321) . p. 17. p. p. 881) David Dudley Field (Vol. 23. 868) John Marshall (Vol. by W. 15. 474. p. 459) Simon Greenleaf (Vol. 6 years. 4. Wright. p. 15. p. Commissioner of Labor. p. p. 28.

number of Mahommedans in the Philippines). W. of Paris. C. Jurisprudence and Comparative Jurisprudence. but the article is actually the work of the reviser. Miller (Vol. 12. 10. best present treatment of the subject. Downing professor of English law at Cambridge. an clude by John Edwin Sandys (a) the articles Law. Samuel Samuel Stephen J. 7. p. p. p. Corpus professor of jurisprudence at Oxford. 28. 427) Benjamin R. author of History of Classical Scholarship. p. 18. 8. p. 20. treatment is historical. by Professor Pfister of the Sorbonne. Catharine's. P. legally more important. Germanic Laws. p. 7. 17. 258) Melville W.). Tilden (Vol. 651) Dana R. by Lawrence Ginnell. 792) J. This should in- Welsh Laws. p. The 211) Bayard (Vol. B. p. Curtis (Vol. M. Francis 10. 4. by the late Frederick W. thor of The Oldest Code of Laws. 840) George Ticknor Curtis professor of law in the University and Roman Law.. John Marshall Harlan p. by Paul Vinogradoff. Early. Lamar (Vol. 7. p. Benjamin (Vol. professor of civil law. 471) Hamilton Fish (Vol. regius professor of civil law. by Sir William Markby. 4) Wharton (Vol. by Jean Paul Esmein. 296) (Vol. 464) Elihu Root (Vol. 954) Richard Olney (Vol. p. p. 711) Philander C. 575) (Vol. by D. by Professor Christian Pfister. containing matter equivalent in length to nearly 200 pages of this Guide. M. great value to the student of law. professor in Hartford Theological Seminary. S. and Babylonian Law fby C. 866) Oliver Wendell Holmes (Vol. 28. Mason (Vol. 7. Chase Code Napoleon. Field (Vol. 269) (Vol. 13. formerly judge of the High Court of Calcutta. p. 17. H. 464). 616) David Bennett Hill (Vol. Of : Salic Law. p. 100) Langdell p. p. 652) J. 15. 3. p. 13.W. by Paul Vino- Master of St. 28. p. 16. 3. probably one of the most remarkable articles in the new edition and of the utmost importance (as in a less degree are the articles Code and (Vol. p. beginning with the almost mythical regal period and throwing light on the laws before the XII Tables. p. Morrison R. of Cambridge. 322) p. W. p. would be a course of more general reading. p. 899) L. reader in Indian Law at Oxford. Code Napoleon) law. such as Bre- hon Laws. 91) Cushman K. Voorhees (Vol. 26. 739) John Y. 246) T. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 146 S. W. DwiGHT (Vol. 882) jects of separate articles: Some Legal Systems author of a monograph on the subject. p. Slightly remoter systems are the sub- p. auetc. 554) Horace Gray (Vol. (b) articles on national and other legal systems. is The T. and it may well be called the (Vol. Black (Vol. History. as widening his scope. 23. C. 16. Maitland. Fuller (Vol. Cambridge. article is a brief text-book in itself. (Vol. p. Johns. 6. 970) F. Wayne MacVeagh to the student of civil based on the well-known article contributed to the Ninth Edition of the Britannica by James Muirhead. 10. Oxford. p. Anglo-Saxon Law. 7. (Vol. of the Sorbonne. p. p. . 5. Knox (Vol. H. 17. English Law. 363) Stanley Matthews (Vol. 12. Phelps (Vol. and author of Development of Muslim Theology. is not treated with proper fullness so that the practical as well as the theoretical is considered. 21. p. 11. Mahommedan Law alien to the (a subject no longer American because of the large gradoff. Crittenden (Vol. It Henry Goudy. p. but this does not mean that the later period. Macdonald. 172) D. Waite C. J. 391) Joseph Hodges Choate (Vol. 18) JuDAH P. F. Q. 956) John J. the little-known elaborate article on subject Greek Law. Indian Law. Davis (Vol. Edinburgh. p. EvARTS (Vol. 741) E. p.

Eugene Baylo Adoption Arbitration Adscript Beadle Arbitration. The Ademption Adjournment Attaint. Faculty of Belligerency Bench Benefice Beneficiary Bequest Bering Sea Capital Punishment Capitulary Capitulation Cargo Carrier Arbitra.Case Affreightment Arrestment Arrondissment Arson Art and Part Age Articles of Association Bill Agent Assault Assembly. Right of Attachment Blockade Blue-book Attainder Bocland Body-snatching Abode Abrogation Abscond Abstract of Title Acceptance Alluvion Acceptilation Ambiguity Access Accession Accessory Amendment Accommodation Bill Accomplice Accord Accountant-General Accretion Accumulation Accusation Acknowledgment Act Action Act of Parliament Act of Petition Address. but tion Bet and Betting Betterment Bigamy Casus Belli Caucus Caveat Cemetery Cessio Bonorum Cestui. Barratry Appointment.FOR LAWYERS summary of the famous code of King Khammurabi. High Court Appraiser Basoche Admiralty Jurisdiction Appropriation Bastard Appurtenances Admission Bastinado Aram. Assignee Cham- . or Blanch Holding Chance-medley tion. or Boundary Autonomy Brachylogus Average Branding Avizandum B ranks Award Bailiff Brawling Breach Brehon Laws Breviary of Alaric Bribery Ballot Brief Britton Babylonian Back-bond Law Bail Law and Bailie Bailment Bank Holidays Burgage Bankruptcy Banns of Marriage Bar. George Apportionment Base fee Administration Apportionment Bill Basilica Administrator Admiralty. Cestuy Assessor Blackmail Chambers Champerty. Allodium Allonge Allotment Allowance Amercement American Law Amicus Curiae Amnesty Amortization Analyst Ancient Lights Angary Anglo-Saxon Annates Annexation Blinding Writ of Annoy Answer Apology Appanage Apparitor Appeal Appearance Boarding-hoiuie Attempt Boiling to Death Attestation Bona Fide Bond Attorney Attorney-General Attornment Auctions Audience Autocracy Boot Borough Borough English Bottomry Bound. Assigna.Blanch Fee. Unlawful Bill of Exchange Bill of Sale Challenge Assessment Birth Chamberlain AflPray Agistment Agnates Alabama Arbitration Alderman Alias Alibi it of the scope of the Abandonment Abatement Allegiance Alliance Allocatur law in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Alien Alienation Assize Associate Blasphemy Abdication Aliment Abduction Abettor Abeyance Abjuration Alimony Assumpsit Asylum.Beheading Camera Cangue Canon Law Canton Advancement Adventure Advocate Caption Captive Capture Adjudication Adjustment tional Arches. Power of Barrington. or Assets Black Rod party Assignment. The Bargain and Sale Barmote Court Burgess Burglary Burial and Burial Acts Burke. Court of Aristocracy Advowson Arraignment Array Affidavit Arrest Affiliation Affinity Advocates. The following list does not include the biographies of lawyers and is not a comcontaining a plete 147 of all topics pertaining to list some idea will give legal department of the work. Adultery Interna. William Burning to Death By-law Cabinet Cadastre .

Fleet Prison Law Fleta Flotsam. Law of Commis. or Kin.Decree Charter Chartered Companies Charter-Party Chattel Cheating Children. dred Conseil de famille Conservator Consideration Consignment Consistory Courts Consolidation Acts Consort Law relating Conspiracy to Children's Courts Chiltern Hundreds Chose Church Rate Churchwarden Churchyard Cinque Ports De Donis Embargo Embassy bus Deed Defamation Consulate of the Sea Contempt of Court Contraband Contract Estate Deportation or Trans.Day ance Death Debentures Confiscation Cong6 portation Costs Credentials Common Law Common Lodging. Jetsam Ligan Foreclosure Foreign Office Foreshore and .Fixtures Flat Jurisdic.Democracy stitutional Law Demurrage Consul Demurrer Constable Constituency City Codicil Emperor Defendant Del Credere Contumacy Code Code Napoleon Embezzlement Emblements Embracery Eminent Domain Default Defeasance Defence Circuit Citation Citizen Clerk Closure Electrocution Conditionali. Benefit of Copyright Co-respondent Coroner Corporal Punishment Corporation Corpse Corrupt Practices Colony Comity Commercial Court Commercial Law Commisson Commissioner Commitment Commons Commonwealth Company Compensation Compromise Comptroller Compurgation Conacre Concert Covenant Coverture Covin Crimp Crown Debt Crown Land Cruelty Culprit d'Elire Congress Conjugal Rights Conquest Estate Duty Estoppel Estovers Estreat Evidence Execution Executors and Admin- Desertion Detainer Detinue Digest Dilapidation istrators Exequatur Exhumation Diligehce Diplomacy Directors Exile Expatriation Disability Curator Curtesy Curtilage Custom Customary Freehold Custos Rotulorum Document Domestic Relations Domicile Donatio Mortis Causa Dower Dowry Dragoman Drawing and Quatering Expert Express Expropriation Expulsion Extenuating Circumstances Exterritoriality Extortion Extradition Factor Faculty False Pretences Faubourg Federal Government Fee Felo De Se Felony Feoffment Ferry Droit Duke House and Agents Discharge Counsel and Counsellor Disclaimer Discovery Counterfeiting County Disorderly House Dissolution County Court Distress Court District Court Baron Divorce Court Leet Doctors' Commons Court-martial Conditional Fee Conditional Limitation Cy-prfes Damages Confarreatio Confession and Avoid. Court Criminology of Equity Error Escheat Deodand Department Conveyancing Collateral Collusion Envoy Denizen Conversion Coercion Cognizance Coif Coinage Offences Enclave English Law Englishry Entail Demesne Demise Constitution and Con.148 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Chancery Chantage Charg6 d'affaires Charging Order Consanguinity.Estate Deposit Deputy Civil Law Civil List Civil Service Convoy Coparcenary Copyhold Derelict Clergy.Crime Criminal Law House Common Pleas.Elegit of Exeter's Daughter Durbar Duress Earl Marshal Feu Fictions Fiduciary Fieri Facias Earnest Fine Finger Prints Easement Eavesdnp Ecclesiastical sioners Ecclesiastical tion Ecclesiastical Debt Edict Declaration Declaration of Paris Declarator Election Elections Ejectment Fetters and Handcuffs Fishery.

Heir Justice-General Jactitation Next Friend Heirloom Joinder Keeper of the Nisi Prius Hereditament Great Seal Noise Joint Heriot Lord President of the Nolle Prosequi Heritable Jurisdictions Jointure Council Jougs. Juggs. or Joggs Nonconformity. High Seas Steward Law Highway Judge Judge Lords Justices of Ap- Advocate. Early Informer Gift Inn and Innkeeper Inns of Court Innuendo Glebe Goodwill Inheritance ^ Initials Injunction Inquest Insanity Instalment Gross Intent Interdiction Interesse Termini Interest International Law Interpellation Interpleader Interpretation Interstate Commerce Intestacy Intransigent Guarantee Guardian Guerrilla Guillotine Habeas Corpus Hanging Hanaper Handwriting Haro. U. John Mare Clausum Kidnapping Mare Liberum King's Bench. O.Gen- relating to Lotteries Nonfeasance. Legal Mayhem Freeman Game Martial Murder Lord Chief Justice Lord Great Chamber. Statutes of Mistake IJquidation Monarchy liiquor Laws Monition Mortgage Local Government Local Government Mortmain Board Motion Lodger and Lodgings Multiplepoinding Lord Advocate Municipality Lord Chamberlain Muniment Instrument Ground Rent Mediation Medical Jurisprudence Meeting Memorandum of Asso- Legitimacy and Legitimation Lesion Letters Patent Libel and Slander Liberty Licence Lien Inhibition Government Grant Gravamen Greek Law Mayor I>egation I^egitim Gaming and Wagering Information Law Master and Servant Master of the Horse Master of the Rolls Maxims. Malfeasance Nonsuit North Sea Fisheries Convention Judicature Acts Jurat Lynch Law Notary or Notary Pub- Homicide Jurisdiction Mahommedan Law Horning. High Court Manor Mansion Manslaughter Juvenile Offenders Man-traps Ketch.FOR LAWYERS Forest Laws Forfeiture 149 Maritime Territory Marriage Marshalsea Incendiarism Knight-Service Incest Inclosure Knout Kurbash Franchise Incorporation Frank-almoign Frank-marriage Indemnity Indenture Laches Lading. parative Hinterland Hi re-Purchase ment Agree- Hiring Holiday Homage Home Office Hundred Husband and Wife Hypothec Identification Ignoramus Ignorance Immunity Impeachment Impotence Impressment - Judgment Judgment Debtor Judgment Summons Magistrate Com Jury Jus primae noctis Jus Relictae peal Lords of Appeal Lord Steward Lost Property eral - lic Maiden Maiming Nuisance Maintenance Majority Mandamus. Letters of Hotch-pot Household. Bill of Landlord and Tenant Fraud Indian Law Indictment Forgery Freebench Freehold Land Registration Lapse Larceny Indorsement Inebriety. Royal Hue and Cry Jurisprudence Jurisprudence. I>aw of Freight Infamy Law Law Merchant Fuero Infant Lease Gallows. Clameur de ciation Merger Mesne Messuage Military Ministry Law Miscarriage Misdemeanour Misprision Limitation. or Gibbet I>aws Infanticide In Forma Pauperis Legacy Garnish Garrote Gavelkind Geneva Convention Germanic Laws. Court of Notice Novation Nullification Oath Obiter Dictum Obligation Obscenity Office Oligarch}' Ordeal Justification and Order in Council Ordinance Ordinary Original Package .Mutiny lain Lord Lord Lord Lord Lord Lord Lord High Hjgh High High Chancellor Constable Nationality Naturalization Navigation Laws Negligence Inventory Negotiable Instrument Hegemony Treasurer Justice Clerk Neutrality I. Writ of Mandarin Mandate Justice Manifest Justice of the Peace Justiciary. Misfeasance.

Act of Refresher Prerogative Prerogative Courts Prescription Press Laws Prime Minister. Reversion Settlement Sexton Share Shelley's Case. Breach of Peace Conferences Peine forte et dure Peerage Penalty Penology Pension Perjury Satisfaction Quantum Meruit Quarantine Quare Impedit Quarter Sessions Queen Anne's Bounty Quorum Quo Warranto Rack Perpetuity Person. Great Officers of Parricide Probate Probation Procedure Process Proces-verbal Proclamation Proctor Procuration Procurator Profanity Robbery Parson Prohibition Roman Law Partition Promoter Rundale Partnership Property Prorogation Sacrilege Pardon Parish Parlement Parliament Party Wall Passport Patents Patents of Precedence Patron and Client Paymaster-General Restraint Retainer Reward Ridings Riot Salary Sale pf Goods Prosecution Prospectus Protectorate Provisional Order Provost Law and Prankish Laws Salvage Sanction Salic Spheres of Influence Spring-gun Spy state State Rights State Trials Statute Stipend Stocks Stocks and Shares Stolen Goods Subinfeudation Succession Succession Duty Suffrage other Summary Jurisdiction Payment Payment of Members Proxy Public House Scandal Peace Puisne Purchase Scavenger's Daughter Schedule Scire Facias Scot and Lot Scrip Scrutiny Peace.^cognizance Record Recorder Reeve Referee Referendum and Initi- ative dicature Sedition Term Seduction Seignory or Seigniory Theatre Theft Seisin Thegn Senate Sentence Threat Tichborne Claimant Tenant-right Tenement Tenure Sequestration Ticket-of-leave Sergeant-at-Law Serjeanty Time Servitude Session Regent Potwalloper Power of Attorney Register Registration Release Remainder. John (. Primogeniture Principal and Agent Prison Privateer Summons Surety Surrender Surrogate Suzerainty Swearing Sea Laws Seamen. Rule in Sheppard. Royal Privy Council Privy Purse Superannuation Supercargo Supply Supreme Court of Ju- Tenant Set-off Privilege Sunday Secret Secretary of State Security Sederunt. Laws relating Syndic Syndicate to Search or Visit and Taille Tally Search Tanistry Secession Possession Post & Postal Service Praemunire Preamble Performance Reservation Residence Resident Residue Respite Shire Repairs Repeal Replevin Representation Reprieve Simony Slander Socage Tipstaff Tithes Tithing Toleration Toll Tort Torture Town *rade.Tacky- Remand Sheriff Remembrancer Rent Sign Manual. Court of Solicitor-General Tribute Trover Speaker Truck Rescue Specification Trust and Trustees Sovereignty .150 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Ouster Outlawry Overt Act Oyer and Terminer Pacific Blockade Pandects Paraphernalia Privy Seal Prize or Prize of War Specific Respondent State. Offences Ragman Rolls Raid against the Rape Personal Property Rate Personation Petition Real Property Picketing Rebellion Receipt Receiver Pillory Pirate and Piracy Plaintiff Pleading Plebiscite Pledge Plurality Plutocracy Police Police Courts Posse Comitatus Recess Recidivism ^. Board of Transfer Tread-mill Treason Treasure Trove Treasury Treaties Soke Trespass Solicitor Trial Reprisals Request. Letters of Requests.

corporations and all the other methods and appliances used in dealing with money and credit. even if they treatment of finance and commerce possesses a breadth and sweep directly due to the international character of the book. 22. Welsh Laws Wergild Westminster Statutes War. And the very first step. Each day's financial news reports a position which has been reached in the path of a movement of which the origin and earlier course and therefore the direction must be sought in the record of — — past months and years. But for a description of the actual working of such a system. for more general use. there Finance has been adopted in Louisiana a system of rural credit such as was strongly urged. Social Hist<5ry It is only of late that historical investigation has been directed to social and commercial activities rather than to politics and wars. Richard Twelve Tables Veto Vicar Udal Ukaz or Ukase Ultimatum Vice-Chancellor Viceroy Vidocq. may be to consider what has been done abroad. the German banker who perfected the system of agrarian credits. during President Taft's administration. Territorial 151 Whig and Tory Whip Whipping or Flogging Wild. T. as they are. 817). by specialists of twenty countries. Laws of Wheel. The American financier knows that under existing conditions he must take into account the laws and usages of foreign countries in regard to banking. the progress of civi- . p. to be purely a matter of internal policy. Board of Wreck Writ CHAPTER XXVII FOR BANKERS AND FINANCIERS OF all classes of business men.FOR BANKERS AND FINANCIERS Warden Turpin. the sources of information are in the Britannica article The new Britannica has been called "the most comprehensive of all surveys of past and present civilization. But the banker who turns to the standard histories in his library with the desire to trace the course of any gradual and long-continued development is generally disappointed. and sometimes in the record of a past century. Jonathan Will or Testament Witness Woolsack and Works Public Venue Wager Verdict Vestry Wainewright. stock exchange transactions. International For example. E. Yet the history of civilization may be said to lie in the course of finance and commerce much more than in party strife and in civil and international wars. in the article Schulze- ultimately further. bankers and financiers study most closely the general tendencies of public opinion and the general course of industrial and commercial development." and its Raiffeisen (Vol. in examining any question of American finance. That would seem lization. The Britannica could not have covered this broad field authoritatively if its articles had all been written by Americans instead of being contributed. For the latter always arrest for the moment. taxation. Breaking on the Writers to the Signet Buildings. G. Vigilance Committee Underwriter Vizier University Courts Vote and Voting Uses Valuation and Valuers Voucher Warrant Warrant of Attorney Warranty Warren Waste Water Rights Waters. F. currency.

after pointing out the prevailing looseness in the use of the word finance. Systematic reading in the Britannica on financial subjects should begin with the article Finance (Vol. Bastable. resulted in too rigid a separation of classes. the state owned and administered agricultural land and silver mines. especially in Germany. Usury (Vol. and "economy" in its original sense of housekeeping or house-rule. in the 15th century. the first French standing army was . 24. by C. the word finance acquired the sense of usurious or oppressive dealing with money and capital. But scientific taxation did not really exist until. under Charles VII. and yet this state ownership. 7. In Rome. It is curious to see how one page after another of the historical section of this article describes theories of finance which are to-day agitators as Early Economics propounded by popular they were absolutely new and not only dethem but scribes shows how they were tried and how they if The eastern empires taxed land produce. rower. p." The early Empire took its revenues from public lands. The word "economy" has thus become broadas the word "usury" has become nar- er. restrict. 811) says "usury. and in the article Co-Operation (Vol.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 152 Delitzsch (Vol. the Saxon economist who founded the German central bureau of co-operative societies. But taxes were always the curse of the provinces. 10. if used in the old sense of the term could embrace a multitude of modes of receiving interest upon capital to which not the slightest moral taint is attached. as class taxation always does. 383). sales (10%) and the purchase of slaves (40%). whose books on economics have been largely read in the United States. In the kingdoms which succeeded the Empire after its fall. It is interesting to know that "in the later middle ages." The same is true of the word meant use. 82). from customs. and it has always been the custom of the spendthrift and the gambler to make the wrong use of words as well as of business methBut what we call public finance was ods. "political" being used strictly to apply to the state." "The defects of the financial organization were a serious influence in the complex of causes that brought about the fall of the Republic. as in all departments of government. p. usually to the extent of one fourth or one fifth (two tithes) In Athens. equivalent to 20 pages of this Guide). which originally terest. instead of making for democratic equality. and the Athenian attempt to surtax the rich citizens in order to defray the cost of public games and theatrical performances and to equip ships (in this case a close parallel to certain recent German legislation) led. or public finance. F. and from taxes on inheritances (5%). Roman customs survived in finance. in significance." So long ago did an unpopular meaning attach to a term connected with "big business. from monopolies." In each case there may have been some reason besides chance for the development of the unpleasant meaning. p. 27. and there was a want of coherent policy until the time of Charlemagne. p. or inand the Britannica in an article on usury. where the Danish system of financing farmers is described and compared with the German and French methods. under a more elaborate system. a century ago called political economy. and the burden fell too much upon the actual workers and their employers. and the vexatious method of the tax "may be regarded as an additional tax. There was no just distribution of taxation among the territorial divisions. in the end. increased the power it sought to failed. from the land tax. 347. home taxes were suspended as soon as conquests brought tribute from Spain and Africa. to ingenious evasions and. professor of political economy in the University of Dublin. when centralization produced a better system. . This article deals with state revenue and expenditure.

26. as a store of value. 266). p. 5. p. 11. formerly Controller-General of the British Board of Trade.. system. and by the gradual change from private to public control of water supply. p. he should article study the article Money (Vol. 660) and similar sections in the articles on each of the states of the Union. by The Prof. Palgrave. p. p. 256). and Sir J. 228). National Debt and Tariff should be read after this article on public finance. articles Tariff (Vol. 813) and Ar- 458. more and its intelligent needs led to a new and In England. by C. Bankers. Balfour (Vol. 26. Bastable. metals — . the determining causes of the value of money and of the quantity of money required by a country. p. 22. 6. p. shells. classifies taxes. oxen. will be chequer tion. equivalent 25 to pages of this Guide).. R. early forms of currency greenstones. and. Taxation and Tariff thur J. 18. Giffen. 27. equivalent to 25 pages in this Guide). 464). di- rector of Barclay & Co. These articles give definite information about public debts. Conant. p. 54) (Vol. Local finance has been revolutionized by modern business methods. p. by William Cunningham. 18. and expenditures and receipts are now governed by legislative sanction. by Edmund Janes James. for the tariff reform the student should turn (Vol. tariff- movement in England. lighting and transporta- Taxation. 697). National Debt (Vol. but the student should read carefully the main treatment in the article W. H. national or state. the co-ordination and control of public revenue and expenditure was similarly due to the growth of the navy. author of The Principles of Money and Banking. author of Growth of English Industry and Commerce. Ltd. equivalent to nearly 60 pages in this Guide). by Sir Robert Finance p. p. author of The Tariff History of the United States. Mills (Vol. (Vol. 334.' and 475). and in the States will section of Andrew Jackson (Vol. Sumner of Yale. I. 458. of Harvard. the credit theory. by William McKinley Roger Q. 107) by Prof. p. especially p. Taxation articles The student should read besides the sketches in the Britanof great interest. and the article proceeds to de-. 422). Charles A. the articles on Joseph Chamberlain (Vol. The 153 Private to the article 3. G. including coined money else that can take its place in facilitating exchange.FOR BANKERS AND FINANCIERS created. too slowly adopted it is true. grain. 250) Before turning from public to private finance the reader should study the articles Ex. Paget. Protection (Vol. 27. 470). Taussig American of other leaders. scribe the principal taxes. Since then the tendency has been to include taxes in general categories. in estimating com- parative values. president of the University of Illinois and author of the well-known History of American Tarif Legislation. of (Vol. author of the Law of Banking. Currency This deals with: the eties of and all functions and varimoney. It should be supplemented by reading the sections on finance in the articles on various countries and especially by the article English Finance (Vol. furs. 9. 88). For what may be and Treasury called private finance. equivalent to 45 pages in this Guide). ochre. p. first Banks and Banking (Vol. F. the need for national credit has developed a system of national debts. by Sir R. 17. 3. the section on Finance in the article United States (Vol. 19. F. nica of Carl Henry Clay Schurz. 15. p. Next in his course of reading. points out that direct and indirect taxes are not intrinsically different and that such a classification is merely a matter of convenience. p. W. 694. (Vol. Further information on the early history of banking in the United be found in the historical the article United States (Vol. p. 10. p. and Free Trade (Vol. 27. as a standard of value or of deferred payments.

and Bradford Rhodes. p. Trust Company (Vol. with 6 plates and 11 other text illustrations). and the articles Gold. 8. p. National Bank. medieval. Gresham's Law. Seigniorage. 11. author of . 60) there is authoritative Lives of treatment. For instance in the article 48 acres of the Republic until 1906. A. Taussig. 26. money. N. . Cycles. 318). Harriman. 869-911. J. 25. 6. Consols (Vol. T. p. the student interesting proof of the rela- tion of "token" to "real" money. T. Future Delivery. Demonetization. E. M. 731). will find an N. 17. 24. Hill. economic aspects of the production and consumption of precious metals. Dividend (Vol. F. the Barings. founder of the National Penny Bank. Silver. 476) Letter OF Credit (Vol. which discusses such questions as the constitution of money. H. For insurance see the chapter in this Guide For Insurance Men. and Discount Houses. Sir J. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES IN THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF INTEREST TO BANKERS Account Accotintants Aclienwall. p. Hadley. J. . 331). Alcavala Aldrich. Y. N. P. financial editor of The Times. George Peabody. 930) Bill of Exchange (Vol. Y. 10.. 11. p. 7. equivalent to 135 pages of this Guide. Futures (Vol. p. the "children's state" at Freeville. 20. - . Corners. for instance. Other relevant articles statistics of since are Bimetallism. F. 988) Market (Vol. 243) by Sir G. The Principles of Money and Banking. Tendency to Equilibrium. James J. 6. ThestuFinanciers dent will find articles on great financiers. In financial biography. Stock Exchange (Vol. 3. W. 19. . C. Coupon (Vol. James Law. and credit as money. J. the Rothschilds. typical currency systems. Richmond Mayo-Smith and A. p. Seligman. (Vol. Allport. as in history. 749). p. 22. 940) Exchange . coinage and state control. founder of the 34th St. p. Information on distinctive banking and business laws in the separate states will be found in the section on finance of the article on each state. Boehm von Bawerk. Walter Bagehot. clear and tin when Oklahoma a summary of the bank deposit guaranty fund. 217) 329). p. 375) Time Bargains (Vol. p. Roman. . W. 979). p. Jenks. p. C. p. p. 279). H. such as the Asters. 11. A. James Fisk. depreciation forced the Republic's coinage out of use and 'American' coin was made legal tender. p. E. Malthus. BartBanking ley. English and French coinages Numismatics are treated in the article (Vol. Walker. 60). Money Market. A. Roscher. p. R. Foreign Loans. Disturbance of Equilibrium. Adam Smith. Henry Carter Agio Aguado. Token Money and Greenbacks. Morgan. Ricardo. pp. 27. review of the history of some as representative important currencies —Greek. W. the Vanderbilts. by Wynnard Hooper. Friendly Societies (Vol. by Charles A. production of gold and silver the discovery of America. the Britannica is valuable because of its full. 501)." For information as to the methods of financial business the reader should study the articles Savings Banks (Vol. Gottfried Adams. and coinage systems. Conant. Thorold Rogers. theory and practice. and Monetary Con- ferences for the relation of the metals. 16. In the article on the George Junior Republic (Vol. Carey. London. (Vol.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 154 money. Jay Gould. "The government issued its own currency in and later in aluminium and 'American' money could not be passed within the Clearing House (Vol. and on great authors on the subjects of economics and finance. The Great Banks. and Premium (Vol. with sections on Movements of Prices.

Melchiorre Bemis. Block. Dollar Laveleye. J. Robert Dudley Delfico. Stephen Goldsmid (family) Colston. Mun. Peter Cossa. J. E. K. J. L. Heinrich Karl Sequin Mayo-Smith. Jean Bodle Cairnes. -Audit and Auditor Coutts. J. P. P. Nicholas Baring (family) Barter Cover Cunningham. George Hermann. John Elliott Call Capital Paterson. Sir John Biddle. Richard Dime Budget Par Hill. Seigniorage Seligman. K. Leone Exchequer Roscher. John Fox Monetary Conferences Smith. J. A. John Bates Clearing House Cohn. Richmond Shekel Mint Shell-monev Mohur Sherman. Sir Josiah Circular Note Claflin. Friedrich Farthing Sadler. National Debt Newmarch. Sir Matthew Decimal Coinage Bawbee Delessert. F. Alexander Hamilton. Frederic Revenue Ely. Jesup. S. P.FOR BANKERS AND FINANCIERS Ashley. Jay (and fam. Henrv Monopoly Giffen. Pierre Emile Rogers. James Edwin Exchange Levi. C. de Drawback Law. Levasseur. . Sieur de Law Credit Credit Foncier Crockford. John Jacob (and family) Atkinson. Demonetization Boehm von Bawerk Gresham's Groat Guinea 155 iiy) Grain Trade Greenbacks Gresham. Leon Making-up Price Franc SchJiffle. A. Thomas Cournot. G. Maurice Bodin. Sir Robert Slater. Sir Richard Sovereign (coin) Spreckels. Thomas Rob. J. L. Alfred Senior. Sir J. W. B. K. John Rau. G. Sir Dudley Pauperism Harriman. 1st baron Crore Bezant Book-keeping Bourse Breaking Bulk Brentano. J. C. W. E. L. T. N. E. F. Edward H. William Baxter. Malthus. J. Cooper. Letter of Credit English Finance Rodbertus. V. J. Kay. F. J. David Leslie. Stewart. Adam Gilds (International) Gilbart. Backwardation Bagehot. J. B. T. von Peabody. M. John Moidore Shilling George. Michael Thomas Lloyd's Florin Sage. Jones. William Lira Farrer. Robert Hanna. Luigi Coulisse Attwood. W. James William Sou Gallatin. Gustav Coin Coeur. John Pierpont Standards Department Morris. Lingen.Moratorium Contango Cooke. F. 2nd baron Pyx Discount Gioja. Nicolas Say. Cheque. W. insurance ''invoice Jakob. Sir Thomas Money-lending Moon. Theodore ning Fouquet. William S. Engel. W. A. Jacques Edward Income Tax Ingram. H. John R. Joseph Laing. Field. Robert Sterling Morton. Cyrus West Saint-Simon. Bliss. Nicholas Bill of Exchange Boisguilbert. Antonio Money Gould. Gustav Free Trade ert Friendly Societies Schulze-Delitzsch. L. Ernst Rockefeller. G. Baron Rupee List. J. A. Frangois Lakh Raiffeisen. George Hufeland. Samuel Dana Hudson. Sir William Dock Warrant Commerce Combination Penny Penrhyn. H. Davenant. H. P. Comte de Mackay. Walter Balance of Trade Bank Notes Bank Rate Banks and Banking Barbon. W. Broker Bucketshop Hamilton. Edward Coupon Gurney (family) Courcelle-Seneuil. Joshua Baudrillart. L. F. Ducat Le Futures Mark Gabelle Market Amos Profit-sharing Protection Proudhon. Melchiorre Girard. Russell M'CulIoch. von Pender. or Check Chevalier. Marshall. Jay Picayune Dividend Commercial Treaties Consols Petty. J. Crown Dewey.Schmoller. P. Thomas Steuart. M. William Custom Duties Custom House Bastiat. Bonamy Quesnay. L. William North. Clark. A. Sir T. Gottlieb Production Bimetallism Blanqui. William Jenks. J. Pawnbroking Haxthausen. Charles Decker. Henry Dun. Royalty Farr. Samuel Distribution Buying James Horner. Davis Rich Bullion Octroi Overstone. P. Nassau WMUiam Marx. Ricardo. C. A. Baron Excise Rothschild (family) Lipton. Thomas E. Thomas (coin) in Carey. J. Claus Stag Stamp Morgan. D. Lawrence. von Co-operation Pistole Poll-tax Pound Premium Price. John William Savings Banks Fisk. E. James Macleod. Francis^ Horton. A. A. B. Michel Child. Jevons. Assignats Astor. R. Hadley. Marquis Genovesi. H. Jean Baptiste Fix. Garnier. Albert Ganilh. Frederic Bates. Richard Theodore Leroy-Beaulieu. Reciprocity Play. Karl Heinrich Rebate Drexel. Charles Garnier. D.Say. P. Henry Charles Carli-Rubbi Carrying-over Cash Chase.

Until 1855 all British ap- pointments were by nomination.Walker.Trusts Trust Company Wanamaker. in order that avoided. state and municipal government which are most organi- 6. legislation and the admin- relatives of justice. Josiah Wealth Tonnage and Poundage Vanderbilt. Part 4 of the Guide. For Builders and Contractors) will supply useful indications. John Watkin. the defective classes. p. M. E. examinations. For Engineers. and although the service was quite free from the abominable system of secretly taxing salaries in order to support party funds. T. Title Guarantee Com. Adolf Wolowski. Torrens. Sir E. . R. should be carefully examined. Francis Amasa Zollverein Time Bargains rens M'CuUagh Walras. L. reventie and finance. Part 2 of the Guide. and its information as to British organization. and the expansion article ters of delighted to honor monopolized the appointments. co-operation and socialism. for that reason. Robert Thornton. W. Thornton. M. competition. Frank William Tooke. deals only chapter. crime and alcohol. David Ames Tontine Taxation (and family) Window Tax Taussig. ballot representation and suffrage. containing classified courses of educational reading. W. desire to review the ground they covered at school or college. L. that was about all that can be said for it. and the discontent that was aroused in the American colonies by the maladministration of colonial affairs was "one of the efficient causes of the American revolution. labour and immigration. F. Torrens. William Tor. Henry Wages Wright. may be with the aspects of federal. salaries and pensions will greatly interest those to whom the details needed for an international comparison have not been elsewhere accessible. 412) devotes nearly as much space Comparisons to the British as to the American service. for merit. system was at its worst. Many posts were pure and in many ethers the work was done by a substitute to whom the nominee paid less than half the salary or Under George III the fees he received. will point to articles especially serviceable to those who are preparing for examinations and. trusts. International directed. G. with its special references to the subjects to which ad- ministration and legislation are chiefly closely related to civil The zation. Thomas Wagner.156 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Stock Exchange Sumner. Carroll D. and state civil service includes so municipal many specialized branches that a number of the chapters in Part 1 of this Guide. There was hardly a pretense of selection Influential families and the and personal friends of minisstate and of ladies whom kings There the reader will find lists of articles dealing with schools and institutions. The present tepetition foreign relations of the United States. panies CHAPTER XXVIII FOR CIVIL SERVICE MEN AND WOMEN AND STUDENTS PREPARING FOR SERVICE EXAMINATIONS FEDERAL. devoted to courses of reading adapted to various occupations (such as For Teachers. W. istration service Civil Service (Vol." sinecures. TariflF Cornelius Wells. Token Money Tael Tucker.

written by James Bryce. and biographies of Andrew Jackson. 646-661 of volume 27. searching examinaWomen are emtions must be passed. Godkin. as in the Foreign Office and the Education Department. 658-659. W. For instance.FOR CIVIL SERVICE MEN AND WOMEN 157 in 1855 had by 1870 been so successful that since then open competition has been the general rule. this the student should refer to the section (Vol. E. especially paragraphs 168. If other topics are as fully treated in the Britannica. local of agriculture. This may well he in the supplemented by a United States study of the American party system of goverment and of the "spoils system" under which party loyalty and personal service to a party machine became the Civil Service test of For a candidate's fitness for office. and is equivalent to about 50 pages of this Guide so that it is more than a bare outline. and where nomination is still required. Grover Cleveland.. 697) on the beginnings of the spoils system in Jackson's time. . As has already been pointed out. board of agri- Martin Van Buren (for the spoils system) and of George William Curtis. 722) on the beginnings of reform under Hayes. India customs. R. office The age government (factory inspecfor compulsory retirement is 65. 169 (p. and an additional sixtieth for each year's service more than ten. ment board and home tors. ployed in the post-office. Subjects of examinations. but the commissioners may prolong this five years in exceptional cases. salaries and pensidns are described in the article. This means that it authoritative and that it is interis esting and that in both these qualities it is far superior to the usual text book of "civics" or "civil government. etc. Information in regard service systems of states articles. will '* General now be saying to Information" Papers himself: "There is evidently much valable information in the encyclopaedia about the history and status of civil service reform. 646) on Constitution and Government. etc. L. And it is followed by a valu- he — — able bibliography of the subject to guide the student to the best books on any special topic which he may wish to pursue further. L. the government employe must know more about the government and its machinery and history than does the average "man in the street". see p. of the article United States. Marcy and velt. on —in state and addition to the civil cities may to and the material city systems in the articles already mentioned. p. and paragraph 343 (p. especially. paragraph 333 (p. Benjamin Harrison. B.)- office. and he can learn this from the Britannica. Hayes. Carl Schurz. the main treatment of the government of the United States in the Britannica is by James Bryce. In the same article there is an historical treatment of civil service in the United States and of its gradual reform and extension since 1883. and this seems as full and complete for the United States as for Great Britain. it will be invaluable to me in preparation for general information papers for civil service examinations. William McKinley and Theodore Roose- depart- be found in separate state and city The reforms begun culture. Since 1859 there has been a superannuation pension of 10/60 of the annual salary and emoluments to any one serving 10 years and less than 11. There is also much information in the section History of the same article. author of The American Commonwealth and formerly British ambassador to the United States." And will be right. The wide-awake student who has read this far in this chapter and has referred to the articles mentioned in the Britannica." It occupies pp. 27. 724) on Cleveland and civil service reform.

up a complete course on government and history. science. The entire article would take up nearly 400 pages if printed in the style It treats the physical of this Guide. of business. lakes. novelty consists in the inclusion of articles on wars. chosen because of their importance in military as well as in political history. on Hohenfriedberg. Bryce is only a part of the article United States. authoritative and making state "civics. or on the special branch of the civil service to which the student wishes to be appointed. industries and comject.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 158 But this is far from being all the information in the Britannica on the sub- The contribution of Mr. administration. for the first time. all branches of military knowledge are included. and this article is supplemented — by hundreds of others: an ernment serving summary of the salient facts. no book will give as valuable and complete information as the Britannica. but of the military articles it may also be said that they are the first word. and of cavalry drill on the peculiar generalship of Frederick (in such articles as Seven Years' War. army and history of the country the equivalent of 225 pages of this Guide is devoted to History alone. and of the main points in their history. fauna and flora. and (e) Biographies of great Americans. and the spirit of the entire treat- ment is comparative and critical.^ religion. there have been. but also of the influence of army organization on Napoleon (in the articles on the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Campaigns). The military student will find a discussion not merely of Napoleon's influence on army organization or Frederick's influence on cavalry (in the articles on these two leaders). government. famous in war. to a less degree in minor works of general reference. geology. finance." on cities treatment and towns with the distinctive elements in the government of each. whether for an examination on general information. all fields (a) Articles on each of the states." so thoroughly has the authority of the book been recognized. and on Put more concretely. All parts of this article contain valuable information about the country. In brief. geography. Of course. politics. This is quite as true of military articles as of those in any other field. Fugitive Slave Laws. merce. CHAPTER XXIX FOR ARMY OFFICERS is often said of an article in the ITBritannica that it is ^Hhe last word on the subject. arranged much as in the article United States with sections on history and gov- as (b) Articles similar —in short of activity. in preA New vious editions' of the Departure Britannica and. . the Rossbach). mountains and other topics in physical geography. population. art. on civics. on history. (d) Separate articles on topics in American history and government: such as Nullification. (c) Separate articles on the important rivers. articles on military history and biography. campaigns and battles. State Rights. But in the new Britannica. climate. Electoral Commission.

23. Napoleon his attempt to make a dynastic army out of the " nation in arms. its slow decision. pire. service . charioteers. F. condottieri." The Grande Armee of 1805-1806. Maude. F.' The Dark Ages. etc. citizen militia . J. lecturer in military history. This "key" article may be outlined as follows — LandsSwiss. Medieval Mer- Infantry in Feudal Times. by Professor F. Henderson. Armies of 1815-1870. . The Crusades. Carthage troops led by great generals. French diery. are supplemented by detailed information in the articles on different countries. Day Armies: The general accounts of existing armies. Greece." a war-machine more powerful than — — Modern Developments: German model followed slavishly except in Great Brit- and the United States. Sparta. trained to the due professional standard and organized in the best jvay found by experience. Army (Vol. The Spanish army : " at the disposal of its sovereign. archers).). see also separate article Roman The The conscription in France. Major G. Greek mercenaries. 471). William the Silent and Maurice of Nassau.v. W. American Civil War. largely cavalry the first " orcompulsory ganized " army. and Col. with modification of phalanx for greater elasticity. Rome army under the Republic under the Emits characteristics — — .FOR ARMY OFFICERS and treated from the point of view of the military critic and with particular attention to the lessons they contain for the modern army officer. excellent Austrian organization. N. Frederick's. development of artillery. Redway. " oblique order". cenaries. Array Systems: Compulsory Service. C. knechts. G. The Swedish Army conscription and feudal indelta. and fall of the pikemen. author of Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. (horsemen. lish archers and of professional sol- Army The Organization three chief arras — their relative importance: proportion on peace foot- . p. development of Eng- on Japan. General History Early Armies science. Conscription. Gustavus. formation. Thirty Years' War the Werbe-system. The best starting point for a study of military affairs in the Britannica is the article Army Army (Vol. University of Manchester. Contrast between French and Prussian staff systems in 1870. Especial attention should b. and the development of Feudalism. who in- will immediately notice among the contributors to the military department of the Britannica such names as those of Capt. French Revolution: a " nation in arms. Militia. organization. Col. Standing Armies." The Sixteenth Century rise of the heavy cavalry armed with pistols. the army corps. the Greek the strong arm a nation in arms. Epaminondas and Thebes new phalanx tactics. 18th Century organiza- "linear" formation and its negaFrederick the Great: the tion: tive results. Voluntary Service. Al. 592. equivalent to more than 100 pages of this Guide). in- Babylon and Asfantry. R. The English Civil War real national armies Cromwell and the " New Model " only an incident without influence on ar. F. — heavy infantry phalanx. author of Fredericksburg: A Study in War. the Byzantines. author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 2. of art war a formal Egypt (chariots. Haverfield of Oxford. Atkinson. — — — exander and Macedon a modified Themercenary ban system. . Small field armies. syria Persian. given to the military information in the article . well-fed and sheltered for economy's sake. small standing army to be increased by levy at time of need. The Period of Transition (1290-1490). development of cavalry. The care with which the battles and campaigns of the American Civil War are analyzed and criticized will terest to the be of singularly great American soldier. and of the ain Present past organizations of each country. Dutch System attention to minute detail. p. The Wars of Liberation: new Prussian army. * 159 — — — — — pre-eminence after Rocroi.

28. In Cordite and many geographical articles there are descrijjtions of the world's great fortifications. doubt that had the Boers of 1899 possessed a staff of trained strategists. Kite. 14. Canadian Forces. R. 60 cavalry to 1000 infantry. Other topics of a more miscellaneous character are covered by the articles Army Signalling. Army. Coast Defence. N. in this respect things have changed. the student will find an elaborate treatment of the history. Japanese (1905). G. French Army. 2j^ field guns per 1000 men. For details of their organization and equipment he should read the articles Engineers. its constitution. 5. Spanish Army. F. equivalent to 35 pages of United States Army. 685. g. Manoeuvres. in length equivalent to 30 pages of this Guide)." There must be a concert between diplomacy and strategy. Turkish Army. well known Theory and for his books on the Practice lesson of for better foresight. Supply and Transport (Military). The remaining topics in the article are: weak- and sea as operation. Machine Guns. p. e. with a section on Laws of War. Chief Command of group of armies. and in the article Cavalry (Vol. Guide) and Artillery (Vol. Signals.). illustrated with 2 plates and 1 cut. Rifle. Modem war is a science and the amateur has little chance. both by Capt. p. equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide). Fortification. (See the chapter For is Naval Officers in this Guide). Stonewall Jackson. by Sir Thomas Barclay. 16 cavalry soldiers to 1000 men of other Russian proportion in war arms (1905) 3j^ guns per 1000 men of other arms. Officers. 2. Nitro-glycerine. 37 cavalry to 1000 infantry. organization and tactics (especially since 1870) of each of these arms. chief of general staff and his relations to comvon for example. In the German Army. Austrian Army. p. Pistol. amphibious power. American Civil War {Fredericksburg. Gunthis Next in order the student should turn to the article War (Vol. GuNCOTTON. Table: Comparative strength of Various Armies. Pigeon Post. Ambulance. Sights. Ballistics. Civilian war ministers cannot solve strategic problems. Maude. That intellect and education count for more than stamina and courage was the — the Franco-Prussian War by the Prussians before that war. Italian ciples. 2 plates. F. Gun. Explosive. Atkinson. The greater deadliness of modern warfare. etc. equivArms of alent to 30 pages of Service this Guide). value of unprofessional troops and the ness of allied armies. Staff. in which the victorious general cannot make mistakes at the outset. and Verdun. — — eral staff. British Army. and the greater moral effect of being under fire possible to powder. Division. 2 plates. 305. Paris. Armies of minor countries. they would have shaken the British Empire to its foundations. . 517. articles Infantry (Vol. by Col. railways lines of need of professional leaders. Army. "It is im- lesson learned The relation of strategy and army and navy discussed and the new doctrine of "seapower" explained. 563. Bibliography (2000 words) An call morale. Col. p. Henderson's article lays down important general prinanalysis of modern conditions shows that improved methods of communicationha ve made waranmch speedier process. Ordnance. Russian Army. War Game. Branches of Administration war office and gen- — .BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 160 — ing 6 or 6 guns per 1000 men. Henderson. Army Corps. by Col. Command: Brigade. etc. Antwerp. Mounted Infantry.. mander-in-chief Moltke and King William. Indian Army.

the reader will find some outline like the following valuable. Jugurtha. Chaeroneia. own — in For a reasoned history of warfare more detail than has been given in the general articles already alluded to. Philip II of Macedon. Thermopylae. Herodotus. Pyrrhus. . Darius. shows the increased ease of the process of envelopment. Sulla. which has resulted in discarding corps artillery in divisional artillery. by Maj. it is done by his opponent and not by himself. Military History and Criticism Marathon. Cavalry tactics are in an uncertain condition.FOR ARMY OFFICERS The military use of aeroplanes and very fully shown in the arti- balloons cles is Flight and Aeronautics. Salamis. Major Malcolm makes much of the conInfantry. N. equiva- lent in length to 20 pages of this Guide). Thucydides. Critias. Cavalry and Artillery. Richard I (of this . Roman Army. Fabius Cannae. Pompey. It is impossible to summarize or outline it here. Before taking up a systematic course two general articles that the military student should in military history. Hanno. Mago. Olynthus. and Wellington at Maya with Oyama in his contest with Kuropatkin. Pericles. Alcibiades. since neither in South Africa in the Boer war nor in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese different was cavalry much used. Toulouse. Caudine Forks. Caesar. and the possibility — favour of The importance of the counter stroke. Mantineia. and Strategy (Vol. Aemilius Paulus. Hasdrubal. 161 the danger of using for the relief of one's troops forces which might better be launched at the enemy's weakest spot. Raymund of. Leonidas.. Strategy and Tactics 26. Peloponnesian War. Punic Wars. adopted to avoid loss. Epaminondas. Xenophon. editor of the Science of War. Line of Operations. The article Strategy should be read in conjunction with the articles Army and War. and the similar unwisdom of any negative tactics. at least the careful student of tactical history may see to it that if they are repeated. Crusades (equivalent to 90 pages of Guide) Godfrey of Bouillon. Line of Communication. Charlemagne. Perseus. Arrian. Hannibal. equivalent to 35 pages of this Guide). Scipio Afri(Cunctator) . p. tinuity of military history. by Col. as in "holding attacks" are the other principal points made in the article. Inmust co-operate to make artillery bombardment effective. An interesting discussion of offensive and defensive fighting is summed up in the words conflict fantry "To the true general the purely defenis unknown" and as evidence sive battle are adduced Wellington at Salamanca and Oyama at Sha-ho. F. The mistakes that have been made once should not be made again. comparing Metaurus and Ramillies with the fighting in Manchuria. Trasimene. Carthage. William I (of England) Standard. Charles Martel. but it is worth noting that the article closes with a definition and discussion of the following terms: Base. Neill 986. Sertorius. the arrangement being roughly chronological and all words in Italics being titles of articles in the Britannica. The former article should be compared with the sections on tactics in the articles p. Exterior Lines. . Malcolm. Brasidas. Clean Pylos. Alexander the Great. 25. canus. there are read: Tactics (Vol. Maude. Scipio Aemilianus. there is no recent practice to serve as a guide. Marius. Modern tactics are from ancient because of greater fire-power and improved methods of transportation. Hastings. Obstacles. 347. Antonius (Mark Antony). it is pointed out. Oyama's victory in the latter battle. Miltiades . Battle of.

Vol. Nordlingen. Loudon. Torstensson. Khevenhiiller . Anthony Wayne. George Rogers : . James IV Norfolk. Andrew Pickens. Seckendorf . Charles (of Lorraine. Finck. p. William III of England. Seven Years' War (with 5 diagrams) Frederick the Great. Zieten. A. Leven. Vol. E. p. Ferdinand (of Brunswick) Daun. Edward IV. Israel Putnam. Polish Succession War. 3rd Duke. Coehoorn. 5. Baldwin I . Kalb. George Washington. Henry Knox. Conti (Vol. Tilly. Monmouth. p. Count von Browne. Wars of the Roses. . . bert. Clark. Ramillies. Edgehill. Skippon. Thomas Gage. Flodden. 7. Belle-Isle. Thirty Years' War. Oudenarde. Edward III. Piccolomini. Burgoyne. Clive. Fontenoy. Argyll. . Frederick (of Scotland) . Villars. John Stark. 1st Duke of Bedford (John Plantagenet) Count of Dunois. Montecucculi. . St. Turenne. 28) Hohenfriedberg. Montcalm. Ethan Allen. Germantown. II (of Dutch Wars. Oliver Cromwell. Charles Fleetwood. Minden. L. . Ruvigny. 782) Baron Hopton. Joan of Arc. Coligny. Crecy. Li. American War of Independence. . Vauban. Fames (duke of Parma). Vol. Fleurus. Charles I (of England). . Rossbach. Sir Henry Clinton. William the Silent (Vol. 17. Baner. C.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 162 England) Philip . Manchester. Amherst. Frederick Henry. John Sullivan. Gallas. George II (of England) Noailles. Long Island. Neerwinden. Bayard (the Gaston de Foix. Concord. Keith. Blenheim. John Lambert. Robert Bruce. Mercy. Du Guesclin. Alva. Peterborough. Catinat. Freiburg. (Richard . Bouvines. Bennington. Vendome. Joseph Warren. comte de Saxe (marshal) Duke of Cumberland. Louvois. (of France). 8th Earl. Mansfeld. Fronde. Towton. Francis I (of chevalier) William of Brandenburg. Richard Montgomery . Charles of Lorraine (Vol. Pescara. Due de Bou0ers. Thomas Sumter. . Bannockburn. p. 11. Steenkirk. Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. 936). Conde. Kunersdorf.) Francis Marion. comte de Lally. Trenton and Princeton. p. Edward (the Black Prince) Calais. 643) Marston Moor. John II (of France) LanHouse of (for John of Gaunt) Poitiers. John of Bohemia. Hundred Years' War. Count von Schwerin. Ravenna. Naseby. F. Breitenfeld. Lexington. Sackville. Gustavus Adolphus. 17. Berwick. War of. Soubise (1715-1787). Villeroi. 2nd Earl of (Vol. William Alexander. Eugene of Savoy. . Charleston (S. Horatio Gates. Luxembourg. . Nathanael Greene. Duke of Newcastle (1592-1676) Fairfax of Cameron (2nd and 3rd Barons) Sir Bevil Grenville. Frederick the Great. Turenne. Cornwallis. Rufus Putnam. Bertrand England) . Sir William Waller. Bunker Hill. Maximilian I (of Bavaria) Frederick V (elector palatinate. Henry V (of Agincourt. Lord Newark. William Moultrie. William Howe. Wallenstein. King's Mountain. Philip VI. gonier. Leuthen. Marignan. . France) Henry VI (Roman Emperor) Saladin. Mont- Emmanuel Phili- . due de Rohan. Essex (2nd Earl. p. Vauban. Liitzen. Traun. Camden. Seydlitz. Navarro. Grand Alliance. Catinat. 1st Viscount. Wolfe. Albans. Dunbar. Montrose. Benedict Arnold. Frederick II. Malplaquet. John Hothamj 9. Daniel Mor- . Goring. Brandywine. Austrian Succession. Conde. . Thomas p. Earl of Warwick Neville) . St. Ticonderoga. Great Rebellion (English Civil Wars of 1642-52). 69). Spanish Succession. Due de Broglie. Wrangel (1613-1676). Marlborough. caster. Granby. Quentin (1557) morency (constable) . Prince Rupert. . battle of. France). Louis IX . Saratoga. 11). 28. 672) Maurice of Nassau. Harrison. J. William III (of England) Duke of Luxembourg. Louis XIV.

M. Wellington. Billow (17551816). Stuart. C. Vandamme. J. Hill. P. Augereau. Mavrocordato. Massenbach. Beauregard. E. Lord Lynedoch. Davout. T. Talavera. Shenandoah. Bull Run (second battle). Lee. Fitz-John Porter. N. Alexandria. Dupont de I'Etang. Sumner. Souham. Chattanooga. McClellan. Bautzen. Beauharnais. Forey. Murat. Joubert. A. Todleben. Howard. Smith. Blair. Exelmans. Vendee. Seven Days. Charles XIV (Bernadotte) Marmont. O'Donnell. Canrobert. Moncey. . Isaac Brock. p. Victor Emmanuel. Sheridan. Saint Arnaud. 5. Berthier. p. Thomas. Pelissier. Rosecrans. Dresden (battle). Massena. D. Hood. . F. McClernand. Chickamauga. Angereau. Greek Independence. Sir Richard Church. Duke of York. Ewell. archduke of Austria Wagram. Alma. Wattignies. diagrams) . p. American War of 1812. Hohenlohe (Vol. Ypsilanti. Antietam. Butler. Plevna (with diagram) Todleben. L. Friedland. Yorck von Wartenhurg. McPherson. Morgan. 0. Napoleon. Sir John Moore. Lord Hill. Austerlitz. Bazaine. Crittenden. Aspern-Essling. Wilderness (4 diagrams) Fitz-Hugh . Baltimore. Fair Oaks. McDowell. Doubleday. Murat. Cora'es. Paskevich. Kalckreuth. Chancellorsville. Stone River. Bellegarde. (^Stonewall) Jackson. Mitchel. T. Charles Albert of Sardinia (Vol. Clerfayt. Wellington. Berthier. Tarleton. Longstreet. Charles. U. Sigel. Salamanca. Fredericksburg . W. Banks. Bautzen. Frederick Augustus. Barclay de Tolly. Lannes. Sickles. A.. Gettysburg. Braxton Bragg. Johnston. Joubert. on p. Pelissier. Russo-Turkish Wars (1828-29). B. Marceau. Lord Hill. T. Durando. Halleck. Osman. La Marmora. villej Napoleonic Campaigns (9 diagrams. 938). " The Military Character of Napoleon ") Napoleon. H. V. J. James Wilkinson.. Forrest. D. 572): Bliicher. Moreau. W. EutawLafayette. Sir William Napier. Dundonald. E. Marengo. Barclay de Tolly. H. Wrede. C. Bagra4. Hill. Diebitsch (1877-78). E.. Breckinridge. Beresford. MacMahon. Jerome Bonaparte (Vol. Raglap. Early. Couch. Carnot. Ney. Foy. B. Count von Bennigsen. Franklin. 935). 19. Shipka Pass. Lexington. Scarlett. M. Canrobert. 0. Burnside. Meagher. Yorktown. R. Lannes. Gneisenau. Peninsular War. archduke of Austria (Vol. Dearborn. G. Sidney Smith. Schwarzenberg . Schwarzenberg. Jemappes. Niel. Nathaniel Lyon. N. 233 of Vol. Dupont de I'Etang. Ra- detzky . J. John F. Victor-Perrin. Bosquet. P. Serurier. B. Bull Run. 195) tion. Sir W. Griheauval. Murat. Gerard. Ney. Lasalle. Massena. N. Van Dorn. Clausel. Vandamme. Cardigan. Grant. and for sea-fighting the titles in the chapter of this Guide: For Naval Officers. Menshikov (1787-1869). Lew Wallace. Sir George Brown. Vicksburg. Shiloh. . Johnston. Picton. Cyr. Hess. Thielmann. Kutusov. Vitoria. New Orleans. Pepe. L. Bliicher. 0. McCook. gan. Neerwinden (1793). Napoleon III. F. N. Lefebvre-Desnoettes. Reynolds. Junot. American Civil War. Waterloo Campaign (with 3 maps) . Andrew Jackson. Gouvion St. Skobelev. Crimean War (with 2 diagrams) Gorchakov. Lauriston. Sir David Baird. Hooker. J. Italian Wars (1848-1870). Meade. Hancock. 163 Napoleon. A. McD. S. and . see. Borodino. Murat. Benedek. Jacob Brown. Suvarov. Charles. (1735-1820). D'Erlon. Wittgenstein. Inkerman. Kray von Krajova. C. French Revolutionary Wars (with 6 Kellerman Dumouriez. p. Oudinot. Custine. Grouchy.FOR ARMY OFFICERS Henry Lee. Kleber. Washington. Pope. Scharnhorst. G. Grouchy. Sir George Cathcart. Pajol. 13. Suxhet. Kinglake. Fremont. Sebastiani. Macdonald. Balaklava. Mortier. Mo. P. Eylau. Palafox y Melzi. H. Thomas. Soult. Wimpffen. Oudinot. Senarmont. Anglesey. J. H. Pichegru. Cialdini. Kearny. F. 5. Jr. Macdonald. Burnside. B. Jourdan. E. Custozza. Hardee. S. F.

T. . Cedar Creek. Many topics are treated in the Britannica. Aurelle de Paladines. Cold Harbor. A. H. As has been noticed above. War Battalion Battering Rarr Succession. Miles. . 8th Earl Austrian Arniet — stance articles on wars or campaigns contain elaborate descriptions of separate battles. Logan. N. Moltke. Spotts ylvania.American Civil Roosevelt. Hohenlohe . Bourbaki. Aide-de-camp Anglesey cus) Aemilius.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 164 Lee. for Boer War of 1899-1902). William I (of Germany) Steinmetz. Marietta. MacMahon. and Allan. Frederick III (of (of Charles Germany) Frederick : .Augustus. Petersburg. AtSlocum. Alexander of Bulgaria (Vol. Werder. Appomatox Court-House. . Edhem Pasha. Joseph Schofield. F. Wimpffen. W^ar of the Barricade League of Basinet An. Greene. Frossard. P. J. Prussia. Prince Frederick Charles. Worth (with plan) Bazaine. Steinmetz. Franco-German War. J. V.13. 27. Benedek. C. Joubert. Oyama. Battle of the Arms and Armour Aventail or Avantaille Army Bagration Bautzen Bayonet Bazaine . Metz Alvensleben. Niel. Faidherbe. 61). 544) Milan of (2 plans) . R. Benedict Adjutant Alvensleben Arquebus Baldwin Arrian Arsenal Ballistics War Aeronautics Agincourt. Sherman. Shenandoah Valley. and their whereabouts may be readily learned by turning to the Index volume. Chanzy. Seven Weeks' War (with 2 diagrams) William I (of Germany) Moltke. William Alexander of Bulgaria Alexandria Alignment (Mark Corps Signalling for in- Baiiey Baird. Lord Kitchener. Gallifet. Napoleon III. H. Le Mans. Goeben. Italian Wars above. Anderson. Leboeuf. Transvaal (Vol. Sir George White. Cronje. Blumenthal. Buller. Sir David Balaklava I Bandolier Artillery Baner Asclepiodotus Aspern-Essling Assegai Atlanta Banks. Ethan Accoutrement Alma Army Army Acinaces Alva Arnold. J. Merritt. p. lanta. G. Christian DeWet. pp. Nashville. Servia. P. The student will see from said that the Britannica is not merely a general work of reference but a valuA Military able aid in the study military what has already been Encyclopaedia of military history. Belfort. Lord Roberts. Kuropatkin. p. De la Rey . Sedan (with plan) Vinoy. even if they are not in the following list. Inouye.Ingelfingen 573b). The following alphabetical list names only the chief of the articles in the Britannica which make it a military cyclopaedia. II. Sir John Miller Ammunition Aelian (Aelianus Tacti. many articles are special treatises in themselves dealing with many — related topics. Oku. N. Charles. . John Sedgwick. Servo-Bulgarian War. Joseph Spanish-American War. Freycinet. J. Wilson. Warren. Russo-Japanese War (with 4 diagrams) Kuroki. Caprivi. Gambetta. Orleans. Abatis Ambush Adjutant-general Adye. Manteuffel. Bannockburn Barbette Barclay de Tolly Augereau Barracks Augsburg. Bastion Duke of York Batta Antwerp Aurelle de Paladines Archery Austerlitz Argyll. Clinchant . Battle of American War of 1812 American War of Independence Amherst Anderson. p. W. H. Canrobert. . R. 203 sqq. Vol. Paulas Aeneas Tacticus Albert. 1. Durham. theory. Nozu. practice and phraseology. Richmond. 11. Wheeler. Kruger. . Bourbaki. of Sar. Paris. and see (Vol. Greco-Turkish War. Frederick. Wheeler. biography. Louis Botha. K.Antietam Antonius dinia tony) Alcibiades Alexander Alexander the Great Alexander.

D. Cr^cy Blenheim Blockhouse Blucher Blumenthal Blunderbuss Edgehill Conde Bernhard of Saxe. Brigade Brigandine dotte) Benedetto Brin Charles Martel Bronsart von Schellen. or Burganet Cleon Burgoyne Clerfayt Burnside Clinchant Busby Explosives Chancellorsville Buller Cialdini Bull Run Circumvallation. Breckinridge. 1st Duke of Camden Camp Campaign Bellegarde Canadian Forces Cannae Belle-Isle Cannon Benedek Bennigsen.Wei. Freiburg im Breisgau Dunois. de Carbine Cardigan Carnot. Sir George Chattanooga. L. Oliver Cronje Crusades Fascine Cuirass Cuirassiers Filibuster Ferdinand Chanzy Custine Custozza Cutlass Chaplain Charlemagne Archduke Charles. T. Va. Cathcart. Count von Canrobert Canteen Bennington Cantonment Belfort Beresford. Jacob Chesney. H.Clausel rich Clausewitz. X. Hope Foy War of Francis I (of France) War De Wet Franco-German Diebitsch Franklin. C. F. Revolutionary French Durando Dutch Wars Freycinet Friedland Frigate Early Wars . C. J. Count of Dupont de I'Etang Diippel Fremont. Duke of Burgonet. Military Bomb Bombardment Edhem Pasha Condottiere Conscription Conti Coraes Cordite Corporal Corps Couch. Echelon Commander Commandeer Commando Edward Epaminondas Eutawville Ewell Case-Shot Cashier Castle Crimean Catapult Crilias Botha Due de Boulevard Bourbaki Bouvines Bragg. C. Jean Charles Fontenoy Davout Dearborn Forey Defile Forrest. L. Military Colour-sergeant Commissariat Concord Capitulation Berthier 165 Finck Fleetwood. B. Breitenfeld Brevet Brialmont. many) V Frederick Frederick Charles (of Prussia) Dragoon Frederick Henry Dresden Du Guesclin. J. Sir Richard Bullet Chickamauga Creek Bunker Essex Eugene of Savoy Bombardier Carrington. Dirk Frederick II Frederick III (of Ger- Division Dodge. Charles Fleurus Flodden Flying Flying Column Foix. C Caprivi Captain Berwick Bivouac Carabiniers Blair. H. of Dagger Dannewerk Austria Charles I (of England) Darius Charles XIV (Berna. P. Jerome Borodino Bosquet Edward III Edward IV Emmanuel Philibert Emmanuel.FOR ARMY OFFICERS Bayard (the Chevalier) Caltrop Beauharnais Beauregard Bedford. C. Brown. Counterscarp Countersign Court Marshal Cox. N. Sir Clive Henry Coast Defence Coastguard Coehoorn Cold Harbor Coligny (of Bruns- wick) Cumberland. Bertrand Frederick the Great Frederick William of Dumouriez Dunbar Dundonald Dunes Brandenburg Fredericksburg. J. F. Browne. Robert Church. B. N. D. dorf. Jr. Brown Bess Chesney. Theodore A. A. Donelson. B. Count von Chevaux-de-frise Bruce. Fort Doubleday W. C. Gaston de Folard. B. T. Carronade Carthage Cartridge Black (the Prince) Enceinte Enfilade Engineers. George Rogers Billow. Braxton Brandy wine Brasidas Boufflers. Tenn. M. Lines Bull Run (second batof tle) Clark. Karl von Hill Exelmans Crittenden..Charleston. Chaeroneia Butler. Va. Cadet Cadre Caesar Calais Caliver Eylau Fabius (Cunctator) Faidherbe Fairfax of Cameron Fair Oaks. Dietrich Hein. Paul Chassepot Brown. W. Fortification and Siegecraft Forlorn Depot D'Erlon De la Rey Devolution. Va. Sir G. Victor Ensign Cormontaingne.Daun Claymore Clinton.Caponier mar Colonel Colours. Louis Epaulette Cornwallis Casemate Bonaparte. Sir George Catinat Caudine Forks Cavalry Cedar Creek. S. Farnese (Duke of War Parma) Cromwell.

Sir Edward Hancock Hannibal Hanno Hardee Kldber Knobkerrie Knox. Richard Montmorency ( c o n Johnston. P. Duke of Lord Lynedoch Montcalm stable) Morgan. Cyr Lee. Nathanael Grenade Grenadier Grenville. J. E. F. Macdonald McDowell McPherson Macedon Machine Gun Moreau Jourdan Jugurtha Junot Kalb Kalckreuth Luxembourg. A. Henry V (of England) Lally. Henry Lee. Grape of Greene. W. John Henry VI Frossard Fugleman La Marmora Emperor) Fusilier Gabion Gage. William Gneisenau Godfrey of Bouillon Goeben Gorchakov Gorget Goring Gouvion St. D. George Bruce Muster Gun-Room Khevenhiiller. Longstreet (" Stone. MacMahon Mago Gunner Gunpowder Kellermann. William Howitzer Hull. Japan. Fitz-Hugh Germantown Gingall or Jingal Glacis Lasalle Marmont Marston Moor Loudon Scot. S. A. O. Malplaquet Gustavus Adolphus Kinglake Mameluke H albert King's Mountain Kitchener. E. Ga. W. E. R. Andrew Jackson. Newcastle. John Howard. Lyon. Francis Marius Marlborough Ney Niel Nitro-glycerine . Morion Mortier Moselle Line Moultrie. Gates. J. H. Thomas Herodotus Lancaster. Moat Kuropatkin Kutusov Laager Murat Musket Mutiny Napier. Lefebvre-Desnoettes of the Grant. Garrison Hill. H.166 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Fronde Lafayette Henderson. J.Louis IX Minute Men Mitchel. Joubert. J. H. Isly Italian Long Wars Jackson. Thomas Kunersdorf Hasdrubal Kuroki Hastings Haversack Heliograph Helmet M. Granby Grand Alliance. Moltke Moncey (of France) Monmouth Louis XIV Louvois Montalembert Jemappes Joan of Arc John of Bohemia John II of France Liitzen Montecucculi Luxembourg Montgomery. House of Herrings. Howe. McD. Henry Kray von Krajova Harper's Ferry. Kriegspiel Kruger Harrison. Major Khaki Malleson. Sir William Manchester. Jomini. R. Y. O. William Mounted Infantry Gun Kearny Gun-cotton Keith.Lorraine. A. Battle of the Lance GaUas Hess Galliffet Landsknecht A. V. Hill. Hamley. H. L. F. N. Comte de Guichard. Sir Bevil Gribeauval Grouchy Guards and Household Troops Guardship Guibert. Duke of New Orleans Marignan Marion. Daniel Morgan. T. Island. 2d Earl of Napoleon Military Manoeuvres Napoleonic Campaigns Mansfeld Napoleon III Manteuffel Naseby Mantineia Nashville Marathon Marceau March Marengo Navarro Needle-gun Neerwinden Newark. Baron A. J. Greene. O. Minden A. Y. F. Hill. S. J. P. H. Horatio Hohenfriedberg Lannes Gauntlet General Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Holster Lauriston Gambetta George Gerard II of England Lord Rowland Hood Hooker Hop ton. Johnston. Sir John McClernand McCook. Karl Gottlieb Massinissa Matross Maurice of Nassau Mavrocordato Maximilian I (of Ba- Meade Meagher. Landsturm Landwehr Langlois. Comte de (Roman Lambert. Nathaniel McClellan Montrose Moore. Menshikov Mercenary Mercy Merritt Leipzig Metz Meuse Line Le Mans Hundred Years' War Milan of Servia Miles Military Law Hussar Leven Infantry Lexington Militia Inkerman Ligonier Linstock Miltiades Logan. U. Lord Marietta. Baron Gettysburg Hostage Hotham. G. Army Greek War Massena Massenbach Legion Leonidas Leuthen Inouye War Martello Tower Martial Law Martinet varia) Leboeuf Lee. Charles of wall ") Great Rebellion James IV (of Greco-Turkish War land) Greek Fire Independence. Va. Lord Kite Halleck. T.

John Steenkirk Ward Room War Game Staff. due de Peloponnesian War Peninsular War Siege Roosevelt Ropes. Friedrich W. H. T. Rufus Serjeant Talavera de Target Tarleton Tattoo Sertorius Thermopylae Sebastiani Sepoy Wellington Werder Wheeler. Sallet or Salet Saladin St. G. TelemeCampaign ter or Position-finder Sheridan Officers Oku Olynthus Onosander Ordnance Orleans Osman Todleben Torstensson Towton Sherman. Patrol Pavis. Villars War of The Villerol Spear Spontoon Vinoy Spottsylvania Vitoria Volunteers Visor Spur Spy Squadron Wagram Standard. Earl of Washington. Sidney Soubise I of England) Rocket Rohan. Israel Putnam. F. Skippon Vandamme Van Dorn Paris Parole Partisan Paskevich Richard Pasley. V. Wimpffen H. Sumter. Radetzky Raglan Seven Days' Battle Seven Weeks' War Seven Years' War Seydlitz Ramillies Shenandoah Range-finder. 1st Viscount Phalanx Saint Philip II (of Macedon) Philip II (of France) Philip VI Piccolomini Salade. J. Y. W. Sowar Spahis Pericles Roses. C. Sir George Wilderness. Lewis Waller. E. of the Polyaenus Pompey War Scimitar Scipio Aemilianus Scipio Africanus John Sumner. Ger- . James William the Silent WiUiam (of I Eng- land) William III (of Engla Rein a land) William (of I many) Wilson. Prince Russo-Japanese War Russo-Turkish Wars RUstow. 3rd Duke Pyrrhus S6rurier Quadrilateral Nozu Quiver O'Donnell. Sir C. N. Thomas Supply and Transport (Military) Sutler Poniard Pontoon Scout Pope Seckendorf Suvarov Swold Porter. E. John Tactics Senarmont Punic Wars Purser Sentinel or Sentry Putnam. Transvaal Trasimene Traun Shipka Pass Traverse Tr^buchet Trenton and Princeton Razzia Reconnaissance Sickles Sigel Sights Panoply Parade Parados Redan Redoubt Regiment Signal Retrenchment Silesian Reveille Sirdar Parallels Reynolds. W. G. Tilly Valley Rapier Raymund Oudenarde Oudinot Thielmann Thirty Years' War Thomas. Va. Rapparee Ravenna Shield Shiloh of Toulouse Thucydides Ticonderoga. K. J. John F. Sir William Wallenstein Stark. of the Arnaud Quenlin Salamanca Andrew Verdun Verdy du Vernois Spanish-American War Victor-Perrin Spanish Succession. Perseus Pescara Petard Peterborough Petersburg Campaign Petronel Petty-Officer Rossbach Rupert. Wilkinson. Smith. Comte de (mar. Battles of Stiletto Saxe. Joseph Warwick. J. Picket Picton Pigeon Post Pike Pistol Poitiers Polish Succession. Wattignies Platoon Scharnhorst Schiavone Suchet Wayne. Anthony Pneumatic Gun Schofield Sulla Weapon Schwarzenberg Schwerin. Ruvigny Sackville. J. B. Fitz-John Sedan Sword Press Gang Propellants Sedgwick. Warren. Battle of Wallace. or Pavise Roberts. Lord Oyama Pajol Palafox y Melzi Pelissier Troop Turenne Ulan Uniforms Wars Skobelev Vauban Ricochet Sling Richmond Slocum Vedette Vegetius Rifle Smith. H. military Warrant Salamis Steinmetz Saratoga. Count von Sullivan. Sir W. Joseph White. C. Pickens.Stone River shal) Stony Point Scabbard Strategy Pichegru Vendome Veteran Vexillum Vicksburg Soult Rosecrans Wars Souham Vendee Officer Scarlett Strelitz Warren. George Waterloo Campaign Stuart.FOR ARMY OFFICERS 167 War Noailles Pylos Servo-Bulgarian Nordlingen Norfolk.

without duplicating other chapters. as it deals with ships and navigation in gen- Men tion in this Guide is also The articles Ship and Shipbuilding mentioned in that chapter are (except for the historical section of the former) by Sir Philip Watts. and many other these articles described in that chapter are of the greatest im- portance to naval officers. it has seemed convenient to include in it the description of those articles in the Britannica which deal with war in general. of navigation and of mechanical engineering. co-operating in a land expedition. and. even when they are at sea. designer of the British "Dreadnoughts" and "SuperDreadnoughts. tains : (Vol. The Key Article will naturally Navy and Navies author of A Short History This of the Royal Navy. of shipbuilding. are passengers. which virtually present his subjects under four different heads. Va. save in relation to the discipline of their troops. Sir H. electrical machinery and fuels of all kinds. have nothing to do Three Other with the ship's manRelevant agement. It con- . in which the naval officer will find no repetition of their contents. and as the chapter For Army Officers in this Guide would therefore in any case be read by them. Of course he may be called upon. The first article to turn is which he p. indicate all the aspects of the Britannica with which he is directly concerned. E. 19. but his reading upon these topics naturally divides itself into these four parts. it could not Chapters be assumed that the present chapter would appeal to them. to concentrate upon the swift could solution . simultaneously to think and to act in all his capacities." and the article Shipping is by Douglas Owen. by David Hannay. But naval when officers. internal combustion engines.168 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Wittgenstein Wrangel Yeomanry Wolfe Wood. Obviously eral. The chapter For Engineers in this Guide describes the articles dealing with steam engines. 299). article is equivalent to 60 pages of this Guide in length. Wrede Yorck Xenophon Yataghan burg Yorktown. and it would be a waste of space to repeat in this chapter a summary of the Britannica treatment of these subjects. The chapter For Marine Transportaone to which the naval officer should refer. in the exercise of his duties. of the Royal Naval War College at Portsmouth. All three of the chapters mentioned should therefore be treated as forming constituent parts of the general plan of this present chapter.of one problem his knowledge of warfare. need to employ every kind of knowledge that is of use to army officers.Zieten Zouave CHAPTER XXX FOR NAVAL OFFICERS THE scope of a naval fessional interests is officer's pro- so broad that the present chapter of this Guide not. Worth Ypsilanti von Warten. Inasmuch as army officers. And he will find that his use of the Britannica is simplified by the subdivisions about to be specified.

. and United States Naval Academy. Cambridge University. p. and unimportant after the 17th cen- Rodney and Howe and regard of accepted their dis- tactics. — Greek and Roman methods: board" beardintroduced by Romans ing. British. for the United States. — Italy. Sailing ships : ramming discarded " line ahead " formation displaces . but unorganized. . the T. The Balance of Navies in History: " when Napoinfluence of sea-power leon fell. fortifying with iron bands across the bows. Byzantine. and the reforms under James II when Samuel Pepys was retary 169 tics order at beginning to be kept throughout. it was the only powerful navy in existence. Japan. 701). 1. Admiral W. office of naval intelligence. author of Problems of Interna- and Diplomacy. Improved ship-building and modern —steam propul- sion. the navy of Great Britain was not merely the first in the world. Latest developments : " Dreadnoughts " Building Programmes. Spanish — a great navy without an organization before the 18th century. England and the Dual Alliance "naval scares" since 1874. by Admiral Naval AdminSir R. The Amer- ican part of this article describes the divisions and the working of the Navy De- partment. Sketches of the Administrative History of navies: Athenian. 14. . United States —the first great extra- European power on the sea. its bureaus. blockade. Barclay. Historical evolution: inter-relation of the ship's capacity and armament. Russian dating from the reign of Peter the Great. 1. for the United States. by Sir Thomas . p." Modern Rivalry between Italy and — — Germany (1871). and International Law. States. and.FOR NAVAL OFFICERS — Naval Personnel. 205). Dutch— good seamen and well-fed. boards and there is additional information on the subject in such articles as Dockyards. John Westlake. Early history: ramming demanded oars for propulsion. Russia's navy crushed (1904) new naBritain and rivalling Great vies — . Private (Vol. plate. by Sir Walter Phillimore. tion the reader should study the article Admiralty Jurisdiction (Vol. . no short cruises warships. 14." that is. Arthur Barrett. with special attention to the period since the Restoration. but its depend- times: New problems ence on fuel. and also the general articles International Law (Vol. p. by Dr. searchlight as check to' torpedoes failure of attempts to " bottle up " harbours gun-fire still the great factor position speed submarines still an unknown factor." line abreast " principles of fighting tac. Vesey Hamil- istration late ton. The first part of this article Navy and Navies should be supplemented by the article Admiralty Administration (Vol. by J. risk of transporting troops while enemy is unbeaten. Japan. Medieval. United States (1890). —modern navy dating from the time of Richelieu. and. Sampson. Naval Strategy and Tactics. p. tury. ramming and pell-mell battles forbidden by torpedoes. 694). small large fighting crews. French led by able admirals. an early form of armor ing . thus no advantage taken of enemy's disorder. Suf- — fren. United Germany. . fleet in being. 195). sec- . its gain in speed. British Naval Defence Act of 1889. High Court of. when it was organized and led by foreigners.. Clerk's theories (1790-97) not maximum safety but immediate melee the desideratum. Roman. formerly professor of international law. For the legal side of naval administraetc. judge advocate- general. former president of the International Law Association (and author of the Britannica article Admiralty. France. and member for the United Kingtional Practice . Bibliography (about 1800 words). Bibliography.

The crusades could not have continued had not Mahommedan naval power sunk as the Venetian. Spanish." The meaning of sea-power can only be learned historically. The of standing navies. Thucydides as a forerunner of Mahan he makes Pericles in comparing Athenian resources with those of her enemies comment on the importance of " sea-power.. discipline or " science. and this will be made evident by the brief outline of the two articles which follows. Torrington and the " Fleet in Being" in 1690. This subPolicy. should not receive shocks like those that it unquestionably did suffer in 1812. The New World on sea-power. foreign basis its sudden trade. Spanish and Portuguese sea-power crushed by English growth and the loss of the Armada. p. p. 24. H. and Genoese grew. 548) Captain A. rise. ject is treated in fuller deSir Thomas by Admiral Cyprian Bridge. Vice-Admiral P. In any future war British sea-power." Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78— Turkish control of Black Sea forced Russians to invade by land through the difficult Balkans. Command of THE (Vol. right to perform the ceremony of " wedding the sea " with a ring as token of " perpetual sway. as well as such special Search articles as (Vol. by Sir Travers Twiss. British Navy. author of Sea-Power and Strategy. Wars of the French Revolution and Empire: Great Britain's advantage — not in organization. Early English naval history: the importance of the Dover battle of Appearance in 1217. great as it may be. not near the coast of England. its in — The 18th century. . The War of 1812.B. 529). The loss of the Peloponnesian War by Athens was due to her weakening sea-power." Salamis saved Greece and held back Oriental invasion. Each of these articles will be of great value and interest to the naval officer as a summary and other Studies) in (Vol. War of American Independence: Britisli mistakes the enemy's coast not considered the frontier. Pisan. The defeat of Genoa by Venice gave the latter a . and. It has already been noticed that the closing part of the article Navy and Navies dealt with strategy and tactics in a general way. and influence its sea-power of the Dutch. 24.American War: "Spaniards — American — — . 24. Mahommedan conquest spread west in Africa only with the creation of a navy. (former Director of Naval Intelligence. Seven Years' War and its gains to Great Britain. "The British had now to meet the elite of one of the finest communities of seamen ever known. and Sea Laws (Vol. Change in naval operations in 17th century the scene thereafter in the enemy's waters. Colomb. Roman rather than Carthaginian control of the Mediterranean. Chilean Civil War of 1891 an army defeated by a navy. Tactics tail Sir two articles Sea-Power and Sea. p. perplexed and harassed the defence." Lepanto (1571) the end of Turkish sea-power." Later Manifestations of Sea-Power. Chino. and facilitated the occupation of important points. term to ly strong at sea. by the power they possessed of moving troops by sea at will. but did not crush the United Provinces because of their seapower. T.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 170 dom of the International (Hague) Court of Arbitration. Civil War " By dominating the rivers the Federals cut the Confederacy asunder. " the course of history has been profoundly changed more often by contests on the water.Japanese War of 1891-95 Japanese navy in transport work and in crushing last resistance." but in sea-experience. the Dutch wars with England resulted in England's becoming the first great naval power.C. criticism of the theories of Mahan and — Sea-Power Use of the mean (1) a state pre-eminent- Article. 24. by Barclay. Rise of Russia's — sea-power an artificial creation. article and (2) —the various — as in this factors in a state's naval strength.. The First Punic War. Although there have been more land-wars. 535). G. 560). p. was won by Roman naval predominance.

Battle of. Sir Hyde Parker. Nile. Attempts to gain Command: Dutch Article. John Byron. Lord Howe. battles. Carthage. marking the official sanction in England of an absurd formal system of tactics). Thomas David other heroes of this first bright glow of England's naval glory). New Madrid. Lord Col- lingwood) Cornelius De Witt. Trafalgar. Seven Years' War. La Hogue. Comte de Grasse). Thomas Truxtun. Sir Philip Broke. Naval Operations (and First of June. Pompey. Dutch Wars (and articles Tromp. American Civil War (and Hampton Roads. As for the army officer. Rome: [John St. William Bainbridge. Vincent. scribed. Comte d'Estaing. Command different from Sovereignty or Dominion. Battle of. articles Napoleonic Campaigns. Howe. Robert Blake. Copenhagen. Battle of. Lepanto (and Villeneuve. The Era of Steam. and Thomas Mathews. Special Historical Articles ers. Villaret de Joyeuse. G. Sluys. furnishing the concrete separate facts on which are based the articles already de- Grand (and 171 Alliance. decisive for Greek Independence. Hawkins. Toulon. Medieval History. D. Chioggia (and articles Venice and Genoa). Sir Thomas Troubridge). Lord Anson. Rodgers. Andrew Hull Foote. Battle of. article Don John of American War of 1812 (and John Austria). Frobisher. Earl Punic Wars. articles Naval Operations Earl of Torrington. and Navarino. First Earl of Sandwich. Crusades. Lord Hood. Swold. W. Battle of. Battle of. De Ruyter. Hotham. Peloponnesian French Revolutionary Wars. And Lissa (1811). Quiberon). Guichen. closely resembling Trafalgar. Rodney. 16th Century. Isaac Hull. Forbin). Temporary command in smaller operations. cles. . Earl of Oxford [Edward Russell] and Tourville). Duguay-Trouin. William Monk. Farragut. so the Britannica has for the naval officer many separate articles ou wars. Oliver Hazard Perry. and the Porter. Lord Keith. commandThe following generals. Greece: articles Salamis. Seeking the enemy's fleet.FOR NAVAL OFFICERS were defeated by the superiority of the American sea-power. Command of the Sketch of Sovereignty of the Sea. Hyde Parker. Lord Bridport. Prince Rupert. Spanish Succession. Austrian Succession. B y n g . Hawke. Wars. Tropez. Stephen Decatur. Ayscue. and Beachy Head. James II. Pericles. American War of Independence. Naval Operations (and Baron de Saiimarez. Ancient History. Battle of. George Lawson. Raleigh. Rooke. Richard Grenville. Naval Operations (and the articles Edward Vernon. Abraham Duquesne). Cloudesley Shovel. D. Sir Robert Calder. Xerxes I. Actium. Naval Operations (and Chateau-Renault. B. Naval Operations (and E s e k Hopkins. The Era of Sailing Vessels. D. Pocock. Sir John Penn. Benbow. Vincent of Jervis]. Lord Duncan. Naval Operations (and Boscaxven. Drake. Nelson. Espagnols sur Mer (and article Edward III). list of articles will serve as a guide to a reading course of constituting a history of naval warfare. Cushing). Macdonough). Armada (and articles on Howard. St. ThemistoWar. John Paul Jones." — Sea. Dover. campaigns. Strategic Command or Control largely the power of carrying out considerable over-sea expeditions at will. Suffren St. Porter.

late lecturer at the Royal Naval War College. Hyde Parker. Isaac International James Law II De Ruyter De Saumarez. Sir Thomas Truxtun.d'Estaing Actium Admiral chapter For Marine Transportation Men). S. Lord Duquesne. St. Earl of Parker. William Frigate Frobisher Togo Torpedo Torrington Toulon. Tsushima). Lord Greek Independence Guardship Guichen Hampton Roads Pericles Trafalgar Pocock Hawke Pompey Hawkins Porter. W. Dogger Bank. S. Sea. T.Japanese War (and see Ito). George DeWitt. Stephen Admiralty Administra. D. John Rodney Rooke Rupert. Cloudesley Sluys Spanish-American War Spanish Succession Squadron Submarine Mines Suffren. Sir PhiUp Fireship First of June Flagship Fleet Byng Flying Column Byron. Ammunition. I^ord Hopkins. Battle of Crusades Hood. Chilean Civil War. W. Baron Jones. Ord- Armaments nance. Abraham Bainbridge. Battle of (1217) Lissa (1811. George Napoleonic Campaigns Ship. Battle of the Wars of Britannica of especial interest to naval oflBcers or other students of naval warfare. Battle of Grenville. S. by Major William Egerton Edwards. Spanish-American articles W. New Range-finder Rodgers. Russo-Japanese War (and Togo. John Calder. Greenwich. Cornelius Dockyards Dogger Bank La Hogue Drake Duguay-Trouin Macdonough. William Dutch Wars Marines Mathews. W. War (and see the Sampson. Lord War Midshipman Search Seven Years' War Monk. Armour Plates. Lord Brolie. Sandwich. Lord Dewey. articles in the Perry. Thomas Meloria Beachy Head Edward Miaoulis Benbow Espagnols sur Mer Farragut. Thomas Tsu-shima U. Oliver Hazard Piracy Punic Wars Quiberon. tion Admiralty Jurisdiction American Civil War American War of Independence American War of 1812 Ammunition Anson. Decatur. D. John Paul Keith. Shipbuilding Revolutionary Nile. Naval Academy Venice Vernon. Sir Robert Foote. Schley. Torpedo. Tropez Swold Themlstocles Genoa Grand Alliance Grasse. Richard Pepys Tourvillc Chino-Japanese War Chioggia Coaling Stations Coast Defence Coast Guard Codrington Coligny Collingwood. G. Prince Russo-Japanese Saint-Bon Saint Vincent Saints. The following is an alphabetical list Hull. W. Battle of Raleigh Tromp Troubridge. Privateer Colomb Hotham Howard Commodore Copenhagen. Thomas Duilius Mahan Ayscue Duncan.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 172 Chile-Peruvian War. with illustrations. Command of the Sea Laws Seamanship Sea-Power Nauarchia Naucrary Naval Operations Navarino Navy and Navies Nelson Ordnance Shovel. Lord Armada Armour Plates Arms and Armour Beresford Blake. Robert Boscawen Bridport. Chino. Sir John Lepanto Liner Dover. etc. Comte de Oxford. The subject of armaments is treated in the articles Ship and Shipbuilding (see Cushing. Sir Hyde Peloponnesian War Penn. Battle of the Salamis Sampson. George Dewey. 1866) III Andrew Hull Forbin French Madrid. B. Camperdown Carthage Casemate Case-shot Cervera Chateau-Renault Chile-Peruvian War Chilean Civil War Lawson. Esek Howe. Edward Villaret de Joyeuse Villeneuve Xerxes I . Pascual Cervera y Topete Cervera). David Porter.' D. T. 1st Earl of Schley.

Part II Courses of Educational Reading TO Supplement Or Take the Place of School or University Studies .

.

Hadow. Suggested Jewish origin of some Gregorian Tunes. Dent. p. this was assisted A. the greatJ. p. 19. 23. Book of (Vol. Legge. 859). p. and p. earliest so that the student may have before him a guide to the study of any period In which he is specially interested. 706). p. subject. 21. The article Music (Vol. Primitive Music. 795) (Vol. see also (Vol. author of Alessandro Scarlatti and His Works. 639 536). est living authority on the (1) In mapping out courses of reading the subject is divided Into sections as follows: (1) Evolution. and no one could be better fitted for the work of organizing rected department of the Britannica. pianist. p. 7. musical critic of The Times (London). 72). and author of Essays in Musical Analysis. the wellknown musical writer and composer. Legendary account of the invention of music by a Judean. (2) Theory. He by W. (3) Musical Forms. 175 Rhythm Plain Song (Vol. but to fill out the picture there are a number of other articles which he will wish to read. In the following scheme the evolution of the art has been sketched terly account of the art in from the skeleton. (Vol. 22. J. cal The treatment of and critithe subject was ditechnical by Donald F. 278). Dance Hebrew music: Psalms. composer. Tovey. This he will naturally turn to first. which contains a masdevelopment of the time down to the present day. and the section treating of musical instruments was organized and contributed by Miss Kathleen Schlesinger. This outline serves to show how very thoroughly the ground is covered in the new Encyclopaedia Britannica. Song 19. 72). provides the reader with just that general survey which enables him to see the whole picture in perspective. and others. . p. Fuller Maitland. principal musical critic on the Daily Telegraph (London). by Donald Tovey. E. p. (Vol. 25. EVOLUTION OF MUSIC Subject for Reading Article P RE-HARMONIC STAGE Music (Vol. 406). 7.CHAPTER XXXI MUSIC THE general articles on music in the Encyclopaedia Britannica provide an illuminative discussion of broad artistic principles which cannot fail to stimulate the musical sense and perception of the professional or the amateur. p. H. (4) Musical Instruments. Musical sense setting of the Psalms. first awakened by the rhythm of the dance. R. H. DAvm .

7th century B. 3rd century. Biographies of musicians of the primitive. Sanskrit (Vol. orchestras perform in unison. Chinese adopted Pythagorean system a lost art recovered in 3rd century. Characteristics of Greek music.. p. 847). p. 73) ORAS (Vol. 20. 12. p. 181). Other primitive systems without influence on modern music. B. Quintilianus. and Plain Song (Vol. p. Lyre . 178). p. " beatus Guido inventor musicae " in the 11th century. non-harmonic. 4th century. Siamese music: 7 tone scale. p. North American (Vol. The Greek scale shows a latent harmonic sense. 13. of the harmonic sense. p. . GuiDo OF Arezzo (Vol. of the North American Indian. 12. Harmony (Vol. 1). the intervals of the harmonic series and of the diatonic scale.) adds 3 strings to the 4stringed lyre. p. . 1). 6. Aristoxenus. Terpander of Lesbos (660 poetry.C. p. The Grecian modes modified into ecclesiastical by Ambrose in the the 4th century. 917). Literature (Vol. 687). 26. Following Hucbald. 13. Alypius. 21. 470).D. 21.C. 19. 22. see also Orchestra (Vol. and Gregory (Vol.. giving compass of octave.C. p. 74). see also Hucbald (Vol. 2. 798). period in the Britannica are: Terpander. China. 168) AuLOS (Vol. p. Pythagoras. Musical (Vol. (Vol. though octaves only al- lowed. p. 6th century B. 3rd century B. p. p. The music Indians. invents names for the notes improves system of notation. p. With this discovery modern harmony may be said to have begun. B.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 176 Dawn modern of Connection of music music Greece. HARMONIC ORIGINS at the octave a greater sonority discovery that two separate tunes the to this from step great It was a resulted. 705). thagoras (6th century. p. p. Aristides. The Greeks found that by doubling the melody Article Subject Awakening Music (Vol. Pitch. 21. Indian music —Scale of 22 intervals. 13. SiAM (Vol. A. see also Pythag- 699). p.) Pyfixes M usic (Vol. see also Ambrose (Vol.C. 661). Cithara (Vol. 1.. 6. Harmony (Vol. Pitch in Greek music. 17. 19. 12. 228 and 216). 609).C. 6). p. with lyric in Greek Literature (Vol. could be combined which should be satisfying to the ear. 667). 395). 14. p. p. .

13th century (Vol. Giovanni. Bennett. 1517-1590. Orlando. fought see below. 1565-1628. 20.MUSIC The Troubadour becomes a learned 177 Adam de la Hale. 7. 3. Gregor. T. The Golden Age (Vol. 1490-1571. 1515-1585. French: Goudimel. 16th century. Anerio (brothers). Merbeck. 1543-1623. 1527-1558.. . Madrigal (Vol. p. Musical forms brought tion in this texture holds to great perfecperiod those in which Music. 16th century. Harmony 75) . d. 17. Leaders " of musical thought in the Golden Age. . 905). 1585. Vocal Styles of 16th Century (Vol. p. 1530-1581. (Vol. d. "father of English cathedral nmsic". c. c. 16. Eccard. leader of Reformation church music. ToMMASSo L. p. p. Giovanni Pierluigi da. intervals. 1560-1620. shackled the complexity. Counterpoint on a Canto Contrapuntal Fermo first place. THE GOLDEN AGE Composers were not long content with the simple combination of two tunes. 15571603. Orlando (Vol. p. 13." following the polyphonic tradition of the' early 16th century. p. based on the limistep. Spanish: Victoria. Machaut (Vol. Johann. . fixed the diatonic scale as now accepted. Italian: Animuccia. 1614. 651). Palestrina. and the extension to the elaborate polyphony of 16th century choral music was an inevitable An elaborate system of prohibitions. Egidius 948). M. a composer of madric. 627). c. da. Gibbons. p. Bateson. Wm. p. 17. three tunes so treated afforded a yet richer texture. Tallis. 42) . They soon found that The First human and the difficulty of attacking certain composer at every turn and formed the basis of theories of counterpoint which endured almost to our time. 17. 18. 1. John. are: Netherlandish: Arcadelt. c. (Vol. opposed Monteverdi's innovations see below. 237) Tallis. see also Mass.. Aichinger. 103) see (Vol. Despite the restrictions imposed by their rules. p. Gioseffo. German: Finck. 1510-1572 English: Wilbye. (Vol. T. 1630. . Banchiere." Des Pres. 295) p. Artusi. John.c. T. Farrant.. p. R. Composer of the famous for his madrigals. Adriano. 19. Hermann.. 377) Palestrina (Vol. 1514-1556. . 849) . Josquin also BiNcHois. against monodist revolt G. 1553-1611. mu- sician in the 13th century. c. 171). 233). p." Lasso.. c. Golden Age John. Jacob. p. Forms. T. Canonic Forms and Devices. C. 1530-1594. p. Orlando. 1557-1634. Composers of the "Golden Age. the structure raised by the great composers of the first half of the 16th century was of amazing richness and tations of the - Great Climax voice. Polyphonic Masses (Vol. 1540-1613. Motet (Vol. 8. 1583-1625. Subject of Reading Article The Riot of Choral Polyphony in the 16th century. gals. 1526-1594. After Dunstable of England and Dufay of the Netherlands had invented counterpoint comes the first great composer. (Vol. c.. 2) Instrumentation. Byrd. 26. biographies of whom appear in the Britannica. 14. d. Zarlino. heralding the advent of the " Golden Age. see also . c. Morley. Lasso. — — .

1561 Gabriele. and a change into new paths was inevitable. p. 1570-1652. Jacopo (Vo. 20. The monodic impulse synchronizes with the startling development of the violin family by the Cremona makers. half of the 18th century. It was a busy period when the rules Great Climax of counterpoint were reviewed and revised. Modern Harmony (Vol. Monteverde. Caccini. see also Peri. 1567-1643. The next great climax came in the first inevitable. 18. Cavaliere. 1595-1662. p. G. which was the glory of the 16th century. 12. famous also as a teacher. 161). (Vol. 1550-1602 Peri. Gregorio. Music. 489). Rossi. p. 1593-1639. . Agostino. Claudio. the pio- Song (Vol. born 100 years before his time. . p. Jacopo. . Giulio. p.. Stradivari (Vol. F. Prominence given to solo part rather than to choral effect leads to devel- opment of the aria. 25. when theories of harmony as a distinct science took shape. 22. 1. The first Opera opera (1600). . 28. 13. p. p. The welding of the old and new ideas was all that was needed to prepare the way for the colossal achievement of The Second a Bach or a Beethoven. 20. But.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 178 THE FIRST ROMANTIC MOVEMENT The last word in polyphony seemed to have been said by such masters as Orlando Lasso. Among distinguished composers of this period and school are: English: Bull. men's minds were craving something more directly stimulating than the passionless web of ecclesiastical polyphony. 406) . 21. p. 103) see also Amati (Vol. early experimenter in chromatic harmony. p. b. 5. Henry. 4). too far. Freedom was sought from the conventions of modal counterpoint. Emilio del 563). b. THE lyth CENTURY AND AFTER Those who revolted from the traditions of the polyphonic school went. 977). see also (Vol. Violin (Vol. 1596-1676. 1580. Ford. c. 783) Guarnieri (Vol. All the above have separate articles assigned to them in John. popularized opera. 1558-1615. Moreover.. 1583MonodistS 1644. The leader in the new paths. Thomas. Aria (Vol. The first oratorio (1600). 1557-c. 1562-1628. 144). p. p. 121). p. 19. 76) . Italian: Cavaliere. Frescobaldi. del.. The raonodist revolt was the result. c. . Harmony. Giovanni. Lawes. p. Luigi de. 1604-1674. Monteverde. Subject Article Revolt against the overelaboration of texture. AlFamous legri. Carissimi. for the language of the new music was unformed and was in danger of being stereotyped into the emptiest of formulas. and Palestrina. 25. popularized oratorio. c. p. 2. 660). (Vol. the 17th century was mainly one of preparation. Cavalli. 1612. c. neer of modern harmony. P. the Englishman (Vol. Girolamo. save for the work of such men as Purcell. 658). '778). The Monodic Revolution (Vol. E. the Britannica. as was A reaction was equally inevitable. Claudio Oratorio (Vol.

. Purcell. p. G. Bach. 1699-1783 Eberlin. English: Locke. c. THE RISE OF THE SOlShATA Bach. Domenico. B. Leonardo. J. 1623-1687. 209) Mass. 651 and p. 1648-1708. Blow. 4). 825) Overture Suite (Vol. Composers c. and the sonata grew into being.. M. William 1678-1727. 20. 77) Harmony . Jean-Baptiste. G. P. 13. first systematic theory of harmony published in 1722. c. 11. 19. strumental music. like Palestrina. 1681-1736. 1674-1745. Vinci. Greene. . Pergolesi. 78). the reform of the opera by Gluck. Nicola. 124). 3. 874). 1690-1730. Arcangelo. 655).. Scarlatti. Lutheran Masses (Vol. 1628-1677. Antonio. c. Stradella. p. But a structure less loosely knit than the The Third suite form was needed if the new ideas were to be adequately Great Climax stated. p. c. p. 1659-1725. 1702-1762. c. . p. and for nearly a hundred years after his death his influence on the course of musical development was astonAgain men sought new channels of expression and found them in inishingly small. p. Alessandro. Pasquini. Colonna. 1710-1740. 22. the welding of polyphony and monody. Albinoni. 1686-1739. 1637-1710. The Rameau. p.. Clari. 1695-1755 German: Bach. Alberti. Lully. too. Composers of the period who have separate notices in the Britannica are: ItalM. 16301677. (Vol. 1694-1744. Marcello. the famous com- Music (Vol. 14. Hasse. ... Concerto (Vol. Handel.. E. .. 1658-1695. Bach and Handel (Vol. a form which has sufficed to this day as a medium for the noblest thoughts of the great composers. 1700-1763. p. O. 27. 17. Johann Joseph (Vol. 1653-1728.. c. p. Pitoni. 7. 1685-1759. Francesco. J. . p. T. Johann Sebastian. 912) Decoration and Orchestral Schemes (Vol. Matthew. Fux. Bach. Publication in 1715 of the Gradus ad Parnassum. 41). Astorga. Giovanni P. 1710-1736. p. 5. Emanuele d'. (Vol. G. p. a. . 1637-1695. . C. Croft. 16531713. Lotti. . 1672-1750. S. Century 1667-1740. R. Corelli. c. p. p. John. Leo. Durante. The second great climax in music. 1645-1682. The achievement of Johann Sebastian Music.. Henry. see also Contrapuntal Forms (Vol. c. Giovanni Battista. largely created language of 17th and 18th modern music. B. 6. 1669-1745. George Frederick. 19. p. 161) Cantata (Vol. 1620-1669. 1684-1755.. Alessandro. French: Cambert. 850) Variations Instrumentation. first classic of the violin. inventor of the classical French opera style. Johann A. 1686-1760. 26. J. 384) 51) Oratorio (Vol. c. B.. (Vol. 20. Maurice. . Logroscino. A.MUSIC 179 Article Subject The renascence of texture. Steffani. (Vol. and the rise of the string quartette in chamber music. Leonardo. (Vol. 375). seemed to have closed a period. The 18th century saw. first plete theory of counterpoint. Bononcini. 1657-1743. a great development of orchestral resources. ian: Cesti.

(Vol. English: Arne. 1765-1814. DittersDORF.. Dibdin. Opera the opexa. Italian: Scarlatti. Galuppi. 913) . G. PicciNNi (Vol. Boyce. D. Russian. F. 951). see also Haydn p.. last real master of suite form. Sonata. 1756-1791. Wolfgang Amadeus. F. Jommelli. 1766-1837. A. . 1743-1805. (Vol. 3. 1749-1801. 110). The perfec- Beethoven. Mozart. Cimarosa. T. p. Boccherini. P. French: Gossec. c. 1685-1757. a. 130). DoMiNico (Vol. Luigi. 850). 18. 1734-1786. 1732-1809. and the development of the art song are instances of the former. 653) Mass Variations (Vol. tion of the sonata form. 27. Symphonic (Vol. Music. Samuel. Arnold. von (Vol. Haydn.. J. 1727-1804. (Vol. father of modern organ playing. 17281800. The on music was not nearly so violent as was the monodic revolt of the 16th-17th centuries. M. G. p. p. A. T. Attwood. 644) sec also Sonata Forms (Vol. the whole range of programme music. 26. 1728-1804. The rise of the symphony and the string quartette. since the resources and technique of the art had now been developed. 1763-1796.. Sonata (Vol.. A. H. Sacchini. 1714-1774. p. and the pronounced revival of national characteristics in music. The third great climax. 1710-1778. 302) and Bach. Karl Ditters von.. Domenico. Karl Philipp Emanuel. Chopin. 1770-1827. N. Paisiello. B. Mehul.. 1765-1838. while in opera the reforms started by Gluck were carried to their effect by Wagner. William. Gluck. 1730-1803. 19. J. Battishill. development of the sonata. p. 13.. F. Boieldieu. logical conclusion and Bohemian Schools. . 394) . Gretry. 21. 26. Guglielmi. 1739-1799. 1755-1825. 1740-1802.. p. p. 579). .. c. 12. p.. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 180 Subject The new language: Article evolution of the Reform of Music (Vol. 24. and in two: lyrical and dramatic.. 662). Jackson. 25. S. 110). W. 290). Franz Joseph. Lesueur. 14. 397) Instrumentation (Vol. p. of which the symphonic poem is the prototype. 1706-1784. p. A. W. P. Beethoven. Biographies of the following composers of the period appear in the Britannica: German and Austrian: Bach. see The growth 19. 1729-1802. M. Himmel. N. 20.. Wesley. E. Giuseppe. Mozart (Vol. also Haydn (Vol. S.. see also Gluck (Vol. Sarti. Two other movements are also significant. but mainly The short compositions of Field.. Hiller. 1748-1829. 1760-1842. Sonata Forms Symphony (Vol. Instrumentation. p. 3. 17061785. 1714-1787. C. see also ScarLETTI. NEW PATHS Early in the 19th century the wave of romanticism broke over Europe. 79). of the orchestra... preserved English tradition in face of Handelian obsession. 1714-1788. 138). (Vol. 1771-1839. Shield. E.. Jean Francois. 1741-1813. Schumann. Piccinni. p. Baldassare.. 123). 1741-1816. Winter. p. 78) . C. 1734-1829. Storace. p. J. G. 13. 1710-1779. but it was nevertheless striking and showed itself in several directions. P.. 1763-1817. 17451814. Salieri. the return to Bach and a recognition of his amazing modernity. F. K.. 1738-1801.. 1750-1825. L. as shown particularly in the new English. A. p. W. Etienne H. 17. Paer.. Ludwig van. 25. 1775-1834.. Martini. p. sonata from the suite. Style (Vol. 1763-1837. The Symphonic Classes (Vol.14. is evidence of the latter. Cherubini. 395). p.

L. 125). 1786-1886. 22. 1799-1862. 1839-1903. LeitMotif (Vol. 424) in opera. Strauss. Bizet. von (Vol. Godard. Ambroise. S. 398). Max. Chabrier. W. Schubert. union of music with drama.. G. Goetz. 1854. see 791). .. 24.. NicoComposers lai. b. 906). 1822-1890. J. Schumann. p.. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. L.. Franck. Wagnerian symphonist. . P. Eduard. 1797-1828.. 1822-1882. A.. Schubert. (Vol. Spohr. . G. 1824-1874. Richard.. p. 1841-1894. art folk-song. 1838-1875. 1823. p. p. The Romantic Weber. J. (Vol. German composers shows vitality of the Hugo (Vol. F. b. p. 236). . 1782-1871. Sonata since Beethoven . p. 1845. 28. 25. K. G. 1840-1876. 18101856. 79).. p. Modern Tendencies. 1809-1847. p. Robert Alexander. also Berlioz.. Strauss. 1811-1896. 2. 389) Sonata Forms. 1833-1897. 25. 80) Operas. p. J. Neszler. 124) Mendelssohn (Vol. . Charles Camille. V. E. 1838. 25. 121-124). Johann.. 28. Charles Marie. The first great lyrical song writer. Bruckner. Gounod. HiLLER. The rediscovery . 390). 1835. Cornelius. 19. David. 1819-1880. pp. Robert (Vol. b. founder of Modern French School. PlanMeyerpeer. E. J. Berlioz. C. song writer. Hugo. E.. H. G. Lortzing. E. C. Cesar. Georges. follow the growth of national schools will be noted. F. Liszt. 379) Song (Vol. 1830-1904. Poem (Vol. 384) of Bach. b. Otto. Carl Maria F. 1860-1903. E. (Vol. C. 1811-1885. 20. Wolf. Lalo. J. Development of song forms. who have had separate articles assigned to them in the Britannica.. V. Benjamin L. Wagner.. Hermann. Franz Peter (Vol. p. Stephen. J. Franz. Rheinberger.. so- 771). Programme Music (Vol. song composer. p. Johannes (Vol. . J. Reinecke. p. 1810-1849.. F. p. 289) Music (Vol. Faure. Abt. J. 1831-1907. Reyer. Ludwig. F. 82) see also Strauss. F. A. Wagner. Achille (Vol. J. 409). 1813-1883. 17961869. 1841-1890: Humperdinck.. B. p. The Hector (Vol. Bruch. Raff. Herold. Franz Peter. p. Joncieres.. Joseph. Richard (Vol. Brahms. 19.. 7. 1810-1876. 4. 1842-1912. nata form. Bach. WiDOR. F. von. : Hauptmann. 1820-1895. 1832. 18341901. French: Auber. D. 1824-1896. 1803-1869. last of the royal line of 3. Music (Vol. b.. The Romantic in the symphony. b. AuDRAN. p. Carl August Peter. 1849-1895. Joachim. . Gabriel. 18. Brahms. Lecocq. E. 17801849. Lassen. 19. F.. F. P. L. 1801-1851. . Heller... 1819-1885. Suppe. C. Saint-Saicns. From Beethoven to Wagner (Vol. Franz. E. Kreutzer. Robert. F. Thomas. L.MUSIC 181 " Article Subject The Romantic Music. Anton. 25. Wolf. Offenbach. 1845. 24. 1792-1868.. 1784-1859.. Halevy. p. p. b. Johannes.. p. Symphonic Gluck's idea realised. Composers of this period. Lowe. C. 1791-1863. A. p. E. 1839-1901. 1864. Richard (Vol. king of valse com19th Century posers. F. 1815-1888. J. M. C. . p. E. (Vol. von. 780). 16. F. 410) see also Schumann. Carl Maria F. 1818-1893. 455) Song (Vol. L. Dubois. 1815-1892. 1791-1833. J.. Richard. p. 1842-1901 Massenet. Discontent with the sonata form. 4. b. 1823-1892. 25. 1824-1910. 28. Benoit. 26. 409). J. 1804-1849. Period. E. T. Weber. 1837. German and Austrian: Gansbacher. Song (Vol. Hector. K. Brahms. 1003) Debussy. b. F. 1778-1844.

J. 17811861 Callcott. Claude Achilles. 1749-1818.. p. M. Porfyrievich.. Moussorgsky. 1835-1881. M. Leoncavallo. 1838-1896. 1766-1821 Fetis. Danish: Gade. Edward Alexander. Foster. Balakirev. 1840-1893. Elgar. whose biographies are in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Barncy. R. Glazunov. A.. For notices of other modern composers and their tendencies see Music. Stanford. Hullah. D. 1865. Borodin. Bache. 1857. 1863.. Sir F. C. G. Fraz. F.. R.. S. founder of national school. 1786-1855. M. 18151868. MacDowell. Svendsen. Alfred. Hungarian: GvNo'h. Sir George. J. 1813-1901. Ch. 19. b. 1840-1901. H. Mascagni. Field. b. 1858. F. Famous musical historians and writers on music. Ole. Forkel. J. b. 1836.. guETTE. G. L. b. Sir Charles Villiers. 1861 Debussy. 1844-1908. 1813-1869. S. Clay.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 182 b. 1816-1876. 1812-1884. 1861-1908. Buck. Amilcare. Herman... on whom have modelled themselves. F. Wm. John. V. Halfdan. 1810-1849. Bishop. V. J. Ouseley. Puccini.. P. Wm.. Ambros. Sir Wm.. Anton.. 1746-1819. Parry. Perusch.. Wallace.. 1843-1^07. Hamish. Pierson. Dwight. Kjerulf. J. 1851. 1824-1884. Moritz. 1782-1837. 1840. 1852. Eichberg. 1841-1904.. 4th century B. Cellier. Bohemian: Smetana. Messager. 1847. A. 1774-1851. Stainer. G. . Sir John. 1571-1621. inventor of the nocturne. 1834-1887. 1817-1890. Tschaikovsky. 1814-1865. b. 1848... Boito.. 1850. I. V... Alfred.. N. Novello. E.. Thomas. W. are: Aristoxenus. L. 1810-1880.. b. Balfe. Sir C. started "negro minstrels. 1858. 1832.. American: Emmett.. b. M. A. Bruneau. M. 1800-1886. Goldmark.. J." 1815-1904. 1839-1909. Constantinovich. b. 1810-1889. b. on whom fell the mantle of Purcell. Sir A. Burney. Julius. John. 1802-1890. 1858. Barnett. Ivanovich. L. 1813-1887. 1857. 1804-1885. C. Sir John. P. 1861.. John S. Wesley.. 1809-1888. Dvorak. . Moszkowski. 1824-1893. Alexeivich. Norwegian: The violinist Bull. Belgian: The violinist Ysaye.. Sir Arthur S. 1854. 1710-1789. 1843. . 1852. Arrigo. founded Boston Conservatory of Music. founder of modern Bohemian School. 1820-1900. Niels W. Chaminade. Pearsall. 1774-1858. Praetorius. 1829-1894. 1803-1857. M.. Cowen. Leoncavallo.. Sir John. 1775-1844.C. G. 1853. Grove. D.. Andreievich. Sir J. b. Edvard Hagerup. John P.. b. Sterndale. Hubert H. song writer. H. A. Sweden: Wennerbert. Polish: Chopin. P. 1811-1886. Recent Music (Vol. Sir Edward. 1801-1835. .. Peter Ilich. 1816-1875. b. b. Rimsky-Korsakov. S. R.. 18081870. Baini.. b. . b. 1834-1886. Chappell. 1815-1873. Sgambati. b. British: Horsley. Frederic FRAN901S. G. 82). Macfarren. Sullivan. Sir H.. 1798-1848. 1720Musical 1793.. V. Dargomijsky. F. MacCunn. W. de.. H. 1784-1871 Chorley. b. 1826-1864. Petrovich. 1726-1814. 1817-1901. Arthur Goring. 1833-1858. Italian: Spontani. Bennett. 1825-1889. 1800-1880. Cecile. Anton.. 1810-1876. Barnard. Josef. Verdi. Wm. Benedict. Liszt. a. Karl. J. A. 1776-1867. D'Indy. b. Smart. Giuseppe. Grieg. Gerbert. b.. Hawkins. 1667-1752. Mascagni.. Donizetti. G. 18081872. F. Sir Julius.. Historians J. Ponchielli.. Gerber. J.. 1862. A. . 1850-1892. M. b. F. etc. Rubinstein. 1795-1856. Goss. R. Paderewski. C. Sir George T. G. b. Sergeivich. 1842-1900. W. 18441891 Mackenzie. b.. b. Russian: Glinka. 1792-1868. T. 1842. Bemberg. 17th century. Rossini. Sir G. A. song writer. 1860. 1813-1893. Hatton. 1868. P. 1838-1889.. b.. N. Bellini. Dudley. Stephen C. G.

AlBRECHTSBERGER." (Vol. 7. F. Artusi. century A. J. fixed the diatonic scale.. Reicha. Zarlino. B. wrote . reference should be towards 183 As has been seen in the historical section of this chapter. 14. Curwen. P. 16th century.. this section. J. formerly hon. p. A. 12. Aristides.C. p. G. Richter. 687). 1. the Contrapuntal Forms (Vol. 13.MUSIC (2) THEORETICAL ARTICLES "In the beginning. Agricola. of the Famous who have helped to grammar of music are the Terpander. c. 315). This brings us to the main articles of this section Counscale is an account terpoint (Vol. p. 1) and Instrumentation (Vol. E. The article Melody (Vol. Musical (Vol. 96) contains in addition to a discussion of the terms a series of useful definitions (e. the inter- esting article rhythm in by music Tovey Donald may well serve as on an introduction to the other subjects in Passing to the elements. c. 647) Pythagoras. 19. tonic MUSICAL FORMS particular form. a definition of the principles involved and is introductory both to Harmony and to Contrapuntal Forms. 21. while in the latter is given of the modes which for centuries were the vehicles of musical expression. opposed monodist revolt. c. to whom the first systematic theory of harmony is due. conjunct and disjunct motion) and several musical examples. 699) . Hipkins. 660). said to have discovered numerical relation governing the harmonic series (Vol.. should be read. p. 1500-1556. 6th century. 21. All are by Donald Tovey and p. 22." said Hans von "was rhythm. be found in the Britannica. 840-930. G. E. p. Berlioz Hector. all are brilliant. J. 277) is the skeleton of every musical phrase and formula. " Beatus Guido. p. 26. especially sections The Tonality article being the interesting and Key -relationship. p. (Vol. Gradus ad Parnassumj Ra- the famous 1683-1764. 847) GuiDO OF Arezzo. 41) were the first to attain to a high standard of organization in the hands of such masters as Orlando Lasso (Vol. M. Fux. 7th century B. . In the former 705) p.U. 3rd founder Theorists . 1808- meau.C. J. 776) . 1770-1836. article the physical basis of the modern 25. G. Harmony (Vol. J.. 237) 20. 3rd century B. (Vol. inventor of sol-fa system. inventor of new notation (Vol... p. p.. and Plain Song (Vol. 448) determined. the teacher of Beethoven. In particular the article Harmony deserves the most careful study. the articles Sound. a high authority.g. Martin. p. and in Pitch. 16. p.. 1817-1880. the whole of this interesting and vexed subject is reviewed by Alfred J. p. 1617-1590. Quintilianus. 23.. 86) the steps by which the present system of recording music was reached are noted. whose text book on instrumentation is On all these separate articles will classic. on counterpoint is (3) mainly In making a detailed study of any made Contrapuntal to the critical sections of the biographies Forms of those masters who have done most its development. 627). inventor musicae. p. 995-1050. In Instrumentation the question of colour is discussed from the historical and aesthetic aspects. 18. Diatonic Scale (Vol. 7. 651). and Palestrina The articles Mass . Hucbald. p. In the article Musical Notation (Vol. (Vol. Alypius. curator of the Royal College of Music. J. accompanied by valu- able analysis of the colour schemes of various composers from the choral writers "Golden Age" down to Wagner and Richard Strauss. 1879." and as RhythxM Biilow. theorists establish the following: of Greek music (Vol. 13.. 1736-1809. p..C.

4. 338). (Vol. 4. 26. 17. p. by such devices as the transformation of themes and the Leitmotif (Opera. 268) are prototypes in little of the tendencies of the time. 390). 25. Written by W. 289) of which Liszt (Vol. 20. music has tended is towards the Symphonic Poem in which. 563). 3. In addition to the articles Sonata and Sonata Forms the reader should carefully study that part of the article Beethoven beginning on page 647 of Vol. p. 2. 13. 5. 4 p. 389) showed clearly enough that the classical sonata form was a framework sufficiently elastic to hold the most elaborate and modern ideas. S. (Vol. 1003). 11. the Suite which Boccherini (Vol. 25. p. a scholarly musician and teacher of singing at the Royal College of Music (London). ture (Vol. On a larger canvas are the Tondramen of Liszt and the symphonic poems and the elaborate programme music of modern composers such as Richard Strauss also and further reference should articles Variations be made to the (Vol. Brahms (Vol. Key Relationships (Vol. and French composers from a mass of information bearing on the development p. p. 6. 121). 21. 26. 2. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 181 (Vol. p. 24. p. 865). 190). 20. p. p. Lully (Vol. Opera Opera Overand p. 780) was the first to see the possibilities. Song (Vol. 849). Vol. 17. Vol. 489) is the beautiful example. 390). p. 5. p. 400). 209) had 161) their beginning in the work of the followers of Monteverde in the early 17th century. and together they tell the tale of the development of absolute music up to modern experiments in the more elastic Symphonic Poem (Vol. See Programme Music (Vol. with 28. p. Motet (Vol. p. Cesar Bach Franck (Vol. 5. 51). art forms. 6. Supplementing the (Vol. 658). Mozart (Vol. and Sir C. 489). 127). A. 912). Madrigal (Vol. 905). p. Symphony (Vol. p. 121) are several Aria (Vol. 2. p. p. p. p. Oraand Cantata (Vol. Gluck (Vol. (Vol. it provides a brilliant survey of the evolution of the song from its In connection with earliest beginnings. p. 457). 237). 384) many Fantasie-Stucke and Chopin's lyrical 25. p. also the article Harmony. p. p. 22. In tracing their development reference should be made to the articles on Bach. Canon (Vol. p. p. 3. cover the ground of early choral music. 144). 3. p. 105) was the last master. 17. the direction in which article 20. PuRCELL (Vol. 127). and These. Carissimi (Vol. Handel (Vol. p. consulted. 22. 384). 27. which should be 28. the oldest of and almost the last to be rescued from the too narrow formalism of which the classical Aria Song (Vol. most nearly foreshadowed Suite and the Sonata (Sonata Sonata Forms. is so much the most generally popular that the article on it in the Britannica will probably be more widely read than any other on musical subjects. . 290). Weber Wagner (Vol. 5) which contains analyses of several striking key In instrumental music. 295). Hubert Parry (Vol. 20. (Vol. and though Brahms (Vol. 125) a still greater elasticity is sought in form with a greater continuity of idea in substance. of systems. especially 139). 5. 3. p. torio (Vol. and their development may be traced in the work of Cavaliere (Vol. p. give of this popular form. Ford. p. p. 3). p. 394). p. 18. 20. p. 424). J. p. Beethoven J. 269). (Vol. p. To the Romantic movement early part of the 19th century of the may be traced the attempt to escape from the apparent restrictions Sonata Form. p. the biographical notices of operatic composers. compositions (Vol. 26. 16. which include almost every Italian composer from the days of Peri (Vol. 912). 951). p. 4. 12. 649). (Vol. p. Chorale (Vol. 18. Programme of the Music and Schumann's (Vol. Brahms (Vol.

(Vol. 22. Rebab. will be found very helpful. Philomel. Harp. Vir. Strings Struck by Hammers or Tangents: Clavecin. 24. GuitarFiddle. 302). to Reference the articles 96). Vielle. Double Bass. of Scarlatti. 21. In the former Miss Schlesinger gives a summary of the development of the various classes of instruments and of their concerted which govern their This article closes with an interesting survey of the orchestral schemes at different periods in the history of the trates the principles use. 25. who have respectively done the best modern work in the English and Irish and of the American Mac- tradition. p. the pioneer of the monodist revolt at p. Dulcimer. and of its connection with other instruments of the same class. also 17. Suggestive also are the articles Ballads (Vol. Here the editor of the Britannica had the advantage of the assistance of Miss Kathleen Schlesinger (author of The Instruments of the Orchestra. of Johann Sebastian Bach (Vol. and Instrumentation (Vol. p. J. 20. 18. of the end of the 16th century. Organ- . 24. ginal. G. p. Harmonichord Harpsichord. p. p. the most clairvoyant of song writers. Trigonon. Pianoforte. the articles Orchestra (Vol. and Sir Charles ViLLiERS Stanford (Vol. and the greatest authority on the subject). Barbiton. who perfected the aria form. Cit- tern. p. Sambuca. Lyre. De 1. 233) . Rotta. Clavichord. Spinet. the technique of singing the article Voice (Vol. therium. 651) may conveniently be read. 384) (4) A (Vol. the great English composer of the 17th century. From these articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica the reader will get a full account of every known musical instrument whether modern or ancient. Nail Violin. (Vol. so that the evolution of every type is clearly brought out. p. Nanga. Pandura. Kinnor. (Vol. p. Clavicembalo. the creator of the of Schumann (Vol. Lute. 380). 126) 18th century. with its compass. and scale. Ravanastron . p. Clavicy. Psaltery. Tromba Marina. Alessandro (Vol. p. 24. DowELL should Melody ment (Vol. especially the section on the Physiology of Voice Production. p. modern song. Strings Set in Vibration by Fric- tion of a Wheel: Hurdy-Gurdy. Viola. p. Chelys. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS One branch of the subject yet remains. 17th century. Zither. Citole. who contributed practically all of the articles in the book on musical instruments. As a preliminary to a general study of the subject. 277). 20. Strings Plucked by Fingers or Plectrum: Asor. p. Cithara. 1. art. is In the article Instrumentation. 658). 28. 264). on the other hand. Geige. 171) (Vol. 23. 3. classified under their most convenient groupings. Accompani- 214). and Machaut. 122). Guitar.MUSIC the reader will find much to interest in the biographical notices of two famous troubadours of the 13th and 14th it him Adam de la Hale centuries. 865). Rebab. G. p. 17. shows how very completely this work covers the field: Stringed Instruments (Vol. 185 list of them given below. 773). 889). Theorbo. Strings Set in Vibration by Friction of the Bow: Crowd. made be Rhythm (Vol. 3. of bert (Vol. 25. who brought a yet greater intimacy into the form. HarpLute. 168). Mandoline. Donald Tovey illus- use. that of musical instruments. On Poetry (Vol. 14. 172) by Dr. Fiddle. Rebec. of Hugo Wolf p. Viol. The following classified list of separate articles on musical instruments in the Britannica. Schu- p. 771). Epigonion. 18. Banjo. Balalaika. p. Kissar. p. of PuRCELL. p. Henry (Vol. Gusla. 28. McKendrick. 1038). 778). p. of Sir Hubert Parry (Vol. Violin Violoncello. MoNTEVERDE (Vol.

Bombard. Clarinet. . (cylindrical bore) : Reed In- struments.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 186 isTRUM. Gong. Holztrompete Cromorne. see also Mouthpiece. . Not Sounding a Sensible Note: Castanets. Ophicleide. Portative Organ Positive Organ Regal to which. Pedal Clarinet. Aulos. Bombardon. Chinese PavilLON Drum Kettle Drum Nacaire SiSTRUM Tambourine Timbrel TomToM Triangle Tympanon. . Valves. Musical Box. Or- Reed Class gan. Bass Clarinet. . The Pipe Class: Eunuch Flute. Parsifal Bell-Instrument. . Bassoon. Sackbut. Aulos. Cymbals. Trombone. though mouth blown. LiTuus. Piccolo. Keyboard. Single Wind Instruments (mechanically blown). Bumbulum. Tibia. Appliances: Bow. Saxophone. Clarina. to which may be added. Orchestrion. Pipe AND Tabor. Bagpipe. . Oliphant. Cor- . Shofar. Basset Horn. Glockenspiel. Chorus. . Physharmonica. Harmonium. Xylophone. . Double Reed Class (conical bore): Reed Instruments. p. tliough not of brass or metal: Alpenhorn. Horn. Flute. Helicon. Contrafagotto. Carillon. may be added Cheng. Drone. Syrinx. . To reed instruments also belong the Bagpipe Class: Askaules. Euphonium. Fife. Serpent. Sordino. Oboe. Tuba. . Mute. Saxhorn. Pommer. 28. See also Free Reed Vibration. BiNiou. Accordion Barrel-Organ Concertina. Brass Wind. 709. Jews' Harp. . Flageolet. Recorder. Cor Anglais. Instruments of Percussion. Trumpet. Mute. Shawm. Sounding a Sensible Note: Bell. Monochord. Wood Wind. Wind Instruments (mouth blown) (Vol. Platerspiel. Rackett. Nay. . Arghoul. Bugle. net. Buccina. Symphonia. Strings Set in Vibration by the Wind: Aeolian Harp. . Batyphone. Mouthpiece. Harmonica. Keyboard. Sordino. . .

together with the rules and the is or dexterity 187 . Of course no adequate treatment of the arts. equivalent to nearly 40 pages of this Guide. many other articles in the book. the German philosophers. but for the result. including those the most devoted to the practical or historical. Of these. the first. sep- and But the theory arate theory. Johnson in his definition of Art as "the power of doing something w^hich is not taught by Nature or by instinct. late of University College. could — logically. Art. is written by Professor James Sully. p. practice Theory of history. etc. or of any one of them. and not only all these. literature of their times. much less advantageously. is an art. Art are both the following the student will find separate and elaborate critical biographies in the Britannica: Plato. It discusses the meaning of beauty and the problem of the nature beauty above the useful and necessary. Kant. but for the exercise of the power. its relation Hegel. formerly keeper of prints and drawings. since Art with a history of Aesthetic Theo- philosophers. whom beauty high. who iNG. and author of The Human Mind and other psychological studies. but for the rules according to which it is exercised." This definition is in itself an excellent text for a discourse on the importance in the study of the fine arts of the best But Sir Sidliterature on the subject. practice or history. Schopenhauer. who sets arti- is a name not only for the power of doing something. London. cles including those who set on all of his of model republic. Aristotle. Art though it may be inferred or deduced from of art. and not only for the exercise of the power. may best and most directly be studied in three articles. but thought art The and Fine Arts — the article a mere trick of imitation and wished it be censored rather than encouraged in (Vol. British Museum. The former begins with a contrast between art and nature the contrast made famous by Pope. ries. so deeply impressed their theories on the of pleasure. and not only the act. and not only for the rules. 2. Aesthetics (Vol. for instance. Painting. 657) by Sir Sidney Colvin.CHAPTER XXXII THE FINE ARTS: GENERAL AND INTRODUCTORY THE art-student and every other reader interested in the fine arts will find in the Britannica the material for courses of reading of very great range and of the utmost interest and value whether he wishes to study theory. and the word connotes not only the power to paint. 277). etc. but the act of painting. but the material consequences of the act or the thing painted. Art then ''Every regulated operation by which organized beings pursue ends which they know beforehand. ney Colvin points out that the definition is incomplete. repeatedly by Shakespeare and by Dr. p. 1. Schell- closes And to play. but the laws for performing the act rightly. but whose aesthetic seems to be applied to poetry rather than to any other art. by Chaucer. Aesthetics. especially "higher" pleasure. and Fine Arts.

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 188 result of every such operation or dexterity. 21. music and poetry classified as "shaping" and "speaking" or as imitative and "nonimitative. the arts may be studied in the Britannica and there is the basis for this study in this Guide. Engraving and Drawing and to Sculpture and the Subsidiary Arts. but only architecture. more. sculpture. the author says: Of all these arts. Art consists doing. editor of The Year's and Art Teaching.) Nay. is Literature. or with the more popular usage make the fine arts not five but three. . is Science subservient to Art. The article Fine Arts (Vol. as distinguished from the -Useful or Mechanical Arts. . the end is not use. or at least pleasure and use conjointly. And further yet. as well as a critical and illuminating outline history of the arts. . (See Aesthetics and Fine Arts. sculpture. but pleasure. but p. Classificatidn — architecture." with definitions from the aesthetic or philosophic point of view of sculpture and of painting. For an alphabetical list of articles on the fine arts see the end of the chapter on Sculpture. When Art and the works of Art are now currently spoken of in this sense. Crane. Whether we include under the fine arts music and poetry." And a consideration of the etymology words "Art" and "Kunst" is the basis of a discussion of the relation of Science and Art. the English illustrator. or pleasure before use. painting and sculpture. custom has reduced the number which the class-word is meant to include. is Art subservient to Science: what I must know in order to do. drawing. painting. . and Historical Development. by A. mostly by Edmund Gosse. sculpture and painting by themselves. Music is the subject of a separate chapter. 355. Robinson Carter. on the different poetic of the articles forms. 877. not even music or poetry is frequently denoted. equivalent to 45 pages in this Guide) by and Theodore Watts-Dunton. to them alone is often appropriated the use of the generic word Art. with a criticism of Spencer's theory of the evolution and gradual separation of the arts and of Taine's natural history. or with their subordinate and decorative branches. in After speaking of dancing. C. music. p. equivalent to 70 pages of this Guide) is divided into the following parts: General Definition^ with Fine Arts particular attention to the theory that makes the arts a form of play and to the definitions of Plato and Schiller. The two ing this chapters immediately followare devoted respectively to Painting. Of practical value to the art student as an introduction to these two chapters are the articles Art Societies. which is summed up in of the these words: Science consists in knowing. Poetry treated in the chapters on it will be well to remind the student of the philosophy of art of the remarkable article Poetry (Vol. architecture. architecture. who also contributed the article Arts and Crafts. there has grown up a usage which has put them into a class by themselves under the name of the Fine Arts. 10. painting. Architecture in the Britannica is outlined in this Guide in the chapter For Architects. In modern language. by Walter Art. What I must do in order to know. poetry.

faces Covered by the Painter. Engraving a pe- the possibility of conveying colour by drawing or monochrome. . p. by the same authors. and Etching. formerly editor of the Magazine of Art. Plumbago Drawdefinition of artistic ings. The Slade. 34. Engraving (Vol. Williamson. and by in halftone). by Gerald Philip Robinson. for its criticism of the drawing as a process of selection and elimination from the forms of nature. author of Drawing and Engraving. The Technique of Painting (pp. Cartoon. 8. Painting with Coloured Vitreous Pastes (with bibliography) on this method and on similar processes see the separate articles Ceramics. by Gerard Baldwin Brown. professor of article — — Edinburgh. length and breadth of the later Greeks or of a Michelangelo. 721). Human Intercourse and other essays. 459. THE Painting article (Vol. 477) Fresco-Secco (with bibliography) Stereochromy or Water-Glass Painting (with bibliography) Spirit Fresco . and more popularly known as the author of The Intellectual Life. (with bibliography) Tempera Painting (with bibliography) Water Colour Painting (with bibliography). Miniature (with 19 illustrations by the same author. p. Palette. 9. as improved by Professor Church (with bibliography) Oil Processes of Wall Painting Tempera Painting on Walls Encaustic Painting on Walls (with bibliography) Encaustic Painting in Gen. Illustration. whose articles on the . The main topics in this part of fine art. — . Gambier Parry " Process. and by M. president of the Society of Mezzotint Engravers. . equivalent to 190 pages of this Guide) is an elaborate "key" which may well be the starting point for more definite study.CHAPTER XXXIII PAINTING. and author of The Fine Arts. and for its discussion of style or personality in drawing. 189 scripts. Plate X (facing p. Wood Engraving. p. by Sir E. ETC. perhaps. Fresco Painting (with bibliography) see Fig. the article are: The Materials The Sur- of Painting. by Hamerton. Spielmann. . H. author of History of Portrait Miniatures. 16. Aquarelle. . In connection with this part of the ari is culiarly interesting article in its denial of co. Illuminated scripts (with 5 plates). Pastel. 552). . and their Historical Uses. G. The art student who actually wishes to paint or draw as distinct from the student of the history of art will do well to read first in this great article its third section. late director British Museum and author of English Illuminated ManuGouache. The following sections are . in its tracing the development of drawing from the "pa- pery" and flat first attempts on early Greek vases to the depth. 20. p. editor of —theoretically c1e before it. See also the articles Caricature. Poster. Stained. MezPhilip Gilbert ManuMaunde Thompson. Binding Materials or Media The Processes of Painting. DRAWING. . Encaustic Painting. . 645) is a short outline article to be supplemented by: Line-Engraving (Vol. Supplementing the section in the article Painting on The Technique of Painting are the separate articles: Crayon. zotint. Aquatint. C. with remarkably valuable and beautiful coloured illustrations Mosaic Enamel Glass. 482-497). eral Drawing Fothergill. . t by John R. Fres- or the " Drawing and (Vol. the student should read the articles Drawing and Engraving.

. Panorama. Figs. the Fran9ois vase (Greek). For this there was needful an efficient knowledge of perspective. 497-518). Brouwer. p. and with proper emphasis on what is characteristic. H. Piero della Francesca. Pastel. tluit is. by Sir George Reid. The Egyptian artist was satisfied if he could render with accuracy. 808- 816). including four prehistoric incised drawings of animals found in French caves and remarkable for their technical accuracy and life. Ruysdael. "A rough division of the whole history of art into four main periods" gives "first the efforts of the older Oriental peoples. two paintings.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 190 miniature painters the Clouets. Bellini. there is — them in es- pecially in such ar- History of Painting ticles as Miniature — and Portraiture much historical and critical information. Botticelli. Tempera and Triptych. Spielmann. 348 and 349. the HiLLiARDs. 460-478) Part 11. Quintin Matsys. Chardin. and that it was possible on a flat surface to give an indication of the thickness of anything. efforts were being made to widen the horizon of the art and to embrace within the . Italian. Giorgione. for French. by M. in the second and third after truth of form. Portraiture. and to a more partial extent even in the earlier classical epoch. And from them the student may well turn back to the article Painting to pursue there those topics which he has not yet covered. 479481). Russian and Balkan States. John Smart. Van Dyck. Fernand Khnopff. but they cannot be said to have fully succeeded in the difficult task they set themselves. for British. objects cut out against The Greek and medieval artist realized tlie that objects had three dimensions. Vol. Swedish. During the 15th century the painter fully succeeds in mastering the representation of the third dimension. Lorenzetti. Watteau. Breslau University. 1. a boar and a bison. Austrian. 20. Peter Oliver. C. Vol. . These are Part I. Leonce B^n^dite. however. a — of Pom- peian wall painting see also the reproduction in colours of a wall-painting from a Roman villa in the article Mural Decoration (Vol. 118. 2). and typical examples of the work of Hubert van Eyck.. Norwegian. J. These parts of the article are illustrated with ten plates containing 36 figures. in the fourth after truth of space. Rutgers College. best represented by the painting of the Egyptians. During this period. by M. German. painter and etcher. for Belgian. Pierre Prieur. Spielmann. as well as its length and breadth. and Prof. on Dutch. and the fourth the time from the beginning of the 17th century onward. Turner. the silhouettes of things in nature regarded as little more than flat a light background. Richard Muther. the Scotch artist and late president of the Royal Scottish Academy. Although the articles enumerated in the last paragraph have primarily to do with technique. Masaccio. In the first period the endeavour is after truth of contour. and during the next he exercises the power thus acquired in perfect freedom. a tabular scheme (pp. Titian. the third the 15th and 16th centuries. Cosway. H. ing. 2). Prof. from the palaeolithic cave of Altamira see also Plates II and III in the article ArchaeoiX)GY (between pp. producing some of the most convincing and masterly presentments of solid forms upon a flat surface that the art lias to show. pp. the Petitots. author of History of American Art. Danish. Mantegna. etc. should also be read. reproduced in colours." . Ghirlandajo. an excellent Egyptian drawing birds. Holbein. a wall painting from Brunswick cathedral. 7 and 8 in Plate accompanying — Anthropology and the plates the article (opposite p. the second includes the classical and medieval epochs up to the beginning of the 15th century. Uccello. keeper of the Luxembourg Museum. author of The History of Modern Paint. American antiques in of America (Vol. George Morland. Giotto. Spanish. 6. Pollaiuolo. and Recent Schools of Painting (pp. and this the 15th century brought with it. —Schools of Painting. of its depth away from the spectator.—rA Sketch of the Development of the Art (pp. Michelangelo. 22). for the United States. Rembrandt. PreDELLA. Gainsborough.

. etc. Cimabue. 246-251). 1. POLYGNOTUS. however. Rossetti. 3) Aegean Civilization. Roman Art V Following this classification. of Zeuxis. Theon. late keeper prints and drawings. 104 and (Vol. and YosAi. 172-177). The reader should also consult the articles China and Japan for the section on the art of each of these countries (Vol. (p. even the paintings are thought to be 50. in ancient Greece and Italy. and on the remarkable cave drawings and paintings of Altamira. Gaddi. Vol. for the masters of the 17th century perfectly to realize this ideal of the art. MiCON. or subjects of a very limited and compact order. . — KoRiN. art director South Kensington Museum. For more detailed treatment of this period see the articles: Egypt. 484) . the article Painting. M. mostly by E. eminent Egyptologist. and Vol. the of illustrations (opposite pp. as ticles Illuminated Manuscripts. Zeuxis. pp. Apelles. larly The first important individual names Greek painters mentioned above are those of the ProtoRenaissance of the 13th and 14th cenafter those of the tury. and Angelico. pp. author with G. pp. after commenting on primitive art 191 105. M. by Sir E. and for Flanders. . and. mostly by the same author. PanaeNUS. The facts. Utamaro. 23. 172190. author of Grammar of Greek Art. . as Oriental art in general may be said to belong to this phase of effort after truth of contour and of form. p. . but such objects as a whole in space. It was reserved. by W. pp. 17 figures.. by the late John Henry Middleton. in Rossetti. 12. British Museum. 470-492). . pp. by Sir Sidney Colvin. M. especially the illustrations (Vol. Giotto. that the existing remains of ancient painting are so full of mistakes in perspective that the representation of distance cannot have been a matter to which the artists had really set themselves. Maunde with illustrations. W. of Early Flemish Painters. M. by Sir Joseph Archer Crowe. Of particular interest is the criticism of Greek drawing. etc. For Italy see Pietro Cavallini. by Percy Gardner. 9. author of Japanparticuese Illustration. 6. and in their hands painting as an art of representation is widened out to its fullest possible limits. 15. by W. Hokusai. HiroSHiGE. with many illustrations both of painting and by Dr. It is an additional confirmation of this view to find early Christian and early medieval painting confined to the representation of the few near objects which the older Oriental artists had all along envisaged. Babylonia AND Assyria. 474-486). Simone Martini. in grace of line. . Greek Art (Vol. DRAWING. Eskimo and Aus- old. . remain. in due relation to each other and to the universe at large. F. by W. — As. and the whole of nature in all its aspects becomes for the first time the subject of the picture. with two plates. and in the early Christian and early medieval periods. Orcagna. Strange. with eight plates. Florence. ETC. 25. 65-77). pp. 481) pp. It may be admitted that in many artistic In beauty.PAINTING.000 years tralians Early Painting — — discusses the painting of contour in Egypt and Babylonia. its representations not only solid objects in themselves. . however. particularly the two plates sculpture. Art and Archaeology (Vol. prehistoric in Greece. PrOTOGENES. B. author of Fine Art. See also the separate articles on Japanese artists. Cambridge. 90). or only matched by the finest designs of a Raphael or a Le- onardo. Thompson. Spinello Aretino (Vol. first. Aristides of Thebes. 685). we can imagine works of Apelles. . Pausi- scope of . excelling even the efforts of the Italian painters. p. 10. late director British Museum. in composition. of Protogenes. especially Plates and VI (p. with little variety of planes and second. qualities it was beyond praise. in Siena. Gourdan and Lortet. . Chiefly Contemporary. Hokusai. the articles Agatharchus. 30 figures —see especially Plates I-IV. 213-216. . Slade professor of fine arts. The problem of representing correctly the third dimension of space had certainly not been solved. and Miniature. the VAN Eycks (Vol. Rossetti. that the Greek pictures about which we chiefly read were of single figures. and for the early Christian and early medieval periods such ar- among bushmen. Flinders Petrie. Cavalcaselle. .

16. and the picture was no longer a mere silFourth houette or a tranPeriod : 17th script of objects against a flat backtury and After ground. 1. by Sir J. student of perspective. by Sir Sidney Colvin. Konody. by Rossetti. by Rossetti. M. Mabuse. by W. 17. Throughout all the earlier epochs of the art the painter had concerned himself not witli nature as a whole. Lotto and Palma. and Paul Veronese (Vol. Grunewald. Carpaccio. . and for the 15th and 16th Centuries Holbein As for the remainder of Italy. and at Venice. Botticelli. became champions and disciples. We have now come to modern times so far as painting is concerned. Rossetti. the Bellini (Vol. with Masolino. all by W. p. and particularly at Florence. Bartolommeo. by P. Francia. : 35 (Vol. In Germany and the Low Countries the art of the 15th and 16th centuries may be traced in the articles: for Ger- many — Schongauer. M. Gozzoli. 833). 700). who says "he led the way in representing the objects of nature correctly. Andrea del Sarto (Vol. through studying the Brancacci chapel. Tintoretto. Gerard David. Durer. for North CoRREGGio. 17. A. by Sir Sidney Colvin. Antonello da Messina. Lorenzo Costa. by Sir Sidney Colvin. but rather an enchanted mirror of the world. Henry Middleton. architect. by Rossetti. all by Rossetti. 18. Matsys. but with certain The Cen . by 15th Century: Other Parts Rossetti. Goes. master of Masaccio. by W. 950). 900. thelloLBEiNs and his greater art critic of the Observer the younger were even the greater masters of Italian painting. Baldovinetti. and MoRETTo. M. See the articles Franceschi. painter and biographer of painters. by the late Prof. the Vivarini. his : Cranach. G. Titian. Perugino. ROSSELLI. p. John Romano. Mantegna. Ros- (Vol. liveliness and relief All the greatest artists of Italy. Parmigiano. Rossetti. p." For the other great Florentine names of the century see the articles Masolino da PaniCALE. 3. p. Crowe. Gentile. and. and Rossetti's article. Ros- —LuiNi. . 20. both by Sir Sidney Colvin. marking the perfection of art on the formal side. and for Venice Giorgione. Lucas van Leyden (Vol. and. 16th Century: See the articles for Florence Leonardo da Italian Vinci Masters 444. Melozzo. in which might be reflected space beyond space in inWith this transformation finite recession. p. Breughel. 21. Sienese but there is Northern Italy and in Umbria. PlERO Di CosiMO (Vol. p. Low Countries — Roger van der Vasari. 93). by Sir Pollaiuolo GhirlanDAJO. with 7 cuts). Roughly contemporary with DUrer and 969). an advance of Italy in "the tised who pracforeshortening first with much success. Crowe and and Daily Mail. Moro. and Moroni. 362).M. p. of the picture there was connected a complete change in the relation of the artist to nature. "The father of modern painting is the Florentine Masaccio". Brunelleschi. Konody. G. and Giulio p. by Sir Joseph Archer Crowe. P. with action. Painting says: By the 17th century The article the development of painting had passed through all its stages. by Rossetti. by Sir Sidney Colvin. for Rome Raphael Sanzio (Vol. Floris. by Rossetti. setti. the two earlier Lippi. 965). Burgkmair. father and son. and Italy . equivalent to pages of this Michelangelo (Vol. Heemskerk.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 192 With the 15th century. GrDn. see the article 15th Century: Florence on him by W. begins the third of the four periods in the evolution of painting. setti. and Guide). Raphael's master. by A. and Bril. Memlinc. p. Sidney Colvin Weyden : Northern Europe Castagno. 22. pupil Sir J. art declines in this century." and Signorelli. by the same author.

and Fkans Hals. or mean. and of the modern epoch in general. and the picture of Dead Game may be regarded as its offshoot. . is the so-called Genre Painting. artist. but the portrait. Rembrandt. but only the semblance or effect. things. by Henri Hymans. by Sir J. by John Forbes White and P. A. Hooch. G. Breadth is in this way combined with the most delicate variety. Honde- COETER. accordingly. trivial. Hobbema. The Hunting Picture. and Berchem. but supplied at first in the same way with figure-interest. . G. the sitter. convenient "^^ «!:°"^i^ ^?^ some brief notes modern phases of the art on which they stamped the impress of The normal subject for the their genius. selected aspects nature that of furnished him with his recognized subjects. is democratic. but' it presented itself as worthy in every part of his most reverent In other words. CuYP. I7th century. by Sir J. Vandevelde and life. not only tial fashion. Crowe and P. The Egyp- on characteristic tian portrayed the men and women of his time. of still 193 Weenix and Huysum. Metsu. in terest of a different kind. where. Crowe. the art of the attention. the relation of which to the figure-piece can be traced through the genre picture and the portrait. Konody. A. A. Marine Painting is a branch of landscape art differentiated from this. as in Egypt and Assyria. A. Konody. This brings us to the important class of Still-life Painting. G. or marking its de- MiERis and Netscher. marine painters. For the more immediate followers of Rembrandt see the articles: Douw. are introduced to enliven the foreground. Flinck. and practically annulled the objects by reducing them to pure tone and was . G. was the world as a whole brought within the artist's view. but the pictures. ETC. is also an outcome of the traditional figure-piece. painters etc. and even repellent. DRAWING. as we have seen. and at the close of the period. up to the 17th century. and as representing intrinsic worth they claimed to be delineated in the clearest and most substanIn the 17th century. A. . Konody. For the genre painters. Vandevelde. by Sir J. animals play a part in scenes of human life. Heda. combining a treatment of figures and animals action with landscape of a picturesque character. and in which. through their connexion with the sepulchre. gives an artist like Rubens a welcome opportunity. SnyDERS and the great animal painter Fyt. though secular. Maes. Konody. in which the human actors and their goings-on are in themselves indifferent. demonstrate convincingly this principle of modern painting . for animal and landscape. Backhuysen. The origin of Animal Painting is to be sought partly in figure-pieces. intrinsic interest of subject has disappeared to be replaced by an artistic inLandscape. and refuses to acknowledge that difference in artistic value among the aspects of nature which was at the basis of the essentially aristocratic art The of the Greeks and Italians. is always treated in such a way as to exalt or dignify Another kind of figure-piece. and a new form of painting. For Rubens' great pupil and rival and his successors. both by Henri Hymans and P. Rembrandt in Rembrandt. G. for at first it is nothing but a background to a scene in which human figures are prominent. artist who was the first to. See: Rubens. Wouwermann. now called " impressionism. Crowe. In the article on Painting this summary cline. . &c. W. Things are not there at all. GoYEN. These were the leaders of the great 17th century school the Dutch. in which cattle. modern times so important a branch of painting." has come into being. Konody. Konody. had a quasi-religious significance. and P.PAINTING. author of Rubens: sa vie et son oeuvre. On the landscapists see the articles: Koninck. follows the outline of the general development of painting through the 17th cen- tury: fact that the Dutch us masterpieces in so The left Kinds of Painting " painters many walks of makes it *h«* here have different painting. his later work attended to the pictorial effect alone. G. was the figure-subject. Eeckhout. or " impression " of color. the articles Van Dyck and Teniers. Portraiture is differentiated from this kind of subject-picture through stages which it would be interesting to trace. Meer. the articles Ter Borch. and. and partly in landscapes. Neer. by P. by P. See Brouwer for Hals' pupil and assistant.. Ruysdael. Steen. generally in some connexion with religion. in . The other important articles for the Dutch school of the 17th '•entury are: Heem. Crowe and P. and the Ostade family. by Sir J. G. and Potter. These subjects were selected on account of their intrinsic beauty or importance. . also differentiated by degrees from the subject-picture of the loftier kind. Konody.

. . 31. Meissonier. de Koningk. honour . . De Hooch. Great as was Rembrandt in what Bode has called " the " landscape of feeling. Landscape and Marine Painting: Several of the Dutch masters.) with some others of this artist's acknowledged successes. A. Plate IX. ciple of . There is a large white turkey by Hondekoeter in which the truth of mass and of texture in the full soft plumage is combined with a delicacy in the detail of the airy filaments. Hardly less adTeniers in Flanders.. and Leo . . . which he may have treated with something of the majesty of Pheidias. selected mirable fig. Still-Life Painting: no finer Rembrandt for picthan the picture in the Louvre representing the carcase of a flayed ox in There is torial quality As illustrating the prinmodern painting this form of the a flesher's booth. as we have seen. runs through northern painting. Paul Potter) with canonical perfection.). But animals have been treated more mal nature presented nobly than when shown in Flemish agitation or in Dutch phlegmatic calm... are masterpieces of firm and accurate Leonardo's " Monna Lisa " is a study rather than a portrait proper. the Dutch paint horses (Cuyp. Genre: Probably the most excellent painters of genre are Ter Borch. and Weenix dead hares and moor-fowl. with his pupil. 30. . the fathers . . One special form of portraiture. In the 18th century.) is one of the very finest of existing works of the kind. . The pictures of Brouwer are among the most instructive documents of modern painting. even before the time of Rembrandt. Rembrandt and Velazquez contrasting with Rubens and his pupil Van Dyck. but there existed at the same time a line of native British portraitists of whom the latest and best was Hogarth. .). one of the most Frans Hals of painters of the impressionist school that he did much to found. . van Ostade. to some extent the extraordinary merit in portraiture of Holbein. titles to . at Madrid (fig. the miniature (q. its He is best represented in the Munich Pinacotek. who were the first to show how a perfectly natural and unconventional rendering of a stretch of country under a broad expanse of sky might be raised by poetry and ideal feeling to the rank of one of the world's masterpieces of painting. the two first painters of the life of the upper classes. which. yet on the whole England was the home of the best portraiture. . Ver Meer of Delft. Some of the finest portraits in the world are the work of the great Venetians of the 16th century. Haarlem. achieved remarkable success in the artistic grouping of a number of portraits. excelled in the truthful rendering of the scenes and objects of their own simple but eminently paintable country. from which has been IX. Chardin. Adrian Vandevelde. and Venetian portraits were abundant. True to their principle of doing everything they attempt in the best possible way. . . is . who represents the culmination of the efforts in this direction of masters like Jan van plains Eyck and Diirer. Leonardo da Vinci was specially famed for his horses. .v. Jan Steen. Plate VIII. has been characterisbrilliant . whose papal portraits of Julius II. the last of peasant existence in some of most unlovely aspects.. Wouwerman) and cattle (Cuyp. while in more modern times Hogarth. Among Turner's chief the fact that he portrayed the sea in all its moods with a knowledge and sympathy that give him a place alone among painters of marine. and foreign representatives of his style carried on afterwards the tradition of liis essentially courtly art. 26. but it was Rembrandt.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 194 The then proceeds to sketch the and development of different article history kinds of painting: Portraiture: It is Gentile and Giovanni who may be regarded as modern portrait painting. As portraitists the other great 17th-century masters fall into two sets. the aniitself imder the more contemplative aspect of the ruminants in the lush water-meadows. it Though greatly damaged. . Plate are . Van Dyck had been in the service of Charles I. Sir David Wilkie. that is the despair of the most accomplished modern executant. . while Hondekoeter delineates live cocks and hens. The realistic vein. It is somewhat remarkable that of the other Italian painters who executed portraits the most successful was the idealist Raphael. X. Metsu and Brouwer. in the 17th century. . . though France produced some good limners and Spain Goya. . Titian's equestrian portrait of Charles V. exdelineation." the Haarlem from the Dunes" of Ruysdael (fig. in Holland. and a host of others carry the tradition of the work down to our own day (see Table VIII. for they combine pictorial quality with an air of easy greatness which later painters find hard to impart to their creations. surpass even his this achievement. . .. was always more secular in Bellini . in a way that makes us feel that the last word on such themes has been spoken. tically English throughout. Animal Painting: In Holland. of Venetian art spirit than that of the rest of Italy. and his rival in department Jacob Ruysdael.

and contemporary with him were several other Dutch and Flemish painting" whose Discourses largely affected English notions of aesthetics. For "the most prominent figure in the English school of George Romney. G. in British art in the 17th and 18th cen- dependent largely on foreign and particularly Flemish influences Van Dyck in especial. author of Constable and His Influence on Landscape Painting. George Reid. R. Mulready. . although unable to compose a picture. . Cotman and George Vincent. by Cosmo Monkand critic. or of articles used in art or science. . like Holbein and Van Dyck. On the P. W. With for the article on the greatest of English landscapists J. author of Essays on Art. 13. 566). fruit handling stops always short of reproduction of the actual textures of the objects. unlike them. that any Ho- • the illusive . 195 graphic art has a value and importance which in itself it could hardly claim. garth (Vol.) and the modern French. and on the genre painters. Theodore Watts-Dunton. Stephens. former art-critic to the Athenaeum and. the student should read Frederic Harrison's article on John Ruskin. Millais and W. The painting of flower and fruit pieces without figure interest by Jan Breughel the younger. 695) French influence. G. p. Sir David Wilkie. Their subjects sometimes took the form of a luncheon table with vessels. by W. In this form of painting the French 18th-century artist Chardin. M. for German. ETC. whose colouring more juicy than those of the Dutch.. On the Norwich school of landscapists see the articles Crome. has achieved imperishable fame (see fig. Rossetti. 982). but the comparative weakness in technique of British painters has kept them in this department rather in the background. Rossetti. late also the articles curator of the Scottish National Portrait The history of painting since the 17th century may best be studied in the Britannica in the order in which "recent schools" are treated National Schools of Painting 497- (Vol. Plate X. whose championship of Turner and general theories of art so p. by the minute and forcible render- painter see Austin Dobson's article ing of accessory objects in the figure-pieces and portraits of the early Flemish masters. such as musical instruments and the like. himself an exquisite draughtsman.. giving only a few out of many articles for each country. 27. DRAWING. department.PAINTING. Holman Hunt. w^ho in his combination of painting and poetry may be reckoned a forerunner of the Pre-Raphaelites. who understand better than others the technical business of painting. and this plan will be followed here a brief outline. p. 474). 518). The way was prepared for it as has been noticed. Of much the house. born 1603. were pretty thoroughly Anglicized. Comyns-Carr. but. also the article on . represents a stage onward. Sir J. himself a member of the Brotherhood see the article on Rossetti. who was born in 1601. for an appreciation of that remarkable genius. Brotherhood see the articles D. at other times of groups of costly vessels of gold. of Diirer. were importations. who. For the first purely English turies is — Gallery. 33. specialists in this and other eatables. and Ford Madox Brown. and John Constable (Vol. and it is especially to be noted plate. For foreign influences on landscape painting see Richard Wilson (Vol. See on the subject painter Thomas Stothard and the landscapist Girtin. and Frith. W. by C. among whom Jan David de Heem. E. whose impasto was fuller. by J. Holmes. for Rossetti's literary work. by F. William Collins. and those on the portrait painters Raeburn and Sir Thoma s Lawrenc^e. J. by J. See. pp. 6. p. See RosBritish setti's articles on Lely and Kneller. and above all of Holbein. and the rather older Willem Klaasz Heda may be mentioned. 28. 20. his rival Rossetti's article And read Gainsborough. Miller Gray. Turneji (Vol. The Germans have also painted still-life to good result. are all most justly rendered. of smooth-rinded apples and gnarled lemons. Sir strongly influenced British painting. silver and glass. See the article William Blake. by M. the poet — same school were several later men. have carried on the fine tradition which has culminated in the work of VoUon. while at the same time the differing surfaces of stuffs and metal and glass. see Sir Joshua Reynolds.

James Clarke Hook the animal-painters Breton. Corot. Ger6me. by Lady Dilke. director of National Gallery of Ireland. by Frederick Wedmore. Sir John Gilbert. J. Sir John Gilbert. C. by Sir Sid- ier. besides those already named. Dupr6. Ha AG. Cormon. Malcolm Bell. R. Frederick Walker. G. RowLANDSON. J. E. Fran^ais and Harpignies. Crome. and Diaz. biographer of Kate GreenClausen. Arthur Melville. by etc.rcus Stone. Vernet eldest. Daubigny. author of Whistler's Etchings. ready spoken as a contributor to the Britannica. Meissonier and Rose BonHEUR. poet and away. Albert Moore. the historical and French religious painters Shannon. Mason. Riviere. by E. Sir E. and Claude : OF Lorraine (Vol. the marine painters Henry Moore. by Lawrence Binyon. Frederick Walker. p. J. B. the "subjective landscapist" B. Gould. Le Brun and Le Sueur. Spielmann. Bonnat and Hen- — On the Barbizon school. B. articles 1 . Chardin. Tenniel. Alfred W. IsABEY. by P. John Pettie. Furse. artist and critic. James Ward. Sir Alfred East. biographer of Burne- Walter Crane. former art critic of the Athenaeum. Thomas Creswick. C. and. for painters of sentiment. and Sir George Reid. both by Henri Frantz of the Gazette des Beaux Arts. by Sir Walter Armstrong. Aubrey Beardsley. S. by George Frederick Watts. Richard Doyle. JoHN LeECH. Girodet. W. Leader. PoYNTEB and Sir W. BurneJoNEs. on figure painters. on which see Ingres. by Sir Charles Holroyd. Landseer. CrUIKSHANK. Caldecott. B. Theodore Rousseau. then a mediate movement. Other important names are Ziem. by F. Thomas Faed. J. Albert Moore. George Gregory. Baudry. Kate Greenaway. ney Colvin. Vicat Keene. M. C. 6. and C. Leonard Raven-Hill. by D. Cecil Gordon Lawson. Strange. For Watteau Konody. by W. John Pettie. Cattermole. A. G. John Linnell. Napier Hemy. for the earlier period. see the articles Thomas Be- author of monographs on Blake. On the "Newschool. see the Barbizon. the deco- Frank Brangwyn. Du Maur- for instance. John La very. Sir E. lyn" the etchers. and Gros. Cole. of whom we have altic . by M. Whistler. GeriCAULT. Swan. ]VL\. Birket Foster. Henry Moore. W. Croal Thomson. Rossetti. F. Buxton Knight. Poussin. and the water colorists Sir John Gilbert. portrait painters. Phil May. J. Regnault. by Arthur Waugh. G. Pinwell. G. David Murray. author of The Barbizon School. see the article on Cour- ner. E. Baron Guerin. Sir F. Bouguereau. the realistic H. Ranking with Corot and Millet in influence is Courbet. among J. Bunbury. HaDEN. Alma-Tadema.. William Morris. Cabanel. by ady Dilke. H. Waterlow. Lancret. Prud'hon. Francois Boucher. Boughton. and William Strang and Sir F. G. W. H. M. Sir Luke Fildes and Sir Hubert von Herkomer. by Lady Dilke. Millet. Sir James Guthrie. Linley rator traitist landscapists. J. Richmond. In the 19th century came a classical reaction: see the article on its leader Jacques Louis David and his pupils and imitators J. Flaxman. George Clausen. F. Bartolozzi. On English illustrators. and then a Romantic revolt see Delacroix. Gillray. the more imaginative and romanpainters of landscape. the 18th century: the articles and Fragonard. Samuel Prout. 463). J. Benjamin Constant. on Jones. On French painting of the 17th century read on landscape. Harry Furniss. author of French Painters of the J 8th Century. the Rigaud. S. H. Stephens. the Scottish artists Orchardson. see the article Newlyn. wick.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 196 Lord LeighCosmo Monkhouse. Robert Brough. and the porPhilippe de Champaigne. David Murray. Davis. Sambourne. and Greuze. Hunt. the articles: ton. Hogarth and Blake notably.

the sym- Jules bolist Gustave Moreau. DRAWING. the plein-airists Breton. Ribot. and Schnorr. painter and etcher. Carolus-Duran. the important articles are Mengs and Carstens. heretofore in this 506-509) in the article Painting.PAINTING. Sorolla y Bastida. by J. we may here : mention only three Austria -Hungary The Makart. Germany German See Overbeck. ETC. MacColl. and for the 17th. Thoma. Maris. Belgium and Holland in the is to be studied in Prof. Strange. and Munkacsy. Wauters. The other more important names before Becerra. by Henri Frantz of the Paris Gazette Beaux Arts. his great pupil Velazquez. Beavington Atkinson for the "pre-Raphaelite" movement and the articles. Israels. In the 18th century the only great Spanish artist was Goya y Lucientes. the Schadows. The study of the old masters is to be seen in Kaulbach and Lenbach. Ricard. the impressionists see the article Impressionism (Vol. 197 Canale and Guardi be- fore the 19th century. Veit. we may mention Tiepolo. Gervex. and on Courbet's followers. 343-346). see the section in the article Painting. S. by Alfred Lys Baldry. Fantin-Latour. For the 16th century see the articles Coello. To the other countries of Europe. El Greco. Pradilla. and of a sculptural order Klinger and Stuck. and Muzzioli. Vincente Joanes. In Italy since the great days of the 17th century. by W. Belgium and Holland Alfred Stevens (to be distinguished from the English sculptor). Going back to the close of the 18th century for German painters influenced by Winckelmann. and in the article Painting the discussion on pp. Uhde. by . of another reaction. by J. des Contrasted with these nature-lovers are the more mystic Moreau. by E. The glorification of the Empire and of Prussia is the theme of the new historical school see particularly Menzel. Bastien-Lepage. — all these are Belgians. by Henri Frantz. and in that era Segantini. both by W. Mauve. by Henri Frantz. Khnopff. keeper of the Tate Gallery. Forbes White and P. Willems. Feuerbach. DRAZO Y Kunt. Muther's sections on these two counart of 19th century The art of Spain has not been touched summary. we can devote Other European little space here. Portaels. DeLAUNAY. pp. Legros. the DE Vriendts. Konody. the military Alphonse de Neuville and painters 1870 are: Bethel. and the "neo-evangelist" Cazin. and author of Nineteenth Century Art. AchenBACH and Preller. Degas. Keller. by Frederick Wedmore. On painting in the United States. and Bocklin. Among the members of a more modern school are: Liebermann. Braekeleer. CONSTANTIN MeUNIER. Benlliure y Gil. On the 19th century see: Fortuny. The later names we may classify: the — decorative painter Puvis de ChavanNEs. and Zurbaran and MuRiLLO. M. VeRLAT. century. Clays. 20 Manet. Rossetti. by D. author of Mural or Monumental Education. art critic of the London Globe. Atkinson. Kalckreuth. by Henri Frantz. already mentioned as a critic and a contributor to the Bri- tannica. by J. in Holland. G. by Henri Frantz. — Monet. F. It Countries may suffice to mention the Norwegian Hans Dahl and the Russians Repin and as their painting Vereschagin. B. Italy Detaille. Schwind. 14. bet. and. 473-474 of Vol. Fromentin and Cazin. Peter von Cornelius. and in such sepa- Spain rate articles as Leys. As for Austria-Hungary. Navarrete. Roll. Ma. Cave Thomas. fully is treated in the Britannica. Gio- vanni Costa. the Spanish Herrera. Cano. tries (pp. Zuloaga. Renoir. articles: Pettekofen.

A. Vonnoh. O. Alfred Stevens. States J. W. for French sculpture. Michelangelo. late professor of Fine Art. keeper of the Luxembourg Museum and author of Histoire des Beaux Arts. M. J. 5. S. Bernini. and those whose work is Continental. Rembrandt Peale. III. F. W. or even purely Parisian in tone. G. Homer D. H. Tryon. C. Reinhart. Charles Dana Gibson. George Hitchcock. W. with articles on sculpture. A. T. see the articles: Howard Pyle. G. Cambridge. BlashFiELD. Wyant. Pearce. Jarvis. Gari Melchers. E. see the end of the next chapter Sculpture. Sir George Frampton. Onslow Ford. Middleton. Lord Leighton. P. W. W. 518- (Vol. Armstead. Medieval. the woodengraver Timothy Cole. John La Farge. like Whistler. IV. Havard Thomas. Gos- combe John. E. Mount. Gilbert. S. Kensett. . H. W. Harry Bates. Hunt. Pomeroy. George Inness. Edgar Boehm. W. Verroc- chio and Leopardo. J. and for caricature the article Thomas Nast and the section on the United States in M. Leonce Benedite.BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES 198 Prof. On illustrators. Andrea Pisano. W. Sir Charles Lawes-Wittewronge. F. Benjamin West. p. J. For a fuller list of articles on painting. and the articles Copley. Church. Gilbert Stuart. Tanner. Hamilton Gibson. Bertram Mackennal. Albert Toft. H. S. Beard. Smedley. Sir J. T. and the Americans who have made their home and their fame in Europe. Ward. R. D. J. pp. E. the etcher Joseph Pennell. W. 334335). 488. Shannon. VI. Winslow Homer. Alexander. French and E. W. Houdon. P. Colton (2).. Donatello (2). S. The United 519). E. J. It is illustrated with 10 full page plates as follows: I and II. Eastman Johnson. pp. W. H. Thomas Sully. L. G. H. CoyV. Washington Allston. Abbey and J. H. Sargent. Spielmann. Goujon. Q. Cecilia Beaux. etc. Thomas Brock. and. Asher B. W. Martin. F. C. Dannat. equivalent to 90 pages of this Guide) is a comtreatise on the technique and (Vol. F. etc. DuvENECK. CHAPTER XXXIV SCULPTURE THE Britannica article Sculpture 24. Benvenuto Cellini. the Morans. H. Leonard Ochtman. Derwent Wood. C. R. John VanDERLYN. The Main Article Peter Vischer. M. A. Week»s and Walter Gay. Durand. C. Spielmann's article Caricature (Vol. — Tarbell. H. Van Dyke of Rutgers College 20. John Trumbull. Alfred Drury. H. Albert Bierstadt. Henry Inman. W. Chase. A. S. Watts (2). E. Elihu Vedder. Luca della Robbia. D. C. Konody. Mowbray. W. W. Chester Harding. engraving. like W. Daniel Huntington. Low. Swain Gifford. with examples of the work of Jacopo della Quercia. Robert Blum. Ca- nova. Jervis McEntee. George Fuller.. M. A. plete history of this branch of art by J. F. drawing. Frederick Remington. Modern British — sevox. former editor of the Magazine of Art. Healy. Hamo Thorny croft (2). art critic of the Observer and Daily Mail. American —J. William Page. H. Thomas Cole.

FredeMacMonnies. VII. 28. Maskell. Middleton. but of Coptic. Persian. with 9 illustrations). Potter. Chryselephantine. Plate (Vol. Cambridge. Medal Terra Cotta (Vol. by H. Hall. p. Gem (Vol. Alto-relievo. and E. Guillaume. 789. Maunde Thompson. Modern French Falguiere. 1 Museum. etc. which deal also with and critihistory Other General This article of technical Articles cism: Wood-Carv- ing (Vol. besides 10 cuts in the text) by Alexander Stuart Murray. Manual of British Archaeology. laplanche. Terra Cotta. Mahommedan. Ximenes. 26. R. with 2 plates. Lambeaux. Rodin. —especially Gem. author of Ivories. Spielmann. 15. Gaudens. VIII. 12 illustrations). Marqueste. with 2 by William Burton. 27 Greek and Roman coins. British Museum. 652. author of Old English Gold Plate. Chinese and Japanese. author of Gothic Woodcarving. Meunier. Effigies. etc. (Vol. author of History of Greek Sculpture. H. Beauchamp Walters. 21. Saint-Marceaux. 205). and George Francis Hill. assistant keeper Greek and Roman anplates. by Sir E. Bartholom^. British Museum. Herbert Appold Grueber. H. author of Armour in England and Iron Work. 11. author of The Oldest Civilization of Greece. G^rome. by Franklyn Arden Crallan. H. p. Other Foreign Countries —Sinding. p. both Sculpture elaborately illustrated and devoting particular attention to statuary. 18. Early sculpture is separately treated. Bloche. and 2. IvoKY (Vol. Monumental. 22 Oriental coins. and John Starkie Gardner.. formerly keeper department coins and medals. Puech. and the carving done by savage races. For "Classical" sculpture see the articles Greek Art by Percy Gardner and Roman Art by H. History of Stuart Jones. Numismatics. with 6 plates Agesander 20 Greek coins. 95-98. plate. with 9 text cuts and 2 full page plates). Michel. and IX. by Prof. Deerick — Becquer. p. keepsame department in 1906-1912. Dalou. Cameo. Idrac. author of A p. J. author of English Stoneware and Earthenware and H. with four plates and with descriptions not merely of Gothic and Renaissance work in Europe. by M. and those in the article Architecture and subsidiary articles mentioned in the chapter of this Guide For the Architect. assistant keeper er of the of this department. Metal-Work (Vol. 791). 23 Roman and Medieval coins. Spielmann. and Arthur Hamilton Smith. by A. and M. 19. Spielmann. Aub6. by M. Basso-Relievo. Fremiet. And on Greek art see the article Pergamum and the sketches of the great sculptors of Greece: Agasias to 120 pages of this Guide. H. with 31 illustrations).SCULPTURE C. and X.. L. and 4 Italian medals and 11 Agoracritus — 18. British Museum. mostly of antique gems. Intaglio. Querol. with 2 full page plates containing 76 illustrations. p. In- dian and Burmese. especially pp. 539. Chapu. Alcamenes Antenor Apollonius of Tralles . keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities. H. equivalent (Vol. Wax Figures. author of The Roman Empire. Terra Cotta Sarcophagi. opens with an account methods of sculpture which should be supplemented by other articles. 560. Antokolski. See also the illustrations in the articles mentioned in the last paragraph. etc. Augustus St. p. H. tiquities. Seals (Vol. 869. 8 modern coins and medals. Stuart Jones. by the late Charles Boutell. 24. Mercie. Relief and Repousse. with 5 illustrations). Alfred Jones. Begas. Longepied. showing 32 medals). Gardet. Barrias. late director Numismatics British 199 cuts illustrating modern coins) by Reginald Stuart Poole. especially pp.

almost entirely an adjunct to architecture and and ecclesiastical architecture. China. author of Old English Gold Plate. Middleton. the treatment historical part of see. Lombardo family. Zarcillo. assistant keeper. the ViscHERs. and. and the article immediately following on his son. Della Robbia family (with 3 illustrations). etc.. Bui the rococo character 17th and 18th Century of the period is best seen in Italy: see the articles Bernini. Myron Medieval . Agostino and Agnolo da Siena (Vol. Monumental. Architecture and Effigies. '490-496). author of Stoneware and Earthenware. — — — Some of the names just mentioned are those of 17th century artists. Leopardo. and in the 16th century period of decline Giovanni DA Bologna. the articles Vittore Pisano Kensington. p. for sculpture elsewhere the sections Art in the articles Egypt. Giovanni Pisano. On the Renaissance in France: Jean GoujON. H. MicheLozzo. Leonardo. for France. H. Verrocchio. "the first of the great sculptors of the Renaissance". by P. Alfred Jones. Orcagna. Rossetti and E.LUS AND AtHENIS BUTADES Calamis Callimachus Pisano Canachus Cephisodotus Cresilas Critius and Nesiotes Damophon Demetrius dipoenus and scyllis Endoeus eutychides Leochares Lysippus Lysistratus Onatas Paeonius (Vol. Michelangelo. Andrea Ptsano 20. Middleton and Pasiteles Pheidias polyclitus PrAXIAS AND AnDROSTHENES Praxiteles Rhoecus SCOPAS SiLANION Strongylion Thrasymedes TiMOTHEUS See also the article Byzantine Art. 647) Chares particularly (Vol. who "heralds . 648) (Vol. each of these four with an illustration. comparing with the latter the article Brasses. South Donatello. Ghiberti.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 200 Archermus the beginning of the more individualistic Renaissance are marked by the occurrence of the names Renaissance of great individual artists. G Konody. In Spain: Alonzo Cano. Monumental (with 13 illustrations). "the last great master of the Gothic period.. The close of the medieval period and English William Burton. 381). the boldest and most original achievements of two generations hence. Adam In Germany: Veit Stoss. T. Sarrazin. In England: the Italian Torrigiano. Girar- . Pollaiuolo. Bandinelli." by J. by W. by Sir Sidney Colvin. Della Quercia. whose biographies are the best summary of the sculpture of the period. p. Krafft." by E. Middleton. MontaSes. Vittore Pisano or Pisanello. p. 20. by J. M. besides in the the article Sculpture (pp. Strange. p. 649). Pedro de Mena. Ammanati. 1. Japan.. H. 20. by Sir Sidney Colvin. For medieval sculpture. Cellini. See on Italy: the articles Niccola Bathycles BOETHUS Bryaxis BUPA. by J. Algardi.

H. Thomas Banks. Nollekens. Sergel. 24. Mercie. For English sculpture in the 17th and 18th centuries see: Nicholas Stone. Jef Lambeaux. Boehm. Hermon A. The 19th century in France opened with a pseudo-Roman school.SCULPTURE DON and PuGET. Cyrus E. D. Partridge. Roubiliac. E. Rauch. W. action. and the summary in the article Sculpture (Vol. be in- . Watts. H. and the one before. outline courses on these arts in the Britannica. and virtually none of the slightest merit. On the 19th century in Germany see the articles: Schadow. and Thomas Woolner. Sir Edwin Landseer. The more important articles on French sculpture in this period are Pigalle and Houdon. and marking a sharp re- 201 Barye. J. 501-508 in the article Sculpture. J. Marochetti. French. Warner. and Alfred Stevens. therefore. possibly most important. R. M. C. J. Dubois. Swan. H. D. the latter known to Americans by his portraits of our Revolutionary worthies. C. Niehaus. W. better known as a the painter. but there are Summary many articles on these topics to which no reference has been made in these pages. Schwanthaler. Lord Leighton. known also as painters. Olin L. and. A. Rodin. 24. Dallin. W. p. Fr^imiet. O. Bartlett. Sir J. 516): Horatio Greenough. John Bacon. P. Volk. Etex. E. Hiram Powers. H. Julien Dillens. Mead. E. Spielmann. France and among the names of this period are Pradier. Hamo Thornycroft. by Sir Sidney Colvin. MacMonnies. p. G. In the United States there was little sculpture of native origin. before the American following the Begas. Onslow Ford and Alfred Gilbert. by Henri Frantz. Armstead. Scheemakers. George Gray Barnard. W. Thomas Crawford. It may. Dannecker. Jules Dalou. Van der on Paul de Stappen. and Constantin Meunier. For the more modern period see Guillaume. waldsen's followers. L. Foley. G. John M. Reinhold 19th Century in list order chronological will of rough supplement the outline in the article Sculpture (Vol. Sculpture articles and Modem On modern British sculpture see the articles: John Gibson. Borglum. Jonathan S. J. Karl Bitter. the most influential and important factors in the awakening. who mark a transition. Q. Thomas Ball. O'Donovan. See also the articles on ThorRossetti. FalGuifeRE. H. P. and Schools younger men. With the 18th century came a classical revival for which the great names are Canova and ThorWALDSEN see the articles on these sculptors. and. Henry Kirke Brown. P. F. Dalou. by M. Bissell. A. Harriet G. and Carpeaux and The 19th century. Separate articles on Spanish sculptors are Jose Alvarez and Manuel Alvarez. Rietschel. W. John Flaxman. HosMER. Proctor. Boyle. MacNeil. Bystrom and FoGELBERG. Palmer. For Germany Andreas : : Schluter. Larkin G. This chapter. Thomas Brock. 513). F. W. Sir Richard West- MACOTT. E. Lorado Taft. Rude. David. Charles Grafly. Gustave Crauck. for last thirty years. Ward. In addition to the discussion of modern Belgian on Belgium in the section the article Sculpture there are separate sculptors of Other European articles Countries Vigne. Hartley. J. Franz Stuck and Max Klinger. H. that on Canova being by W. For Italian sculpture in the 19th century see Bartolini. Harry Bates. Scores of others are criticized and their work summarized on pp. E. Baily. Launt Thompson. Augustus Saint-Gaudens. William Rimmer.

Fra di Bocklin. Blashfield. Fra Anguier. H. F. Jacopo Ponte Basso-Relievo Amman. G. Ludolf Badalocchio. Thomas Bierstadt. A. In such cases let him turn to the general index (Vol. Canale. Boulanger Boulogne Cano. Bitter. fairly com- plete. The student should remember that the absence from the list Abati. Hans Burne-Jones. artists) Cambiasi. Richard Beckwith. A. F. Vittorjo . Asselyn. Frank Caravaggio. Harry Amsler. of articles in the Britannica dealing with painting and sculpture. Bartolomeo Bastien-Lepage. 29). J. Angelico. Felix Bradford. Vincenzo Boudin. S. A. Domenico Barocci. E. Sisto Agnolo Baer. John George Browne. E. Francis Alexander. Albrecht Alto-Relievo Alvarez. Beverley. Antenor Beechey. Action Agasias Agatharchus Ageladas Asper. Andrea Baudry. Henry Bonftgli. Francesco Baldovinetti. Bloemaert. Jules Bates. Callimachus Callot. Arnold Boehm. Adrian Brown. Ford Madox Brown. W. P. Alfani. A. C. F. van Blum. Heinrich Barbieri. N. Pieter Carolus-Duran Bridgman. E. Jerom Giuseppe Sandro da Bonchardon. (Canaletto) Canini. William H. Don Manuel Bartolini. Sir F. F. Abraham Bloemen. A. Franqois Bartolozzi. Alexander. Jakob Burgkmair. B. G. Pieter Armstead. Esaias Boyle. G. ApoUodorus ApoUonius of Tralles Appiani.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 202 teresting to the student of these forms of art to have before him a list. W. Rosa Bonnat. Sir O. Don Jose Alvarez. Baily. Federigo Algardi. Alessandro Barry. Sir A. E. Botticelli. W. L o d o v i c o . P. W. Henry Kirke Brown. Nicolaas Bernini. J. A. BartholomCarducci. Pag. Guilio Camuccini. M. (Dirk) de Bryaxis Bunbury. but merely that there may be no separate article on the subject. J. Bewick. Eugene Boughton. C. Luigi Becerra. Jose Benson. Sir L. James Allan. A. Sophonisba Beccafumi. Blackburn. Abbey. William Bagnacavallo. Agesander Agoracritus Agostino and da Siena list in the Guide a topic on which he wishes information does not mean that there is no information on the subject in the Britannica. Ambrogio Calvert (3 Bosch. A. Cecilia Michel Angussola. Caricature Breughel.Borgognone. Aubrey V. II Brough. L. Bertrand Beard. N. van meo Breton. Benlliure y Gil. Andreani. Andrea Brock. Baldinucci. Robert Brouwer. Boethus Bologna. Busch. J. R. Simone Boursse. Baldasarre Beck. Hablot Knight Brush. Randolph Callcott. Alessandro Allston. A. Bassano. G. Benedetto Bonheur. Jost Ammanati. E. Caracci. Jules A. W. J. Karl Antonello da Messina Begas. F. Bredael. R. G. The following is such a list in alphabetical arrangement. Jacques Calvart. C. Washington Alma-Tadema. William Jacob Aikman. Herbert Aristides of Thebes Aertszen. Antonio (family) Canachus Cantarini. William Blakelock. Bellini Besnard. H. Albert F. John Backhuysen. F. Abildgaard. Andrieu. Brierlv. Andrea Aquarelle Aquatint Archermus Adams. W. Hans Hans Audran (family) Bacon. Bouguereau. D. Frangois and Beardsley. de Forest Bry. J. Reinhold Apelles Amalteo. Edme Boudin. G. H. Thomas Aldegrever. P. Giovanni Bone. Alexandre Calamis Calcar (Kalcker). H. William bale Braekeleer. David Ansdell. R. Johan Niklas Cabanel. Lorenzo Bartolommeo holo. F. H. G. Sir E. John J. G. Allori. Agostino and AnniBracquemond. David Bartels. Francesco Barye. F. Jonathan Blake. K. L. P. B. L. Denis Borglum. Burton. Alonzo Canova. Banks. Samuel Bathycles Andrea del Sarto Batoni. de Caldecott. Campi. A. John White Barbizon Barnard. H. R. Carpaccio. Albani. R. Wilhelm Camphuysen. Pomponio H. Andreas Acroliths Adam. Albert Bissell. Thomas Altdorfer. L. Bordone. Beaux. T. Bupalus and Athenis Burckhardt. Paris Bril. B. (family) Bellows. S. Hans von Allan. Luca Camphausen. da Brangwyn. da Brascassat. Alcamenes Bandinelli. J. Blanche. A. Thomas Bronzino. A. E. T. G. —or from any similar Bossi. Berchem. Wilhelm Butadeo Bystrom. of THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES DEALING WITH THE FINE ARTS LIST OF Achenbach. Filippo Agricola. H. J. P. de Caran d'Ache Caravaggio. Sir J. Caspar Anna. W. Sir William Antiphilus Begas. W. L. Paul Briosco. L. Sir William Bartlett. A. Alessio Albertinelli Mariotto Ball. Domenico di Pace Anichini.

B. Sir C.SCULPTURE AND PAINTING Carpeaux. L. Courtois. A. Gerard Fruytiers. Sir J. Gon. Hans Dewing. Alexandre Collaert. J. Cicognara. J. Carpi. H. de Chantrey. van 203 Dahl. L. Wyatt Eckersberg. John Civerchio. P. E. T. G. Jean Clovio. A. B. Cosway. Sir F. Donatello Foley. George Cavallini. V. A. H. Walter Geddes. Dumont (family) Francescbi. J. Earlom. T. G. A. Kristoffer Frost. Dore. B. von Delia Robbia Corot. Joseph Constant. Jean Cespedes. Morto da Fernow. Zampieri Fogelberg. C. Richard Cotman. Fromentin. J. M. Gustave Foppa. C. B. Fra Diaz. C. Richard Drawing Forain. Emmanuel Eakins. J. Thomas Crayer. Aniello Falconet. A. Thomas Gentik da Fabriano . L. Carlo Domenichino. Alexander De Kevser. Joseph von Danby. Farinato. Pierre Jean Conca. Jacopo Cottet. Birket Foucquet. A. Coypel Coysevox. Paolo Falguifere. Dannecker. and Dielmann. E. F. Francis Effigies. B. Dalou. Cranach. F. Chares Charlet. Michael Dallin. J. William Euphranor Euphronius Eupompus Eutychides Henry Gainsborough. A. Jules Durand. C. B. J. E. G. C. Bernardo Castello. Girolamo da Carpi. F. Govert Floris. Sir W. Antoine Etty. G. Chase. Cesari. Cruikshank. J. A Ivan Flandrin. T. Daniel C. Albrecht Franck Duveneck. Dubois. Franqois Franceschini. Gustave Crawford. Francois Fortuny. Giovanni Cimon of Cleonae Cipriani. Hans Dahl. Thomas Gallait. L. H. Giovanni nano Costa. A. Cornelius Desiderio da SettigCosta. Gaspard de Crayon Dies. Gustavc Cazin. Crowe. William T. Ferrari. Thomas Cox. M. Anselm Fielding. Frangois Clouet. Damophon Drouais. W. G. Dillens. A. Michael Cephisodotus Philippe Chanipaigne. J. Julien Faithorne. John Flinck. Sir Luke Finden. De Loutherbourg. Asher Brown Franciabigio Diirer. Vincenzo Clarke. E. Dahl. da Cimabue. Earle. W. J. L. Friedrich Gaul. ly. Theodore Chiaroscuro Chodowiecki. C. G. Doyle. Elie zales Delia Bella. J. M. Kenyon Coxcie. Gerard Colman. Frederick Diepenbeck. Cuyp Cockx. F. G. Carlo Crome. E. Paul Du Maurier. F. John Singleton Delaroche. George Fyt. Copley Fildes. Walter Crauck. William Doici. G. Stefano Corenzio. Chryselephantine Church. B. G. Abraham De Haas. Raffaellino Cormon.Delaunay. Honor6 Collins. N. Fernand Delia Quercia. W. Harry Furse. van den Fiihrich. S. Flaxman. Sebastiano Davis. L. William Falcone. Chardin. W. Daumier. C. Giuseppe M. Thomas Sidney Delacroix. D. Daniell. Pietro Copley. Ford. Thomas French. S. A. Endoeus Fuseli. John Doyen. J. Cavedone. Feltre. J. Sidney David. Cibber. A. Pablo de Chalmers. Correggio Demetrius Cort. L. Giro Feuerbach. E. Lorenzo Detaille. Johannes Gaddi (family) Egg. E. Peter Diamante. Edelinck. Eyck. J. Giovanni B. Creswick. David Cox. Colman. J. P. Walter Everdinjren. Claude of Lorraine Cropsey. Monumental Fuller. William David. Gaudenzio Ferri. E. H. Cousins. Philip Eeckhout. Cyrus E. Benjamin Conway. Valerio Castiglione. De Wint. D. Jacopo Cornelius. Cooper. C. Frans Fontana. Engleheart. P. Allart van Genelli. Belisario Delia Colle. Charles Courbet. Hippolyte Fisher. Timothy Cole. N. Samuel Cooper. H. Thomas Cole. B. W. E. (Paul) Coques (Cocx). Foster. Dietrich. William Fremlet. George Couture. Crespi. S. Gerhard Downman. Andrea del Casteilo. J. H. Cattermole. Vic at Colin. Eugene Eaton. G. L. Degas. F. G. H. Jean Fragonard. V. B. Onslow Forster. Etching Etex. Van Genera. Andrew Geikie. Martin Decamps. von Daubigny. Thomas Dannat. A. Thomas Cooper. Richard Fresco Fresnoy. J. Piero d-^' Dumont. Frank Francken (family) Dyce. J. G. John De Camp. G. I. M. Cooper. George Clays. H. Ralph Frere. C. Conder. Vincenzo Douw. Lucas Crane. J. Samuel David. Constable. Gavarni Gay. du East. Lorenzo di Cresilas Crespi. Chasseriau. I>ouis Gauermann. Niccolo Castagno. Daniele Crespi. Paul Jean Clouet. Hieronymus Coello. Thomas sare Francia Dupre. J. Charles Davis. J. Cartoon Carving Cassana. Jules Cole. K. Frangais. B. M. Girolamo Faed. P. Prospero Dipoenus and Scyllis Dobson. Fantin-Latour. Credi. Samuel Coustou (family) Chambers. B. Engraving Enneking. L. P. H. G. BaldasDuncan. V. George Encaustic Painting Furniss. T. G. Thomas Critius and Nesiotes Crivelli. J. Alfred Eastlake. William Fiorenzo di Lorenzo Fiorillo. N. P. Ugo da Carstens. W. Giuseppe Jacques Guillaume Cousin. W. J. W. Casteilo. Carlo Cigoli. Frith. S. Count Leopoldo Cignani. C. E. George Clausen. C. F. C. M. Ivavinia Fontana.

Hals. von C. C. Vicente Johnson. A. Cecil Gordon Guariento (Guerriero) Hotho. . James Giordano. Lawrence. Chester Harding. Baron FredHaag. Kate Landon. Napier Hennequin. A. W. Benozzo Grafly. Lenbach. E. Jonathan S. I^. John Lavery. W. Le Sueur. E. A. Heim. P. Henry. Alphonse Hunt. George Mantegna. Will Hicok Lucas. R. Lorenzo Lombardo (family) Low. George Isabey. Seymour Hunt. Charles Granet. M. Gu^rin. Hendrik Ijiebermann. B. E. Wilhelm von Lysistratus Kay. Sir Peter Hamerton. F. Max Limousin. I. T. Mathias Hosmer. Alfred Gilbert. Wilton Joanes. W. J. Fritz Herrera. Francisco Hersent. Wiilem Heyden. Horatio Keller. James Clarke Hoppner. McEntee. Jan van der Hildebrandt. D. W. and Orazio de' Gerard. H. Henry Peters Greco. C. Sir F. Anton May. Y. J. Humphry. Jackson. S. J. Ouentin de Griin. d' Greenaway. Houbraken. Sir J. William Henry I>eighton. J. Matsys. Sir Daniel Knight. J. George Hobbema. Heinrich G. Edward John Honthorst. Hayter. Largilli^re. Girtin." Larkin G. Pieter de I^antara. John Griinewald. J. Pieter van La Farge. L^andre. Sir James Hunt. El Green. William Hiroshige Hitchcock. Card van Manet. F. Jean Leon Hart. W. Simone Masaccio Masoliono da PanicaltMason. Henry Inness. Antoine Jean Horsley. Domenico Ghirlandajo. J. G. William Gervex. Franz von Leochares Leonardo da Vinci Leopardo. Sho-fu Hans (young. van Lan/5. Jet I>ancret. R. Sir E. Greuze. L. Hugo van der Goldschmidt. Albert Macdonald. Gouache Goujon. Ingres. Henner. Homer Dodge Martin. John Guillaume. Carl erick Haden. LeNain * Leutze. Gerard. Don Korin. Edouard Manson. Valentine Hassam. Mason Heda. M. F. Charles de Frank Holbein. A. Winslow Hondecoeter. Jacobus Leader. George Janssen. Holbein. Laurent de Lambeaux. J. Jan van Illuminated MSS. Hoogstraten. J. Seymour Leyden. Sir H. B. Luca Gillray. William von Kauffmann. Jervis Khnopff. Eastman Jordaens. Frans Huntington. Henri Gdricault. C. Giflford. Lucas van Ivuini. Daniel Leiy. Hurlstone. J. Hooch. John Mabuse. M. P. Baron L. Hans Mander. Jacob Jouvenet. La Tour. J. S. J. Sir Charles Lagrenee. J. Lahire. Daniel Klinger. Pietro Lotto. de Hokusai Krafft. T. C. G. Andrea Marcantonio Maris. Luigi Grimaldi. Wenzel Holroyd. Leonard Line Engraving Linnell. Louis Hess (family) J. Alessandro Leslie. MacCuUoch. J. Cornelius Heemskerk. Melanthius Melchers. Koninck. M. Pedro de E. Hermon A. John Gibson. J. J. Giorgione Giottino Giotto Girardon. J. Hans Baldung Hoskins. Jacob Marochetti. F. Herkomer. D. Sir Thomas Guardi. F. G^rome. Houdon. F. Sir John Claude Gillot. Joris Hogarth. J. Lippi Abraham Jarvis. Hermann Goltzius. P. Huysum. I. R. Heist. Hendrik Gordon. Alfred William Legros. C. Huysmans (family) Lemoyne. Kneller. Francesco Lawson. Maclise. Jean Baptiste Israels. Frangois Girodet de R o u s s y A. B. Meer. Eduard Hildebrandt. Maes. I>. Childe Haydon. Eustache Illustration Impressionism Ingham. Max MacMonnies. Jan Keene. Phil Mead. J. Quintin Mauve. Hans Mena. Gifford. C.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 204 Artemisia Hamon. M. G. J. Emanuel Lewis. Carl Martin. Jean Gould. Harriet G. B. Herlen. N. John IJnton. A. F. Jan van der Meissonier. Gari MelozKO da Forli Melville. Sir George Head. J. D. Giulio Thomas Romano Giunta Pisano Giusto da Guanto Gleyre. C. Janssens. Harvey. B. Theodor Hilliard. E. F. Arthur Memlinc. J. MacNeil. Charles Guido Reni Leech. John Martini. li. J. J. Gu^rin. van der Hemy. Thomas Lear. Hovenden. H. Liotard. Sir George Ghiberti. Goes. L. John Buxton Madou. R. Harrison. A. Leopold Ivonghi. Nicolas Grisaille Hook. Bernardino Hoefnagel. Lockwood. S. er) Holl. Edward Guido of Siena Huchtenburg (family) I>eBrun. Nicolas Makart. Ozias Guthrie. L. F. Janssens van Nuyssen. W. Dana Gibson. G. Hone. Jan Davidsz van Jameson. W. Lorenzo Gentileschi. Henri Hartley. Sir F. Horatio Gregory. Nathaniel Greenough. Gerard van Landseer. F. Goya y Goyen. C. G. R. Inman. William Morris Lejeune. M. C.I^aer. Philip de Madrazo y Kunt. Harpignies. Lawrence Hilliard. Knight. Francis Gros. Sir E. D. Josef Ivory Healy. Gilbert. F. B. Ridolfo Gibson. B. Angelica Lysippus Kaulbach. S. Lawrence Kensett. Hollar. John Lathrop. Meyndert Adam Hans (elder) Kyosai. Jean Louis Harding. William Holman Hunt. Nicholas Hilton. C. P. Sir Godfrey Macnee. Baron F. B. V. J. Sir Francis Gray. P. S. Leys. Baron Carlo Marr. Ogata F. C. John Lafosse. P. Jean Kalckreuth. Grant. Heusch. H. Lucientes. Chirlandajo. Nicolas Homer. H. Willem Claasz Heem. Van Gozzoli.

E. Miller. H. Claude Newlyn Niehaus. A. S. Camille Plimer. W. von Merci6. P. Claude Montafies. Protogenes Pamphilus Ryland. Relnhart. A. G. F. Sir E. W. W. Felicien Rosa. Henry W. Linley Sandby. Pacchia. Frangois Palmer. Nicholson. Allan Ranger. Peter Schadow. A. Morland. Pietro Murray. II Portaels. Gaetano Oudine. G. J. E. C. J. V. Isaac Oliver. Karl von Renoir. Pasiteles Pastel Paton. Samuel Panaenus Peale. Panorama • Pareja. Gabriel Meulen. Sir Henry Raffaellino del Garbo Raffet. Rowlandson. Frederick Phillip. CC Nast. Pordenone. J. H. John Satterlee. Roberts. Andrea Saint-Gaudens. Sir J. J. G. S. Gaspar Neuville. Jacques Sartain. George Moro. William Millet. M. G. Restout. Relief Sacchi. Sir W. J. L. Andros. Piranesi. Neal. Pradier. Sargent. David Muziano. Theodore Rodin. Rietschel. John Palomino. del Monte Sansovino. Romney. Girolamo Peruzzi. D. A. Perugino. Roubiliac. Jean Rethel. Pierre Puvis de Chavannes Pythagoras J. Johann W. Leonard O'Donovan. J. Runciman. Jacob van Velasco Ryder. W.Rousseau. C. E. Nicolas and 205 Jean I>ouis Pyle. Salvator • Rosenthal. Jacopo Preller. Peale. B. Juan de Parmigiano Parrhasius Partridge. Michael von Penni. Sir J. J. W. L. Jean Raphael Sanzio Raven-Hill. P. Frederick Sansovino. Albert J. Paul Sandrart. Giuseppe John Schliiter. E. Andrew Plimer. John Roll. P. Potter. Sir W. von Nasmyth. Andreas Schnorr von Karolsfeld Schongauer. Navarrete. Nathaniel Plumbago Drawings Pollaiuolo Polyclitus ( family ) Mieris (family) Polygnotus Onatas Pontormo. Powers. Thdodule Ricard. B. Friedrich W. Teresa . Piloty. J. J. Robert C. Antonio Rossetti. John Francis Perkins. R. Orley. Jacopo da Opie. M. J. William Pennell. P. Richter. Moore. C. Raphael Menzel. Noel Paul Veronese Pausias S. J. Praxias and thenes Prud'hon. James Pradilla. Martin Schreyer. Hubert Robert. Alexander Pettie. J. Overbeck. Jos6 Moran. I^uigi Phcidias Remington. Pisano. Henri Regnault. William Millet. Ostade Mignard. Abraham Milanesi. F. Adolf Schwanthaler. J. Auguste Rogers. F. L. A. Robert-Fleury. A. Constantin Mezzotint Michel. R. Schwartze. M. A. Neer. Rembrandt Schiavonetti. L. S. B. James Oberlander. C. W. Scheffer. Artists' Monet. W. E. J. Piero di Cosimo Pigalle. Leonard Rauch. C. Henry Mora.SCULPTURE AND PAINTING Anthony Mengs. M. B. Giovanni Pisano. O. Walter James Schadow Sayer. W. Augustin Mino di Giovanni (da Palette Fiesole) Minor. Charles Metcalf. J. Daniele Pisano. S. M. Mulready. Rhoecus Pinturicchio Ribera. T. E. Briton Robert. Reid. F. Sir George Reid. A. G. Ochtman. Thomas Picknell. John Phillips. F. Giovanni Moretto. E. Poussin. van der Netscher. Joseph Northcote. B. Portraiture Poster del. Abraham Ramsay. Rosselli. Vittore Pissarro. George Rops. M. Repin. Antonio Moroni. Mowbray. Joseph Munkacsy. Ary Schetky. Schirmer. A u gustus Sambourne. T. Raimbach. Perino del Vaga Murphy. Alfred Reynolds. and R. Thomas Moreau. D. Giambattista Mosler. William Nicias Nicomaclius Nollekens. Rembrandt MuUer. Gustave Morelli. Sir Joshua Schirmer. Proctor. Paul Falconer Orcagna Orchardson. B J. H. Partridge. Pierre Mignon. de Alphonse M. F. Pinwell. Paul Pacchiarotto. Ruysdael. Jean Mount. S. Pearce. II Morghen. D. J. God fried Scharf. Jacopo Santerre. John Poole. Rigaud. Niccola Pisano. Peter Paul Predella Palma. Richard Regnault. F. E. Baldassare Muzzioli. Robert Reinhart. Gianfrancesco Murillo. B. Jean Paeonius Millet Frangois Page. Francis Davis Jacopo Pacheco. Peter Ribot. C. Richards. Raoux. Samuel Russell. N. J. Sarrazin. Moore. Alexander Prieur. Nanteuil. A. Giovanni Petitot. Metsu. F. L. Francisco Cosimo Rossellino. A. D. Schalcken. Francisco (Mil6). D. Andrea Ricciarelli. Thomas Praxiteles Rubens. Howard Raeburn. Matthew Mdryon. Myron Petitot. D. Thomas Nattier. a r - van Millais. A. Jacques Rousseau. Hiram Poynter. Pierre Palmer. Redgrave. Jean Frangois Painting Miniature Pajou. L. Friedrich Rude. Bernard von Porter. de Castro y Prinsep. Prout. A. Girolamo Michelangelo Michelozzo di tolommeo Micon Mierevelt. A. A. Joachim von Sandys. Hyacinthe Rimmer. J. William Riviere. Andrea C. Oliver. David Robinson. B. I. W. L. van der Meunier. Merian. C. L. E. Pierre Puget. T. Q. C. Richmond. C. Robert Pettenkofen. Edward Moran. Models. Sir George Scheemakers. Bernard W.

John Raphael Smybert. Adrian Vandevelde. Antonio Sorolla y Bastida. W. Andrea del Willems. E. Wilson. J. Wouwerman. J. Aretino Stanfield. Ward. William Van Dyck. F. J. Sherwin. J. E. Robert Tintoretto Vrancx. WooUett. Simson. Slodtz. Franz Sodoma. P. Philipp Velazquez. E. Bertel Vischer (family) Wood Engraving Thrasymedes Vischer. Cornelius Varley. Torrigiano. Robert Smith. Thomas Segantini. Ziem. Sir Anthony Vanloo. Vernet (family) Wilkie. Giovanni Sequeira. W. Whistler. Werner. Wright. James Zurbaran. W. Marcus Stone. J. Giorgio Vedder. Joseph Shannon. Benjamin Westall. F. F. Sir James Turner. Frank Stone. McN. M. L. C. Wood Carving Thorwaldsen. Stillman. Federigo Trumbull. Moritz von Scopas Stone. Watteau. Ward. Zuloaga. H. J. Tanner. Taddeo Walker. J.206 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES Schwind. White. Antoine J. J. V. de Zeuxis Waagen. Francis Veit. W. F. C. Constant Walker. Edmund C. Ward. Robert Zuccaro. Frederick Zuccarelli. J. Wauters. Steen. Josepli Timomachus Wyant. L. David William Bell Sculpture Sebastiano del Piombo Seddon. William Sisley. G. R. Titian Waldo. Taft. P. A. I. Elihu D. William Uhde. Launt Thomson. Vertue. A. W. E. S. M. Silva y Verboeckhoven. Hamo Vincent. G. Richard de Westmacott. W. Nicholas Scott. John Smedley. J. Joseph Stark. Weenix. R. C. J. Sebastian Vriendt. A. Van Van der Weyden. F. Robert Wiles. B. Francesco Walker. Pierre Sully. Tissot. J. Gilbert Stuck. Vien. John der Stappen. M. O. H. L. W. George Willette. F. Michael Vigne. Simon Timotheus Wylie. M. Franz Subleyras. M. R. Benvenuto Zarcillo y Alcaraz. R. Waterlow. Wohlgemuth. P. A. Thomas Weeks. Sir Simmons. E. Emile Wax Figures Webster. J. A. F. C. Q. Scott. J. J. T. A. Tarbell. Ignacio Tryon. Alfred Stewart. Philip Volk. Thomas Strang. O. Thomas Tenniel. Troy. K. H. Theon of Samos Thoma. Swan. Vandevelde. G. F. Veit Stothard. Paul de Wolf. Shannon. A. H. Colvin Smith. II Solario. Smillie. de Sergei. Varley. Alfred Ren6 Michel Smart. D. John Vasari. Vinton. Thomas Tiffany.ebrun. Wilson Stevens. C. L. Daniel Vigee-I. Wheatley. L. Thomas J. Verlat. Ward. H. Joseph Thornycroft. G. Olin Levi Waterhouse. E. D. Short. F. Johann Triptych Walker. A. J. G. A. Sir E. M. F. Smirke. Spagna. Sir R. Willmore. C. A. V. Sigalon. de and Yosai Tisio. J. Vouet.. Francisco Turner. W. John Snyders. Vanloo. Tempera Luca Signorelli. A. M. C. Alfred Stevens. Abraham Simon. F. F. H. William Tiepolo. Lo Spinello. Vivarini (family) Woolner. J. Lorado Tait. A. Stannard. Horatio Troyon. C. K. Silanion Teniers (family) Simon. Von Utamaro Vanderlyn. Warner. Pietre Zoffany. M. Johan Tobias Severn. Timanthes Vonnoh. B. Julius L. von West. John Ter Borch. James Jan Havicksz Steer. A. Vereshchagin. Sir David Verrocchio. J. J. C. Sir M. Sir Robert Strongylion Stuart. Charles . E. Gerard Terra Cotta Thayer. John Thornhill. John Wappers. Abbott H. Xavier Stothard. R. Hans Thompson. George Woodbury. de Zuccaro. J. W. Weir. T. William Shee. B. J. T. F. A. D. Richard Vierge. I. W. William Strange. Sharp. Watts. Stoss.

in its regular dietary. After the use of fire and the discovery of the bow and arrow came the invention of pottery. . 17.C. p. a truly wonderful instrument. Nevertheless.CHAPTER XXXV LANGUAGE AND WRITING ONE of the most indefinitely. Primitive races of Australia and Polynesia had not advanced beyond this middle status of savagery when they were discovered a few generations ago. transcend in relative importance all his subsequent works. Almost the very earliest of writers on Evolution evolution. interesting sub- study developed during the last century is that of primitive culture and the gradual advancement of primitive man from a state of savagery to comparative civilization. many tribes came thus far. . probably contributed. (Vol. sketched general outthe development of this primitive civilization in much the same way as do modern ethnologists. which may be reckoned either the end of the primitive period or the beginning of the period of civiliwHon yrofer. and no further. p. The meat diet. These 207 . 6. migrating to climates less enervating than those to which he had previously been confined. now for the first time freely available. and thus could migrate at will back from the seas and large rivers. 107). and the smelting of iron. to increase tlie physical vigour and courage of this highest savage. For this study there are no historical documents in the ordinary use of the words "historical" and "document." The story must be arrived at by analysis. This wonderful discovery enabled the developing race to extend its habitat almost . and therefore most resemble our remotest human ancestors. this "Our ancestors epoch inhabited a necessarily stricted tropical territory upon raw nuts and of re- and subsisted The next higher period in the progress of civilization began with the knowledge of the use fruit. but with materials for clothing and for tent-making. The possessor of this device could bring down the fleetest animal and could defend himself against the most predatory. Doubtless he became an expert fisher. The next great ethnical discovery was that of the bow and arrow. but he was as yet poorly equipped for hunting." of fire (p. the Roman poet jects of scientific Lucretius . the domestication of animals." and this is even truer if there is included in this period the — development of a system of writing. along witli the stimulating climate. all successive stages in man's history which "in their relation to the sum of human progress. even by guess-work. Man could now leave the forests and wander along the shores and rivers. who died in 55 B. 404). thus urging him along the paths of progress.. 403) in the Britannica makes the development of speech the mark of the first period when mankind was in the lower stages of savagery. and to include flesh. deduction. supplementing the studies of travelers among tribes which now are in the lowest stages of development and farthest from civilization. But his delines of scription was imaginary and was fash- ioned to fit his and Epicurus's evolutionary theories. The article Civilization (Vol. as witness the Athapascans of the Hudson's Bay Territory and the Indians of the valley of the Columbia. and in particular fish. . He could provide himself not only with food.

The root-stage: first signs been " integral. and their histories. onomatopoetic origin of words. William Dwight Whitney. English. on the comparative philology of the Indo-European languages. The second part. and author of Life and Growth of Language. their Prof. this part of the article are: in the story of civilizalanguage and writing. Imitation as a factor in development of language and of writing. editor-in-chief of The Century Dictionary. on the other hand. "lanmeans " tonguiness " a mute would call it " handiness ". and those who look upon our language as the same in kind with the means of communication of the lower animals. while the articles are valuable to the specialist in linguistic study.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 208 two great steps development of speech. is an interesting one for the genreader. Eduard Sievers of Leipzig and Prof. are closely connected in our minds. and he puts stress on the "sociality" of man as the prime factor in his let him in is an instance of it. advantages gesture. and their story as told in the Britannica by the world's greatest authorities. not divisible into parts. Development of sign-making the animals of highest intelligence that associate with man and learn something of his ways. perhaps. and the latter as a writer on Greek language and as the well author of tive A Short Manual of Compara- Philology. in of order to bring out their relationships. and "comparative philology. German. Danish. and. equivalent to 80 pages in this Guide). Peter Giles Both these names are of Cambridge. and voice. significant must have in their en- tirety. are differences onl}-^ in respect to education and culconstituted Language and ture. guage " — of voice over gesture. the dog that barks at a door because he knows that somebody will come and structures. in- eral The starting point for a course of readthe article Philology (Vol." the science of language. the former as that of the author of numerous valuable works on Germanic phonetics and metric. fail alike to com" preliend the true nature of language." Development of language signs beginning slow. in wild life. is by Prof. of which the first ing is Philology part. acceleration : the cumula- tive. tion. known to students of the subject. and are alike wrong in their arguments No addition to or and conclusions. "however ingenious and entertaining his speculations. p. American. 414. the throwing out of sentinel birds from a flock." Brute speech and human speech: Those who put forward language as the distinction between man and the lower animals. a general treatment. the two are separated by a step which no animal below man has ever taken. is as near an approach to it as is anywhere made. one of the most important scientific contributions to the subject. The article begins "philology. French. down to the possession of language at all. etc. — Instrumentalities of expression grimace. will cast any real light on the earliest history of speech." the comparison of one language with another. "No one. only much more complete and perfect. a certain amount " Among of sign-making expressly for communication is not to be denied." . 21. is by the greatest of American philologists. Whitney shows how much the re- cent development of linguistic science owes to the general scientific movement of the age." culture: "Differences of language. whose warning cry shall advertise their fellows of the threat of danger." But he notes the obvious analogy between speech and writing. multiplication of brute speech would make anything with a definition of Other topics in like human speech.. Italian." he says. though so far separated in time of origin. language is only the most conspicuous among those institutions the development of which has human progress.

p. will serve the For the descendants of Latin. cenum. Umbria. Classification of languages types: isolating glutinative (Turkish. Conway's books. and Dr. and Doric dialects. p. Osca Lingua. with a valuable summary of the dialects of modern Italy. etc. philology in the Uni- Languages of the article 495. by Dr. especially interesting for the attempt on a linguistic basis to reconstruct the original civilization and to discover the home of the ancestors of this language-stock which now occupies nearly all of Europe and is so intimately connected with the civilization of the last 2500 years. which is a linguistic critique of the style and vocabulary of the great Roman authors and a comparison And (p. Pompeii. Liguria. the article Hawaii (Vol. p. Greek Language (Vol. p. See: — Greek Language (Vol. professor at the College de France. Romance Indo-European: on which see part II by University of Manchester. and short sentences be constructed wholly of vocalic in a may Character of early speech: "first language-signs must have denoted those physical acts and qualities which are directly apprehensible by the senses.. Aeolic. rate classification: Manchester. 25. p. (Vol. of growth and change: inter- nal growth by multiplication of meanings phonetic change the principle of economy (euphony) borrowing and tural cadian and Cyprian. Siculi. Iguvium. Peter Giles. Samnites. by Prof. French Language (Vol. Ancient Languages and People. 23. professor of Latin. — . 103). Philology and the article Indo-European Languages (Vol. larly interesting Provencal Languages by Prof. by Alfred Morel-Fatio. Laws Latin Language Dr. 16. by and articles Homer (Vol. Philology. 12." Development of language as illus- trated in Indo-European speech. Buck. 13. A. 496). Professor of romance versity and separate (Vol. by Prof. and Carlo Salvioni. p. professor of Romance languages at the College de France. or in other authorities. and calling the latter by the names of the former. Conway. Oscan Inscriptions. agetc. p. ending vowel sound. particubecause treated comparatively with constant reference to English and French influence on English.. the ar- ticle Romance Languages 504). 244). but the main treatment of different Greek dialects is in the article Professor Giles. 22. 8. Wilkins. Ascoli. Language. see the articles on the dialects of ancient Italy: Italy. p." 209 Vienna. 496). with a pe- inflective more elabo- (Vol. professor of Romance languages in the same university. Ionic-Attic. culiarly valuable sounds.LANGUAGE AND WRITING Earliest forms: phonetic sim- the plest syllabic combination a single con- See sonant with a following vowel. 14. . Etruria. 491). Conway. by Henry Nicol and Paul Meyer. Owens College. p. Spain: Language (Vol. p. Wilhelm Meyer-Lubke. Paul Meyer. and . 11. summary equivalent to Indo-European 20 pages of this Languages Guide).) —a . 12. 253) of Latin and Greek prose. by Graziadio I. p. in the works of C. 423). Pi- which etc. p. 626). Brutii. Dorians (Vol. late professor of Latin. Robert S. 888). Falisci. Sabini. of the following articles Italian Language (Vol. or by struc- (Chinese). S. professor of comparative grammar at the University of Milan. 13. D. 573). 14. mixing of vocabularies. with more recent revision of all that is known than there is in Prof. 88) for a similar language even now in existence: " Every syllable is open. student as a foundation for this subject. We are still all the time drawing figurative comparisons between material and moral things and processes. to which the student should refer for Ar- of The Lan- guage as Recorded. Volsci. (Indo-European).

777). Adolf Noreen. and Pali by (Vol. Ethiopic. high and low German. professor of German philology. p. Rumania: Language (Vol. with Teutonic Languages on IcelandNorwegian or Norse. by Ellis Hovell Minns. 790). 617). Liverpool University. Murray. POLABS. middle. Amharic. p. And see the article Syriac Language .BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 210 James Fitzmaurice-Kelly. by Arthur Ernest Cowley. 25. 20. author of Text Book of North- — Semitic Inscriptions. Julius Eggeling. Bohemia. Murray. 16. Dutch Language Prof. George Albert Cook. C. Prakrit and Sanskrit. professor of Spanish. Tigre and Tigrina. Hin- material on the Semitic group is principally in the article Semitic Languages (Vol. 673). p. Hebrew— see also Hebrew Language Assyrian 7. p. Hermann Eth^. Mahri and p. Wales. Language (Vol. — an article equivalent in length to 90 pages of this Guide. 233). 246). Gujarati and Rajasthani. p. Lecturer in palaeography. p. 24. 167). professor in the University of Upsala. by J. by Dr. deal- Persia India modern and ing with Zend. Sabaean. by Dr. Slovenes. pp. correspondent of The Times (London) in South-eastern guages are the articles: English Language (Vol. sub-librarian of the Bodleian. and contributes the separate articles Pisaca Languages. by Johann Hendrik Gallic of the Uni- German Language (Vol. Aramaic — and see the separate article Aramaic Languages (Vol. 21. The versity of Utrecht. Librarian of Clare College. 8. Slovaks. (Vol. by the Rev. Indo. Dr. More in detail on the Teutonic lan- Lithuanians and Letts. Cambridge. 843). Semitic 24. 23. F. H. p. Conybeare. and the Scandinavian dialects. Kashmiri. 26. T. W. D. Bengali. Old.Aryan 487). by Hector Munro Chadwick. 9. DosTANi. Oxford. and Marathi. Edinburgh University. p. p. who Europe. p. Robert Priebsch. 291). 717). Sorbs. 2. Middle New Persian and and and dialects of Persian. p. More important than these minor dialects are Sanskrit Language (Vol. by Sir James A. new. 571). Albania. 24. E^ashubes. Harari and Gurague. University College. Swedish. professor of Oriental languages. Servia. equivalent to 45 pages of this Guide). Rhys Davids Prof. Manchester University.. p. Bulgaria. Cambridge. p. Prakrit. Arabic. Texts of Aristotle^ etc. 317). 11. by Theodor Noldeke. (Vol. 156). etc. for- merly in charge of the Linguistic survey of India. 14. The general articles Scandinavian Languages (Vol. Dr. and Teutonic Languages (Vol. and sections ic. 485). Socotri. Phoenician see also Phoenicia (Vol. see: Persia: Language and Literature (Vol. 2. This article deals with: —see also Cuneiform (Vol. 449). 587600. and supplementary information in the articles Russia. Languages (Vol. 1. chief of the (Oxford) lecturer way on English at the Royal Hollo- College. p. president of the Pali Text Society. Poland. with a table of alphabets. University of London. treats in this article the relations of Pisaca. describing the Catalan as well as the Castilian and the Portuguese. 629). p. Slavs: Language (Vol. For Indo-Iranian languages. editor-in- New English Dictionary. 13. 21. p. Language and Literature (Sol. and Miss Hilda Mary R. Bourchier. p. Croatia-Slavonia. Armenian Language and Literature (Vol. by Dr. late professor of Oriental languages at Strassburg. author of The Ancient Armenian of Danish. 630). by Dr. and old. which deals with modern and ancient. by George Abraham Grierson. Bihari. professor of Sanskrit.

26. late On Malays. Cam- and Lionel Giles. 309). Berber. on language of Finns. Language (Vol. vice-chancellor of Sheffield UniCollege. Language (Vol. by Dr. on Magyar. professor of anthropology. 845). p. he should read articles on such general subjects as Phonetics (Vol. 546). p. Augustus Henry Keane. Conway. TiBETO-BuRMAN LANGUAGES p. 928). professor of Arabic. by Professor R. On African Languages languages see Bantu by Sir H. and. p. 13. North American 457 of Chamberlain. 893) is by Dr. 12. Johnston. 784). p. 3. at Innsbruck. Lapps and Samoyedes. 924). A History of English Sounds since the Earliest Period. W. and for the Etruscan language Etruria (Vol. FinnoUgrian. See also the article Egypt. Sten Konow. the languages of the North AmeriIndians see the article Indians. For languages of Malay -Polynesia and Sir (Vol. p. 3. Max Muller. by Norman McLean. On the Caucasian language see Georgia (Vol. 11. pro- Other Tongues fessor bridge. 854). The Hamitic Languages (Vol. by Dr. The p. 6. Hungary Language (Vol. 719). 41. H. 13. Oxford. Finno-Ugrian (Vol. 69). Bushmen (Vol. 26. A. Charles Clifford. Vol. p. which deal with the history and form of the symbol. p. Giles. Chinese. both by Sir Charles Eliot. the develop- . 871) and Hottentots (Vol. and the articles: Ethiopia (Vol. 9. 15. LTniversity London. by Dr. and joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language. 13. p. 723). by Dr. Hamitic On the mono-syllabic languages see China. Francis Llewelyn Griffith. p. by Captain Frank Brinkley. p. Henry Sweet. by Dr. p. Ural-Altaic (Vol. Mongol and Manchu. article late professor of Hindustani. 14). the non-Aryan languages of Southern Africa see the article Tamils (Vol. Samoa. p. the character of the sound it stands for and. 485). 766) and Kabyles (Vol. by Dr. Clark University. Margoliouth. equivalent to 30 pages of this Guide. 26. S. 211 Alphabet (Vol. 758) and Caucasia . Philadelphia. the article Hausa On can (Vol. (Vol. 21. 216). A. colonial secretary of Ceylon. p. British Museum. 27. (Vol. author of Basque Legends. by Sir Charles Eliot. 805). This leads to a study of the article etc. Language (Vol. Java. author of A Primer of Phonetics. Bernhard Jiilg. H. p. Language and Writing (Vol. of versity. for the intermediate group.LANGUAGE AND WRITING (Vol. written by Professor Peter of Cambridge and a plate and various Giles illustrated cle is with This artisupplemented by Professor Giles's articles on all the letters of the alphabet. by Dr. 1. 388). of assistant Oriental Department. Besides the general treatment in the article Philology from which we started. Language (Vol. reader in Egyptology. late secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. S. 356). 57). p. D. by the late Rev. peoples by Hugh On other European languages see Basques (Vol. This list of articles will serve the student as a guide for the purely linguistic articles. Reinhold Rost. 477). 9. Language (Vol. Alphabet professor fac-similes of early alphabets. 167). p. 9. p. p. p. and Mongols. etc. and is supplemented by the articles Turks. 10. lecturer in Aramaic. see 17. author of Le Basque et les langues Mexicaines. 388). Wentworth Webster. p. and Julien Vinson. Worcester. by Dr. p. Oxford. p. F. and other Oceanic Language (Vol. 458). 3. particularly. 27. professor in the University of Christiania. late editor of the Japan Mail. Hawaii. p. 625) for the Libyan group of the Hamitic languages. (especially p. 18. p. and the articles Polynesia. by Dr. Massachusetts. gives a general account the relationship of Turkish. 472). Japan. professor in the Reformed Episcopal article Seminary. 15. Cambridge. 5.

and closes possible to nasalize as well as vowels. author of Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings. etc. p. by Emil itic. for example with "message"knot-signs. engraved or coloured pebbles. Their being based on national languages Dr. trade-marks. Drew Theo- Universal Languages (Vol. Oxford. author of The Latin Language. But in their comparative success he sees proof that a universal — language is possible. by Edward Lee Hicks. chiefly strings were finally a good detective story. articles: Inscriptions (Vol. etc. by Arthur Ernest Cowley. 28. librarian of . and George Francis Hill. by saying: "It is some consonants vowels. professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis. See also Prof.. with primitive attempts to record ideas in an intelligiWriting ble form. Andrews. and these knotdeals. etc. of which there are two in Engusually distinguished as n and ng. sub-librarian of the Bodleian." picture-writing and the like. R. Palaeography (Vol. 7. by Sir Edward Maunde Thompson. Hiibner.. Sweet's separate articles VoLAptJK (Vol. p. etc. by John Faithfull Fleet. 178) The and Esperanto article Writing (Vol. Lindsay. p. W. p.. M. All of these are of great interest to the general reader. Bishop of Lincoln. p. not even from a Euroreally international pean point of view. equivalent to 75 pages of this Guide. to communicate with some one a distance. and still less when one considers the growing importance of Japan and China in world-trade and world-history. 629) From alphabets the student may well turn to ideal languages in the artible by Dr. wampum belts.. 14. by Professor Henry logical Languages there it tells Idiom Neutral as being unscientific. 746). etc. to distinguish one's own property or handicraft whence cattlebrands. of the University of St. cizes which critiVolapuk and Esperanto and the Artificial Seminary. p. 60). 9. were used. third. late professor of classical philology at Berlin. etc. 20." sticks. were: mnemonic. Madison. 618). W. Sweet thinks is a disadvantage. in is how rocks at Mount discovered. In Assyria. etc." (Vol. since the meaning of the mysterious wedge-shaped inscriptions on the Sweet. especially in French. author of Manual of Greek Historical Inscriptions. which led to the invention of these primitive forms of writing. The needs. New Jersey. 6. and China nasalized spirants play an important part in the so-called Yankee pronunciation of Americans. has the sort of entertainment in it that used for elementary accountings. Rogers. The article is illustrated with 50 fac-similes of typical handwritings. etc. p. 28. Greek. 218). p. 27. For instance the article on the letter A^ describes four different sounds.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 212 ment and change of the sound in English and its dialects. author of Romische Epigraphik. for which marked or notched sticks. recalling that something is to be done at a certain time the primitive "tickler" was a knotted string or thong. Indian inscriptions. describes the opposite process. late the British Museum and author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Egypt and China picture-writing developed into conventional signs: on these see Egypt (Vol. 9. p. Semaside from the Cuneiform. but the article Cuneiform (Vol. like our knotted handkerchief as a reminder. and Dr. commercial or chronological. at and. 852) from the anthropological standpoint. 773). (Vol. and Latin. the nasalization of — like the use of the abacus in little shops. also. 556). lish explains that in the early Indo-European language some n's and m's could sometimes be pronounced as vowels. author of Sources for Greek History. or of the similar system in scoring games of pool. The in the Rachmet subject of writing is in Persia was treated..

LANGUAGE AND WRITING
Manuscript

213

(Vol. 17, p. 618), equiva-

Latinists as' the brilliant editor of Ti-

20 pages of this Guide, by the
same author, with a description of the
of the
various forms of manuscripts,
mechanical arrangement of writing in
MSS., and of writing implements and
See, also. Illuminated Manuinks.
scripts, Papyrus, Paper and other
articles mentioned in the chapter in this
Guide For Printers.
The student of language and literature
and of writing will also find much valu-

buUus and Propertius. The article gives
examples of the classes of errors occur-

lent to

Textual

able information in the article

Criticism (Vol. 26, p. 708),
equivalent to 25 pages of
this Guide, by Professor
J. P. Post gate of the UniLiverpool, well-known to

Text
Criticism
of

versity

Corssen, W. P.
Cotgrave, Randle
Creuzer, G. F.
Csoma de Koros, A,

Aasen, Ivar

Adelung, J. C.
Ahrens, F. H. L.
Ascoli, G.

I.

Baehr, J. C. F.
Baiter, J. G.
Bake, Jan
Barth, Kaspar von
Benfey, Theodor
Bennett, Charles E.
Bentley, Richard
Bernhardy, Gottfried
Bhau Daji
Blass, Friedrich
Bleek, W. H. I.
Bloomfield, Maurice
Bohtlingk, Otto von

Donaldson,
Drisler,

J.

W.

Henry

Ebel, H.

Robinson

editions

Caspari, K. P.

Edmund
Count

Castren, M. A.
Childers, R. C.
Cleynaerts, Nicolas
Cobet, C. G.
Conington, John

i

philologists

Herbelot

Legge, James
Leitner, G. W.
Liddell, H. G.
Littre, M. P. E.

ville,

de

Hopkins, E.

W.

Ingram, James
Jauhari
Jawaliqi
p p Freund, Wilhelm
Freytag, G. W. F.
Jirecek, Josef
Furnivall, F. J.
Jonah, Rabbi
Furst, Julius
Jones, Sir William
Gabelentz, H. C. von Karajich, V. S.
der
Kern, J. H.
G.

P. de

Max

Miiller, F.

Mayor, J. E. B.
Menant, Joachim
Meyer, P. H.
Mezzofanti, Giuseppe C.
Miklosich, Franz von

Murray, Sir James

B. d'

Fairuzabadi

Thomas

March, F. A.

Mohl, Julius von
Monier-Williams, Sir M,
Morris, Richard
Molain- Munro, D. B.

Facciolati, J.

Gayangos y Arce,

Khalil ibn Amhad,
Kimbi (familv)

Nettleship,

Peile,

John

Petrarch
Poggio
Politian

Porson, Richard
Pott, A. F.

Quatremere, E. M.
Rask, R. C.
Reiske, J. J.

Reland, Adrian

Klaproth, H. J.
Kuhn, F. F. A.
Lachmann, Karl
Lanman, C. R.

R^musat,

Golius, Jacobus

I.assen, Christian

Rutherford,

I..

Henry

Noldeke, Theodor
Oppert, Julius
Paley, F. A.
Paris, B. P. G.
Peerlkamp, P. H.

Goeje, M. J. de
Goldstucker, T.
Goldziher, Ignaz

Gildersleeve, B.

English

on other sciences and arts,
the reader will find an additional interest
in supplementing general and abstract
articles by biographical sketches of the
great men in the science.
The following is a partial list of the
articles
in the Britannica on great

Hervas y Panduro, L.
Hoffmann, J. J.

Gaisford,

the

In the study of language and writing

Forcellini, Egidio

1

of

as in courses

Haug, Martin
Haupt, Moritz
Henry, Victor

Elias, Levita
Ellis,

printed first
poet Shelley.

Halhed, N..B.

W.

A. J.

such errors and
by the very poorly

illustrates

Hall, Fitzedward
Hall, Isaac Hollister
Hasden, B. P.

Egger, Emile
Ellis,

—and

correction

Hagen, F. H. von der
L. Haldeman, S. S.
Hale, W. G.

Dunash

Fliigel, J.

Casaubon

Cook, A. S.

W.

their

Fleckeisen, C. F. W. A. Hottinger, J. H.
Fleischer, Heinrich L. Hiibner, Emil
Flugel, G. L.
Humboldt, K. W. von

Burnell, A. C.

Castiglione,

J.

Erpenius, Thomas
Ettmuller, E. M. L.

Burmann

Castell,

J.

Doderlein, J. C.

jecture

of restoring

— largely of course by con-

Grimm, J. L. C.
Grimm, W. C.
Gudeman, Alfred
Ludolf, Hiob
Gutschmid, Baron von Madvig, J. N.
Hadley, James
Malan, S. C.

Delius, N.
Diez, F. C.

Dobrowsky,

and the methods

true readings

Goodwin, W. W.
Greenough, J. B.

Erasmus

Bopp, Franz
Bosworth, Joseph
Breal, M. J. A.
Brown, Francis
Biicheler, Franz
Buck, C. D.
Bugge, Sophus

Burnouf, Eugene
Buttmann,
Phi
Karl
Carey, William

Darmesteter,

ring in texts

J. P.

A.

Ribbeck, Otto
Rieu, C. P. H.
Ritsche, F.

W.
W.

G.

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

214

Sale,

George

Salesbury, William
Sanders, Daniel
Sayce, A. H.
Schafarik, P. J.
Scheler, J. A. W.
Schiefner, F. A.

Schleicher,

August

Ten Brink, B. E. K.

W.

Schultens (family)

TeuflFel,

Scott, Robert
Sellar, \V. Y.

Thorpe, Benjamin
Wailly, N. F. de
Walker, John

Skeat, W. W.
Taylor, Isaac

S.

Webster, Noah
Whitney, W. D.
Wilkins, Sir Charles
Christo-

Wordsworth,

pher
Zarncke, F. K. T.

Warren, Minton

CHAPTER XXXVI

LITERATURE, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL

THE

student of literature, like the
student of painting, finds it as
necessary to examine the great
examples of the art as to study the laws
which guide the artist, for the history of
their development, and he will find that
the articles which discuss literature in
the Britannica are themselves literature,
models of the form of artistic expression
which they describe. A list of these contributors who deal with literary topics
might, indeed, easily be mistaken for a
list of such articles on the great contemporary writers as the student would most
desire to read. Among these contributors are, for example: Edmund Gosse,

Theodore
WattsContributors
Dunton, Swinburne,
A. C. Benson, John
Morley, Austin Dobson, Arthur Symons,
J. Addington Symonds, Frederic Harrison,
Walter Besant, William Sharp
("Fiona Macleod"), Professor George
Saintsbury, Sir Arthur T. QuiUer-Couch
("Q"), William Archer, Israel Gollancz,
Robert Louis Stevenson, Andrew Lang,
Sir Leslie Stephen, E. V. Lucas, Arthur
Waugh, Mrs. Craigie ("John Oliver
Hobbes"), Ahce Meynell, Mrs. Humphry Ward, and
among American
names, George E. Woodberry, Henry
Van Dyke, Edward Everett Hale, T. W.
Higginson, Brander Matthews, W. P.
Trent, Charles Eliot Norton, Charles
William Eliot, George W. Cable, Lyman

Abbott, Edmund Clarence Stedman,
John Burroughs, Thomas Davidson, Horace E. Scudder, and Charles F. Richardson.

Before discussing the articles in which
these and many other distinguished contributors deal with various aspects of
literature, attention may be directed to
the treatment of religious literature in
the Britannica. The Bible is the subject
of a separate chapter in this

Guide on

Bible Study, to which the reader

is

also

referred for the whole literature of Biblical criticism.

upon the Bible
Liturgy (Vol.

Religious literature based
discussed in the articles

is

16, p. 795), by the Rev.
F. E. Warren; Sermon (Vol. 24, p. 673),
by Edmund Gosse, and Hymns (Vol. 14,
p. 181), by Lord Selborne, equivalent to
35 pages of this Guide. The medieval
miracle plays and mysteries, presenting
incidents from Scripture, are described
in the section on the Medieval Drama
(Vol. 8, p. 497) of the article Drama. On
the literature of other religions, see the
chapter For Ministers.

The student

may

of literature in general

begin his course of reading with the

article

Literature

(Vol. 16, p. 783),

concise critical

General

a

summary by

Dr. James Fitzmaurice-Kelprofessor of Spanish
language and literature,
Liverpool University, best known as the
editor of Cervantes. Read, after the ar-

Articles

ly,

LITERATURE, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL
tide Literature, the same contributor's
article

Translation

(Vol. 27, p. 183).

The student who does not wish to ap-

215

Garnett, late librarian British

Museum,

with which the student may well combine
the articles Humour and Irony, the ar-

Ballade, Ballads (Lang), BuCento, Chant Royal

proach literature from the philosophic
side need not read the articles Aesthetics
and Fine Arts; but even such a one
should read the article Style (Vol. 25,

ticles

p. 1055), by Edmund Gosse, essayist,
poet, biographer and librarian of the

Descriptive Poetry, Elegy, Epic
Poetry, Epithalamium, Heroic Verse,
Idyl, Limerick, Lyrical Poetry, Macaronics, National Anthems, Ode, OtTAVA Rima, Pantun, RimeRoyal, Rondeau, Rondel, Sestett, Sestina, Song,
Triolet, Vers De Societe, Vilanelle,
ViRELAY, and a few of the prose forms.
Biography, Conte, Criticism, Epistle,
Essay, Euphuism, Novel, Pamphlet,
Picaresque Novel, Romance, Tale,
Tract, nearly all these being by Edmund Gosse. Two articles of the utmost
importance are Dictionary and Ency-

House

and the article Prose
by the same contributor.
a well-known and perfectly

of Lords,

(Vol. 22, p. 450),

There

is

authentic anecdote of Edmund Gosse's
predecessor as librarian of the House of
Lords, who was once asked in the course
of a newspaper symposium on education,
"What were the principal Jf actors in your
education?" He replied by putting second only to his university training "the
articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica
and in the Athenaeum by Theodore WattsDunton." Certainly the student will be
well repaid by repeated study and analy-

colics, Pastoral,

(with Gosse's first- English chant royal,
Praise of Dionysus," transcribed in

"The
full),

clopaedia.

Read the

general

article

Rhetoric.

Poetry

Periodical publications, especially those

(Vol. 21, p. 877; equivalent to 45 pages of

and French languages, have
contained a great part of the best literary

sis

of Watts-Dunton's

this Guide).

The same

Sonnet (Vol. 25,
nold (Vol. 2. p.

article

author's articles

Matthew Arand Wycherley

635),

of Prof. A.

W. Ward,

master of

Peterhouse, Cambridge, editor of the
Cambridge History of English Literature
and of the' Cambridge Modern History;
but some parts of the article are by William Archer, the dramatic critic, and by
Auguste Filon ("Pierre Sandri^"). This
elaborate article should be supplemented
by the short article Comedy (Vol. 6, p.
759) and by the biographical and critical
sketches of the great dramatists.
Among the many other articles in the
Britannica on the forms of literature are

Satire (Vol. 24,

criticism of

p. 414),

(Vol. 28, p. 863) should be studied with
the article Poetry as supplementing his
literary philosophy.
The greatest of literary forms is amply
represented by the space and the authority given to it in the Britannica. The article Drama (Vol. 8, p. 475; equivalent to
225 pages of this Guide) is mainly the

work

in the English

p.

228),

by Richard

miscel-

Periodical

laneous essays pubPublications
lished since the first
French review appeared in 1665 and since the first English
review, consisting wholly of original matter, was established in London in 1710.
The latter was indebted to France not
only for its model, but for its editor, who
was a French Protestant refugee. Benjamin Franklin founded the first American monthly, the Philadelphian General

Magazine in 1741.

The

article

Period-

icals (Vol. 21, p. 151), by H. R. Tedder,
librarian of the Athenaeum Club, .London, contains separate sections on the reviews and magazines of England, the
United States, Canada, South Africa, West
India and the British Crown Colonies, India and Ceylon, France, Germany, Austria,
Stoitzerland, Italy, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Portugal,
Greece, Russia, Bohemia, Hungary and

Japan.

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

216

Newspapers

(Vol. 19, p. 544), equiva-

lent to 140 pages of this Guide,

is

an

ar-

which the student will find a full
account of the most fertile, if not the

ford,

Anglo-Norman Literature, by

ticle in

most studied, form of modern
in all parts of the world.

literature

See also the

chapter in this Guide For Journalists and
Authors.
The reader should note that of the
many articles on literary forms and rhetorical figures, only a few are given above,
but they are listed more fully in the Index
Volume, p. 929, where there are more
than 350 such titles. He must remember
also that there are more than 3,000 biographical and critical articles on authors
in different languages and different periods. The following are "key" articles on

UEs'pagne au

Portugal,

the New English DicM. Manly, University

ley, joint-editor of

of

National
Literatiires

Chicago;

Prof.

Elton, University of Liverpool;

Oliver

Thomas

Seccombe,

author of The Age of Johnson.

American Literature, by G. E.
Woodberry, formerly professor in Columbia University.

German Literature, by Prof. J. G.
Robertson, University of London, author
of History of German Literature.

Denmark, Literature
Sweden, Literature
Norway, Literature

et

au XVIIe siecles.
by Edgar Pres-

Nun,

etc.

Italian Literature, by Prof. HerOelsner, Oxford, and Prof. Adolfo

mann

Bartoli of the University of Florence, author of Storia della letter atur a Ualiana.

Switzerland,

Literature,

by

Prof.

W.

A. B. Coohdge.
Literature,

by Emil Reich,

author of Hungarian Literature, and E.
Dundas Butler, author of Hungarian
Poems and Fables for English Readers, etc.
Poland, Literature, by W. R. MorfiU,
late professor of Slavonic Languages, Oxford, author of Slavonic Literature, etc.
Russia, Literature, also by Prof. MorfiU.

Arabia, Literature, by the late Prof. M.
de Goeje, University of Leiden, and the
Rev. G. W. Thatcher, warden of Camden
College, Sydney, N. S. W.
Versi A, Literature, by Prof. Karl Geldner, Marburg Univeraity, and Prof. Her-

J.

mann

Dutch Literature
Flemish Literature
Walloons, Literature
Belgium, Literature

XVIe

Literature,

tage, editor of Letters of a Portuguese

Hungary,

English Literature, by Henry Brad-

Prof.

Louis Brandin of the University of London.
Spain, Literature, by Prof. J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly of the University of Liverpool, and A. Morel-Fatio, author of

national literatures

tionary; Prof. J.

author of a History of Provengal

Literature.

Eth^, University College, Wales.
Literature, by H. A. Giles, professor of Chinese, Oxford.
Japan, Literature, by Capt. Brinkley.

China,

by
'>'

Edmund
Gosse.

Iceland, Literature, Classic, by Prof.
York Powell of Oxford; Recent,
by Sigfus Blondal, librarian of Copenhagen University.
French Literature, by George SaintsFrederick

Hebrew Literature, by

Arthur Cow-

the Bodleian, Oxford.
Armenian Literature, by F. C.
Conybeare, author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle.

ley, sub-librarian of

Syriac

McLean,

Literature,
by Norman
Camin Aramaic,

lecturer

bridge.

HiNDOsTANi

Literature,

bury.

Charles James Lyall.

Provencal Literature, by Paul
Meyer, Director of the ficole des Chartes,
Paris, and Prof. Hermann Oelsner, Ox-

Eggeling, Edinburgh.

by

Sir

Sanskrit, Literature, by Prof. Julius
Classics, by Dr.

J.

E. Sandys,

Cam-

LITERATURE, INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL
bridge,

author of History of Classical

Scholarship.

Greek Literature:

Ancient,

by

Sir

R. C. Jebb, author of Companion to Greek
Studies; Byzantine, by Prof. Karl Krumbacher, editor of Byzantinische Zeitschrift
and Byzantinisches Archiv;a,nd Modern, by
J. D. Bourchier, correspondent of The

Times (London) in South-Eastern Europe.

Latin Literature, by Prof. A.

S.

Wilkins, of Owens College, Manchester,
and Prof. R. S. Conway, of the Univer-

Manchester.
Celt, Literature,

sity of

to which W. J.
Gruffydd, lecturer in Celtic, University
College, Cardiff, contributes the section
on Welsh literature; and E. C. Quiggin,
lecturer in Celtic, Cambridge, contributes
the sections on Irish^ Manx, Breton and
Cornish literatures.

This

list

of the literatures of

many

tongues, from each of which translations
have added to the common stock accessible even to those who can read wj^th ease
only one»language, indicates the existence
of a bewildering mass of printed matter,
and just as each language has its literature using the word to signify output,
so each subject upon which men write has
using the word to signify
its literature
material for any one branch of study.
Bibliographies
are
Bibliography
the charts by which
students are enabled
to navigate these vast seas of knowledge.

The

articles

908),

by A. W.

of the British

Btbliography

(Vol. 3, p.
Pollard, assistant librarian

Museum, and Index

(Vol.

14, p. 373) describe the technicalities of
cataloguing and classifying books and
their contents.
The Britannica. is itself the most complete index to the subjects treated by
books and the most complete bibliographical manual for the student that
could be imagined. The Index of 500,000
entries (Vol. 29) shows to what class any
one of half a million facts belongs, by referring to the article in which that fact is

217

treated. At the end of the article a list of
the best books on the subject shows the
student who desires to specialize just
where to go for further details. No less
than 203,000 books are included in these
lists appended to Britannica articles and
many of them are, in themselves, substantial contributions to literature. The
Shakespeare bibliography would, for example, fill 30 pages of the size and type
of this Guide; the bibliography of English history, by A. F. Pollard, of the University of London, 13 pages, and the bibliography of French history, by Prof.
B^mont of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes,
Paris, 8 pages.

A group of articles of great interest to
every student of literature deals with the
methods and appliances by which writings are preserved and circulated. Manuscript (Vol.

17,

p.

618)

Maunde Thompson, of the
seum Library; Book (Vol.
Book-Collecting
Incunabula (Vol.

by SirE.

is

Mu-

British
4,

p.

214);

and
by A.

(Vol. 4, p. 221)
14, p. 369) are

Pollard, also of the British Museum
Library.
Libraries (Vol. 16, p. 545),
equivalent to 100 pages of this Guide, is

W.

by H. R. Tedder, librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. The articles on
printing, binding, publishing and similar
subjects are described in the chapter of
this

Guide For

With

dent will have
his

own

erature

Printers.

this chapter to help

him the

little difficulty

stu-

in devising

course of reading in any one

lit-

—starting with the general treat-

ment, going from this to the separate
biographies of the great authors mentioned in the general article, and, when
there is in the national literature that he
is studying some special development of
a literary genre, as of the sermon in the
17th or the satire in the 18th century,
turning to the article in the Britannica
dealing with this form of literature, Satire, Sermon, or whatever it may be. For
example, what could be more illuminating
to the student of 19th century literature
than the following passages discon-

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

218

—from

nected here

the article Satire?

Goethe and Schiller, Scott and Wadsworth, are now at hand, and as imagination
gains ground satire declines.
Byron, who
in the 18th century would have been the
greatest of satirists, is hurried by the spirit
of his age into passion and description, bequeathing, however, a splendid proof of the
possibility of allying satire with sublimity
in his Vision of Judgment.
Miss
Edgeworth skirts the confines of satire, and
Miss Austen seasons her novels with the

...

most exquisite

satiric

traits.

Washington

Irving revives the manner of The Spectator,
and Tieck brings irony and persiflage to
the discussion of critical problems. .
In
all
the characteristics of his genius
Thackeray is thoroughly English, and the
faults and follies he chastises are those especially characteristic of British society. Good
sense and the perception of the ridiculous
are amalgamated in him; his satire is a
thoroughly British article, a little over-solid,
a little wanting in finish, but honest, weighty
and durable. Posterity must go to him for
the humours of the age of Victoria, as they
.

.

CHAPTER

go to Addison for those of Anne's.

...

In Heine the satiric spirit, long confined to
established literary forms, seems to obtain
unrestrained freedom to wander where it
will, nor have the ancient models been followed since by any considerable satirist except the Italian Giusti. The machinery employed by Moore was indeed transplanted to
America by James Russell Lowell, whose
Biglow Pajiers represent perhaps the highest
moral level yet attained by satire.
In no age was the spirit of satire so generally diffused as in the 19th century, but
many of its eminent writers, while bordering
on the domains of satire, escape the definition of satirist. The term cannot be properly applied to Dickens, the keen observer
of the oddities of human life; or to George
Eliot, the critic of its emptiness when not
inspired by a worthy purpose; or to Balzac,
the painter of French society; or to Trollope, the mirror of the middle classes of
England. If Sartor Resartus could be regarded as a satire, Carlyle would rank
among the first of satirists; but the satire,
though very obvious, rather accompanies
than inspires the composition.

XXXJJII

AMERICAN LITERATURE

THE

key articles dealing with national
shows that the Britannica separately treats the literary products
of some 30 countries. To outline 30 courses of reading, mentioning the 3,000
critical and biographical articles, would make this Guide unwieldy.
On pp. 929937 of Vol. 29 the reader will find classified lists of these articles, and only four groups
are selected here for detailed treatment those on American, English, German and
Greek literature. The main article in the literature of each of the other countries
indicates the characteristic forms, the typical works of the leading writers discussed
in special articles, so that courses of reading as systematic as these four can easily
be planned for other countries by the reader.
list

in the preceding chapter of the

literatures

:

Topic of Study
General Summary of the subject, with
appreciation of main
dencies and great authors.

Article and Contributor
American Literature (Vol. 1, p. 831),

ten-

by George E. Woodberry, formerly professor in Columbia University, biographer of Poe and Hawthorne, author of
America in Literature, etc.

English writers, especially histori-

John Smith (Vol. 25, p. 26t), by Prof.
Edward Arber, editor of English Garn-

critical

Colonial Period.
cal.

er, etc.

AMERICAN LITERATURE
Colonial writers, especially of Puritan New England.

219

Massachusetts, History (Vol. 17,
868) Connecticut, History (Vol.
;

p.
6,

p. 964).

Massachusetts

governors

and

his-

torical writing.

The Clergy

as writers of History,

and of Theology of the Puritan
School.

William Bradford

(Vol.

John Winthrop (Vol.
John Cotton (Vol. 7, p.

370)

p.

4,

28, p. 736).

255), by Prof.
Williston Walker, Yale, author of History of the Congregational Churches in
the United States; Thomas Hooker
(Vol. 13, p. 674).

The Mathers.

Cotton, Increase, and Richard Mather

Apostle to the Indians.

John Eliot

(Vol. 17, p. 883).
(Vol. 9, p. 278), by Prof.

Walker.
Revolt against Puritanism.

Thomas Morton (Vol. 18,
Roger Williams (Vol. 28,
Michael Wigglesworth

Ethical.

Theological.

New England

Verse.

882).
682).

p.
p.

(Vol.

28,

p.

626).

The New England Diarist.
The great New England Philosopher
the first American
author with a lasting and European

and Theologian

;

Edwards's contemporaries.
followers,

England theology.
The first newspaper in

A

— the

New

New

York.

The American Quaker

preacher.

governor and historian.

York statesman and

philos-

6, p.

18).

Jonathan Mayhew (Vol. 17, p. 935).
Joseph Bellamy (Vol. 3, p. 694).
Samuel Hopkins (Vol. 13, p. 685).
William Bradford (Vol. 4, p. 370).
James Blair (Vol.

Virginia educator.

A royal
A New

and Richard Webster.
Charles Chauncy (Vol.

reputation.

Edwards's

Samuel Sewall (Vol. 24, p. 733).
Jonathan Edwards (Vol. 9, pp. 3-6), by
Prof. Harry Norman Gardiner, editor
of Jonathan Edwards
a Retrospect,

4, p.

34).

John Woolman (Vol. 28, p. 817).
Thomas Hutchinson (Vol. 14, p. 13).
Cadwallader Colden (Vol. 6, p. 663).

opher.

The

first great American figure in secessayist, pamphletular literature,

Benjamin Franklin
by

Richard

(Vol.

Webster,

11, p. 24),
late
fellow

Princeton University, editorial
Encyclopaedia Britannica.

eer, politician, autobiographer.

staff,

Revolutionary Period.

The

patriotic

orators

and Pamph-

leteers.

James Otis (Vol. 20,
Patrick Henry (Vol.

John Adams (Vol. 1,
JosiAH QuiNcY (Vol.
"

Common

James

Sense."

Mercy Warren

Otis's Sister.

The Declaration
and

James Wilson (Vol.
Thomas Paine (Vol.

its

of

Independence

author.

p.

366).

13, p. 300).
p. 176).

22, p. 753).
28, p. 693).

20, p. 456).
(Vol. 28, p. 330).

Independence,

Declaration of (Vol.
372), and Thomas Jefferson
(Vol. 15, p. 301), both bv Dr. F. S.

14, p.

Philbrick.

Prominent Patriots

A

Connecticut
triot.

in

New

Jersey.

Educator and

Pa-

William Livingston (Vol. 16, p. 813).
John Witherspoon (Vol. 28, p. 759).
Ezra Stiles (Vol. 25, p. 919).

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

220

Joseph Galloway (Vol. 11, p. 421).
Samuel Seabury (Vol. 24, p. 531).

Opponents of Independence.
" A Westchester Farmer."

Mather Byles

In Massachusetts.
In Maryland.

(Vol. 4, p. 896).

Jonathan Boucher (Vol. 4, p. 312).
John Trumbull (Vol. 27, p. 324).
Timothy Dwight (Vol. 8, p. 741).
Joel Barlow (Vol. 3, p. 406).
Francis Hopkinson (Vol. 13, p. 685).
Jonathan Carver (Vol. 5, p. 437).

Patriotic Poetry.
The " Hartford Wits."

Satire and Epic.
" Battle of the Kegs."
Western Traveler.

A

The National Period.
The Constitution and its Pamphlet" The
the
Federalist,"
eers

greatest application of elementary principles of government to
practical administration.

Importance of the early national
period on the development of
American literature.

James Madison (Vol. 17, p. 284).
Alexander Hamilton (Vol. 12, p. 880),
by Dr. F. S. Philbrick and Hugh Chisholm.

John Jay

(Vol.

15, pp. 294-296).

United States, History, §106

assistant
Britannica.

ery,

The

"

professional

first

man

of

(Vol. 27,

688), by the late Prof. Alexander
Johnson, Princeton, and C. C. Whinp.

editor,

Encyclopaedia

Charles Brockden Brown

(Vol.

4,

p.

657).

letters."

First foreign vogue.

Essay and History

:

"

The Ameri-

Fiction: "

Washington Irving
by Richard Garnett,

can Goldsmith."

The American

Scott."

(Vol.

14, p. 856),
late librarian Brit-

ish Museum.
James Fenimore Cooper (Vol. 7, p. 79),
by W. E. Henley, poet, critic and essayist.

William Cullen Bryant

Poetry.

698), by G.

The Knickerbocker

School.

New York

W.

(Vol.

4,

p.

Cable.

City, Literature (Vol. 19, p.

615).

New York

A

as a literary centre.

Southern novelist and poet.

Cooper's successor as novelist of the

James Kirke Paulding (Vol. 20, p. 958).
Fitz-Greene Halleck (Vol. 12, p. 854).
W. G. Simms (Vol. 25, p. 123).
Herman Melville (Vol. 18, p. 102).

sea.

Poetesses of the early 19th century.

Lydia Huntley Sigourney (Vol. 25,

p.

82).

The "

Literati."

Alice and Phoebe Cary (Vol. 5,
N. P. Willis (Vol. 28, p. 686).

RuFus Wilmot Griswold

p.

(Vol.

438).
12,

p.

610).

The

short story.

Edgar Allan Poe

(Vol. 21, p. 875), by

David Hannay.
Traveler, Translator, Poet.

New England

Bayard Taylor

(Vol. 26, p. 467).

in the I9th century.

Boston and Cambridge.

Boston

(Vol. 4, p. 293).

Harvard University (Vol. 13, p. 38).
George Ticknor (Vol. 26, p. 936).

AMERICAN LITERATURE
History and Scholarship as

aflfected

by European contacts.

221

George Bancroft (Vol. S, p. 307), by
Prof. W. M. Sloane, Columbia.
Edward Everett (Vol. 10, p. 8), by Edward Everett Hale.
Jared Sparks (Vol. 26, p. 608), by Prof.

W.

L. Corbin, Wells College.

Palfrey (Vol. 20, p. 629).
W. H. Prescott (Vol. 22, p. 294).
J. G.

J. L.

Unitarianism and
ers,

its

Influencing

Literary Leadand Influenced

by Transcendentalism.

Motley

(Vol. 18, p. 909).

HosEA Ballou (Vol. 3, p. 282).
William Ellery Channing (Vol.

5,

p.

843), by Richard Webster.

James Freeman Clarke (Vol. 6, p. 444),
by E. E. Hale.
Theodore Parker (Vol. 20, p. 829).
Transcendentalism and the Concord
School its central figures.

Amos Bronson Alcott

(Vol.

1, p.

528),

by Prof. C. F. Richardson, Dartmouth
College.

Ralph Waldo Emerson (Vol. 9, p. 332),
by Prof. Henry Van Dyke, Princeton.
Henry David Thoreau (Vol. 26, p.
877), by William Sharp (" Fiona Macleod").

The

Margaret Fuller (Vol. 11, p. 296).
George Ripley (Vol. 23, p. 363), by Edward Livermore Burlingame, editor of

Dial.

Scribner's.

Brook Farm

Brook Farm.

(Vol. 4, p. 645,

by E. L.

Burlingame.

The author
The

great

of " Margaret."

New England

Novelist.

Sylvester Judd (Vol.

Nathaniel

Hawthorne

102), by Richard
poet and essayist.

TEe

great

New England

Poet.

16, p. 536).

(Vol.

13,

p.

Henry Stoddard,

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

(Vol.

by Thomas Davidson, author of The Philosophical System of
16, p. 977),

Rosmini.
Earlier Romanticism.

Washington Allston
Richard Henry Dana

(Vol. 1, p. 709).
(Vol. 7, p. 792).

Oralory.
"

In the North.

Daniel Webster

(Vol. 28, p. 459), by
Everett P. Wheeler, author of Daniel
Webster, etc.

RuFUS Choate

Wendell

(Vol. 6, p. 258).

Phillips (Vol. 21,
Col. T. W. Higginson.

p.

407), by

Charles Sumner (Vol. 26, p. 81).
Robert Charles Winthrop (Vol, 28,

p.

736).

In the South.

Henry Clay

(Vol. 6, p. 470), by Carl
Schurz, biographer of Clay.

The Abolition Novelist. 11. 25. 972). James Russell Lowell (Vol. 797) later Poets. Richard Grant White (Vol. p. by Benjamin E. 12). 28. p Julia 970). cism. by Edmund Clarence Stedman. A. M. William Dwight Whitney (Vol. 13. William Wetmore Story (Vol. by Dr. 25. Scudder. p. The New England Poets prominent the Anti-Slavery Movement. 613). Calhoun (Voh 5. p. James Child (Vol. p. p. Monthly. of the North. in 6. Francis. 19. editor Century Dictionary. Smith. Lyman (Vol. 768). by Horace E." The American Poet — by the criterion of foreign standards. by Judge H. p. p 16. 1). (Vol. Richard Watson GiLDEh (Vol. (Vol. p. p. 13. 618) . 25. George Perkins Marsh (Vol.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 222 Other Southern Orators. T. John Greenleaf Whittier (Vol. Abbott. author of Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stovve (Vol. p. 610). Oliver Wendell Holmes (Vol. p. 601). p. 28. Horace Howard Furness (Vol. biographer of Holmes. late editor of the Atlantic Uncle Tom's Cabin. Edmund Clarence Stedman (Vol. 10. New York. 28. p. 6. p. the " Autocrat. Thomas Bailey Aldrich (Vol. p 861). p. by Horace E. poet and critic. 3. p. 636) Ward Howe (Vol. A Scholarship and criticism in this Pe- Study. 135). 611). Pennsylvania. editor The Out- look. Charles Eliot Norton The (Vol. Richard Henry Stoddard (Vol. 25. Felton (Vol. Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve (Vol. Charles Godfrey Leland 406). by J. Language. Silas Weir Mitchell (Vol. author of Whitman. Morse. 74). Their Contemporary. etc. 12. 17. p. 12. 17. p. p 939). 135). John The Pulpit Orator Robert Young Hayne Henry Ward Beecher C. New England. 362). 246). Text Criti- Cornelius C. p. p. Lydia Maria Child (Vol. 639). 114). (Vol. by John Burroughs. 616). Another anti-slavery authoress. 1. )) 12). Walt Whitman (Vol. 17. 18. p. Francis Andrew March 688). 28. p. South Caro- lina. 13. biographer of Lowell. Smith. 836). Scudder. riod and the Next: the particularly Important Work done by Americans in Grammar.

p. 26. 16. The Middle West morous. FiNLEY Peter Dunne (Vol. p. James Lane Allen (Vol. p. Eugene Field (Vol. 687). " Josh Billings " (Vol. p. p. Bunner (Vol. 360). 938). " Charles Egbert Craddock " (Vol. 181). C. Gayarre (Vol. p." "Bill Nye. p. 28. Brander Matthews. Edward Everett Hale (Vol. p. New England. p. 15. a. Trent. H. 25. Virginia. 24. 386). 371). Columbia. 646). 455). 13. Francis R. Prof. 839). Henry Charles Lea (Vol. 12. . John Godfrey Saxe (Vol. Stockton (Vol." History. Francis Bret Harte (Vol. Riley (Vol. Charles Dudley Warner 326). Pietistic Novel. by Prof. D. p. 321). 276). 223 light hucharacter (especially and James Whitcomb verse). Marion Crawford E. Mary Hallock Foote (Vol. 13. Edward Eggleston (Vol. 7. John Fiske. Francis Lieber (Vol. 590). p. Provincial Types Maine. p. 106). The American " Hood. 31). Thomas Nelson Page (Vol. 542). 27. 625). Edward Rowland Sill (Vol. p. 449). (Vol. Later Fiction. 11. 20. " Mr. by W. 16. p. p. 691). 314). 464). The American Realist. 4. 28. The American Cosmopolite. Columbia. Joaquin Miller (Vol. F. 929). 9. 13. 4. 23. p. p. Francis Parkman (Vol. (Vol. p. 23. 20. p. 682). Sarah Orne Jewett (Vol. 10. 1. 28. The (Vol. 17). p. " Uncle Remus. 210). p. 920). J. p. by Charles Eliot Norton. C. 15. E. p. 10. p. HowELLS (Vol. 143). John Hay (Vol. Francis Bret Harte (Vol. West. 799). Roe (Vol. 7. Holland p. 8. 7. (Vol 13. p. p. 13. p. Humor. 28. Stories of Italy." Puck. p. Thomas Wentworth Higginson Essayists. E. Cable (Vol. 813).AMERICAN LITERATURE The Sidney Lanier South. Edgar Wilson Nye (Vol. G. p (Vol. 343). P. New Orleans. p. p. by Hermann Eduard Von Holst (Vol. p. p. Mary South: Tennessee. 490). 13. Dooley. Lewis Wallace (Vol. p. Humorous Short Story. Historical Romance. Joel Chandler Harris (Vol. George William Curtis 652). Kentucky. 18. 13. p. 450) George W. 258). p (Vol. 31). 20). Wilkins (Vol. P. p." America's Great Humorist. 107). 16. p 832). 832). Henry James (Vol. The Far West. Mark Twain (Vol. 19. 24. W. Henry Wheeler Shaw.

Hubert H. by Prof. 13. 718). Theodore Roosevelt (Vol. James Schouler (Vol. 377). Alfred the Great (Vol. Lawrence Godkin (Vol. James Gordon Bennett (Vol. C^DMON Cynewulf (Vol. Springfield Republican. 607). CHAPTER XXXVIII ENGLISH LITERATURE ON English with literature. York Sun. Louisville Henry Watterson Courier. 8. o. Albert Bushnell Hart (Vol. p. James Ford Rhodes (Vol. 418). etc. 4. 933). 740). p. there is much more mat- than on American or of course any other naliterature The key article is tional literature. and Saxon Chronicle (Vol. Abbott. 4. p. p. Dicthe 3. 791). p. 9. Whitelaw Reid (Vol. Bancroft (Vol. James B. p. United States (Vol. and 690). (Vol. Theodore A. Dodge (Vol. p. same author's Beowulf 758). based on this article which should be supplemented by the sections on Literature in the Scotland. Horace Greeley (Vol. p. pp. 582). 344). p. C. 264). equivalent to 120 pages of this Guide). p. New York Herald. may be 9. Anglo2. . 12. Newspaper Men. Raymond (Vol. and an excellent outline for the study (Vol. 10. 369). F. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 224 Henry Martyn Bairb John Fiske (Vol. American (Vol. p. its vastly longer history and greater volume. p.Journal. 23. Mahan (Vol. 21. p. John Codman Ropes (Vol. p. 1. York Evening Post. 23. p. Samuel Bowles (Vol. H. Periodicals. p. pp. 17. Alfred T. Anglo-Saxon New English tionary. bv Whitelaw Reid. New York Tribune. 16. McMaster (Vol. A. Henry Cabot Lodge (Vol. New York Outlook. 860). 17. p. 3. by Henry Bradley. 394). 174). 711). 154-155). p. 19. p. p. 3. 22. 24. 30). p. Dartmouth. 566572). . ter in the Britannica — English Literature 607. 934) p. 28. 3. 23. p. Richardson. p. New New New York Times. 7. 267). (Vol. Historians. 52). 7. by Lawrence F. (Vol. 34). 309). p. 23. 531). 437). Newspapers. Edwin 12. The of joint-editor etc. J. C. Dana (Vol. (Vol. Canada. 224). A articles of this subject combination of these with special articles may be arranged as follows: On the period before Chaucer the first part of the article English Litera- — ture (Vol.

Giles and Phineas Fletcher (Vol. 93). Nicholas Breton (Vol. 861) Earl of Surrey (Vol. Geoffrey Chaucer (Vol. p. p. 616). and Samuel Daniel (Vol. p. 720). University of Chicago. English litera- ture. 27. 2. 801). 668). 10. 860). 28. p. William Tyndale (Vol.) by the late Professor William Minto of Aberdeen. 389). Thomas Occleve (Vol. 10. Humphry Ward. editor of the Langland London. The English versions of the Bible are dealt with in the chapter of this Guide Smith. chief-editor of the "Globe" A. Havelok the Dane (Vol. Leach. author of English Schools at the Reformation. 19. by Henry Bradley. Yorke. 3. p. ist F. 21. Skeat of Cambridge. 13. Leach. 311). p. p. p. OHver ElElizabethan ton. Univer- Spenser GowER (Vol. p. John by G. p. 9. p. C. 12. Alison Phillips. Michael Drayton (Vol. Sir Spenser (Vol. Layamon (Vol. W. p. editor of p. Brandin. 770) Sir Thomas North (Vol. 1. p. p. 28. 498). 3. University of Literature Liverpool. J. 298). Thomas Hoby (Vol. p. 80). p. see the second part of the English Literature (Vol. 31). Ancren be read in connection with the study of Anglo-Norman (Vol. William Warner (Vol. English (Vol. Dundee. author of The Age of Chaucer. (Vol. J. 808). John Wycliffe (Vol. 17. (Vol. King's College. 159). etc. p. 9. 16. McCormick. by W. by Prof. 13). (Vol. William Dunbar (Vol. p. Edmund formerly professor of English. etc. author of The Lan- philology at this and Newnham earlier periods of The Pearl (Vol. Gower's works. by A. author of The Age of Chaucer. Orm (Vol. 16. RiWLE Lit- on Bible Study. A. 16. p. by Frederick J. On the period from Chaucer to the Renaissance. Andrew of Wyntoun (Vol. G. John Barbour (Vol. p. 2. by Prof. Gosse. the essay- and student of the Renaissance. 13. Snell. 20. also Sir Thomas More article guage of Chaucer's Legend of Good College. Charles Plummer. p. 21. by P. p. p. Roger Ascham (Vol. lecturer in Germanic Dan Michel of Northgate 18. . 26. p. 371). author of Wycliffe and Movements for Reform. p. p. by Professor George Gregory Smith. by Mark (Vol. by P.ENGLISH LITERATURE both by the Rev. etc. p. S. by Prof. Sir John Fortescue (Vol. etc. 639. and F. William CaxTON (Vol. p. p. 498) . p. 873). 26. by Reginald Lane Poole. 501). 898). Euphuism (Vol. p. p. p. 554). Sir Philip Sidney (Vol. 413). Stephen Hawes (Vol. Panes. but the article Bible. by Prof. Reginald Pecock (Vol. W. 27. 9. p. 327). Women. p.. 43). 866). Raphael Holinshed (Vol. Romance. by Canon Henson of Westminster Abbey and Anna C. Queen's University. by Pollard. On English literature in the Eliza- bethan age read part 3 of the article English Literature (Vol. John Skelton (Vol. by Mrs. Israel Gollancz. 4. p. by Prof. 952). 25. (Vol. University of London. 174). 27). p. 225 293). John Foxe (Vol. 952). 584). sity College. M. Sir John Harington (Vol. 759) Sir Thomas Wyat (Vol. by the late Prof. 17. Thomas Campion (Vol. W. Thomas Lodge (Vol. p. 10. 894). Vivian. 138) George Gascoigne (Vol. C. 678). 28. 28. 10. 611). 11. all by Edmund Gosse. etc. 25. 13 p. W. p. p. L. Snell. by A. Edward Fairfax (Vol. 137). 587). by E. (Vol. p. p. 3. 184). 29). 8. Temple Shakespeare. p. p. editor of Campion. should 18. p. Thomas of Erceldoune (Vol. p. Belfast. by Prof. F. 7. Chaucer Manly. erature M. 8. Ward. 865). 156). Rob28. Harry the Minstrel (Vol. p. 13. author of Life and Times of Alfred the Great. Arthurian Romance. 966). Pattison. 493) Nicholas Udal (Vol. 25. p. 130). p 553). p.. 5. Juliana Berners (Vol.. Thomas Watson 12. Gregory John Lydgate.. John Lyly (Vol. 557). Macaulay. 6. and W. 19. Cambridge. 13. 33). Chaucer. 822). 5.

p. 852). John Webster p. K. in great part by David Masson. p. p. John Bourchier. 159). Ward. 7 George Herbert Crashaw p. p. p. Fletcher (Vol. 13. all Swinburne. 13 (Vol. Lord Baron BerNERs(Vol. p. Cyril Tourneur (Vol. Robert Greene (Vol. Thomas Heywood (Vol." And he adds that as regards the effort to account for the positive contemporary evidence in favour of the identification of the man Shakespeare with the author of Shakespeare's works." See also: Hamlet (Vol. Chambers. McKerrow. 939). p. 958). by Mrs. 517). 10. 28. classified bibliography by H. 28. p 347). librarian of the Athen- aeum Club. Milton by E. p. p. 12. by M. Gosse. 17. 21. by E. 339). 12. Ward. 24. by T. William Browne (Vol. 8. 417). p. and an elaborate. 3. 24. For Elizabethan prose writers not alp. pp. Richard Lovelace (Vol. and the — John Lyly (Vol. 15. 4. p 155). H. C. p. John Donne (Vol (Vol. Thomas Dekker by A. Richard 955). p. 389). by A. 13. George Chapman (Vol. 502). 13. by A. Cambridge. p. p. 539). 600).. 44). 7. "it is highly significant that it was not attempted or thought of for centuries. John Marston (Vol. 15. p. 379). 520-524 of Volume 8. p. p. 546). 18. R. 16th and 17th Century Prose Philemon Holland (Vol. 672). p. by William Minto and R. Robert Herrick (Vol. 18. etc. editor-in chief of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 226 ERT Southwell (Vol. 17. 17. p. the metaphysical poets. 587) and Giovanni Florio (Vol. 800). and above all Shakespeare (Vol. by Prof. 71). 13. equivalent to Shakespeare 80 pages of this Guide). and of the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy by Hugh Chisholm. and the philosophers and essayists. by A. p. 772. W. (Vol. John Ford (Vol. In his discussion Baconian theory of the authorship of the plays Mr. 592). Thomas Middleton (Vol. Swinburne and Thomas Seccombe. A. p. Gosse. F. George Wither (Vol. (Vol. containing a biography and sketches of the different works by E. p. late professor at Edinburgh University. p. 135. of the . 868). and Beaumont and (Vol. see: the translators. 990). Sir John Suckling 28. For the other dramatists see the articles of the time Ben Jonson (Vol. W. and John (Vol. and Henry Vaughan (Vol. and Macbeth (Vol. 27. 17. The most competent special students of Shakespeare. p. 17. B. 26. however they may differ as to details. and also the most authoritative special students of Bacon. ready mentioned. W. 106). (Vol. Read in the article English Literature. Humphry Ward. especially as its treatment in the Britannica is so The Drama full.3. equivalent to 55 pages of this Guide). p. 776). . 894) for earlier treatment of the legend. Thomas Kyd (Vol. 7). p 667). W. 282). p. Spielmann. author of The Age of Johnson. 17. James Shirley (Vol. with a discussion of the portraits of Shakespeare (20 of which are reproduced). Ward. 622-626. 3. 462). by A. 27 8. p. 25. 758) p. p. 5. articles: Christopher Marlowe (Vol. Gosse. Chisholm says: "No such idea seems to have occurred to anybody till the middle of the 19th century. 10. p. 416). p. Ward.p. by Robert Adamson . formerly editor of the Magazine of Art. William Drummond of Hawthornden (Vol. p. 27. 741). by E. Henderson. 7. 805). 641). Andrew Marvell Edmund Waller (Vol. Philip Massinger (Vol. editor of the "Red Letter Shakespeare" and author of The Medieval Stage. 439). Francis Bacon. in the article Drama. 197) for the his- torical basis of the play. Richard Hooker (Vol. Thomas Traherne (Vol. C. are unanimous in upholding the traditional view. Tedder. George Peele (Vol. 17. p. (Vol. p. 480). — Elizabethan drama particularly Shakespeare deserves a separate paragraph. pp. London. Abraham Cowley (Vol.

3. 184). p. John Hales (Vol. p. 337). 838). 16. p. article p. Matthew Prior (Vol. 844). 162). 851). p. Richard Baxter (Vol. p. 853). 19. by Austin Dobson. G. by William Minto and Austin Dobson. Fellow of Trinity GoUege. 161). William Ghillingworth (Vol. biographer of Hobbes. Steele The Age of Johnson. viLLE (Vol. Pepys . Thomas Warton (Vol. Joseph Addison by William Spalding and Austin Dobson. William Gowper (Vol. author of Addison. 871) and Thomas Gray (Vol. Taylor. 7. George Fox (Vol. Thomas Hobbes Mitchell. 227 and Samuel Pepys by D. p. 865). John Bunyan (Vol. (Vol. Hannay. 21. John Tillotson (Vol. 6. 358). 835). John Ray (Vol. 21. pp. etc. 22. Isaac Barrow (Vol. p. p. 296). 859). p. and the articles . 834). Yorke. p. South (Vol. p 376) Nathaniel Lee (Vol. 927). On the 18th century literature see the chapter in the article English Literature (Vol. by John Nichol. 803). 13. William Wy28. 454). by Glement K. the biographer of Burns. 10. 25. p. Bolingbroke (Vol. John Howe (Vol. p. p. 300) Daniel Defoe (Vol. 612). p. p. G. 4. p. and Swift etc. p. p. p. Sir Richard Steele (Vol. 13. and the letterwriter James Howell (Vol. fore-runners of the novel. Samuel Richardson (Vol. 583). p. The Novel 23. William Gollins (Vol. Yorke. by Edmund Gosse. 839). p. Yorke. both by D. Thomas Otway (Vol 20. by Richard Garnett and Thomas Seccombe. editor of Gray's Letters. 300). p. 12. 3. 545). Wentworth Thompson. 28. p. Mitchell. Mark Akenside (Vol. 11. 136). 339). 692). 7. p. p. W. Nahum Tate (Vol. Thomas Ghatterton (Vol. 4. 850). 631-636). . p. Thomas Parnell (Vol. by P. 4. William Blake (Vol. among the prose writers. 12. 36). p. 628-631) in the article English Literature. by H. Dundee. John Arbuthnot Fraser. p. 765). 11. by Lord Macaulay. p. G. 559). author of Personal Idealism. Shorter. p. p. 82). Samuel Butler (Vol. (Vol. 26. 5) 130). — On the Restoration period from 1660 to 1700 see Professor Elton's chapter (Vol. Gampbell Edinburgh. 24. p. p. p. editor of The Sphere. 1. Robert 77). 2nd Earl of Rochester (Vol. 361). Prothero. p. Sir Isaac Newton (Vol. 6. Byron and Carlyle. 26. 931). Sir William Davenant (Vol. 10. 10). 25. p. 20. M.. 609). 666). 6. and Henry Fielding (Vol. p. by William (Vol. by P. 26. by Prof. by Thomas Seccombe. p.ENGLISH LITERATURE and M. p. by G. Jonathan Swift (Vol. (Vol. Thomas Percy (Vol. p. G. Bernard de Mandeby J. the historian Glarendon (Vol. Groom Robert- son. (Vol. 540). by J. p. Ghristopher Smart (Vol. 856). cherley (Vol. Minto and Margaret Bryant. 602). Thomas Fuller (Vol. (Vol. 349) and George Grabbe (Vol. and the two John Evelyn (Vol. 22. Thomas Burnet (Vol. by Prof. W. 22. William Shenstone (Vol. p. 24. 440). 25. John Locke 16. James Thomson (Vol. 1. p. University GoUege. Jeremy Taylor (Vol. p. 865). 4. 359). D. Sir Thomas Izaak Walton Browne (Vol. 392). Gambridge. p. 4. 4. by Henry Sturt. 26. M. author of Essays on Art. p. pp. Burns (Vol. 8. p. Robert Burton (Vol. 2. 26. p. Ralph Cudworth (Vol. 428). p. 13. p. 9. Watts-Dunton's great . 449). 4. 224). 17. p. editor The Quarterly Review and joint-editor Cambridge Modern History. p. 6. 863). 427). Gomyns-Garr. 463). diarists . 249). 976). p. 23. p. Alexander (Vol. Robert Burns 28. Sir William Temple (Vol. by G. J. p. Joseph Glanvill (Vol. Tovey. 885). 551). 7. p. 12. 12. John Gay (Vol. William Sherlock (Vol. Alexander Pope Pope (Vol. 9. 7. 26. p. and the — Dryden John articles: Dryden by William Minto and Margaret Bryant. 7. p. by P. 469). 839). Marquess Halifax (Vol. 4. p.

p. Joseph Butler (Vol. Sir Philip Francis 130). M. 4. 826). 5). 7. p. Sir Walter Scott (Vol. 851). 476). 779). 17. 515). by Lord Macaulay and Austin Dobson. author of Modern Humanists. G. p. and Horatio Walpole (Vol. Price (Vol. William Cobbett (Vol. Macaulay (Vol. 10. 728). William Paley (Vol. Tobias Smollett (Vol. Keats (Vol. 6. William Gifford (Vol. 678). by Robert Adamson and A. Henry Hart Milman (Vol. 22. p. 177). editor of The Decline and Fall. Samuel Johnson (Vol. William Robertson (Vol. 456). 161). p. 632). 361). LOCKHART (Vol. 453). Henry Hallam (Vol. Thomas Seccombe. Hester Lynch Piozzi (Vol. pp. 175). 28. etc. Bury. T. p. Coleridge. 19. Southey p. p. 853). Lucas. Mitchell. 463). author of Personal Recollections of De Quincey. p. George David Boyle. 897). p. p. great prose writers of the age. M. J. Coleridge (Vol. Politics (Vol. p. 11. 708). editor Francis Jeffrey (Vol. Gilbert White (Vol. 3. 3. 15. p. 927). 12. p. . Mitchell. William Roscoe by W. by J. P. p. Landor (Vol. Rossetti. p. William Mitford (Vol. 6. 18. "Fanny Burney" (Vol. by A. 3. Seth Pringle-Pattison. 23. 5. M. p. 16. (Vol. and the philosophers. p. 882). Sir William Napier (Vol. 12. Goldsmith 109). (Vol. 25. p. Abraham Tucker (Vol. Courtney. p. 268). p. Shelley (Vol. 324). p. Byron Richard William Godwin (Vol. 511). Thomas Hood (Vol. 13. 934). Thirl- History by 18. by W.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 228 by Austin Dobson. Mit- (Vol. James Boswell (Vol. 26. editor of Lamb. 15. Holland. by William Minto and Austin Dobson. by J. 322). by Mitchell. p. John Morley. 406) and Edward Gibbon (Vol. Oxford. 25. professor of international law. by J. T. Grieve. Yorkshire LTnited Independent College. 826). and the articles: William (Vol. by 4. formerly Edmund (Vol. Thomas Moore (Vol. 61). 469). 21. 259). p. 17. by Mark Pattison. 22. 12. 13. p. p. 619). 28. M. David Hartley (Vol. 35). p. p. 278). 18. Hartley Byron's Poems. wall (Vol. James Mill (Vol. 24. 307). Johnson by Lord Macaulay and Thomas Seccombe. —see also 15. by Austin Dobson. p. Sir James Mackintosh (Vol. p. Leigh Hunt (Vol. J. 4. Burke Criticism p. De Quincey (Vol. 297). Swinburne. by Lord p. 23. Thomas Reid (Vol. by Dr. S. (Vol. Lingard (Vol. 8. p. 193). 27. in a lesser group. 25. 24. 288). J. 13. of Malthus (Vol. p. by Thomas Seccombe. Joseph Priestly (Vol. 851). both p. p. p. 901). p. Oliver Goldsmith (Vol. p. 51). 16. p. p. p. 810). 599). B. by W.. Berkeley (Vol. 17. V. Campbell (Vol. p. by Robert History Adamson and J. Hugh Chisholm. E. p. Mackinnon Robertson. Philosophy by by Thomas Sec- combe. Sydney Smith (Vol. C. 16. p. p. the other 10. Thomas Paine (Vol. p. Thomas Lovell Beddoes (Vol. Lochee of Gowrie. Edin- burgh. Charles Lamb (Vol. 104). and "Junius" 827). p. 6. 25. p. 12. Manchester Libraries. 18. 941). 23. p. the historians David Hume (Vol. C. M. A. by A. 13. Lake Poets Wordsworth Prof. p. 314). 726). 557). A. 12. Lord Chesterfield (Vol. 20. p. E. p. 4. 606). Swinburne and Margaret Bryant. 666). 15. 214). p. p. p. 620). by E. and Laurence Sterne (Vol. J. chell. 628). Grote (Vol. edition of Grote's Greece. and the Very Rev. For the 19th century see the last secEnglish Ijterature tion of the article by E. 636-645). 614). William Hazlitt (Vol. p. Ritchie Findlay. Bentham (Vol. Frances D'Arblay. 119). 28. 824). 747). by Robert Adamson and J. Lord Byron (Vol. 9. p. p. by Prof. 16. p. Axon. by William Minto and Hugh Chisholm. 13. p. 876). 20.

22. Seccombe. 11. Bulwer 508-510). Craigie ("John 716). 867). by Thomas Thack- 178). 907). Charles and Henry Kingsley (Vol. p. by Read (Vol. W. 2. Robert Stevenson (Vol. (Vol. M. T. p. Arnold 443). (Vol. 19. 747). 938). John Keble Stephen. 4. V. 501) and the Brontes (Vol. p. 8. Tennyson (Vol. John Ruskin (Vol. Mat- Maria Edgeworth (Vol. by Richard Jefferies Sir of Jeffries. by E. by E. biographer Thomas Hardy (Vol. p. by F. 320). Hall George Gissing 52). 534). (Vol. 667). 637). 28. 18. Leslie Sir (Vol. 27. Mrs Humphry Ward (Vol. Mary Russell Mitford (Vol. Froude (Vol. 275). pp. the novelists (Vol. p. an d e ll History Creighton (Vol. p. 1. G. Thiselton-Dyer. Herbert Spencer (Vol. (Vol. 634). p. William Black Blackmore (Vol. by William Minto and J. Alice Meyne (Vol. Freeman Green (Vol. 4. 401). both Charles Dickens . 517). — M MORLEY Bryce p. 841). 17. 21). by W. E. Movement of 1048). 4. p. p. 286) and Walter Pater (Vol. p. Marie Corelli Caine (Vol. 808). Huxley (Vol. by Arthur Waugh. 4. Maine (Vol. by Arthur Symons. p. Lucas. 17. Fiction Lever (Vol. (Vol. Gosse. p. p. p. Shorter. 693). 9. Braddon (Vol. Oliver Hobbes"). (Vol. 17. 732). by Sir (Vol. . J. 4. p. p. 946). 619). 19). Mitchell. 12. by E. 26. p. p. Sir Ruskin by Robert Browning and Carlyle (Vol. p. Wollaston biographer Manning. by Hugh Chisholm. 275). p. Charles Darwin (Vol. Marry AT 759). by Hugh Chisholm. by Theodore Watts-Dunton 858). p. p. 4. 454). PolGeorge Eliot by Mrs. (Vol. Gosse. K. 5. by Frederick Greenwood. eray Victorian Novelists (Vol. 699) (Vol. 185). 11. (Vol. p. p. p. 234). 8. 825). p. Stephens. p. rison. its (Vol. S. formerly president Royal Historical Society. 23. 12. 10. 668). 796). 15. p. p. by E. 8. Jane Austen (Vol. by C. Anthony Trollope Wilkie Collins (Vol. 301). 910) all by Arthur Waugh. p. 22. 710). p.. William Stubbs (Vol. p. (Vol. p. and Bury (Vol. 840). 7. E. 24). 4. 15. 252). Joshua Girling Fitch. 18. John Addington Symonds (Vol. by Theodore Watts-Dunton. p. p. 6. p. Elizabeth BarBrowning rett Browning and Garlyle 635). 369). 4. all by William Hunt. George Meredith (Vol. Lytton (Vol. and F. p. Edward Fitzgerald (Vol. by W. (Vol. 18. Gosse. p. Edward Bouverie Pusey p. lock. 300). Schiller. 871). Oxford. p. 934). 12. 143). 15. and among later names the historians Lord Acton (Vol. Thomas Love Peacock (Vol. by Oxford Arthur Hutton. M. 16. 14. 354). G. 23. 25. by Frederic HarDante Gabriel Rossetti (Vol. Tennyson. 563). 7. 198). 17). (Vol. (Vol. 17. (Vol. p. p. 25. 817). 79) and J. 15. 26. George Moore (Vol. Walter Besant. 3. Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (Vol.ENGLISH LITERATURE by William Minto. 949). p. p. William Morris (Vol. 26. p. p. 160). p. History R. 25. C. Beaconsfield (Vol. 16. 21. author Romantic Professions. p. p. formerly art-critic of the Athenaeum. 11. 4. Rudyard Kipling (Vol. E. Wells (Vol. 670) 349). p. 4. John Stuart Science Mill (Vol. by E. author of Studies in HuNatural manismy etc. Gosse. p. p. 18. p. 159). 432). 229 Buckle by Sir Frederick Pol- George Borrow lock. p. A. by Prof. 28. 3. Price James. 630). p. 18. the critics and essay- Walter Bagehot (Vol. Poulton. Lecky (Vol. p.. 936). 2. 20. by Richard Garnett. 10). p. p. H. p. B. 4. 514). Swinburne (Vol. p. 18. Newman (Vol. Harriet Martineau (Vol. A. p. H. 26. p. 7. p. 1 1 thew Arnold by Theodore Watts-Dunton and William De Morgan Fiction of etc. p.

C. 414). Sir A. "Fiona Macleod" (Vol. p. Stopford A. poet-laureate. 28. Hol- 783. p. 26. p. 25. author of The Story of the Goths. p. 456). Ward on the Drama article (Vol. p. Heliand (Vol. see Prof. Dietrich of Bern (Vol. 19. Ward (Vol. 8. The Old High German German 1050: Old High Period. Hel- . Ortnit (Vol. 772). 287). 26. Traill (Vol. University of History of German Literature. p. by George Saintsbury. Robert poets. equivalent to 55 pages of this is by Professor John George Rob- hard London. p. 937). 15. 221). 20. 812). 532). 637-640). Apostle of the Goths. p. 28. 543). Newbolt (Vol. Stephen Phillips (Vol. H. 3. p. 19. Edward Dowden (Vol. p. 534-538). Laurence Binyon (Vol. p. 497). 16. p. p. Sir 24. 13. p. 268). Gudrun (Vol. p. Gilbert (Vol. p. Bridges (Vol. by A. A. 8. author NoTKER Hrosvitha W. W. p. 8. 28. 298). 20. 24. 952). Oscar p. —a ing to note p. Jebb (Vol. p. 11. 463). W. Sidney CoLviN (Vol. 362). 27. 811). 28. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 230 by Richard Garnett. Myers (Vol. 221). 750- — the articles Ulfilas (Vol. p. Price James. II. H. 885). Pattison (Vol. his predecessor fred Austin (Vol. by Henry Bradley. Watts-Dunton (Vol. 45). 435). p. 938). 9. CHAPTER XXXIX GERMAN LITERATURE THE Guide) the Britannica on Literature (Vol. article in German of Ulfilas. 24. 748). p. GossE (Vol. and see 632). This article is divided into six sections. 19. 27. 12. and following this scheme the course of reading below is divided into six parts. G. B. by W. 4. J. medieval drama in the and by A. Period pp. — also under Drama (Vol. 6. by W. by Thomas Seccombe. ertson. p. Seccombe. (Vol. in which it is interest- Encyclopaedia of the Britannica. D. 4. The Middle High German Period. Chesterton Arthur Symons list named (Vol. 15. by Charles Anderson Scott. 407). 1050-1350:— the articles Romance (Vol. 8. Richard Garnett (Vol. Bernard Shaw (Vol. Edmund Andrew Lang 471). WalTHARius (Vol. M. 869). 28. Ill). especially pp. p. 12. how many are contributors to Recent Poetry (Vol. Owen Seaman (Vol. p. 909). K. Wolfdietrich (Vol. p. by Thomas H. 21. 24. 422). p. Alice Meynell (Vol. author of land. 28. —and 13. p. Wilde G. S. H. p. in connection with each of which the reader should first peruse the correspondingly numbered section in the article German Literature. especially p. I. W. p. 6. 645). so recently Al- William Watson (Vol. p. by Hugh Chisholm. 9). p. 3. George Saintsbury (Vol. 668). Price James. Barrie (Vol. p. and of the younger Modem Drama dramatists. 500). p. Francis Thompson (Vol. 23. 341). Jones (Vol. p. F. PiNERO (Vol. 11. Ill). R. 7. p. W. (Vol. 824) 842). p. 19. Ein(Vol. p. 134).Yeats (Vol. J. 21. p. p. Brook Mark (Vol. John Davidson (Vol. 625). 12. 171). p. 2. William Sharp. Middle Nibelungenlied (Vol. 863). p. 565). 299). William Archer (Vol. 18. p. 2. 498). 155). (Vol.W. Leslie Essays and Criticism Stephen (Vol. p. 350).

(Vol. 4. W. J. 890). Lindsay. Georg Rudolf Weckherlin Renaissance (Vol. Andreas Gryphius Moscherosch (Vol. Abraham aSanctaClara (Vol. author of Short History of Jewish Literature. 877). author of A History of the Reformation. 603). p. 638). 907). Gotz (Vol. 21. L. p. 20. DEBRAND (Vol. p. 26. 28. (Vol. GtJNTHER (Vol. A. VON Knigge MusAus (Vol. p. (Vol. 19. The Renaissance. p. Allen. Thummel 898). 504). Lay of Hil- 7. p. On the Sturm und Drang period. 12. M. T. 868). p. Cambridge. Faust Ayrer (Vol. 26. Johann Christian 183). 19. p. 28. p. 11. 4. p. p. 9. Kaiserberg (Vol. A land (Vol. 133). 25. 642). Wolfram von (Vol. by J. Mar- 129). 23. (Vol. the arHerder (Vol. Wie18. 775). — Winckelmann by James Sime and Moses Mendelssohn J. 13. 13. 12. 3. p. ScHLEGEL (Vol. 11. 120). (Vol. The Classical Period of Modern GerLiterature. G. I. p. 9. Meistersinger (Vol. 43). 23. FreiDANK (Vol. and 499). R. 707). 10. by J. the Stol- ticles BERGS (Vol. F. editor of Reuchlin (Vol. p. 5. 13. Robertson Smith. author of Legends of Hartmann Von Aue (Vol. Pattison and P. 226). 289). Hans Sachs 452). p. 727). (Vol. 460). 773). p. p. 621). Rabener 22. p. p. 12. p. 16. H. H. (Vol. 18. Minnesingers (Vol. 17. 553). by J. by A. 11. 10. (Vol. 854). The Transition Period. 347). 37). Sebastian (Vol. Basedow (Vol. 15. Johann von Rist 72). Spener (Vol. Tauler (Vol. 329). 813). the dic- tator of the pseudo-classic age. V. 15. Mark Pringle-Pattison. Arp. 464). 292-294). —the articles Frauenlob (Vol. p. 16. Jakob Boehme (Vol. (Vol. Classical ill). 284). 855). 730). Lessing's associates (Vol. p. 431). 12. p. (Vol. Sorley. 869). Weston. p. Simon Dach (Vol. 12. 12. 968). 662)—. p. by J. 291). p. p. L. and. 2. Hamann (Vol. p. p. J. (Vol. Johann Fischart (Vol. Philipp Harsdorffer 29). 218). 113). p. p. 28. NicoLAi (Vol. p. 684). 210). (Vol. p. 27. Erasmus AlBERus (Vol. p. 972). (Vol. Robertson. (Vol. Perand Tristan (Vol. Thomasius (Vol. 846). p. UlRiCH VON Hutten (Vol. 953). A. p. 74). G. 385). Grimmelshausen (Vol. G. STOCK the Oxford Erasmus. 25. Brockes by Erasmus von Canitz (Vol. RuoDLiEB thurian Legend ceval p. (Vol. p. p. p. VON by J. (Vol. Robert(Vol. Weston. Walther VON DER Vogelweide (Vol. tin Opitz (Vol. (Vol. Geiler von p. and J. p. p. p. 299). 11. (Vol. 850). 18. 23. Thomas Murner Vol. Dean of Durham. 876). p. 86) 887). 14). (Vol. p. p. p. Martin Luther (Vol. ertson. 13. 28. 42). 496- by James Sime. G. 28. C. (Vol. p. S. 26. M. p. 922). 774). 726). 10. the Wagner Drama. and Eulenspiegel (Vol. p. Reynard the 14th and 15th Centuries Maximilian W. p. vonKleist (Vol. 19. by W. p. p. 18. 1. by Prof. 232). 279). pp. p. 94). p. KlopLavater 848). Robertson. 634). p. by Dr. (Vol. Pufendorf (Vol. 11. 17^0-1832: the articles — man BODMER J. p. 4. 11. (Vol. Eschenbach (Vol. 17. Lessing (Vol. 619). by Israel Abrahams. 23. 425). Period p. p. p. 461). Philipp Nikodemus FrischLiN (Vol. W. 1. JoRG Wickram 204). 12. p. 12. 13. Gott- (Vol. p. p. 23. 14. p. Holland. 3. 28. 27. by Andrew Seth 366). 1350-1600: III. Ramler Gellert 15. p. 12. Hagedorn Albrecht von Haller E. B. 132). M. Conrad of Wurzburg (Vol. p. 547). Christian Wolff (Vol. by the Very Rev. Elias J. p. Gleim (Vol. p. author of A History of Germany. 118). Leibnitz (Vol. scHED IV. p. Voss . pp. (Vol.GERMAN LITERATURE DENBUCii (Vol. p. p. 11. and C. p. 1600-17 J^O:—the articles Paul Gerhardt (Vol. p. Mitchell. 21. Kitchin. 12. 16. 16. p. 768). 828). 4. p. 624). Gottfried von Strassburg 277). (Vol. p. Fox Brant (Vol. Georg (Vol. 231 son. 37). 24. Pestalozzi (Vol. Rob- p. Gerstenberg Uz 22. 22. 558). 6. Paul Fleming LoGAU (Vol. p. G. von 494). 28.

921) and MuLLNER (Vol. 313). 276). p. 1832 on- On wards:— Read G. 11. A. p. 4. by J. his imitators and followers. by the late Prof. On on the romantic school: the articles the founders. by J. 13. p. (Vol. p. 131). Sturm und Drang. 28. 24. Friedrich ("Maler") MtJLLER Heinse (Vol. A. (Vol. 10. p. Forster 662). 15. 496). 12. 15. and the historians and philosophers D. 328 and 329). 65). 260). lus (Vol. Walter Ferrier and J. B. 18. 9. closely conpreceding period. p. 523). 846). 18. Robertson. 306) and Grill- with the (Vol. Robertson. 24. pp. A. of the Swabian school. and and the phi- (Vol. the dramatists some more 147) — nected Grabbe PARZER (Vol. 13. in the second Romantic 19. H. W. losopher SCHELLING (Vol. 13. p. 22. 2). 576). p. p. 620). 913) and Arndt (Vol. 12. p. 313). 825). 837). HoLTY (Vol. 749). p. 15. 13. G. (Vol. 965). Alexander von Humby Agnes Mary and Karl Wilhelm von Hum- Muirhead. 13. p. E. VI. MoRiKE Hauff Kerner (Vol. 10. 19. Literature since Goethe. W. 18. 12. Fichte (Vol. Claud- p. 14. the great dramatist of the late 838). Iffland (Vol. 215). Holderlin (Vol. p. von GoRRES (Vol. p. G. August Wilhelm Schlegel and Friedrich (Vol. 744) (Vol. Raupach (Vol. p. 627). by J. p. L. p. 829). Freiligrath (Vol. Gutzkow (Vol. 213). p. found romance. and. 13.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 232 (Vol. p. 405). p. 812). 8. the North Germans Kleist (Vol. (Vol. 324). p. p. J. the patriot (Vol. p. 4. 561). by Dr. p. 619). p. (Vol. Schelling's 1832-1870 successor as a philosophic force in Ger- many. Henry the University of Oxford. p. 13. 895). p. 23. school. p. p. helm MuLLER (Vol. Immanuel Kant (Vol. p. 919). p. University of Birmingham). p. 15. by Archibald Henry Sayce. 861). 94). owing much to the interest in folk-literature of the Heidelbergers. the brothers Gtmmm 600-602). and the Matthisson poet (Vol. 13. 563). 24. 12. W. besides Grillparzer. Moser (Vol. (Vol. J. Schiller (Vol. 1002). p. Klemens Brentano (Vol. 28. (Vol. and such poets of the '30 and the '48 as Herwegh (Vol. the more realistic Heidelbergers p. 200. p. 182). 757). p. p. p. 335) "Friedrich FELD 22. p. Alexis (Vol. and. 17. 5. 216). K. 16. A. Hegel (Vol. Byron. p. 13. boldt (Vol. F. p. 908). p. p. p. p. Klinger (Vol. by W. 115). 18. p. 15. p. G. 24. 25. 873). in Austria. 6. G. 26. one in the Orient and the other in Greek struggles for liberty. p. p. p. poets KoRNER (Vol. 28. p. 316). p. 901). 674). Coolidge. Gervinus (Vol. 13. VON Arnim (Vol. 961). Jacobi (Vol. the dramatist Kotzebue (Vol. M. 6. p. 962). p. 1046). 846). p. the historians ScHLOssER (Vol. 291). Bauern- and Raimund (Vol. p. and Johannes von MuLLER (Vol.— of the Gottingen all Drang Goethe school. (Vol. p. the novelist Richter. 15. 27. 255). p. 65) and Zschokke (Vol. of (Vol. p. 10. 342). the classical period proper. Gierke. MiJNCH-BELLINGHAUSEN. R. F. J. 13. p. Romanticism Schlegel p. J. William Wallace of Oxford and Prof. 303). the latter part of the article on Goethe and Schiller. 12. the articles on the "Young Germans" Heine (Vol. 16. 538) p. Halm" (Vol. 963). Hauff (Vol. MoRiTZ (Vol. 431). 10. 23. 14. Menzel and Feuerbach (Vol. 583). F. p. 690). 1. 18. 18. (Vol. Dingelstedt (Vol. Collin (Vol. 275) Hoffmann von Fallersleben (Vol. Sturm und 4. both by Robert Adamson. Lenz (Vol. 2. 15. like Uhland (Vol. Hoffman Eichendorff and RtJCKERT (Vol. 3. 18.Tieck (Vol. 21. "Joan Paul" (Vol. 630). p. p. 813) and Wilwho. 596). and Novalis (Vol. Burger (Vol. p. and. W. Borne boldt and Laube (Vol. 804). 875). 18. 11. p. Strauss (Vol. and J. the scientists J. Chamisso (Vol. 962). T. M. Robertson. p. 13. p. Immermann and Platen-HallerMUND (Vol. p. HOLTEI (Vol. 2. (Vol. Sweet 12. p. 466). . P. Zacharias Werner Fouqu^. . the novelists Willibald (Vol. G.

GERMAN LITERATURE
13, p. 561),

and, in Austria, a

little earlier,

AuERSPERG, "Anastasius Griin" (Vol. 2,
p. 900); and the possibly greater poets
who were less interested in polities,
Geibel (Vol. 11, p. 550), Lenau (Vol. 16,
p. 417), Strachwitz (Vol. 25, p. 976),
and Droste-Hulshoff (Vol. 8, p. 591).

On
cles

the mid-century period:

on Schopenhauer

by

Prof. Wallace),

the

new

arti-

the philosopher of
age; the natural scientists Vogt

(Vol. 28, p. 172),
p. 719);

—the

(Vol. 24, p. 372,

and Bijchner

(Vol. 4,

the fiction writers Spielhagen

GusTAV Freytag (Vol.
Ebers (Vol. 8, p. 841), Dahn
(Vol. 7, p. 734), "Charles Sealsfield"
(Vol. 24, p. 543), Gerstacker (Vol. 11,
p. 906), Storm (Vol. 25, p. 968), Gottfried Keller (Vol. 15, p. 718); and,
among those who portrayed peasant and
(Vol. 25, p. 667),

11, p. 212),

provincial

life,

Bitzius, "Jeremias Gott-

helf" (Vol. 4, p. 15), Auerbach (Vol. 2,
p. 899), Stifter (Vol. 25, p. 915), Fritz

Reuter
Hebbel
wiG

(Vol. 23, p. 210); the dramatists
(Vol. 13, p. 165)

(Vol.

17, p.

and Otto Lud-

Munich

114); in the

Bodenstedt (Vol. 4, p. 109),
Scheffel (Vol. 24, p. 315), Baumbach
School,

(Vol. 3, p. 539),

876),

Heyse

Hamerling

(Vol. 12, p.

(Vol. 13, p. 438);

Platt-Deutsch poet

and the

Klaus Groth

(Vol.

12, p. 621).

On the period since 1870, seethe articles
Lassalle

(Vol. 16, p. 235,

by Thomas

Kirkup, author of

Since 1870

An

quiry into Socialism)

Marx
Eduard Bernstein,

In-

and
by

(Vol. 17, p. 807,

Socialist

deputy on the

233

Reichstag) for

new economic

views; and

Lotze

(Vol. 17, p. 23), by J. T. Merz,
author of European Thought in the XlXth

Century, and Henry Sturt, author of
Personal Idealism, and Eduard von

Hartmann

(Vol.

13, p.

36)

for philo-

compromises between science
and metaphysics and between pessimism
and idealism; the dramatists Anzengrusophical

BER

(Vol. 2, p. 158),

16, p. 717,

Paul Lindau

(Vol.

and, composer and dramatist,

Richard Wagner

(Vol. 28, p. 236),

by W.

Rockstro, author of A Great History of
Music, and D. F. Tovey, author of Essays
in Musical Analysis; the historians Sybel
S.

(Vol. 26, p. 275),

238),

Ranke

Treitschke

(Vol. 22, p. 893),

(Vol. 18, p. 683)

(Vol. 27, p.

Mommsen

and Burckhardt

(Vol.

809); and Burckhardt's friend, the
early friend of Wagner and the type of a
4, p.

new

German letters, Nietzsche
by F. C. S. Schiller,
author of Studies in Human-

spirit in

(Vol. 19, p. 672),

Oxford,
ism.

The most important names of the last
few years are Sudermann (Vol. 26, p. 20)
and Hauptmann

(Vol. 13, p. 68).

besides, the articles

See,

on Wilhelm Jensen

Wilhelm Raabe (Vol.
W. Busch (Vol. 4, p. 869),
Peter Rosegger (Vol. 23, p. 734), Fon(Vol. 15, p. 321),

22, p. 765),

tane
bach

Ebner-EschenFranzos (Vol. 11,

(Vol. 10, p. 608),

(Vol. 8, p. 843),

p. 38), K. F. Meyer (Vol. 18, p. 349),
Richard Voss (Vol. 28, p. 215), Ernst
VON WiLDENBRUCH (Vol. 28, p. 633), and
for modern German drama, in the article

Drama

(Vol. 8, especially pp. 535-536).

CHAPTER XL

GREEK LITERATURE
the article Literature in the Bri-

Richard C, Jebb, professor of Greek at
Glasgow and then at Cambridge, known
Sir

INtannica, by Professor James Fitzmauiice-Kelly, himself

a

specialist in

Span-

as the

biographer of Bentley, as the
author of an excellent brief history of
Greek literature, and as an authority on
subdivisions of that subject so diverse as
rhetoric and oratory on the one side
and lyric and dramatic poetry on the

ish literature, are these sentences:

The

evolution of literature is completed
Greece, and there its subdivisions may
best be studied. Epic poetry is represented
by the Homeric cycle, lyric poetry by Tyrtaeus, dramatic poetry by Aeschylus, history by Herodotus, oratory by Pericles,
philosophy by Plato, and criticism by Zoilus,
the earliest of slashing reviewers; and in
each department there is a long succession
of illustrative names. Roughly speaking, all
in

subsequent literature

is

other.

Jebb's article divides ancient Greek
literature into three periods: Early, in-

cluding epic, elegiac, iambic and lyric
poetry and coming down to 475 B.C.;
Attic, 475-300 B.C., including tragic and

imitative.

This testimony to the importance of
Greek literature is all the more weighty
as coming from one whose own field of
criticism

in

is

Romantic

literature.

comic drama and

The

authority with which such an important
subject as Greek literature is treated in
the Britannica will be apparent to any
classical student who notes the names of
the contributors of the articles mentioned in the following course of reading.

The

The Main

key

article

Greek Literature

Article

(Vol.
12,
507;
p.
equivalent
65
to
pages of this Guide) is divided into three

sections: Ancient (p. 507),

516) and
section,

Modern

by

Prof.

(p. 524).

Byzantine (p.
The second

Karl Krumbacher of

Munich, author of Geschichte der byzantinand the third, by J. D.
Bourchier, correspondent of The Times
(London) in South-Eastern Europe, need
not be dwelt upon here. To the ordinary
ischen Liieratur,

student, in

shown

.spite

of the increasing interest

Epic

Epic Poetry

(Vol.

9,

p.

a general sketch of
the form by Edmund Gosse; Homer (Vol.
13, p. 626; equivalent to 40 pages of this
Guide), by the late Prof. David Binning
Monro of Oriel College, Oxford, editor of
Homer and author of Grammar of the
Homeric Dialect, and on the "Homeric
question" see also the articles ArisTARCHUS and F. A. Wolf; Hesiod (Vol.
13, p. 407), by James Davies, formerly
head master Ludlow Grammar School,
and John Henry Freese, formerly fellow
St. John's, Cambridge; Cycle (Vol. 7, p.
682; last part of the article); and the
cyclic poets, Stasinus, Arctinus, Lesches, and Creophylus.
681),

ticle

foundation of his study of the subject.
This section of the article is by the late

martial poetry,

literature,

oratorical

In the first of these periods the student
should supplement Professor Jebb's treatment in the article Greek Literature
by the following articles:

and modern Hellenic
"Greek literature" must mean
the literature of ancient Greece, and for
him \ie first part of the article will be the
in Byzantine

historical,

and philosophical prose; and Decadence
Alexandrian, 300-146 B.C., and GrecoRoman, 146 B.C.-529 A.D.

For the elegy see Edmund Gosse's arElegy; and on the Greek clegists,
the articles Callinus and Tyrt^us for

234

Mimnermus

for melan-

GREEK LITERATURE
and
Theognis
and Phocylides for the
gnomic elegy, and Xeno-

choly verse, Solon

ethical

Elegy

political

for

poetry,

235

For the drama read the part of Prof.
A. W. Ward's artiAttic
cle Drama dealing
Literature
with the Greek period

in di-

(Vol. 8, pp. 488-493),

On iambic
dactic philosophical verse.
verse and its Greek writers before the

and the article Comedy; and the articles
on the great dramatists: the tragedians
Thespis, Choerilus, Phrynichus and
Pratinas in the earlier period; Aeschylus (Vol. 1, p. 272; equivalent to 12 pages
of this Guide), by Arthur Sidgwick, fellow of Corpus Christi, Oxford, and editor
of the Oxford text of Aeschylus; Sophocles (Vol. 25, p. 424; equivalent to 12
pages of this Guide), by Lewis Campbell,
editor and translator of this poet; and
Euripides (Vol. 9, p. 901; equivalent ti
15 pages of this Guide), in the main by
the
Sir R. C. Jebb; and the comic poets,
Sicilian Epicharmus; the

PHANES

for the use of the

measure

time of the drama see: Iambic, ArchiLOCHUS, SiMONiDES OF Amorgos, and

HiPPONAX.

The third poetic form of the period,
one which unfortunately has come down
to us only in tantalizingly brief fragments
comparable to the
quotations illustratLyric Poetry
ing word-usage in
the lyric. On this
is
dictionaries
our
see the general article Lyrical Poetry,
by Edmund Gosse, on this form in dif-

and the sketches of the
the Aeolians Alcaeus (see

ferent literatures,

Greek

lyrists

also the article Alcaics)

Prof.
lege,

and Sappho, by

John Arthur Piatt, University ColLondon; Praxilla and Erinna,

Sappho's rivals as lyric poetesses; (the
Ionian Anacreon (see also the article
Anacreontics, by Edmund Gosse); the
Dorian Alcman; Stesichorus, Arion
and Ibycus; Simonides, who may be
called Panhellenic;

Pindar

(Vol. 21, p.

617; equivalent to 10 pages of this Guide,
by Sir R. C. Jebb), the only Greek lyrist
whose work has come down to us in any
considerable quantity, and whose poems
are such remarkable examples of metrical
structure; Bacchylides (Vol. 3, p. 121;
equivalent to 9 pages of this Guide; also
by Sir R. C. Jebb, who was one of the
first editors), Pindar's rival, whose poems
until a few years ago were known to us
only by brief quotations by grammarians,
but who had the good luck to survive in

Egypt; and
whose "Persians" a valuable fragment was found in
1903 in what seems to be the' oldest papy-

papyrus

lately

Timotheus

found

in

of Miletus, of

rus in existence.

The Attic
velopments
ic,

period has two important de-

Comedy

representatives of the Attic

Old Comedy, Cratinus,
Crates, Pherecrates, Eupolis, Phrynichus (not to be confused with the
tragic poet of that name), Magnes,
Plato (to be distinguished from the phi-

all these known to us only by
and chance quotations and
Aristophanes (Vol. 2, p. 499; equivalent
to 7 pages of this Guide, by Sir R. C.
Jebb), the only Greek poet of whom we
have complete plays and probably the
greatest of the writers of Greek comedy;
the names they are little more of
EuBULUs, Antiphanes, Alexis in the
Middle Comedy; and in the New Comedy
or third period, Philemon, Menander
(by J. H. Freese), who was so highly
esteemed and so constantly pilfered from
by the Roman comic writers, and of whose
plays large fragments have been found in
the last few years; Diphilus, Apollodorus of Carystus, Posidippus, Rhinthon and Sotades,

losopher),

of a

Greek prose.

The prose of the Attic period we may
divide roughly into history, oratory and
On the hisphilosophy.
History

—the drama, tragic and com-

and the beginnings

allusions

"Authorities"

read Logographi,
Greece, Ancient History,
torians
(Vol.

12,

p.

454),

with

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

236

of the historical accuracy of
Herodotus, Thucydides, Diodorus, Plu-

criticism

tarch,

Xenophon,

etc.,

Hecataeus

of

Miletus, Herodotus (Vol. 13, p. 381;
equivalent to 10 pages of this Guide), by
the historian George Rawlinson and E. M.
Walker, librarian of Queen's College, Oxford; Thucydides (Vol. 26, p. 893; equi-

valent to 10 pages of the Guide), by Sir
R. C. Jebb, and Malcolm Mitchell, editor
of Grote's Greece;

Xenophon

(Vol. 28, p.

885; equivalent to 7 pages in this Guide),

by E. M. Walker and J. H. Freese;
Ctesias, Philistus, Theopompus, and
Timaeus.

On Attic orators read Andocides,
Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus, Antiphon,
Demosthenes, Aeschines, Hypereides,

—most

of these articles
being by Sir R. C. Jebb,
who was particularly versed

Oratory
in this

branch of Greek

literature.

The

special student of the orators should read

also the articles

Greek Law

(Vol. 12, p.

501 equivalent to 15 pages in this Guide),
by Prof. J. E. Sandys of Cambridge, author of A History of Classical Scholarship,
etc.; Sophists (Vol. 25, p. 418, equivalent
to 20 pages of this Guide), by Prof. Henry
;

Jackson

of

Cambridge,

a

well-known

on Greek philosophy, and Rhetoric (Vol. 23, p. 233), by s"ir R. C. Jebb.
On Greek philosophical writing see the
articles Pherecydes of Syros, Anaximenes of Miletus, Anaximander, and
the names great not only in Greek
thought and literature but in the world's
Plato (Vol. 21, p. 808; equivalent to
about 50 pages of this Guide), by Lewis
Campbell, editor and critic of many of
the Platonic dialogues, and Aristotle
writer

equivalent to 70 pages of
Prof. Thomas Case, Oxford, author of Physical Realism^ etc.
For a fuller guide to Greek philosophy
see the chapter in this Guide on Philosophy.
(Vol. 2, p. 501

this Guide),

;

by

The third period of classical Greek literature was one of Greek thought in un-

Greek surroundings see the article Hellenism, by E. R. Be van, author of
The House of Seleucus, etc., and this
came to its first and

Decadence

finest

flower in Al-

exandria, in Egypt,

under

the

Ptolemies

—see

Alexandrian School,

the

article

especially

that

dealing with Literature (Vol. 1,
On the writers of the Alexp. 573),
andrian period see for poetry, Philetas,

part of

it

:

Hermesianax, Asclepiades of Samos,
and the comic poets Sotades and RhinTHON, already mentioned; Herodas, by
W. G. Headlam, editor of Herodas; the
idyllist Theocritus (Vol. 26, p. 760),
by A. C. Clark, fellow of Queen's, Oxford;
Theocritus's followers BioN and Moschus; the mythologist Callimachus,

who influenced Catullus as much as
Theocritus did the young Virgil; the
didactic poet Aratus, whom Cicero
translated into Latin and whom Virgil
imitated in his Georgics; the epic ApolLONius of Rhodes, and the late tragedian
Lycophron; and for prose the critic
Aristarchus.
In the Greco-Roman period, following
the Alexandrian the principal articles for
the student are: the historians Polybius
and Diodorus Siculus, the satirist
LuciAN, the later historians Dionysius
Halicarnassensis, Dio Cassius, ArRiAN, Appian, Herodian, Eusebius,
Zosimus, the biographers Plutarch,
Diogenes Laertius, Philostratus, the

Longinus and Dio Chryand the emperor philosopher
Marcus Aurelius and his forerunner

rhetoricians

sosTOM,

the "slave philosopher" Epictetus.
Possibly the most typical output of the
later Greek age is the matchless collection of short poems known to us as "the
Greek Anthology"; on this see the articles

Epigram and Anthology.

CHAPTER XLI

BIBLE STUDY
impossible for the student to
the subject of Bible Study
without being impressed by the immense labour and the profound scholarship which have been devoted to the
interpretation and discussion of Scripture.
Continued investigation has solved many
difficulties, but has also vastly increased
the mass of evidences and conjectures
which must be weighed in connection
with any doubtful passages. The Britannica tells us, for example, (Vol. 3,

no

is

ITconsider

pp. 903, 904) that the translators of the

less

dialects

than 530 distinct languages and
have been derived from the Eng-

lish text.

though in

It is interesting to note, al-

this case the English version

has certainly nothing to do with the
matter, that "in Italy, by a departure
from the traditional policy of the Roman
Church, the newly formed, 'Pious Society
of St. Jerome for the Dissemination of
the Holy Gospels' issued in 1901, from
the Vatican press, a new Italian version
of the Four Gospels and Acts," and sold
400,000 copies at 4 cents each.

King James's version spent only two
years and nine months over their task,
while the work on the Revised Version
took eleven years for the New Testament
and fourteen for the Old Testament.

As a sort of threshold-study, it will
be well to consider three topics: Hebrew
Literature, Hebrew Religion and Biblical

equally true that all the time
which learned men have given to translating and elucidating the text seems
nothing when it is
The Bible as
compared with the
a Focus of
time that mankind
Thought
at large have spent
in reading it.
But
the Britannica mentions a report of the
great English Bible Society, the "British
and Foreign," in which the copies circulated by it are totalled at more than
198 million, and, for the American Bible
Society and its federated associations,
it gives a total of more than 84 million
copies (Vol. 3, p. 907). It has often
been said that the English Bible is the
only example of a translation that became more famous than the original,
and it is as true that no other translation has been the source of so many
secondary translations, for versions in

169),

It

History.

Hebrew Literature

is

(Vol.

by Dr. Arthur Cowley,

Bodleian

Library,

Preliminaries

13,

of

p.

the
out

Oxford, points
that the term "Hebrew Literature" is

loosely used of "all
works written in Hebrew characters,
whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic,
or even some vernacular not related to
Hebrew;" and that "this literature begins with, as it is almost entirely based
upon, the Old Testament." This article
on Hebrew Literature may be supple-

mented by the following articles
Targum, by John Frederick Stenning,
lecturer in Aramaic at Oxford.
f by Israel Abrahams, readHalakha J er in Talmudic and
Qaraites
Rabbinic Literature,
j

^


^ir
Midrash

237

r
I
(
V.

Cambridge.

by Stanley Arthur Cook,
lecturer in Hebrew and
c
u -J
Syriac, r^
Cambridge.

BRITANNIGA READINGS AND STUDIES

238

Seadiah, by Dr. Arthur Cowley.
Maimonides, by Herbert Loewe, curator of Oriental Literature, Cambridge.

Quite as important

is

the article

He-

brew Religion (Vol. 13, p. 176), by
the Rev. Dr. Owen Charles Whitehouse
and Cheshunt Colleges, CamHis treatbridge.
of Christ's

Hebrew
Religion

ment of the subject
and historical. There
is an interesting summary of what is
known and may be inferred about preMosaic religion; and it is important to
comparative

is

notice that the author does not consider
that the plural Elohim used in certain

Old Testament passages to mean "God"
is to be understood as "a comprehensive
expression

for

the

multitude

of

gods

embraced in the One God of Old Testament religion," but explains the plural

"we" of
magic
and
charms against demons and jinns may
be assumed as belonging to the early
as one "of majesty" like the

Blood-offerings

royalty.

Hebrew
period

Arabian
Dr. Whitelittle or no

religion as to the later

Mahomet.

before

house thinks that there is
trace of totem ism but possibly some of
ancestpr-worship in the Jews'" religion.

Among

the

many

articles

supplement-

ing this general treatment of Hebrew
religion the following are possibly the

most important:
Circumcision, by Israel Abrahams.
Teraphim, by W. Robertson Smith
and G. H. Box, formerly lecturer in
theology, Oxford.

Baal, by W. Robertson Smith and
Stanley Arthur Cook, editor for Palestine
Exploration Fund.
Calf, The Golden, by S. A. Cook.

High Places.
Feasts and Festivals.
Passover, by Dr. Joseph Jacobs of
Jewish Theological Seminary of

the

New York

City.

Pentecost, by Dr. O. C. Whitehouse.

Ark, by Stanley Arthur Cook.
Tabernacle and Temple, by Dr.
Archibald R. S. Kennedy, professor of
Hebrew and Semitic languages, Edinburgh.

Ephod, by

S.

A. Cook.

Urim and Thummim, by G. H. Box.
Prophet, by W. Robertson Smith,
Owen Charles Whitehouse, Adolf Harnack of Berlin, and Professor A. C. McGiffert

New

of

Union Theological Seminary,

York.

Jehovah, by George Foot Moore, proHarvard.
Messiah, by W. Robertson Smith and

fessor of history of religion.

O. C. Whitehouse.

EscHATOLOGY, by Dr. A. E. Garvie,
of New College, Hampstead.
Angel, by William Henry Bennett,
professor of Old Testament Exegesis in
New and Hackney Colleges, London.
The third topic is history and for
principal

this the student should read the article

Jews

(Vol.

Biblical

History

p. 371), especially the
part on Old Testament Hisiory, by S. A. Cook; the
article Palestine, Physical

15,

by R. A. S. Macexcavations for the
Palestine Exploration Fund, Old Testament History, by S. A. Cook, especially
the treatment of Biblical Religion (pp.
610-611 of Vol. 20); Canaan, by Dr.
Thomas Kelly Cheyne, formerly Oriel
Features,

alister,

director of

professor of interpretation of Scripture,

Oxford; Hittites, by D. G. Hogarth,
keeper of the Ashmolean Museum,
Oxford.
But of course the central article for the
Bible student is the article Bible (Vol.
3, p. 849), which is divided into two
main parts Old
The Article
Testament and New
Bible
Testament, each of
these being divided
in turn into five parts: Canon, Texts and
Versions, Textual Criticism, Higher Criticism, and Chronology.
This logical
arrangement greatly enhances the value
of the article, which is in itself an ex-

BIBLE STUDY
cellent

summary

of the subject written

Samuel
Rolles .Driver, professor of Hebrew,
Oxford, on Old Testament canon and
John Frederick Stenning,
chronology
dean of Wadham College, Oxford, and
lecturer in Aramaic, on Old Testament
texts and versions; Dr. George Buchanan
Gray, professor of Hebrew and Old
Testament exegesis, Mansfield College,
Oxford, on Old Testament textual and

by the following

authorities: Dr.

;

higher criticism ; Dr. William Sanday,
professor of Divinity and canon of
Christ Church, Oxford, on New Testament canon; the Rev. Kirsopp Lake,
author of The Text of the New Testament,
of New Testament
on New Testament
texts and versions and textual criticism;
Dr. Francis Crawford Burkitt, professor
of divinity, Cambridge, and author of
The Gospel History and its Transmission,
etc., on New Testament higher criticism;
and Cuthbert Hamilton Turner, of
Magdalen College, Oxford, on New Testament chronology.
The article Bible, English (Vol. 3,
p. 894), by Anna C. Panes, author of
etc.,

and professor

exegesis at Leiden,

A

Fourteenth Century Biblical

Version,

Canon Henson of Westminster
Abbey (on the Revised Version) is accompanied by a plate with fac-similes of
several early English Bibles and is
and

besides of special value as giving quotations from different versions in Anglo-

Saxon and later English. The article
Bible Societies (Vol. 3, p. 905), by the
Rev. Thomas Herbert Darlow, literary
superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, will also be of value
to the student.
One other general article should be
studied before the articles on different

books of the Bible are taken up. This is
Inspiration (Vol. 14, p. 645), by Dr.
Alfred Ernest GarInspiration
vie, author of Studies
in the Inner Life of
Jesus; it outlines the principal theories of
inspiration

(1)

239

Mechanical dictation or verbal

in-

spiration;
(2)

Dynamic

influence or degrees of

inspiration;
(3) Essential inspiration, distinguishing matters of doctrine and conduct from
the remaining contents of Scripture;

(4) Vital inspiration,

ligious

and moral

emphasizing

re-

life.

A course of study in the books of the
Bible may well start with the outline
in the article Bible,
The

especially pages 851-

Hexateuch

854 for the Old Testament.
For the
Hexateuch the student should read first
the brief article Hexateuch; then what
there is under Bible on pp. 851-852 of
Vol. 3; then under Jews for the early
period; and then the articles:

Genesis, by

S.

subsidiary articles:

Cook; and the
Cosmogony, Eden,

A.

Adam, Eve, Abel, Cain,
Enoch, Lamech, Noah, Deluge, Ararat, Ark, Babel, Canaan, Genealogy,
Nimrod, Ham, Shem, Japheth, Abraham, Beersheba, Melchizedek, Isaac,
MiDiAN, Abimelech, Ishmael, Esau,
Jacob, Jacob's Well, Bethel, Israel,
Simeon, Shechem, Reuben, Issachar,
Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Asher, Gad,
Manasseh, Joseph, Benjamin, Lot,
MoAB, Ammonites, Goshen, etc.
Exodus, Book of, by John Frederick
Stenning, and Exodus by S. A. Cook;
and the articles Moses, Aaron, Rameses,
Pithom, Amalekites, Jethro, Passover,
Sinai, Horeb, Decalogue, Sabbath,
Calf (Golden), Tabernacle, Ark,
Paradise,

Urim and Thummim.
Leviticus, by J. F. Stenning and
Levites, by S. A. Cook; and Sacrifice,

Atonement and Day of Atonement,
Moloch, Pentecost.
Numbers, by Dr. James Alexander
Paterson,
College,

professor

Edinburgh;

Hebrew, New
and the articles

of

Balaam, Hebron.
Deuteronomy, by Dr. Paterson, and

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES

240

the articles
JOSIAH.

Joshua, by
Amalekites,
Philistines,

Ezra,

and

Nehemiah,

A. Cook, and the articles
Hivites,
Gibeonites,
Gezer, Judah, Caleb,

S.

Shechem.
Judges, 3ook of, by S. A. Cook, and
the articles, Othniel, Ehud, Deborah,
GiBEON, Abimelech, Jephthah, Shib-

Samson, Ephod, Teraphim,
Ephraim).
Samuel, Books of, and Samuel, by
S. A. Cook; and the articles Eli, Shiloh,
Ark, Saul, Jonathan, David, Goliath,
Ahithophel, Jashar, Absalom, Jerahmeel, Kenites.
Kings, Books of, by S. A. Cook; and
the articles David, Adonijah, Solomon,
Temple, Jerusalem, Abiathar, Joab,
Ephraim, Jeroboam, Rehoboam, Asa,
Omri, Ahab, Jehoshaphat, Jehoram,
Athaliah, Ahaziah, Elijah, Carmel,
Jordan, Elisha, Jehu, Rechabites,
JoASH, Azariah, Hosea, Uzziah, Ahaz,
Isaiah, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah,
Jehoiachin, Samaria.
Chronicles, by W. Robertson Smith
and S. A. Cook; and the articles Absalom,
David, Uzziah, Jubilees, Midrash,
Levites and many mentioned above under Samuel and Kings.
Ezra and Nehemiah, Books of, by
S. A. Cook; the article Ezra; and, as the
books are to be grouped with Chronicles.
that article and Deuteronomy, and the
article Samaritans and those on the
two "apocryphal" books, Ezra, Third
Book of, and Ezra, Fourth Book of,
by Dr. Robert Henry Charles, lecturer
boleth,

MiCAH

in

(of

Biblical

studies,

Oxford.

See

Synagogue.
For the prophetical books the

Prophet

The Prophets

also

Baruch, Zedekiah, Nebuchadrezzar, Edom, Ammonites, Moab.
Lamentations, by the Rev. Charles
James Ball, lecturer in Assyriology,
Oxford, with peculiarly valuable information about poetical structure and
acrostic verse, some suggested emendations of the text, and a summary of the
arguments in regard to the authorship.
Ezekiel, by Professor C. H. Toy of
Harvard University; and the articles
Zedekiah, and, for certain literary
forms. Allegory and Parable.

articles

The Minor Prophets:

Minor

as

introduction,

an

and

then
Isaiah, by T. K. Cheyne; and, for
outline, under Bible, Vol. 3, p. 853; and
Emmanuel (on chap. 7) and Messiah
and Atonement (on chap. 53).
Jeremiah, by T. K. Cheyne; and the

3,

p.

Prophets

183.

Hosea, by W. Robertson Smith and the
Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, professor
church

of

Rawdon

history,

Leeds; articles Baal,

College,

Calf (Golden),

etc.

Joel, by W. Robertson Smith and
T. K. Cheyne; and Eschatology, etc.
Amos, by T. K. Cheyne; Jeroboam,
etc.

Obadiah, by W. Robertson Smith and
H. W. Robinson; and Edom, Eschatology, etc.

Jonah, by T. K. Cheyne; and the artiNineveh, and, for an explanation of

cle

the "great fish," Cosmogony.

MiCAH, by W. Robertson Smith and
H. W. Robinson; and Samaria, High
Place, Messiah, Eschatology.
Nahum, by G. H. Box; Nineveh, etc.
Habakkuk, by H. W. Robinson;
Chaldaean, etc.
Zephaniah, by S. A. Cook; and Baal,
Moloch, Costume, Oriental (Vol. 7,
p.

article

see Vol.

853; Vol. 22, p.
443; Vol. 13, p.

226

sq., for

chap.

1, v. 8), etc.

Haggai, by W. Robertson Smith and
Dr. A. J. Grieve, professor at the United
Independent College, Bradford; and the
article Temple.
Zechariah, by Julius Wellhausen,
professor at Gottingen, and H. W.
Robinson; and the articles Angel, Temple, Messiah, Zion, Japheth and loNiANS (for "Javan" of chap. 9, v. 13).

BIBLE STUDY
Malachi, by W. Robertson Smith and
H. W. Robinson.

241

Esther, by T. K. Cheyne and, on the
''additions,"

Dr,

by W. Robertson Smith and
Dr. Robert Hatch Kennett, Canon of
Ely and professor of Hebrew,

Other
Old Testament
Books

Psalms

and the articles
Ahasuerus, Susa, Cosmogony, Purim,
Ruth, by W, Robertson Smith and S,
A. Cook; and the articles Bethlehem,

Psalms

is

Cambridge; read the articles Hallel, David, Solomon, Temple, Levites (for Levitical
Psalms), Asaph, Chronicles, Ezra,
Psaltery, Liturgy, the section of Hebrew Hymnody in, and the whole article
Hymns; Bible, English, for the version
of the Psalms in the English Prayer
Book from the Great Bible; and, for
Psalms 9, 10, 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119
and 145, and the article Acrostic. See
also R. H. Charles's article on the apocryphal book, Solomon, Psalms of.

The student should read the
Wisdom Literature, by Prof,
Toy of Harvard

article

C. H.

as an
introduction to Proverbs. Job and EcclesiASTES (and to the

Wisdom
Literature

apocryphal Wisdom, Book of see
article by Professor Toy; EcclesiasTicus,
see article by William Emery

Barnes, Hulsean professor of Divinity,

Cambridge; Tobit, see article by St,
George Stock, lecturer University of Birmingham; and 4th Maccabees see the
article Maccabees, by Dr. William Fairweather, editor of Maccabees in the
"Cambridge Bible for Schools.")
Proverbs, Book of, by C. H. Toy;
and the articles Solomon, Proverb and,
for other famous collections, Publilius,
Erasmus, etc.
Job, by Dr. Andrew B. Davidson, late

professor of Oriental languages.
lege,

New Col-

Edinburgh, and author of a

Com-

mentary on Job, and Prof. C. H. Toy;
and the articles Devil (for the meaning of
"Satan" in chap. 1, v. 6); Sabaeans, Uz,

Behemoth,

etc.

Ecclesiastes, by Professor Toy; the
articles Pessimism, Eschatology, SadDUCEES.
Canticles, by W, Robertson Smith
and H, W, Robinson.

Robert

Henry

Charles,

Grinfield

lecturer,

Oxford;

Caleb, and, for the marriage custom
underlying the story, the article on
Levirate.
Daniel, by John Dyneley Prince, professor of Semitic languages, Columbia
University, and, for the "additions," Susannah, Bel and the Dragon, and The
Song of the Three Children, the Rev. Dr.

Robert Henry Charles; the article Semitic Languages for the Aramaic of chapters 2 (from verse 4) to 7; Angels, Gabriel, Michael;

Chaldaean and Chal-

dee; Belshazzar; Apocalyptic Litera-

ture

(for chapters 7-12).

Before passing to the New Testament
the student should read the article Apoc-

ryphal Literature, by Robert Henry
Charles; and the arApocrypha
tides on the separate
books: Ezra, Third
Book of (1 Esdras) and Ezra, Fourth
Book (or Apocalypse), both by Robert
Henry Charles; Judith, by the same
scholar; Ecclesiasticus, by Dr. W. E.
Barnes; Baruch, by R. H. Charles;
Tobit, by St. George Stock; Jeremy,
Epistle of, by R. H. Charles; Maccabees, Books of, and Maccabees, by the
Rev. Dr. William Fairweather; ManasSES, Prayer of, by R. H. Charles, and

Manasseh; and Wisdom, Book

of,

by

C. H. Toy.

The general articles preliminary to a
study of the New Testament are: besides the part of the article Bible dealing
with New TestaNew Testament ment, Canon, Criticism, Text, Chronology, etc.
the following:
Messiah, by W. Robertson Smith and
Dr. Owen Charles Whitehouse, lecturer

15. Jerusalem. professor of systematic theology. late lecturer in theology. Demonology. Matthew. Joseph OF Arimathaea. Joseph (Vol. Nathanael. Calvary. Passover. by the Very Rev. Andrew. Exorcism. Union Theological Seminary. Gethsemane. Philip. and author of The Gospels The Gospels But Mansfield College. for a of the points in the Marcan or Galilean narrative as contrasted with the Jerusalem narrative in regard to the betrayal of Jesus and the period immediately following. Bethlehem. Salome. Oxford. Sadducees. Stanton. Bartlett. p. Mary Magdalene. Aberdeen. Bartholomew. as in studying rearrangement the Old Testament. "the most beautiful book in the world. 355. and the Rev." by G. Dr. Gospel of St. Stewart Dingwall Fordyce Salmon. United Free Church College. 2). Capernaum. Cambridge. John. H. Pilate. Luke." is quoted twice in the Britannica. EbioniTEs. Parable. 357). Nazareth. 15. Bethany. as is shown by the incidents of Zaccheus and of the Samaritan leper. Cana. Dr. and the prominence given to great abstract ideas and symbols the Light of the — . by Dr. George William Knox. Caesarea Philippi. Mary. etc. professor of divinity. Yorkshire United Independent College. by Dr." For the gospel story the student should read the following separate articles: John the Baptist. the Judean scene as contrasted with the predominance of Galilee and Samaria in the other three (synoptic) gospels. James Vernon Bartlett. Gospel of Apostle). J. Herod Antipas. Eucharist. Kirsopp Lake on Tatian the compiler of the Diatessaron or "Gospel of the Four Gospels. Vincent Henry Stanton. Cam- Jesus Christ. the order of the books as printed in English Bibles will not be followed absolutely. Bartlett. John. p. and. 356. gospel. by Dr. the student should read the article Gospel. Stanton. with particular attention to the paragraph on additions to summary bridge. Possession. Here. A. Nazarenes. Peter as the Rock in chapter 16. Pharisees. Olives. Joedan. Sabbath. J. the philosophical prologue (see the article Logos. by Dr. In outlining a course of study on the New Testament. Peter. James. Mount of. by Dr. dean of Westminster. by the Rev. Peter by Dr. and John (the by Baron Friedrich von Hiigel. professor of New Testament and church history.. Oxford). In studying the separate Gospels. p. just as This is the universal Mark's was for extraPalestinian use and Matthew's particularly for the Jew. Gospel of St. and the article by Dr. p. by Dr. Galilee. and Matthew. Gospel of. and the biographical sketch of Luke. such as the story of John the Bap- tist (see the article on this "forerunner. first as Historical Docu- ments. Judaea. Mark's narrative in Vol.. late professor of philosophy and line of history of religion. Judas. Miracle. col. Bradford). the article on St. and to the stress on the Messianic character. Stanton. Grieve. Box. Mark. and the paragraph on Luke's additions to Mark's narrative in Vol. Kirsopp Lake. First he should study the article Mark. Thomas.. Vincent H. and Renan's characterization of the gospel of the one evangelist who was not a Jew. professor of Church History. by Dr. 15. both St.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 242 in Cheshunt Hebrew. Matthew. Christianity. author of The Mystical Element of Religion: the paragraph on the distinctive elements of John's gospel (in Vol. College. 513. Immaculate Conception. New York City. let the reader follow the order suggested in the articles Gospel and Jesus Christ. by the late Rev.. the article on St. constituting a critical outthe gospel story. V. a may be worth while for topical study. Joseph Armitage Robinson. the mention of the church and of St. 15. Dr.

meteorological and other matters. and was a physician. in which Paul's attitude toward Jewish legalism is made an explanation of the superficially obvious contrast between Jesus and Paul. was a personal friend and traveling companion of both Paul and Peter. by Wilhelm professor of New Testament Bousset. his Jewish training. Paul in Europe —Athens. Before studying the articles dealing with the book of Acts. the second mission tour. his first missionary journey.. For the study of Acts. and of the apostles. for a study of the supernatural and particularly for a development of the argument for miracles from "the congruity of the miracle with divine truth and grace". Mark. Gottingen." The article Acts of the Apostles. 938). Simon Magus. Agrippa. the other the sinless consciousness of the Saviour. Areopagus. Coran inth. — In general on the Pauline epistles the student should not only read this article Paul. gotten. Felix. the Re-Birth. in Jerusalem. his deep inticle Jesus. Lycaonia. as can be seen not only from his descriptions of disease. Timothy. — sight into Jesus's character. the Apostle 20. but from his accuracy in geographical. the vision at Damascus and its spiritual content. the Spirit. Apollos. Christology of Paul. his early apostolate. Paul's conciliatory spirit. Iconium. one will need constantly to refer in the Britan- nica to the article on Paul. and should look over the first part of the article Jesus Christ which finds in 1st Thessalonians the earliest extant document of Christianity. apparent contrasts and contradictions between Paul's gospel and Jesus's gospel one seen — through the eyes of a conscious sinner. but should turn again to the treatment of New TestaThe Pauline ment canon in the arEpistles tide Bible (Vol. the Living Bread. 872-873). besides the article on the book. Judas. Philip. as ethical teacher. Then let him read the articles: . should be supplemented by referring again to the article Luke. first impressions as to and Saul as persecutor. Matthias. pp. let the reader consult Dr. Paul's the- ology rooted in experience. Philippi. a trained scientific observer. the miracles of Jesus. Aquila. read the following separate articles Luke. Athens. Antioch. John. his new theory of the law and its universal value. Thessalonica. the Only-Be- (Vol. by Dr. Paulinism — its Christocentric character. Herod. Corinth. Eternal Life. Paul. After an introduction. Peter. article. Peter's visit to Antioch. later travels. Paul the Gospels. Bartlett. the Truth. the issue of Gentile Christianity raised. there is a biographical sketch: Paul of Tarsus. the recovery of health and strength. with Roman name. talking Latin and not a narrow. is so . a Roman citizen. p. For a study of the book of Acts. Ephesus. under Gamaliel (see the ar- Way. consist in "the relief of need. and the refrain and variations on the theme of Love. the Paraclete. 3. Garvie's article Miracle. the equivalent to 55 pages in this Guide. Vernon World. Stephen. Tongues. exegesis. Joppa. 164. Ananias. Aceldama. Barnabas. one-sided Jew.BIBLE STUDY 243 by Dr. Vernon Bartlett. which was probably written before any one of St. etc. Gamaliel. first missionary letters. Water and Wine.important that it will be well to outline it here. Gift of. top of column 2) in the article on the book. Ananias. Gamaliel). Silas. Paul's protest. The importance of the testimony of the physician to the miracles of the apostles is brought out (p. J. and the student Acts should call to mind that the probable author was not a Jew. This J. Paul. Pentecost. later letters. Paul's position between JudaeoChristianity and Gnosticism see also the article Gnosticism. and the Life. the Law. the removal of suffering.

Barnabas. Antinomianism (on the beginning of chap. The Epistle to. 3). on authorship. Angel. professor of Biblical theology. etc. 20. Fasting. Timothy. and. Asceticism (on chap. and the article Pastoral Epistles on these letters and on that to Titus. and the articles Clementine Literature. pp. Philippians. in 1st Peter ("good independent Paulinism"). 26). Moffatt. the article Gnosticism (for the "knowledge falsely so-called" of 1 Tim.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 244 Thessalonians. Epistle Tt) the. Union Theological Seminary. by Dr. 23-32) on the Church's attitude toward marriage. Ephesians. 5. the articles on Colossians and on 1st Peter for textual criticism. at least as regards the atonement and Christology. Epistle to the. 26) on Jewish theology. Aaron. 781 (Vol." (p. by Dr. Philemon. by the Rev. by Prof. with special attention to the paragraphs (end of p. the articles Bishop and Presbyter. Clement. 945-946) at Thessalonica. and even in the Apocalypse. Fasting. J. Atonement and Day of Atonement. professor of New Testament criticism and interpretation.. Temple. Moffatt. Stephen. 2. legalism). Epistles to the. 2. J. Titus.. Vernon Bartlett. Epistle to. See also in Paul (Vol. author of The Historical New Testament: and the articles Galatia (for the "South Galatian" theory). "The Johannine Gospel and Epistles are later than Paulinism. by Prof. 773 and p. 218) for the status of a runaway like Onesimus. Hebrews. Before turning to the articles on the other books of the New Testament. let the student read a part of the article Theology. Epistle to the. Moffatt. 2. Titus. chap. Moffatt. p. Ropes. Sacrifice. ch. and the article Gnosticism for the tendency in the church which Paul attacked in this epistle and in Colossians. Corinthians. v. Epistle to the. Peter. Dr. and the article Hebrew Religion for the covenant which Paul here presents as one of faith and not of the law. Colossians. see the article on Charles Gore (Vol. E. The Other Mackintosh of the Epistles Lancashire Indepen- dent College. article Moffatt. Galatians. the article Marriage for Paul's influence (Eph. First Epistle to. 20). Dr. Paul and contents of the New Testament Here "Paulinism" is shown not merely in the Pauline writings but in the Acts. the article Slavery. Melchizedek. Apollos. v. Frame. is the oldest extant account of the Lord's Supper). vs. Hebrew Religion. 4. 3). James Moffatt. Epistles to the. articles Luke. Priest. v. by Dr. 25. 16). Angel (on chap. 2. Moses. 23 sqq. the Paul. Rome (Vol. 18). the article for Paul New York City. Messiah. and the articles Corinth. and Timothy. by the Dr. J. Asceticism. Epistle to the. 783) after pointing out that Luther . the article Ephesus. by Dr. H. 11. and presuppose its leading or less startAnd the same article ling positions. and in the article Theology the discussion in column 1 of p. Robert Rev. James Everett Frame. James Hardy Ropes. by Dr. St. Apollos. and on the Kenosis or emptying of self of Christ in Phil. p. the article Philippi. by the Rev. pointing out that the theme is "the unity of mankind in Christ and hence the unity and divinity of the Church of Christ". Second Epistle to. 6. by Dr. The article Titus has much important criticism on Timothy. Manchester. by the Rev. Harvard. the article Timothy. Antinomianism (for Christianity vs. Eucharist (1 Cor. 2. the articles Marriage and Celibacy (on 1 Tim. and the articles Eschatology and Apocalyptic Literature for the doctrine of the "second coming" or "Parousia. 7. Vol. the Colossae. 255). chap." especially in 2 Thess. 774. Romans.

by Dr. 220. New York City. by Dr. lecturer in Biblical studies. Kirsopp Lake. Peter. On these see: John. Yale. and the article on St. Wisdom Literature. Vol. Clement^ HerMAS. 944-945 of the Index (Vol. Charles Apochryphal and at least the first Literature part. and the articles Antichrist (on 1 John. Epistle of. Dr. the authority for the of Jude. A Biblical list of articles dealEncyclopaedia ing with the Bible on pp. for the allusions in verses 9 and 14. Benjamin Wisner Bacon. by Dr. Enoch. B. As an epilogue the student should read the articles Apocryphal Literature. C. by the Rev. Gnosticism (for chap. p. Shepherd of. and Moses. on Apocalyptic Literature. by the same scholar. Dr. 2. and the canonical apocalyptic passages in Mark 13. Book of. both of the Old and New Testament periods. Robert Henry Charles. in article Paul. Book of. The study outline sketched in this chapter will give the student some idea of the possibilities of the Britannica in The helping him. of the article Church History. Jude. The Epistles of. should be studied in connection with the article. Glasgow. p. Angel Michael. 9). . Ascension of. Dr. professor of New Testament criticism and exegesis. the articles "the last time" (for vs. for a similar view cf the gospel and the Church. and especApocryphal LiteraAssumption of. For a date earlier than that of the Epistle of James." The other principal topics to be studied which may more probably be assigned to John the presbyter. 29) will show that in the Britannica there is an adequate and excellent encyclopaedia of the Bible or text-book of Bible Study. 1-13. by the Rev. and the articles Revelation. on its relation to this book. and Jude. Johannine Writings Revelation. for earlier writings on the "Wisdom" and proverbial expressions of chapter 3. George Milligan. see the article on that book. Luke 21 and 2nd Thessalonians 2. etc. McGiffert of Union Theological Seminary. are: vs. the article on Hegesipwritings. Epistle of. Professor of divinity and Biblical criticism. grouped. Epistle of. 20. as well as the extra-canonical apocalypses described in Apocalyptic Literature and in the separate articles Isaiah. 23). and this article. school of Ritschl in "not idolizing Paulinism" have "idolized liUther. by Dr. Millenium. little we know Eschatology (for pus. 22). of verse 18). Under the head of Johannine are ture. Charles. himself also an eighth" (see footnote on - . by Prof. . Bacon of Yale. . writer also suggests that the German James. for the question of date and relation with other writings. Paul" asks "can Christianity not dig deeper by going back to Jesus?" The 245 Moffatt. Epistles of." vol. Oxford. etc. 954. John in regard to authorship. Mathew 24. Matthew. and the articles Domitian and Vespasian on the possibility that one of them may have been "the beast that was and is not. the article on James by the Rev. the article on St.BIBLE STUDY and the evangelical revival "went back to St.. besides the fourth gospel. ially the articles 6. See also Romans and PoLYCARP to supplement what is here said of the relations of 1st Peter to these and Eschatology on the expected "second coming" of 2nd Peter. also by Dr. vs. Besides see the articles Eschatology. Peter. The student should read the article Nero. W. and Hermas. the three epistles of John and the Revelation. This book. 3. even if "666" does not certainly refer to him. 4-7). A. chapter 3. and on "Justification.

G. J. James Gairdner. were helping one another t9 obtain new light upon the history of even the earliest periods. the Canadians Doughty. Pauli of Gottingen. Grant. there was such an opportunity for comparison and revision as has never before existed.W. Collier of Williams. T. to solve historical doubts. W. Frenchmen like Mgr. J. B. Holland Gardiner. the late Alexander Johnston of Princeton. Warde Fowler. Prof. Osmund Airy. W. Pollard. Professors William Graham Sumner. For the contributors to the work. Prof. and Drs. Botsford. Schwab man of Yale. Alison Phil- Donald Mackenzie Wallace. T. Dr. G. F. Barnabei and Balzani. L. Prof. J. Rose. Anchel. President Emeritus Charles W. So much for the quality of the his- . J. Edward Channing. Brodribb and H. Turner and Charles Gross of Harvard. to advance historical knowledge. F. the Germans Eduard Meyer and Schie- mann of Berlin. R. G. Babelon arid Bemont. and to mennames S. F. lips. Ilobinson. C. James Bryce. Shotwell of Columbia. John Morley. Reginald Lane Poole. Morse. H. A. J. W. Prof. Prothero. and Count Liitzow. A. Profs. W. Carl Schurz — and James Ford Rhodes. Davis. H. Eliot. Richardson and Preserved Smith of Amherst. Mac- Fleming and Scroggs of Louisiana. Osgood. R. Hashagen of Bonn. Roy Smith of Bryn Mawr. Burton Adams and J. There are. F. R.to name only a few. With this idea of combined effort clearly before you. in making a completely fresh survey of the whole field of human knowledge. J. H. Nisbet Bain. As all the articles were completed before a single volume was printed. Thomas Hodgkin. Round. D. Dionne and Wrong. the contributors and editors could co-operate as fully as if they had all been assembled in a great international congress. W. Dr. Halphen. Myres.CHAPTER XLII HISTORY. the Italians Villari. H. L. J. And the result of this collaboration is that the publication of the new Britannica does more. even to those who have been reading history for years. consider for a ment the accumulated individual Authority moau- thority of such individual specialists as those who deal with history in the Britannica. F. Hayes. I. C. tion only a few English — Freeman. But you can anticipate something more and better than that. Oman. and J. von 246 Pastor of Innsbruck. C. W. Valois. Duchesne. C. D. H. Pelham. Luchaire. S. Keutgen of Hamburg. among Americans. INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL WHEN you turn to the new Britannica to study history. Reid. McMaster of Pennsylvania. J. A. you naturally expect to learn a great deal that will be new to you. W. You will find a great deal that is new to everyone. Haverfield. J. Cox of Cincinnati. Drs. at one stroke. Grant Shower- of Wisconsin. W. Sir Edward J. and to correct historical mistakes than is done by isolated historians in the course of a generation. Dunning. Bury. Henry Cabot Lodge. When research upon one subject had disclosed new evidence that was of value in relation to another subject. C. William Donald of Brown.

pp. the student will quickly see. four good-sized shelves in an ordinary ''unit" (1) Articles book-case. etc. the earliest syllable of recorded time receives its proper treatment. whether near or distant. Next is given an outline of a course of reading in Canadian and then in English History. (5) Articles on churches. The student of any 27. But the information is all in the Britannica. and there is on the history of parts — of studying states. and what has been said above will give the reader some notion of the authority of the articles written by natives of nearly every civilized country in the world. the Renaissance. reformers." (Vol. looking up in the Index volume the important topics mentioned in the main article. etc. it is certain that with these for an example. so that he will is soldiers. These will show the reader how fully and authoritatively the history of countries. The character of the subject matter of history and the method of treatment in the Britannica combine to make minute outlines less necessary for historical study than for the pursuit of a course in almost any other subject. China and Japan. contains in each instance a "key" article on the history of each nation either as a separate article. say. sometimes of in- ternational importance. chapter is an outline course of study in the History of the United States. Such readings in history alone would more than fill this whole Guide. INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL The torical matter in the Britannica. pp. Under such circumstances it is obMethod of vious that in the limits Guide it would not be possible to give outlines of courses of ings for all nations and historical read- periods. (2) Biographies of rulers. . 470). like English History or Roman History or as a historical section of the article on the country for instance.HISTORY. quantity is equally remarkable. (3) Articles under its on wars and battles. he will have no trouble in so doing. political parties. economic. and some idea of the scope of treatment. or. would fill about 70 such volumes. and then use it as a basis or starting point for further reading.000 words to a volume. These will be: the country he it Treatment 247 a "sub-article. sometimes of national. country's history should read first such an article or sub-article. it is pos- and desirable to give it in cases where it would be most useful to the sible greatest number The following of readers. (4) Articles on movements and changes. But although it is impossible to give in this Guide complete courses of reading for the history of all countries. because it has a peculiar interest to Americans. duchies. Every country and every event from of this get a big outline view of the subject. then in French History. provinces. 12. India. and then in the History of the countries of the Far East. statesmen. in the — — article Greece so to say. which is given in some detail. political and religious revolutions. is given in the Britannica. The Britannica. the Crusades. each proper heading. kingdoms. and with the aid of the Index. counties. and if he wishes to pursue his studies into the record of other countries. sects and denominations of historical importance in the country under consideration. cities and towns. 440in the article United States on history a sub-article on American history (Vol. 7/ the history in the Britannica was printed in the usual volumes on heavy papery containing 100. 663-735).

in proportion to all those which directly relate to American history. Similarly. The summary has been put in the form of a table. the page numbers as well as the volume numbers (so that when the reference is to only one section of a long article the reader can find it at once) and of the names of the contributors. the articles named are so few. or river may be of the greatest interest in itself. But in the case of American history. This is the most complete condensed history of the country that has ever been written. In short. American biographies are represented. no attempt has been made in this chapter to indicate the articles. The right hand columns give the titles of the articles to be read. only by the names of the foremost statesmen and soldiers of the periods included in the table. the particular history of a town. elsewhere described. in this chapter. The reader is thus enabled to turn at once to any one of the outstanding episodes of the story. in the Britannica itself in the historical portion of the article United States (Vol. that*the general effect is to make the space which the Britannica devotes to the subject seem less than it really is. city. the numerous and elaborate ture. The table instances a few of the main topics of American history. 663-735). in narrative form. For example. in order to show the reader how he may plan fuller courses of reading by combining other articles on the principle indicated by these illustrations. But it is not the purpose of this Guide to impress upon the reader the magnitude of the volumes he is using. that the reader's convenience has been better served by reversing this process. The left hand columns present a brief outline of the main periods and aspects American history. 248 . and economics. railroads and shipping. In that respect the Britannica speaks for itself. which discuss the history of American industries and commerce. the articles are so numerous. pp.CHAPTER XLIII AMERICAN HISTORY THE plan adopted in most of the chapters of this Guide is to give a separate account of each of the more important articles on the subject to which the chapter is devoted. and are so accurately dovetailed to make a continuous story. and to find explicit references to those parts of the Britannica in which the narrative is continued from one article to another. There is a much fuller summary. and grouping the articles under the periods with which they deal. It has been taken for granted that the reader will recognize the natural connection between this and other chapters of the Guide. but from each of its 412 sections the reader can turn to articles describing in detail the events consecutively outlined. It is not quite so long as this entire Guide. in order that its contents may more easily be surveyed. 27. art and litera- finance Again. although the events with which its name is associated were not so typical of any period as to give the article a place in the present chapter.

professor of Scandinavian languages. E. p. 27. by David Hannay. and tools. editor of Voyages of the Northmen. R. fully illustrated). C. 452). p. 6. 396). 878). Christopher (Vol. p. author of Methods and Results in Mexi- ages to America long before Columbus. Beazley. North American (Vol. professor of modern history in the University of Birmingham. R. C. The story of the Icelandic sagas. p. Royal Ethnographical Museum. p. late curator. The Leip Ericsson (Vol. p. Olson. by Henry P. Ancient History and Civilization (Vol. Where did they come from. p. and when? Their food. Indians. p. Clark University. Columbus. author of The Dawn of Modern Geography. toms. by Dr. and Over dialects in America. An interesting calendar. 28. etc. C. Vespucci. by Dr. 16. can Research. Archaeology of (Vol." Archaeology (Vol. fessor of anthropology. F. by Dr. A. author of The Dawn of Modern Geography. author of A Short History of the Royal Navy. First Voyages of Discovery. etc. The splendid past of Central America. 921). 810. p. to Greenland. 1053). by Julius E.AMERICAN HISTORY 249 Topics for Reading Articles The Aborigines. by Dr. keeper of British and The fascinating story of the Aztecs. 4. His voyages and colonies (14921504). Was Vinland Nova reach Scotia ? accident of Leif's discovery of the American continent. What was accomplished during the 500 years of Mayan culture. " which in some respects must have put the Spaniards to shame. Cabot. A state of culture in Mexico and Peru. 98). The Thorfinn Karlsefni first colonizer (A. 1. Did the Asiatic peoples make voy- Mexico. Fate of the colony. Tylor. 677). 2. Chamberlain. C. about 1000 A. 329). etc. by Dr.D. Columbus and His Successors. Beazley. The hostile Skrael- ings. by Dr. p.'* Medieval Antiquities and Ethnography. Central America. Washington author of Primitive Travel and Transportation. Biggar. clothing How and cus- they carried on their Their knowledge practical man What the white has learned from the Indians. . The mystery of the voyage of 1497.D. wars. America. General Historical Sketch (Vol. British Museum. 1000 languages America. author of The Voyage of the Cabots How New World received its name. etc. etc. p. 1002). Amerigo (Vol. religion. Ethnology and Archaeology (Vol. 1. The beginning of free-lance expeditions. by Otis Tufton Mason. by Dr. Columbus thinks he discovers Asia. p. 18. B. professor of anthropology at Oxford. R. author of The Dawn of Modern Geography. 741). De- partment of Anthropology. Discovery of the Mainland (1497). Charles H. 26. author of The Dawn of Modern Geography. Beazley. by Dr. 14. 349). Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). The Northmen first Europeans to American continent. University of Wisconsin. 5. National Museum. Evidence of Asiatic origin. 806). Walter Lehmann. pro. R. the (Vol. John (Vol. Munich. Read. Vinland (Vol. Beazley.

p. Robert. author of Short History of the Royal Navy. The Fortunes of New France. p. 20. Ferdinand© de (Vol. Artlmr G. 869). History etc. 16. Rene Salle. p. 148). Sir Walter (Vol. Columbia University. Nunez de Balboa. by David Hannay. their Founders and Leaders. Sieur de (Vol. History (Vol. University of Toronto. Frontenac (Vol. The Colo- 5. 25. Hernan California. C. 17. St. and the Mississippi (1541). rian of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. Champlain assists Algonquins and Soto. Dionne. North Carolina. 21). Ferdinand Asia revealed to the First circumnavigation of world. History (Vol. and their early Struggles. gratitude of Charles V. 241). History (Vol. 22. p. 15. author of The Romance of Canada. 230). Las Casas. author of The American Colonies in the 17th Century.482)." DisIncovery of Lower California. p. Canada. Champlain. The Raleigh First English child (1584-1587). 302). The existence of a tinct new continent dis- Magellan. Osgood. History (Vol. (Vol. (Vol. 19. Discovery of the How Lawrence (1534). by Dr. George McKinnon Wrong. Hurons against the 16. etc. Jamestown United States. from Pacific Ocean. Raleigh. 830). professor of history. (Vol. The persistent first Newfoundland. 19. Narcisse E. Samuel de (Vol. 249).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 250 The Discovery of the Pacific (1513). p. by cessful. Whinery. author of The Dawn of Modern Geography. Libra- beginning of the murderous conflicts between the French and the Iroquois. 5. p. 11. Beazley. 232). the globe. p. Jacques (Vol. R. 1587). covery of Lake Champlain (1609). 6. Founder of Quebec. Exploration of Guatemala and Yucatan (1528). The Ocean named Pacific (Vol. j). . (Vol. 663). . author of Life of Samuel de Champlain. author of The Voyage of the Cabots to Greenland. 438). New Louisiana in possession of France Discovery of the Ohio (1682). nial Expansion. its Early Canadian History. (1520). Cartier. 433). 3. The Thirteen Original Colonies. by Charles C. 156). by Dr. p. Dominion archivist of Canada. p. Cortes. 435). 15. 7. p. 28. The first English colony (1583) unsuc- . Herbert L. by Dr. etc. P. Doughty. France attacks Spain in the New World. p. p. p. Lower (Vol. p. The Conquest of Mexico (1519-1521). by H. born in America (Aug. La France. Biggar. 775). etc. " The Descendant of the Sun. by Dr. author of The Cradle of Horrors of Indian Warfare. 205). p. Beckles Willson. History efforts of permanent English settlement (1607). Colonial Expansion and Development of Imperial Control. Canada got name. 27. DisFoundation of Quebec (1608). etc. p. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vasco (Vol. Bartolome de (Vol. assistant editor. Virginia. River. by Prof. 6. Iroquois. 122).

p. Mass. Henry (Vol. Mass. 25. 735).AMERICAN HISTORY 251 Virginia (Vol. 17. p. 16. 4. p. Connecticut (Vol. North Carolina. 14. 88). 839). Theophilus (Vol. p. New York (City) (Vol. Boston. 8. 21. 863). p. 22. p. H. 122). 13. p. p. 120). 17. 15. 28. 775). Peter (Vol. (Vol. p. 476). p. 389). 23. 21. 674). 603). 132). Connecticut. 1. 533). 512). Eaton. 3. King New York (Vol. p. Indian Wars Vermont in New England. 265). Roger (Vol. 954). PoPHAM. 868). England. Rhode Island (Vol. Spotswood. Hampshire. (Vol. New p. 28. p. p. 12. (Vol. 490). 19. 849). (Voh 21. 27. 802). Hartford (Vol. Hudson. 4. p. Edward (Vol. p. Vermont. p. Long Island (Vol. New England (Vol. Endecott. Jamestown Bartholomew GosNOLD. 25. Blair. Anne Maine (a part of Massachusetts). 14. p. 382). James (Vol. Sir Henry (Vol. New Hampshire (Vol. 25. South Carolina. p. p. 19. p. Miles (Vol. p. Bradford. John (Vol. p. p. John (Vol. p. p. 290). 14. 22. 19. 256). 25. John (Vol. 9. WiNSLow. p. (Vol. (Vol. p. Gorges. 772). Sir John (Vol. 24. Massachusetts. Hooker. Albany (Vol. 25. 34). Standish. p. . 838). Rhode New Island. 1055). (Vol. p. p. Me. p. 739). Virginia. 19. Williams. p. 28. 1028). p. Portsmouth. 736). 982). Iroquois (Vol. 19. John (Vol. 25. (Vol. p. Providence (Vol. 27. p. Alden. 22. New Haven (Vol. South Carolina (Vol. 439). p. 620). Salem (Vol. 892). Alexander (Vol. p. Portland. Maine (Vol. 6. Staten Island (Vol. Sir Ferdinando (Vol. North Carolina (Vol. 13. 370). 22. 132). Plymouth. 781). New York. 12). Ipswich. p. p. Hutchinson. 28. (Vol. 733). Berkeley. 13. Massachusetts (Vol. 33). Pequot Philip. p. p. 12. Sir William (Vol. p. Winthrop. 496). 503). Stuyvesant. 19. Vane. Thomas (Vol. p. 251). p. Smith. 682). 499). (Vol. 264). (Vol. p. 4. Mass. p. 148). 62). William (Vol. N. p. 1.

by Prof. 28. . p. p. (Vol. Y. Delaware (Vol. William (Vol. p. etc. 17. 24. p. Osgood. Montcalm 773). Wolfe. (Vol. Elizabeth. Mason and Dixon Line (Vol. 690). 287). 8. 1745. p. author of Charles II. 19.. 2. Wrong. 413). p. The French and Indian Wars. Shirley. Pontiac (Vol. author of A Canadian Manor and Its Seigneurs. Pennsylvania (Vol. Struggle of the British and the French Pressure of British on in America. p. 290). 26. H. Savannah (Vol. by Maude. p. 18. Niagara. Sir Edmund (Vol. p. p. Dinwiddie. History (Vol. Penn. Ticonderoga (Vol. Philadelphia (Vol. Georgia. The New York In Pennsylvania Frontier and Fighting there. United States. 5. 1. p. 65). 7. 24. 21. 21. Columbia University. etc. William (Vol. by Prof. 490). 9. 755). Lewes (Vol. History. 99). p. p. 27. 949). James Edward (Vol. Jersey. p. Capture of Louisburg. 22. Albany Congress of 1764. author of Short History of the Western Campaigns. 1). D. p. 508). 17. Delaware. The Campaign its and Royal Navy.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 252 New New Jersey (Vol. Lake (Vol. G. Canada. 372). 19. p. New Castle (Vol. 11. 522). 369). 991). Maryland Baltimore. 670)." French the Old-World quarrel carried into the New World. 831). Friends. N. 680). 16. N. p. p. George Calvert. p. Edward (Vol. Society of (Vol. The Continental Contest of which the French and Indian Wars were a Seven Years' part. p. editor Pennsylvania. Mereness. F. L. 111). and Virginia. N. Maryland. (Vol. 156). 728). 21. Robert (Vol. Quebec (Vol. 278). 20. author of as a Proprietary Province. Georgia (Vol. 716). p. by Osmund Airy. M. the nay. Baltimore (Vol. The Struggle with the French (1690-1760) (Vol.D. p. p. 11. p. p. 227). 24. War (Vol. Pittsburg (Vol. Maryland by N. Baron (Vol. 28. 24). Braddock. 937). 62). 6. p. James (Vol. p. 17. Sir William (Vol. Johnson. 3. 19. Carteret. Wilmington (Vol. 11. p. Albany. George. 472). 841). 748). 22. p. 4. p. and David Han- Col. 15. Sir George (Vol. 1st (Vol. against Quebec Capture by the British. 21. 288). Ph. 3. p. " paper barriers. p. p. p. 761). Oglethorpe. p. Fort (Vol. J. of the Lauderdale Papers. 240). Andros. 472). author of War and World's Policy. LouiSBURa (Vol. 634). p.

H. 4. nity. 22. 79). p. p. 17). p. . p. " A complete failure save in the acquisition of 253 California. p. p. Mereness. p. p. 12. p. p. 20. a Proprietary Province. John (Vol. History (Vol. 14. Sir William and Sir John (Vol. by Prof. 19. 5. 28. of Public Opinion: Virginia. p. Virginia leaders decide on independence to secure foreign assistance. 8. The Leaders Stamp Milton. p. (Vol. Harvard. 300). 1. p. Mass. p. p. by Dr. 16. 27. 17. Edward Channing. Seabury. Adams. Patrick (Vol. p. History (Vol. Dickinson. Boston Massacre and Boston Tea (Vol. Samuel (Vol. by Richard Webster. Boston (Vol. 176). Henry. Galloway. editor-in-chief Encyclopaedia Britannica. 13). 1775. D. James (Vol. Pennsylvania. United States. p. p. Joseph (Vol. Bay Company (Vol. Columbia University. 184). p. William MacDonald. 772). 15. author of Maryland. 492). p. Conservative Leaders. Hudson's 20. L. Suffolk Resolves. Henry (Vol. Johnson. Tryon. F. 180). 344). . by Prof. The Colonial Revolt and Events Leading up to It. 123). Langdon. by N. 11. Franklin. (Vol. p. (Vol. 172). Virginia. ma- terial wealth. 18. S. 24). 672). 531). 16. New Hampshire. Mecklenburg Resolutions and " Declaration/' May. Loyalists. 340). Osgood. Samuel by Prof. 247). 13. 776)." The Spaniards neglect northwestern America. 26. holm. History (Vol. 11. Rule of the Missions. British Traders seize the opportu- Oregon. George (Vol. 27. 18. Immediate Causes: The Stamp Act (1765). (1763-1783). History (Vol. John (Vol. Otis. North Carolina (Vol. Adams. 296) Hutchinson. 852). Brown University. or Tories (Vol. Why Quebec Act did not the Canadians revolt? (Vol. p. William (Vol. 421). Benjamin (Vol. 881). 729). 362). New Hamilton. Spanish Government in California.AMERICAN HISTORY Colo7iizatio7i on the Pacific Coast. 472). Alexander (Vol. 'p. p. Lee. p. 28. 1. p. Washington. Philbrick and Hugh Chis- York. 366). Thomas Party. Richard Massachusetts. John (Vol. 24.

11. Charles (Vol. 7. Edward Channing. Richard Henry (Vol. 24). 362). James (Vol. American Franklin. 360). p. 290). R. by Dr. • George III (Vol. 685). 11. Pennsylvania. 28. p. Conciliation. by Morley of p. Blackburn). during the war. William (Vol. by 15. author of History of England. David Hannay. 740). Jefferson. 16. p. Jay. 28. HoPKiNsoN. Edward Channing. 4. 456). 2. 903). Robert (Vol. p. South Carolina. Sherman. New Jersey. 4. p. p. Paine. p. by Prof. F. 16. John (Vol. Robert Treat York. Wilson. 362). Edmund (Vol. MiDDLETON. New 180). Roger (Vol. 372). p. John (Vol. Gardiner. Arthur (Vol. Rutledge. Maryland. John Morley (Viscount 824). 409).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 254 Declaration of Independence. Philbrick. 176). 759). Morris. 294). (Vol. p. Earl of (Pitt) Fox. p. 761). One not until 1781. Franklin. by . (Vol. by Prof. p. 11. 23. p. p. Thomas (Vol. p. especially in France. Samuel (Vol. p. 6. Hancock. p. 9. p. Francis (Vol. 12. F. p. Some adopted 2. 1. p. Deane. Edward (Vol. p. Declaration of (Vol. by Dr. S. 851). 871). 13. Island. Dr. Charlbs James (Vol. 24). p. p. Foreign Agents and their work. 23. 11. p. Frederick North. 14. adopted July Most of the signatures Aug." Burke. Francis Lightfoot (Vol. WiTHERSPOON. 2nd Earl (Lord North) (Vol. Carroll. Silas (Vol. WoLcoTT. Benjamin (Vol. Philip (Vol. Benjamin (Vol. Adams. Lee. 691). English Opinion and Policy. John (Vol. 898). affixed "'. 1). 693). Connecticut. 24. 1. Elbridge (Vol. Philbrick. 10. 16. 28. Resolution July of Independence Jefferson's Declaration of the " Signers Independence. p. p. Guilford. 857). Massachusetts. 18. p. Benjamin (Vol. p. Oliver (Vol. 16. 6. 945). Adams. S. Chatham. Lee. Gerry. 301). 20. Rhode Ellery. Virginia. John (Vol. S. Livingston. 770). 12. p. Arthur (Vol. p. p. 415). 908). 15. Lee. 818). 18. Rush.

p. 639). 529). ROCHAMBEAU (Vol. . Thomas (Vol. author of Loyalist History of the Revolution. 24. C. 432). George (Vol. Henry (Vol. 85). p. p. 16. p. 15. by David Hannay. Horatio (Vol. 18. Arnold (Vol. George Rogers (Vol. 23. 28. 25. Clark. 11. John (Vol. 15. Gates. George (Vol. Richard (Vol. 789). In the Northwest On Henry (Vol. Philip John (Vol. 691). 17. 878). Johann (Vol. p. 18. p. 22. 442). p. 1. Horatio (Vol. 633). New York University. p. 26. p. 826). Shelby. 387). Andrew (Vol. p. p. Putnam. Kalb.AMERICAN HISTORY 255 The War for Independence. William (Vol. p. p. Nathaniel (Vol. 24. Pickens. Warren. p. 904). Sumter. Washington. Sea John Paul (Vol. War Lafayette (Vol. 633). 925). by Prof. p. 936). 11. 529). Wayne. 9. p. p. On the border and in Canada Allen. 722). 842). Moultrie. (Vol. Francis (Vol. p. 330). Stark. by Prof. Royal Navy. p. p. p. Lee. Washington. Benedict. 12. Jones. and. p. p. 582). German Steuben (Vol. 344). Hopkins. Earl op (Vol. 425). 15. Knox. War American General outline. 65). p. p. p. p. Benedict (Vol. 26. William MacDonald. 22. author of A Short History of the 1. William Alexander. p. 538). p. 15. 28. Greene. 499). p. by Prof. Montgomery. 25. 361). p. Joseph (Vol. Anthony (Vol. Harry Phelps Johnston. John (Vol. 6. 28. 684). Daniel Marion. p. 784). d' Polish Kosciuszko (Vol. 16. 798). Stirling. Paul (Vol. (Vol. Sullivan. Morgan. Pulaski (Vol. 640). Brown In the Middle States University. Brown University. 2. Gates. American Leaders In early fighting in Massachusetts Revere. Schuyler. Esek (Vol. 57). p. 223). H. p. 869). Grasse. 28. 914). Arnold. 23. for naval affairs. 670). Comte de (Vol. p. of Independence (Vol. 2. p. Foreign Officers in the French 13. Isaac (Vol. 21. Israel (Vol. Ethan (Vol. William MacDonald. Estaing. 18. 833). 26. 84-4). In the South p. 12.

(Vol. 804). p. Governmental History. p. 26. versity. 938). Crown Point (Vol. Sir Banastre (Vol. 7. 1. p. 836). Valley Forge (Vol. George Brydges (Vol. Charleston Camden King's Mountain (Vol. 16. F. Saratoga (Vol. p. Howe. 13. 447). 430). CoRNWALLis. p. 957). 205). 529). by Dr. Long Island (Vol. p. 296). 681 ). a Proprietary Province.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 256 English Leaders On land Howe. John (Vol. 906). 727). 3. 16. p. and Cold Harbour. 519). p. 966). 4. H. Mereness. 6. 4. 53). p. p. p. (Vol. 24. Osgood. On Hastings. by C. 183). p. p. 559). 527). p. Eutawville YoRKTOWN (Vol. Marquess of (Lord Rawdon) sea (Vol. 28. 18. 4. 728). Byron. John (Vol. 23. (Vol. Sir Henry (Vol. Rodney. John (Vol. Brandywine Germantown (Vol. p. Quebec Middle States (Vol. New York 27. William (Vol. Charles (Vol. Columbia Uni- Difficulties of ratification. 11. Bunker Hill (Vol. 798). Bennington (Vol. 5. p. 936). First United States. 25. Tarleton. 428). 102). 15. 4. D. 28. (Vol. Monmouth (Vol. BuRGOYNE. Trenton and Princeton (Vol. 17. p. Clinton. City (Vol. p. p. p. 9. 7. Ticonderoga (Vol. History (Vol. p. p. N. p. p. 26. p. The Principal Engagements War. the Canada and the Border Lexington (Vol. 252). Andre. 819). 6. p. 13. p. 622). 819). (Vol. 944). 743). 27. p. Stony Point West Point South (Vol. 984). 864). p. of The Wilderness author Atkinson. author of Maryland. 839). p. 22. . Richard (Vol. Maryland attempts at Confederation Article of Con(1776-1789). 13. 19. 832). federation (1777-1781). 5. p. p. p. by Prof. p. Concord (Vol. (Vol. 27. 968). 830). Boston (Vol. p. L. Separately Treated Around Boston of 4.

Va. 294). Philbrick. (Vol. Brown University. Alexander (Vol. p. Philadelphia. 12. Federalist Party (Vol. Government found impossible under the articles (1783-1789). 572). Recognition of the Treaty of United States. Annapolis (1786). (Vol. Development of Democracy (1789- United States. 13. p. Hamilton. as President 17. p. 347). 17. Alexander Opposition and Ratification. 1. 63). C. p. assistant edi- Territorial cessions Encyclopaedia Britannica. Anti-Federalists (Vol. Morris. by Prof. 372). 869). professor of American History. Jay. p. British Ambassador at Washington. and Hugh Chis- S. Philadelphia (1787). 176). 1. F. George (Vol. p. History (Vol. Jefferson. 22. James (Vol. William MacDonald. 15. 777). Franklin. p. 18. 235). by Dr. (Sept. p. p. p. Charles Pinckney New New Jersey (Paterson) Struggle over State Representation. Princeton Univer- and C. 27. Jay. and government. Whinery. fessor sity. (Vol. Constitution and Government (Vol. p. Patrick (Vol. 300). 19. Henry. Thomas (Vol. Alexandria (1785). Annapolis. 688). 252). Madison. p. Alexander Johnston. 294). 512). Henry United States. 303). History (Vol. 27. p. Connecticut Jersey (Vol. 880). Philbrick holm. p. Government Under the Constitution. C. Versailles 1783). Alexander Johnston and 1801). p. 21. John Laurens. p. Gouverneur (Vol. James Bryce. and author of The American Commonwealth. Washington John (1789- 1797). 956). 286). 23. 11. p. F. 10. p. (Vol. ratified by all North Carolina (Vol. J. United States. 880). The Critical Period. 284). p. by Dr.AMERICAN HISTORY Necessity for centralization (1779-1780). . 27. (Vol. Connecticut. Whinery. John (Vol. 21. Rhode Island (Vol. 19. (Vol. S. C. The form of Government established by the Constitution. 27). by Dr. p. Roundabout origin of the Constitu- Madison. James (Vol. Harvard University. Edmund Pinckney. Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Edward Channing. History (Vol. editor 11th Edition Encyclopaedia Britannica. 124). 28. 285). Benjamin (Vol. (Vol. p. 616). late pro- by Dr. p. by Richard Webster. Washington. Adams. p. Ordinance of 1787. History Struggle for National Government. S. C. 16. Va. 684). The three plans Virginia Randolph. 6. by Dr. 12. compromise. 15. p. p. p. 15. F. Constitution finally the States. p. 886). of history. 2. (Vol. by Hon. tional Conventions Alexandria. by Dr. seen 257 Hamilton. 646). tor. Origin of the Senate. (Vol. 2. Philbrick and Hugh Chisholm.

1. 12. Webster. Philbrick and Hugh Chisholm. p. Vermont and Kentucky. 668). Election of Jefferson (1800). History (Vol. Philbrick. 24. Invention of cotton gin (1793) and its far-reaching consequences. p. 27. Navy. by Henry Cabot Lodge. 15. John (Vol. p. Democratic Party State Rights (Vol. First employment by the Federal Executive of power to enforce Federal laws within the States. ferson the later and officially the Democratic-Republican. p. 124). Hannay. checked by the little American navy. U. Pirate and Piracy. 21. Early threats. C. and later still simply the Democratic Party. p. Eaton. p. 16. U.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 258 The first Tariflf act. 27. 248). . S. 8. Hamilton. The Democratic Party called by JefRepublican Party. 62). Opposition of Jef- p. author of Short History of the Royal Navy. p. Albert (Vol. 1789. Navy and Navies. Oregon. Whinery. 26. 425). by Dr. by Admiralty Administration Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. W. 16. by (Vol. p. p. William (Vol. 746). p. 6. Madison. S. S. by Prof. Navy Department Adams. 19. p. Sampson. introducing a commercial element Whitney. 28. 881). p. The United States David Hannay. 414). 308). Part in them taken by Jefferson and Madison. a erate protective measure. p. p. Walter L. 1028). professor Harvard University. Fleming. p. William (Vol. 294). Kentucky (Vol. 16. p. 17. 592). (Vol. Whisky Insurrection Jay's treaty with England (1794). 286). James (Vol. mod- Admission of new States. by Dr. Alexander Johnston and 1829). Louisiana Purchase (Vol. 25. Excise troubles (1794). into slavery. etc. 8. a basis for future acquisition of territory in the far west. Secession (Vol. editor-in-chief Encyclopaedia Britannica. 802). by Prof. Democracy and Nationality (1801- United States. 611). F. 2). by D. 692). p. Dr. Vermont (Vol. Presidency of John Adams. p. 839). The acquisition of Louisiana (1803). Kentucky (Vol. 28. Thomas (Vol. Alien and Sedition Laws. (Vol. Hamilton's efforts for strength and stability. Taussig. 201). Edward Channing of Harvard. 746). p. by the late Rear. Gallatin. biographer of Washington.Admiral William T. professor Louisiana State University. Its defects. Virginia (Vol. Idea of Secession present from the beginning. etc. 803). p. F. Alexander (Vol. by Dr. 1. 638). 11. ferson. The Lewis-Clark expedition (1804. 442). Meriwether (Vol. Eli 17. History (Vol. Jay. p. 28. Jefferson. author of Principles of Economics. (Vol. 20. Clark. (Vol. Senator from Massachusetts. War with the Barbary pirates These robbers first (1805). Tariff (Vol.' History (Vol. His" tendency towards Aristocracy. S. Organization of (1798). p. p. John (Vol. F. C. 176). p. Lewis. 15. 523).

on American On the p. 8. p. (Vol. : After the War. Brown. Fort (Vol. Madison. professor of history. p. p. Sackett's Harbor (Vol. 107). Decatur. Robert (Vol. 185). 28. p. by Sir Thomas Barclay. Florida. p. 10. p. 23. p. by D. p. Sir P. 24. Burr. 21. American Principal engagements and Strategic Points In the Northwest Mackinac Island (Vol. 825). William (Vol. 660). 22. Jackson.AMERICAN HISTORY War Derna with Barbary Pirates. p. author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy. Search. Military and naval events. 869). 3. Aaron (Vol. 4. 63). Hartford (Vol. Oliver Hazard (Vol. p. Niagara. Jacob (Vol. 23. Washington (Vol. p. Madison. 13. Reaction against Federalist party Acquisition of Florida (1819) Federalist Party (Vol. p. Election of Madison (1808). New Orleans (VoL Leaders in the Land and on Sea Principal War 19. 23. 740). James (Vol. 27. Hull. Chauncey. 847). p. Wilkinson. 33). p. (Vol. David (Vol. Winfield (Vol. p. 862). In the Southwest Baltimore (Vol. 113). Hull. Perry. Stephen (Vol. author of Short History of the Royal Navy. 4. p. p. 74). 831). 4. Brock. War of 1812 (Vol. tion. Andrew (Vol. Michigan (Vol. 910). 4. p. 17. 635). 18. Porter. p. 284). Plattsburg (Vol. p. 235). 1. 24. 447). 19. 286). 623). 352). 376). p. by David Hannay. p. Broke. 659). Ho- garth. p. Difficulties with Great Britain. 290). V. 28. 116). p. 10. Re- Commerce and right strictions of of search. University of Cincinnati. History (Vol. The War of 1812. p. 18). Sir Isaac (Vol. Isaac (VoL Expedition of Aaron Burr 1807). (1806- 13. B. . Bainbridge. Opposition to the war in New England The Hartford Convention. 631). 475). p. p. p. Isaac (Vol. p. 7. p. p. Ross. Isaac Joslin Cox. 21. 26. p. In the East Champlain (Vol. 17. 13. p. 259 (Vol. 266). 628). G. 17. p. John Tecumseh Weakness of Madison's Administra- (Vol. 6. 974). p. 6. 223). Toronto (Vol. by Dr. 869). 8. 3. James (Vol. 15. 647). Scott. other side Rodgers. or Visit and Search (Vol. Detroit (Vol. 499). James (Vol. 545). Isaac (Vol.

Fixing the 20. p. p. American Tariff Legislation. p. p. England. J. by Charles A. Protection (Vol. Free vs. p. Woolsey. 439). 309). Maine. 736). History (Vol. professor of history. Industrial Development and Sectional Divergence. Henry (Vol. by Dr. by Carl tective tariff and internal Edmund J.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 260 Bank of the United States (1816). Henry (Vol. S. Morse. author of Tariff Tariff revision (1816-1828). 14. 613). professor of International Law. sia (1825). which Clay and others tried to compromise (1820). Missouri (1821) Missouri. by Prof. James (Vol. author of History of provements begun by Dallas and carried on by himself and the Whig and Republican parties. 28. Illinois. by Carl Schurz. C. W. A. p. The Monroe Doctrine (1823). History of the United States. later the Whig) under J. A Whig Party nationalizing element in the Republican Party fostered by commercial and manufacturing elements in the East fuses with broad constructionists to form (Vol. 470). Dallas. p. W. p. 18. Anson D. F. " System " — Clay's The American name for the combination of pro- etc. 462). 127). Harvard. 17. 471). by Dr. Slave States. . Adams and Clay (1824). 697). Mississippi (1817) Mississippi. 7. H. United States. p. 14. p. p. 178). 18. Harvard Uni- new party (National Republican. History (Vol. 248). The " power of the people " estab- versity. p. History (Vol. 425). History (Vol. 738). Admission of new States: Indiana (1816) Indiana. p. 18. Taussig. im- 22. p. Monroe Doctrine (Vol. p. College. 345). author of Life of Henry Clay. 425). William Roy Smith. 768). History (Vol. 18. by Prof. president of University of Illinois. by Prof. p. (Vol. James. Northwest Boundary: Agreements with Great Britain (1818 and 1827) and with Rus- Oregon. 18. History (Vol. 26. Tariff (Vol. p. 27. History (Vol. Alabama. Missouri. p. p. author of The History of Modern Banks. Conant. 18. John Quincy (Vol. lished. 614). Clay. Yale University. 613). 6. 8. Democratic Party (Vol. biographer of Clay. p. Jackson and the Democratic Party. History (Vol. p. History (Vol. 386). (Vol. 6. 2). by Prof. 2. Amherst College. by Dr. Missouri Compromise (Vol. 6. Q. Anti-Masonic Party (Vol. Alexander Johnston and C. Clay. Theodore S. Banks and Banking. 465). United States (Vol. Schurz. Edward Channing. Whinery. Adams. Bryn Mawr Beginning of a sectional struggle. 602). 689). 1. Illinois (1818) Alabama (1819) Maine (1820) p. The first weighty international Government warning European states at instance of tion of the to — ac- Monroe. p. 1. Crawford.

Edward (Vol. p. W. Livingston. 12. The debate on in the nullification — U. 534). and (1835) Chief Taney. Dis- Judge. 124). R. L. Martin (Vol. p. Louisiana State University. Daniel (Vol. Ingram. Tariff. p. United States (Vol. p. The Jacksonian Senate. 6. Wheeler. M. (Vol. Hayne. United States (Vol. 36. Lundy. Jackson's New lieutenant in War leader in Secretary. H. U. Benton. J. W. Taussig. Van Buren's York. p. p. 19. Jackson's lieutenant and suc- Van Buren. 3. p. by S. Brown cessor. fall of doctrine of Nulli- Rise and fication (1830). the 1831- Marcy. 26. O'Neill (" Peggy 8. 838). Green. p. 26. History (Vol. 811). John C. Treasurer. by Prof. History (Vol. L. The new school of leaders. 15. Conant. W. (Vol. p. F. Its leaders. University. p. author of Tariff History of the United States. Jackson and the Bank. Georgia. by C. Eaton. Nullification not original with Cal- houn. History of the United States. B. etc. T. . by Prof. United States (Vol. W. Calhoun. p. Nullification (Vol. K. 16. Duff (Vol. Justice. 5. author of History of Modern Banks of Issue. who drafted the anti-nullification proclamation. 225). F. 26. (Vol. 17. Tariff of 1832. 477). etc. author of Tariff Beginning of abolitionist movement Slavery. 504). p. Compromise Tariff of 1833. by Everett P. p. 26. (1 83 1 ) . (Vol. Jackson. p. The " Liberator. 25. State of Secretary Jackson's (1831-33). p. 3. p. 455). Harvard University. William G. 881). 13. Sumner. 11. 461). 346). author of Daniel Webster. Fleming. South Carolina. by Prof. The Kitchen Cabinet and the Cabinet Crisis. Yale University. Webster. trict 1). p. Lewis (Vol. p. Harvard. 753). (Vol. 756). William MacDonald. S. 28. Banks and Banking. by Prof. Benjamin Garrison. Senate Webster and Hayne. p." Foundation of American Anti-Slavery Society (1831). 396). Smith. author of Life of Andrew Jackson. 425). Hon. Margaret O'Neill") (Vol. South Carolina. 114). by the late Prof. by Dr. Opposition in the South to the Protective System. " The reign of Andrew Jackson (1829-1837). 11. Robert Young (Vol. Andrew (Vol.AMERICAN HISTORY 261 Tendencies to Disunion (1829-1851). p. 696). 107). 846). 27. Henry A. Jackson's Attorney-General. Cass. 17. Walter L. A. 425). (Vol. Georgia and the Cherokees. Tariff (Vol. p. Taussig.

Tariff (Vol. Liberty Party (Vol. p. 288). Cox. K. 18. Charles (Vol. Texas (Vol. F. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (Vol. Mexico. 28. Admission of Texas (1846). 383). 346)." Seminole Phillips. 24. p. 756). R. The northern boundary " Fifty-four forty or fight. p. 828). by Thomas Wentworth Higginson. James G. 983). 6. with Mexico (1846-1848). p. 17). K. Smith. p. p. Sam (Vol. History (Vol. Walker. Compromise Measures of 1850 (Vol. 261). p.Ana (Vol. BiRNEY. and Discovery of Gold there. p. 16. David (Vol. 813). Wilmot. 691). History (Vol. Salmon P. W. Polk's Administration. 18. p. ures. ScOTT. 357). by Prof. 184). p. 473). San Antonio. Taussig. 21. p. 340). 252). W. . p. (1848). 6. New Leaders in the '60's. David (VoL 28. 21. p. Seward. F. (Vol. Austin. Bryn Mawr College. by Prof. author of History of the United States. System (1846). p. Smith. Gadsden. 407). Zachary (Vol. by Prof. 692). 26. 20. (Vol. 956). 940). Texas independent (1836). 2. Polk. (Vol. 11. 28. 249). University of Cincinnati. 26. 7. p. Free Soil Party (Vol. Wilmot Proviso and similar meas- R. (Vol. p. W. Rhode Island (Vol. 6. p. Various political elements join to oppose introduction of slavery into territories (1847-1848). by Prof. p. Harvard University. 983). 126). 477. Mexico of Texas. p. Independent Treasury 6. Wendell (Vol. p. 26. (Vol. p. 733). " Dorr's Rebellion. 3. 476). Tariff Reduction. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850). 25. p. J. James (Vol. Smith. Mexico City (Vol. by Prof. Fugitive Slave Laws (Vol. 474). War (1835-1842). Cession of California California. p. S. p. Crockett. 13. Santa. John M. R. The Generals and the Fighting. 347). p. p." Clayton. Sumner. p. p. 11. 26. History (VoL The Gadsden Purchase (1863). 11. p. 24. Osceola (Vol. WiNFIELD (Vol. College. Georgia (Vol. William H. 24. Bryn Mawr. p. Bryn Opposition in Georgia. 23. Compromise Measures of 1860. J. 425). 6. Walker Bill of 1846. 81). p. 24. War Taylor. 20. Washington. Oregon. Houston. History (Vol. p. 21. 988). Chase. Northern anti-slavery men. Polk. Gerrit (Vol. 543).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 262 Dissent from this view and formation of anti-slavery political party (1840). History (Vol. p. Smith. p. (Vol. Robert James (Vol. Mawr Fugitive Slave Laws. 475). 273). 11. W. 87). (Vol. Isaac J.

Opening of Japan (1854). Japan. John Admission of Minnesota and Oregon. 896). Whinery. Taney. 8). by the late Prof. Know Nothing Party (Vol. Douglas. p. A. leader. History (Vol. by Hon. Abraham (Vol. Man Lincoln elected with Hannibal lin of Ham- Maine as Vice-President. author of The The Presidential Campaign of 1860. 7. Nicolay. The Fillmore. election of 1856. and Dr. Stephens. History (Vol. (Vol. 446). (Vol. 3. Minnesota. 8. Perry. author of Japan. Republican Party (Vol. 344). 15. D. 446). Party. p. " popular Northern sla- sovereignty 263 Davis. 97). 690). p. W. by John G. 330). C. 716). 703). 877). Amherst College. p. Lincoln and Douglas debates in Illinois Senatorial contest (1858). late editor of " The Japan Mail ". History Efforts to obtain Cuba in the interests of Slavery. 11. 802). p. p. p. 15. Morse. p. Origin of (1854). p. Hannibal (Vol. 26. A. author (with John Hay) of Abraham Lincoln —a History. State Rights (Vol. Manifesto (1854). 21. p. by Prof. Lincoln. Jefferson (Vol. Bell. Secession (1860-1861). (Vol. Mereness. Louisiana State University. Kansas-Nebraska Bill. 396). Alexander Johnston of Princeton and C. 11. 12. 4. N. protecting very in the Territories. Whinery. 19. by Dr. Millard (Vol. p. 184). p. C. Fleming. History (Vol. 707). 26.AMERICAN HISTORY Southern leaders. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 237). p. Lincoln. A. 16. 658). C. James (Vol. A. Nebraska. History (Vol. p. p. p. Everett. Whinery. 24. 20. The Ostend Buchanan. by Prof. Frank Brinkley. Roger B. Without a Country. G. Oregon. by J. 887). etc. p. by Capt. 177). (Vol. Stephen A. 8. p. p. Nicolay and C. 705). M. effects (1857). The Dred Scott decision and its John 10. L. 4. H. W. 686). 85). History (Vol. Hamlin. Missouri Compromise. p. C. 11th edition. p. 17. C. S. Edward (Vol. FREMoiiT. The American — or " Know Nothing " Whig Party (Vol. Edward Everett Hale. (Vol. Morse. 27. Amherst College. p. (Vol. John Brown's Raid (1859). III. 16. p. Brown. and C. p. Abraham (Vol. the repealing Republican Party Kansas. 867). W. (Vol. 28. p. late president of the American Historical Association. 23. Secession (Vol. assistant editor. John (Vol. 15. 553). 10. Freeport. by Prof. 26. (Vol." Attempt to Law uphold Fugitive Slave a death blow to the of 1850 Whig Party. p. D. D. . 568). 660). Henry. 249). Douglas. United States. (Vol.

Fort (Vol. Tennessee. 17. p. p. 117). p. p. battles. p. (Vol. by William Henry and Hon. 6. Battle of luKA Corinth New Madrid (Vol. (Vol. (Vol. p. by Major G. p. 28. Va. Vicksburg (Vol. (Vol. Robert (Vol. 6. Fredericks- Stone River. (Vol. Yale. 8. Alexander H. 527). 10. William Lowndes (Vol. Mason. 21. 226). Redway. Atkinson. p. Marietta. 883). Perryville (Vol. tietam (Vol. . 6. (1861). p. 11. p. Richmond. elson. Bull Run mous ton. author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour: Washington (Vol. Chancellorsville (Vol. . C. History (Vol. Z. with two maps. 11. Chickamauga Creek (Vol. 15. 18. Jefferson President Vice-President 887). 26. 882). 21). 14). 531). Chattanooga (Vol. 6. (Vol. 19. p. 2. Mo. both with fine maps. 15. article 818). (Vol. Toombs. History (Vol. 633). 911). (Vol. 516). p. with maps. 3. 241). 5. p. 1861). 715). Franklin. Other leaders and administrators Benjamin. 624). 707). p. author of The Confederate States of America. p. 28. p. p. On the leaders on both sides see the biographical articles : McClellan. p. 124). 944). D. 22. 28. The main (Vol. (Vol. 11. 130). p. (Vol. p. S. Columbia. 28. James Murray (Vol. (Vol. p. Ark. p. 13. 124). p. p. 34). Port Hudson (Vol. 835). p. p. 107). 4. p. 18. 150). (Vol. 867). and written by Major George W. John H. Europe 28. with map. p. 633). 606). p. 1. Baton Rouge (Vol. p. 5. Judah Reagan.36). Nashville (Vol. 7). 3. 969). p. 854) Savannah (Vol.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 264 Organization and administration of the Confederacy. 24. Ga. 47). 859). 2. p. 24. 19. (Vol. Commissioners to Vance. P. p. (Vol. p. 899). p. 940). 241). Howell (Vol. see also Wilderness (Vol. CONFEDERATE StATES OF AMERICA (Vol. Helena. 7. Yancey. 521). May Secession by popular vote. p. (Vol. American Civil War by Capt. p. Battle of 2. History (Vol. p. Redway. Galveston (Vol. p. (Vol. 28. 27. p. 739). Atlanta (Vol. Tenn. with map. 431). p. 23. 791). 87). p. 25. 13. 19. Charles F. p. 6. p. is richly supplemented with detailed accounts of the principal campaigns and battles. B. 27. 7. For battles and campaigns see: Charleston (Vol. Atkinson. 301). 133) Hampton Roads (Vol. 25. J. Gettysburg (Vol. The people of Virginia divide the State (May. C. Knoxville (Vol. p. 185). 966). . Shiloh. p. Mobile (Vol. 25. p. 12. YoRKTOWN (Vol. by C. 24. F. 936) 24. 906). 352). Virginia. 902). Red River (Vol. 311). with 4 maps. p. 247). 16. p. (Vol. 68). Appomattox Court House (Vol. p. p. 839). Slidell. Wirt N. Mereness. and biographies of military leaders on both the Federal and Confederate sides. 414). Wilderni:ss (Vol. p. Stephens. 28. (Vol. 22. 11. p. West Virginia. Petersburg (Vol. Cobb. W. with map and description of both fa- and Campaigns Battles LexingShenan- (Vol. 22. An- John 17. p. by Dr. burg (Vol. Schwab. p. author of The War of Secession: Fair Oaks (Vol. p. p. Don- (Vol. p. 28. 219). author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. p. 563). 6. Seven Days' Battle (Vol. Memphis New Orleans Harper's Ferry (Vol. 21. doah Valley Campaigns 834) . Davis. 738).

William Starke (Vol. Anderson. 19. 345) Newton. Logan. 17. 12. 22. 17. 344). John Cabell (Vol. James (Vol. p. p. 21. 267). Johnston. Porter. 25. Doubleday. 202). Schofield. 24. MacPherson. p. FooTE. John Generals Adams (Vol. Burnside. p. 934) 7. Ambrose Powell (Vol. p. p. . John Alexander (Vol. p. Morgan Lewis. Darius Nash (Vol. Farragut. 578) Reynolds. 17. p.AMERICAN HISTORY George Brinton (Vol. 259) Garfield. 33). 127) Lyon. Thomas. p. 260). p. 592). p. Smith. 7. 16. Cox. Sigel. 8. 18. p. George (Vol. 18. p. John McAuley (Vol. and^ Smith. 355). George Gordon (Vol. p. p. Couch. 173). 881). . . Crittenden. p. Irvin (Vol. p. 4. 464) Ewell Richard Stoddert (Vol. Nelson . 116). p. . Oliver Otis (Vol. Lewis (Vol. Jo. Cadwalader Colden (Vol. 891). John (Vol. Smith. 472). 24. 8. 17. William (Vol. p. 17. p. Henry Jackson (Vol. 26. Lee. Meade. 4. John Bell (Vol. 333). 8. p. Shields. p. Floyd. William Tecumseh (Vol. Wesley A. Don Carlos (Vol. 329) Howard. p. p. And. 25. 4. 28. Jackson. p. George (Vol. 83) . p. l5. 671). . 441). 890). p. John (Vol. p. 16. 984). 11. 265 Banks. p. Hooker. 28. 7. 945) Pope. by John Fiske and Capt. p. Horace (Vol. Atkinson. 695) Tracy. 625). p. C. "Stonewall" (Vol. 28. 187). Albert p. Longstreet. Daniel. 962) Wilson. p. 23. p. p. 13. Merritt. 960). McCook. p. 12. 11. 17. James Abram (Vol. 847) Slocum. Wallace. 173). 276). p. David Glasgow (Vol.474) Beauregard. p. 22. . Ulysses Simpson (Vol. 25. 7. 4. 442). p. 12. 8. Henry Warner (Vol. Andrew Atkinson (Vol. Carl (Vol. p. p. 24. Nathaniel Prentiss Washburn. Edmund Kirby (Vol. guson (Vol. 87) Buell. Daniel Edgar (Vol. 22. Johnston. and McCook. William Joseph (Vol. Jacob Dolson (Vol. p. Benjamin Franklin (Vol. p. p. 4. 25. Nathaniel (Vol. p. p. 909) (Vol. 483). 13. Porter. Charles (Vol. 13. Winfield Scott (Vol. 4. 946). James Harrison (Vol. p. 346). p. 214). p. Robert Edward (Vol. 115). p. Jural Anderson (Vol. p. Smith. p. 751) Rosecrans. Devens. CusHiNG. . William Barker (Vol. 362). 463) Hill. 16. Thomas Jonathan. p. Bragg. 10. F. 15. p. p. Custer. Sedgwick. 271). 464). p. Kearny. Philip Charles Fer259) Smith. John Fulton (Vol. p. p. Abner (Vol. Richard Henry (Vol1. 25. Halleck. p. 15. Hancock. p. 861). }. 120). 22. James Birdseye . . Pierre G. 9 85). 40). 113). Benjamin Franklin (Vol. McClernand. Bibb (Vol. Sum. Butterfield. 27. 10. John McAllister (Vol. James (Vol. 201). 734) Sherman. 34). Wager Grant. Gouverneur Kemble (Vol. Early. seph Eggleston (Vol. 25. 13. 854) . p. p. p. 28. (Vol. p. 268). . Stoneman. p. 23. 797). Thomas Leonidas (Vol. . . Fitz-John (Vol. McDowell. p. 307). 25. 856). 15. . Francis Preston (Vol. Edwin Vose Franz (Vol. Blair. 645) McCook. Giles Alexander (Vol. p. BucKNER. Ambrose Everett (Vol. 665). 26. 7. Sheridan. p 110). 732). ner. Leonidas (Vol. Braxton (Vol. Sickles. 471). Confederate Generals . 25. Breckinridge. 20. 13. 866). p. 833). . Simon Bolivar Crittenden. 17. 24. 3. 205). p. Franklin. 851). p. Humphreys. William Buel (Vol. 36) Schurz. . 17. 667). John . (Vol. Daniel (Vol. . 866). Farrar (Vol. Andrew Jackson (Vol. David Dixon (Vol. George Henry (Vol. 226) Warren. Dix. 10. George Armstrong (Vol. p. 386). Henry Union (Vol. 668). 24. 471). p. 60). 573). 941). p. 13. 24. John Alexander (Vol. 4. Andrew Hull (Vol. . Daniel Harvey (Vol. Sidney (Vol. 12. 25. 243) Butler. Alexander McDowell. John (Vol. Hardee. Polk. T. Smith. 10. Joseph (Vol. p. . Philip Henry (Vol. Palmer. for Confederate leaders: Lee. 599). Miles. p. (Vol. p. p. . p. (Vol. p. 7. John Buchanan (Vol. 352) Meagher Thomas Francis (Vol. James (Vol. . ter. 3. p. 376) Hood. p. 4. 707). 13. p. Por(Vol. Hunt. JIill. p.

by J. James EwELL Brown (Vol. p. Prof. Homestead and Exemption Laws War Tariffs (1862-1864). Lincoln. p. G. 18. Establishment of National Banking System (1862-1865). Conant. 10. Knights of the Golden Circle 15. ical party. and Fif- by W. 833).). 890). Morrill. 834). Constitution and Government (Vol. 28. Prof. and granted to agricultural colleges (1862). L. p. 24. Abraham (Vol. Andrew. 868). 647. 347). Harvard. John Hunt (Vol. C. 586) During the Civil Forrest. 201). p. United States (Vol. 3. p. by Dr. 709). assistant editor. by Prof. Freedmen's Bureau (Vol. 27. Second election of Lincoln (1864). N.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 266 364). p. p. B. 16. 76). Henry Alexander (Vol. 18. Harvard University. DoRN. biographer of Lincoln. Whinery. W. F. p. Wade HUGH (Vol. p. 25. (Vol. John A. by James Bryce. 11. Richard (Vol. Van 887). Jo- seph (Vol. 765). Louisiana State University. 869). Abraham (Vol. 973). Nicolay and C. (Vol. 28. Fleming. by United States. 360). 2. C. (Vol. 27. S. D. p. p. by Dr. author of The American Commonwealth. United States. Ashby. W. author of Banks of Issue. 711). 26. (Vol. (Vol. Articles War. (Vol. G. p. 110). United Emancipation (1863). p. etc. p. p. 13. Seymour. 12. Earl (Vol. 16. 833). 668. p. Fourteenth teenth Amendments. States (Vol. The War Governors of the North- Curtin. 27. L. . D. Topics for Reading Political History . 17. Horatio (Vol. author of Tariff History of the United States. 639). 16. ton. 1. Howard. 673). John Singleton (Vol. Morgan. Banks and Banking. p. p. a. Opposition to the War in the North. Wise. Thirteenth. Nicolay. 18. Organizing the negroes into a polit- Opposition to Reconstruction Measures (1865-1876). p. W. Assassination of Lincoln (1865). . 28. Stephen Dill (Vol. 905). 27. Copperheads (Vol. Turner. 882). Whinery. Oliver P. 7. Turner (Vol. 16. J. O. E. (Vol. (Vol. ern States. p. p. p. (Vol. Nathan 751). The Reconstruction Vallandigham. p. Mosby. (Vol. Yates. p. 12. 18. p. p. Mereness. Morton. 425). p. G. O. McClellan. Fleming. pp. Fitz- Wheeler. 1047) Hamp. Lee. 730) Stuart. p. (Vol. 862). Ku Klux Klan (Vol. Fleming. by Charles A. by Prof. J. 16. 687). (Vol. 13. by G. 7. History Period. 18. and C. Paper money (1862). (Vol. Frederick J. C. 908). p. 707). Lincoln. L. Morgan. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Tariff. p. L. professor of history. 661). Taussig. Bedford (Vol. p. p. 942). Greenbacks Public lands given to settlers at reduced rates (1862).

by Dr.. 7. p. (Vol. United States (Vol. 284). James (Vol. 27. George A. etc. p. p. p. McCuLLocH. (Vol. Withdrawal of Federal troops from Hayes. p. 172). Hugh Grant's two administrations (18691877). Allison. 17. 357). Jay (Vol. T. p. 10. The "Virginius" Affair (1878). War with the Sioux. p. Arthur. p. etc. The Legal Tenders. Treaty of Washington (1871). Godkin. Factions in Republican Party. by Prof. 950). FiSK. The Panic of 1873 and the Inflation Gould. 464). Succession of the Vice-President. Greenbacks (Vol. p. 181). (Vol. gress. Electoral Commission TiLDEN. author of American Political Ideas. p. 11. (Vol." Johnson's Policy: his impeachment. Beginning of Woman's Suffrage Woman (Vol. B. Platt. 6. Grant. Assassination of Garfield. 1. The greatest abuses. p. 6. Bill (1874). 788). 536). 207). 970). Utah (Vol. Triumph of Civil Service (1883). p. 26. The Hayes-Tilden Contest (1876). 391). Civil Service (Vol. . p. 12. L. S. Taussig. Carl (Vol. p. Anti-Polygamy Act (1882). McMaster. p. Harvard University. (Vol. A. S. Reform p. sacre (1876). author of Wilderness and Cold Harbour. Schurz. 386) . Reconstruction Gov- See under History in articles on Southern " Scalawags " and " Carpet Bag- Carpet Bagger States. 340). Political unrest in the West (1873- Movement Farmers' (Vol. 9. (Vol. 112). p. Johnson. Tariff (Vol. 26. James A. Crackanthorpe. (Vol. p. 24. Railway American political scandal. 426). p. p. p. 696). 818). author of Tariff History of the United States.Allison Republicans regain control of Con- E. U. (Vol. 461). W. gers. 12. 7. by Prof. John Fiske. F. 825). p. (Vol. 12. p. by Carl Schurz. Reform. p. Santiago de Cuba (Vol. 24. p. 12. The Alabama Claims. 683). Andrew (Vol. 18. John B. (Vol. B. 846). 15. by Montague H. C. 174). Mormons (Vol. Tariff revision (1883). C. and C. Custer mas- Credit Mobilier of America (Vol. Atkinson. Custer. Impeachment (Vol. 13. "Alabama" Arbitration (Vol. — Bland. W. 414). 193). the South. University of Pennsylvania. 21. author of A History of the People of the United States. 397). 437). F. R. CoNKLiNG. J. 14. (Vol. p. Monetary Question Act (1878). Roscoe (Vol. 10. p. 28. 1. 6.AMERICAN HISTORY 267 Character of ernment. Garfield. Civil Service. (1869). 2. Black Friday (1869). 668). 1874). p. 465).

Beginning of restriction of Negro suffrage (1890). Wjjght. special investigator of Trusts for U. Wright. North Carolina. Q. Taussig. p. Labor combinations. author of The Principles of Economics. by C. J. 27. formerly editor The Evening Post. Columbia University. 27. by Charles Emory Smith. Georgia. Trade Unions. 14. S. late U. New York University. Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890). Interstate Commerce (Vol. Republican success in 1888. Federal legislation. 13. Bimetallism (Vol. Foster. United States (Vol. Mugwump Party Breaks. American control in Samoa (1889). election of Grover Cleve- First land. W. by Foster. 711). The candidates. Harrison. late editor Albany Journal and Philadelphia Press. State. by Carroll D. Constitution and Government (Vol. Princeton University. 256). Benjamin (Vol. Fetter. etc. p. Opening of Indian Lands (18891898). United States (Vol. Benjamin Harrison. social unrest. Prof. Reed. Mills. p. p. 6. The campaign of 1892. Samoa. late U. Dunning. 850). W. p. Frank A. Oklahoma. 25. 24. J. 956). Bastable. by Hon. p. Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890). by A. United States (Vol. problems of Interstate Commerce. W. Government. William States powerless to arrest tlie progress of Industrial Combinations. Blaine. Cleveland. formerly U. p.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 268 The Presidential campaign of 1884. Republican and Democratic Tariffs: Mills Bill (1888). Alabama. by Hon. Thomas B. Tariff. p. Federal legislation (1887) on interstate commerce. Party disruption over free coinage of silver. 647). Sections on Government of arMississippi. 946). p. and adoption of grandfather clauses in constitutions of Southern states. by Carroll D. 334). 22). 426). 26. F. Secretary of State. John (Vol. S. author of Essays on Civil War and Reconstruction. Secretary of Harrison-. Formation of Oklahoma. 18. 501). Sherman. 60). (Vol. 22. p. W. p. New York. p. 3. professor of Economy and Government. and Postmaster-General of the United States. 973). 116). 150). 475). p. by Horace White. p. History (Vol. 20. p. S. United States. F. Louisiana and Oklahoma. Republican policy in Congress. by Prof. History (Vol. 18. 17. (Vol. author of The Tariff Question. Benjamin (Vol. by Prof. R. 4. Grover (Vol. president. Trusts (Vol. Increasing (Vol. 32). Jenks. S. McKinley. 24. James G. J. author of Public Finance. (Vol. by Prof. p. 1033). Commissioner of Labor. James Bryce. (Vol. p. Strikes and Lockouts. 13. 22). W. Dublin University. 27. ticles Virginia. . p. McKinley Act (1890).

503). American Legislation (Vol. Alaska (Vol. Hiram Bingham. Eastern Policy. Initiative first South Dakota. Treaty of Paris (1898). . 9. world. 645). p. M.American with Spain (1898). and Referendum adopted (1898). p. Olney. United States (Vol. Cleveland. 10. 508). by Charles A. Wilson Tariff (1894). Roosevelt. p. 21. Silver. 23. 13. United States p. 12. 427). by Horace White. 1. S. 502). 20. 707). New phase of Monroe Doctrine. late editor of The New Second election of Cleveland. 651). Department of Agriculture. Panic of 1893. F. Grover (Vol. Hawaii. Palmer. 28. 666). Tariff. election. Forest and (Vol. p. 26. Taussig. York Evening Post. (Vol. PoRTo Rico." Regeneration of Cuba (1898-1909). S. (Vol. Root. Railways. Conant. (Vol. p. of 25. 17. Theodore (Vol. Boundary Question (1895). The issues 1896. by Prof. Banks and Banking (Vol. p. Yale University. 26. Grover (Vol. by Prof. 22. Richard (Vol. United States (Vol. 732). Republicans and Gold Standard. Philbrick. 475). 426). History (Vol. 697). The Dingley Tariff (1897). Constitution and Government (Vol. by F. p. p. 25. by Gifford Pinchot. 604). Assassination of McKinley. (Vol.AMERICAN HISTORY 269 Weaver. p. Venezuela Cleveland. U. 439). J. Taussig. Annexation of Hawaii and events leading to War it a. W. by Prof. 23. M. Discovery of gold in Alaska. Abbott. Conservation of National Resources. Panama Canal (Vol. Panic of 1907. The Roosevelt Administration (19011909). War Spanish. p. 348). John (Vol. p. (Vol. F. W. History (Vol. p. 666). (1898). author of The American Commonwealth. The United States finds itself " in a position of increased importance and prestige among the nations of the Philippine Islands. 6. McKinley. p. 919). p. p. 20. 651). James Bryce. Tariff. History (Vol. 399). Gold Democrats. History (Vol. of McKinley's 6. author of A History of Modern Banks of Issue. 829). Buckner. 594). 22. a new policy. by p. 27. Elkins Law. 257). 1898 (Vol. formerly chief of the Forestry Service. p. p. 126). United States. p. by Lawrence F." Isthmian Canal. p. 7. 13. Hay. president of " The Outlook Company. James B. p. Cuba. p. Hanna. p. 20. p. p. William J. Elihu (Vol. Democrats and Bryan. 105). William (Vol. B. p. Panama (Vol. S. 3. History (Vol. 20. Horace White. 91). Forestry. by Hon. 4. 711). 91).

in another sense. History —to the . from and Lakes one basin into the next below. by Prof. Toronto University." and that the country owes its contours to comparatively recent geological action. Queens University. by E. which has a double value. In particular let him note: —that there are many biographies of prominent in nation and state not mentioned above. . so that the natural advantages of Canada invite manufacturing just as the fertility of her soil invites agriculture. Kingston. Here we need only say that throughout his study of Amercurrent enter. for the extraordinary rapidity with which her western territory has been developed within recent years surpasses every other record of agricultural expansion. Coleman." 5. 142) must be carefully read in order that the significance of the historical account of the country may be fully grasped. or both. there are waterfalls enough to provide unlimited horse power. Population. prove "that the rivers have not been long at work. CHAPTER XLIV CANADIAN HISTORY ALL the world thinks of Canada as the youngest of countries. by Prof. editor of article. Godfrey. since in so young a country there has not yet been time for the rivers to have carved wide valleys .BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 270 This sketch of American History closes with the inauguration of President Roosevelt. that in each article devoted to a state there is a section on history. "The innumerable lakes and waterfalls. A. Commerce. But in order to realize how young Canada is. . 5. "In many cases the lakes of Canada simply "Young" Rivers spill over. Agriculture. for the questions that have arisen since that date are questions into which and these are treated in the chapter of this Guide on Questions of the Day. 143). L. p. . and every new survey brings to light small lakes hitherto unknown to the For the great extent of white man lake-filled country there is no comparison" says the Britannica (Vol. as giving the outline of the state's history and as showing its figures — part in the history of the nation.. And because the rivers have not yet worn their beds to an even slope. p. at the lowest point. but oftener bearing on the history of state or nation. sometimes merely local. H. W. . The sections and their contributors are: Geography. and that there is in articles on cities and towns a great deal of important in- — formation of historical value. The geographical and geological portions of the article Canada (Vol. and the same is true of those parts of the article which deal with agriculture and with the commerce of which the first developments were associated with early explorain tion. one must examine the less familiar facts of her geological history. Thousands of these lakes have been mapped. politics ican history the reader will constantly and easily find many more articles bear- — ing on the subject than are mentioned in the outline given above. There is information on ample and authoritative these subjects in the equivalent in length to 85 pages of this Guide. of Agriculture. Department Ottawa. any part of the w^orld. etc. Grant. which Census and all is Statistics OflBce. P. .

Robert Baldwin and Sir Louis Lafontaine. History. 16. the articles Hudson's Bay Company and Sir G. heads of the first Liberal administrations. R. J. Louis Riel for the Red River Rebellion. Whinery. John Graves Simcoe. by L. by Prof. and. Kingston. 233) for a general description of this form of ad- Federation ministration. R. the British defender of Quebec. and biographer of Macdonald. 921). Grant. . Lord Sydenham. p. Julius consin. Quebec. Biggar. 230). leaders in the nearly successful attempt of the Americans to capture Canada. On English rule down to Canadian Federation. p. by G. author of Imperial Federation and Life of Sir John Macdonald. Sir Fran- . 249). L. L. Sir John Macdonald. 17. (Vol. author of The Voyages of the Cahots to Greenland. author of The Search for the Western Sea. Mackinac Island. etc. the article Fenians. Perry. head of the Tory "Family Com. Doughty. 5. especially page 722). p. Burpee. University of WisJohn Cabot (Vol. L. assistanteditor Encyclopaedia Britannica. Parkin. 830). Lord Durham.. and that on the 1st Baron Dorchester. George Brown. James New France ceded Murray. and after the Federation by G. 24. 5. Cartier. Dionne. the artides Nova Scotia. Doughty). Lake Prof. by N. 11. by A. Wrong. pact". Erie. John Strachan. 5. 268). University of Toronto. Nova Scotia. John Sandfield Macdonald. "the Ishmael of Parliament". Emil Olson. for local opposition to federation. 396) . Pittsburg. author of The Fight for Canada. 9. by Charles C. p. and Literature English-Canadian. Queens University. Montcalm and Wolfe. W. for the extinction of the Hudson's Bay Company claims and the transfer of its territories to the government. by Prof. p. On the period since federation (1867). Sir A. Dominion archivist of Canada. — On the early history of Canada the student should compare what is given in this Guide on the early history of America in and general es- Exploration and pecially the follow- Settlement ing articles: Ericsson p. Grant. a prominent advocate of federation. E. Prince Edward Island for its entrance into the Dominion. p. Sault Ste. Loyalists and the articles New Brunswick and Ontario. Dorion. a prominent opponent of Fenianism who was assassinated by a Fenian. P. and French-Canadian by William Wood. Papineau and W. Jacques Marquette (Vol. author of Imperial Federation. 634). Marie. 98). ViNLAND Leif (Vol. American War of 1812 and especially the articles Isaac Brock. Grant. G. Tecumseh. author of Ocean to Ocean. Sir John Beverley Robinson. see the article Federal Government (Vol. both by H. both — 271 by the settlement there of these Loyalists. Samuel de Champlain (Vol. the student should consult the following articles: Quebec Act. 433). Mackenzie for the two revolts of 1837. Parkin. 28. 10. for Irish-American outrages on the Canadian border. 19. p. E. p. 830) Fort Niagara (Vol. Thomas D'Arcy McGee (by A. and Jacques Cartier (Vol. Oliver H. G. Earl Elgin (Vol. Seven Years' War (Vol. American pendence War of —and particularly the Indearticles on Montgomery and Arnold.CANADIAN HISTORY Federation by G. Scotia Queens University. p. Kingston. by regions largely influenced The War Periods — W. M. Sackett's Harbor. and Since Alfred Gilpin Jones and Joseph Howe. The close of the Seven Years' War saw to Great Britain. Frontenac (Vol. Detroit. p. 4. 752) SiEUR de la Salle (Vol. Champlain (Vol. Sir Charles Tupper. by Prof. Louisburg. who alone in the delegation from Nova favoured federation. 16. librarian of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec and biographer of Champlain. George Monro Grant. p. A.

BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 272 HiNCKs and Sir Alexander Galt. Liberal politician and jurist. Lord Strathcona. Alexander Mackenzie. George Eulas Foster. Lord Dufferin. CHAPTER XLV ENGLISH. On pp. the great Liberal leader of the last decade. Blake's successor as premier of Ontario. Van Horne and Sir Sandford Fleming for the completion of the Canadian Railway. Sir Mackenzie Bowell. Pacific 1894-1896. by Lady Lugard. N." sitions of the in On each of the localities mentioned in this imposing list the reader will find a separate article in its proper alpha- betical place in the Encyclopaedia Bri- tannica dealing with geography. and his minister of militia Sir Frederick William Borden. 611. Sir Frederick Lugard. Sir William Mulock. equivalent to 30 pages of this Guide. Sir Hugh Allan and Sir David Macpherson. George Mow William Ross. Sir H. W. Sir Oliver at. Sir Daniel Wilson. government and history. George Taylor Denison. eduby Professor Grant. Louis Riel for the Second Riel Rebellion. SCOTCH AND IRISH HISTORY THE student of English history in the Britannica may well begin with the summary view in the British Empire (Vol. premier in Tupper. author of Sir W. Fielding. Liberal a Liberal government from 1873 to 1878 when Sir John Macdonald returned to power on a platform calling for protec- leader politics CIS financiers. who was principally responsible for the tariff of 1879. cational reformer. p. for the Canadian Pacific Railway question. 608-610 there is a chronological list of the acquisitions of the Empire. read the elaborate article Celt (Vol. Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley. Sir Wilfrid Laurier (by J. Except for the Channel Ii^ands. On the early inhabitants of the islands British archaeology. Borden. head of Joly de Lotbiniere. Sir William C. G. wife of the British explorer and colonial administrator. p. and Robert L. S. the French leader of Quebec. and "the nominal possession Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Isle of of Gilbert in 1583. 4. the Man. equivalent to 135 pages of this Guide). Parent. 606). Here it will be possible only to call attention to articles on the more important branches of the subject. Honore Mercier. and Laurier's ministers of finance. and nothing will surprise the reader more than the comparative recentness of the movement by which two small islands have The British expanded into an Empire empire covering neararticle ly one-fourth of the earth's land surface. his successor. S. founder of the "Canada First" party. 5. herself an authority on colonial subjects and well-known as colonial editor of the Times of London. Grant. long leader of the Conservative opposition and premier in 1911. Sir John Thompson. Macdonald's minister of finance. Laurier and the Liberal Party: Political History). tion of Baron Mountstephen. S. Sir Louis Henry Davies. Willison. all the territorial acqui- Empire have been made the 17th and subsequent centuries. a who in 1892 left Canadian to take a seat in the British House of Commons. Sir Rich- A ard John Cartwright and W. by Prof. Sir Charles Edward Blake. Canadian industries. and on . L.

Andrews. McNeill. Welsh. p. 21. Fenians author of Irish History. Cam- particularly treatment of Celtic languages and literatures. McNeill. 6. Parnell. 8. C. and St. all by R. William Early Britain lecturer bridge. Butler family (Vol. Tyrone. by the Rev. p. and James I of England VI of Scotland (Vol. O'CoNNELL. Queen of . by A. 859). author of History of Scotland from the Roman among and. 395). Bothwell Bothwell and Mary (Vol. p. author of The Oldest Irish Epic. earls of (Vol. author of Feudal England. Cambridge. Prof. 45). by Andrew Lang. which is Britain Then read: Wales. 548). and such biographies as: Malcolm III. examination of the evidence in the article an mystery by Andrew Lang. illustrated by a map of Roman and plans of Roman remains. 2) and Emmet. Cambridge. by Herbert Murray Vaughan. p. p. Quiggin. author of John Knox and Studies in (Vol. 563). Ireland. this Casket Letters (Vol. p. C. both by Dr. 6). J. 8. by the late William O'Connor p.. late rector of the High School. in —with and the Britain article (Vol. Desmond (Vol. Robert and Thomas A. —Gaulish. p. 429^57). 4. 4. p. 23. by J. p. p. by Prof. 460). and Richard Bagwell. Morris. 666). by R. p. 10. (Vol. (Vol. 836). (Vol. Mary's College. and E. Tone. Manx. 4. 28 p. 990). etc. H. p. by . . p. 10. p. M. St. commissioner of national education for Ireland and History author of Ireland under the Tudors. Mary. Haverfield of Oxford. 549). p. Rizzio (Vol. 4. Darnley (Vol. Scots (Vol. SCOTCH AND IRISH HISTORY by Ridgeway. on the early period. etc. Allan Menzies. of Cambridge. 342-343). History. E. 665). p. and author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. Scottish History 273 (Vol. Stuart. Irish Brian Church 12. St. McNeill. p. 24. C. Butt. other articles. William The Lion (Vol. Alexander Taylor Innes. ish. pp. Peep-of-day Orangemen Flood. History. 160). 24.. 20. Tyrconnell (Vol. S. II and III (Vol. J. 24. Patrick (Vol. Boys (Vol. 15. 15. Brendan (Vol. 878). 277). p. F. 254). 20. 388). 441). 933) (Vol. III. Keble Knox. 488). 27. St. History (Vol. editor of The Ancestor: 4. 5. Quiggin. 27. p. p. 495). 7. C. 107) and O'Donnell family (Vol. 12. Leger. J. J. 756). 20. by R. p. 9. McNeill. Irish. Grattan. 854). equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide). Scottish. 17. O'Neill family (Vol. Sir Anthony (Vol. 889). p. Ireland under the Stuarts. J. Wolfe (Vol. the Bruce (Vol. p. 515). land. author of the tragedies Chastelard. 261-268).. p. Oxford. (Vol. p. p. and see also 449). James I. p. Round. 303). 879). Fitzgerald family (Vol. T. by R. 1. 4. Wallace. Dr. St. 98).P. by P. Breton and Corn- Gaelic. 139). 379). etc. pp. by Oswald Barron. 587) p. (VqI. p. and to supplement this general treatment such separate articles Laws of. 525). St. 20. 737). p. Occupation. Daniel (Vol. Stirling. Brehon by Laurence Ginnell. Hutchinson. 28. Drogheda (Vol. John (Vol. Political History (Vol. James's Gazette. Isaac (Vol. 136). p. and later Britain is described by Hector Munro Chadwick. 28. 4. p. Quiggin. for North Westmeath and author of Land and Liberty.ENGLISH. p. p. 23. a striking biography by the poet and essayist Algernon Charles Swinburne. 817). Scotland. Henry (Vol. p. Scottish 301). Sir William (Vol. IV and V (Vol. C. 10. (Vol. 27. History (Vol. pp. E. Henry (Vol. by R. as St. 583. by Dr. (Vol. etc. (Canmore). CoLUMBA many J. Alexander I. p. 15. and for the later period see English History to supplement Andrew Lang's account of the period since the Union under College. Mar 14. 17. Scot- Gowrie McNeill. 8. p. 19. 20. Robert I. The treatment of pre-Roman and Roman Britain is by Professor F. p. librarian of Clare College. David I and II (Vol. II. full Celtic. 23). . late editor Scotland. Yorke.

15. by Prof. (Vol. 2. 18. (Vol. by Rev. 11). C. p. is itself equivalent to about 380 pages of this Guide. Pollard. 1. On the Danish invasions and the AngloSaxon period. p. p. by R. p. p. 968). Anglo-Saxon (Vol. p. 989). English ENGLISH HISTORY On English history the student will find the Britannica particularly valuable. 803). p. . 28. p. p. p. 15. Edward "the Elder" (Vol. 870). Sweyn I Dunstan (Vol. Irish the Rule and recent biographies political English of viceroys. by Charles Plummer. pp. Allen Mawer of Armstrong College. p. author Davitt. by the same author. Keary. 290). 4. 289) 1. Alison Phillips. Harold Hardicanute I (Vol. p. 9. Michael Boycott (Vol. Albert Frederick Pollard. all by 948). (Vol. Stanley Phillips. Bernicia (Vol. 8. 589-595) and Angli (Vol. Chad- wick. Prof. 7. editor-inchief of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nisbet II Bain of the British Museum. 793). author of The Vikings in Western Europe. 827). 26. for the period since the accession of Queen And the article closes with a Victoria. M. 735). ^Ethelstan (Vol. p. St. articles on and. p. 1. p. pp. p. of 910). 291). p. at important articles: William I. p. 289). and Kent (Vol. p. for the Reformation and the reign of Elizabeth. 933). Danegeld (Vol. Samuel Rawson Gardiner. author of England before the Norman Conquest. 7. Deira (Vol. who deals with the period from 1603 to 1793. p. Ecgbert (Vol. F. Edmund "Ironside" (Vol. dealing with the period down to the time of Elizabeth. p. Britain. C. 19. 7. F. (Vol. p. author of Modern Europe. (Vol. 11). John Plunkett. 290). 8. by H. Thursfield. University of London. the 9. 62-66). C. Edmund I (Vol. 942). G. Prof. 1. 1. Edgar (Vol. 8. Anglo- Saxons (Vol. p. F. 8. 990). etc. on the years 1793 to 1837. Phillips. ^THELRED 684). C. 168). Newcastle. and Hugh Chisholm. Dillon. p. 1. Kingdom of (Vol. A. Sir Horace . 8. p. 1. 28. 7. 582). 8. Beck. p. p. 8. Danelagh (Vol. p. 9. "the Unready" p. (Vol. 609). Edward "the Confessor" (Vol. The article English History (Vol. 289). 802). 8. East Anglia (Vol. p. For the period from 600 to 1066 read: Part 1 of English History (Vol. by Rev. Canute (Vol. 1. of the article chief secretaries. 8. 1528-1603. 292). Wessex Mercia (Vol. and the separate articles: For the introduction of Christianity and the "Kingdoms" Augustine (Vol. 22.. assistant editor Dictionary of National Biography. and many towns and counties. on Home questions. W. following "The Conqueror" (Vol. 224). CuRZON John E. by 2. pp. best known as the historian of the Puritan Revolution. p. Oman. Cambridge. by C. 273) . by R. C. Clare College. by Rev. 948). and ^thelred I (Vol. 466-587). Oxford. Stanley King's College. Alfred the Great (Vol. Redmond. (Vol. p. Stanley Phillips. biographer of Alfred. p. p. Saxons (Vol Anglo-Saxon Period North- 24.on -Tyne. premiers and and the latter part History. 857). iETHELBERHT (Vol. least. and carries the story through 13 centuries. p. 26. (Vol. 466-474). 21. 5. umbria (Vol. 933). Mawer. (Vol. This great article a text-book of the — — subject in scope and power is written by: Prof. Cambridge. 869). pp. 264). M. Viking (Vol. 2. 38). 8. For the Norman Conquest and the Norman and Angevin kings the student should read the second section of the article English History 474-486) and. pp. critical estimate of Sources and Writers of English History. Aethelwulf (Vol. iiETHELBALD (Vol. 18) and Jutes (Vol. 12.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 274 James R. 151) Sussex. p. 7). Nisbet Bain. 4. W. Harold II (Vol. p. by Prof. etc. p. 3. p. p. 353) (Vol. 221). p. Aethelberht Edwin (Vol. 13. of Peel. 13. 534) . 803). University of London.

Duke of (Vol. p. p.. Evesham (Vol. 661) and Lanfranc (Vol. Matilda (Vol. Sir John (Vol. p. Becket. by D. Edward II Lancaster. 81). Gloucester. 282). p. p. "Rufus" (Vol. Round. Sluys. Henry VI (Vol. p. Agincourt (Vol. author of 275 pp. Henry V (Vol. p. Holland. Tout. 781).ENGLISH. 19. Davis. W. by Prof. both by H. L. by C. Reformation. George Adams. by Dr. 999). (Vol. p. (Vol. also by C. 16. 520). SCOTCH AND IRISH HISTORY by H. Tout. 281). 295). Paris. 314). pp. W. Carless Davis. Round. 927). L. Edward I (Vol. p. by C. 888). Kingsford. biographer of Henry V.. . Duke of (Vol. Simon de (Vol. J. by Prof. Crecy (Vol. p. T. 13. The Wars of the Roses {U53-U97) in the article English . 294). p. J. 10). . p. and W. Hannay. 3. Kingsford. 2. 866). 659). 15. 25. 8. 12. 18. University of Man- Edward I. 929). Thomas (Vol. 616). 375). and Edward III by H. 169). Alison Phillips. by R. 3. p. 13. Henry I (Vol. p. Poitiers. p. p. 18. 78). p. 893). Duke of (Vol. 130) Norfolk. p. (Vol. 991-993). 283). 993) 8. p. Stephen (Vol. Ball. 18. 15. 28. 20. p. p 1 29) both by C L. 13. 10. etc. 19. Glendower. 12. p. Earls of (Vol. 13. 13. . Edward. 742). 28. by Jules Viard. 8. Carless John of Gaunt. 495). and Lang- ton. all by H. John Wat (Vol. W. (Vol. 246). T. Kingsford. pp. William II. Cade. Oxford. Henry and Thomas. Henry III (Vol. 8. Despenser. John (Vol. Yale University. 1. by A. Duke of (Vol. 25. 439). 28. p. Hugh Le (Vol. 7. 13. p. 363). Magna Carta (Vol. John's. Westminster. p. 27. 16. 17. (Vol. Sta- chester. 146). 66). 9. (Vol. In connection with the third section of the article with the English History dealing struggle for liberty John Henry III Edward I to the many turn: 1337 constitutional from 1199 to (Vol. 3. 8. p. Carless Davis. (Vol. 486-501) the foUowsupplementary III ing articles are among to which the student should John (Vol. Northumberland (Vol. (Vol. Lane Poole. 16. Lancaster. Fevdalism (Vol. p. 23. p. ical History of Domesday Book etc. late scholar of St. p. 144 and 148). author of Modern Europe. p. author of Short History of the Royal Navy. 23. Battle of (Vol. p. Joan of Arc (Vol. Thomas Mowbray. "Coeur de Lion" p. both by H. 279). 608). Oxford. L. p. J. p. etc. M. F. Henry 297). 21. p. Stephen (Vol. Duke of (Vol. 551). editor-in-chief of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Pembroke MoNTFORT. Years' the Hundred article War (Vol. 994). 120). p. 12. Thomas. (Vol.. 13. p. 21. p. The Black Prince by Prof. 178). . by I II 13. 263). Henry IV . 8. p. p. Richard I. Humphrey. p. Richard II Henry IV to VI 501-516). p. 16. Richard II (Vol. Hereward William the Conqueror William Rufus vins. p. author of (Vol. Mortimer family (Vol. by C. Henry II author of Wycliffe and Movements for Reform. 4. archivist of the National Archives. 898. Columbia University and Hugh Chisholm. 285) and Gloucester. p. On the Hundred Years' War (13371453) and contemporary history. 787). H. p. Owen (Vol. Kingsford Bedford John. p. On the fifth period of English history. (Vol. W. Lethbridge Kingsford. W. 10. by Prof. p. tutes OF p. Battle of (Vol. see the section in English History (Vol. 398). Tyler. p. Wycliffe 28. (Vol. 389). 8. Lindsay. Burton Polit- England. Henry Stephen and Matilda author of Feudal England. T. Lollards (Vol. 3. (Vol. read section 5. p. 881). 284) and Oldcastle. Mortmain 880). 16. Beaufort family well of (Vol. Anselm (Vol. author of History of the 16. 585). 1066-1216. p. Carless Davis of author of England under the Normans and Ange- 879). 101). Shot. p.

28. Thomas (Vol 7. — 9. Swinburne. 11. p. Henry VII (Vol. Oxford. by William especially pp. author of The Houses of Lancaster and York. Wyat. House of (Vol. 4. 28. p.andthear- III Henry VII tides: OF York. 8. p. articles should selected: . 702). oi History of Western Europe. 10. C. 428). 22. 996). Latimer.. 814) and Gardiner. 143). author of History of the English Church. by P. 9. etc. 427). . (Vol. 25. 390). Edward V (Vol. by E.. 386). p. 3. Lady Jane (Vol. Earl of (Vol. 20. Pollard. 9. be late rector of Lincoln College. 9. 16. author : (Vol. University of London. for this whole period 4. 136). Sir Thomas (Vol. Elizabeth (Vol. Baron (Vol. p. 3rd Duke of (Vol. by Rev. 13. 23. Kingsford. 12. (Vol. Ridley. both by James Gairdner. p. 924). 12. 28. 19. 135). George. Bacon. 19. Cranmer. 460). F. The sixth section of the article Eng- Norfolk. and J. 339). p. 18. Mary I (Vol. Duke of (Vol. 15. 10. 744). Malcolm Mitchell. by James Gairdner. Warbeck. Earl of (Vol. 473). p. Richard 766). 286). p. Edward Seymour. 16. 282). 529) and Boleyn. 23. Thomas Howard. 4). p. Somerset.735). 974). 2. 560). 13. Margaret OF Anjou (Vol. 861). p. Thomas (Vol. 13. Mary Queen of Scots (Vol. Taunton. Pollard. Sir Francis (Vol. 762). Henderson. at least the this II by Mark Pattison. 9. Earl OF Warwick. Benedict. Cardinal (Vol. E. 590). 287) and Fox. p. C. Francis (Vol. Catherine (Vol. Grey. A. p. Edward VI (Vol. Essex. Thomas (Vol. L. p. 525-530). Richard Neville. p. p. p. 788). I The Commonwealth Charles Stuart Eng- 535-542) the Great Rebellion and the Restoration{1603- I Charles pp. Sir Richam) (Vol. p. York. Duke of (Vol. 23. p. author of The English Black Monks of St. Catherine Stewart or Stuart family (Vol. 375). all by C. Richard. Henry Stafford. 996). 23. 6. p. 16. 832). etc. 743). Oxford. 516-525). L. F. Wolsey. Askew. Duke of (Vol.p. p. Roses. Robert p. p. Norfolk. 4th Duke of (Vol. Hugh (Vol. by A. Clarence. p. Church of (Vol. Gun- Parr. and Duke of (Vol. John Dudley. 499). 320). pp. be supplemented by Devereux. 5. 8. and Buckingham. 9. Nicholas (Vol. p. and the article England. F. 2nd Duke of (Vol. 447-448).BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 276 History (Vol. 911). 8. Hunt. John (Vol. Drake. 869) lish History. Armada (Vol. 1689). p. 13. should Leicester. and biographer of Henry VII. Fisher. p. p. Anne (Vol. More. 296). 28. 19. James Harvey Robinson. p. pp. p. Richard III (Vol. The seventh lish deals part of the article History with James (Vol. p. 822). 17. by Prof. William Cecil. 4. 726). p. p. the James Monarchy. Perkin (Vol. 21. 996). p. p. p. p. House (Vol. 17. 99). Robert Dudley. p. p. p. Thomas Howard. 2. Sir Walter (Vol. 316). Northumberland. 242). 926). Edward IV and V Wars of the Richard (Vol. L. 816). Hawkins. 862) Pole. p. author of The Houses of Lancaster and York. author of Mary Queen of Scots and the Casket Letters. Raleigh. both by James Gairdner. 7. Earl of (Vol. 17. Stephen (Vol. 779). BuRGHLEY. Anne (Vol. Taunton. p. p. both by Prof. etc. Catherine of Aragon (Vol. and Lancaster. 782). p. by A. Henry VIII (Vol. following Howard. 159). Robert Adamson of Glasgow. Sir Thomas (Vol. 8. Warwick. 28. by T. p. p. the separ- ate article. James I (Vol. p. dealing with the years 1497-1528 (Vol. Henry VIII Edward VI the Mary article on Henry VII and by the arti- part of Gairdner's latter James Elizabeth Reformation cles by Prof. 28. p. p. Yorke. Cromwell. II From the great wealth of supplementary material in the Britannica on interesting period. Edward IV (Vol. Columbia University. 817).

729). Edmund (Vol. 380) . 16. Yorke. p. 279). 816). Lord George (Vol. 906) and Laud. p. 4. p. p. p. p. 588). 12. Oliver (Vol. 12. Anne (Vol. Cromwell. South Sea Bubble (Vol. Anne Mary p. William Pitt. Whig and Tory (Vol. 288). 500). 894). 403). 824). p. George Charles II. p 851). 10. Monk. 22. Duke of (Vol. 680) and Strafford. 691). p. 665). p. 7. pp. 19. by Stuarts. 1st Earl of (Vol. History (Vol. 253). 16. Walpole. 723). 18. 1793-1837 (pp. 24. p. Clarendon. 912). 1st Duke of (Vol. 384). 642). 24. Lord Shelburne (Vol. 26. 982). 1016). Hyde. 1st Earl Acts 277 William and William and (Vol. 724). C. George Villiers. author of The Last of the Royal Years' War (Vol. 407-409). Canada. 131). Rockingham. -761). p. 17. 1714-1793 (Vol. Wesley. p. p. Duke OF (Vol. 4. 1st Years' War (Vol. (Vol. 722). 1). Gardiner's articles on the four Georges (Vol. p. p. . (Vol. R. 24. Thomas Pelham Holles. 14. Fox. 27. 2nd Duke of (Vol. Seven Shaftesbury. 23. p. Caroline Pelham. J. by Osmund II. W. p. p. Henry (Vol. 65). 25. Robert Cecil. Charles James (Vol. Burke. 527) Newcastle. 18. p. 515). Prideaux Courtney. 750). 836). 900). Bolingbroke. 940). p. Masham. Bible. p. p. 548). 12. Thirty Charles I (Vol. GuilLord North (Vol. p. 877) . 839). pp. 4. Marlborough. John (Vol. p. Cromwell. Wilkes. 12. 12. 28. 4. by H. 2. 1st Earl (Vol. p. p. 6. 6. p. 342) and for additional military articles the chapter For Army Officers in this Guide. 725). Ill). John (Vol. p. by John Morley. 12. McNeill. Horatio (Vol. p. M. F. 28. Buckingham. p. p. p. 544-551) and that on the RevGeorge I to IV olutionary epoch. 978). The part of the article English History dealing with the Hanoverian Kings. Nell (Vol. Salisbury. 5. II (Vol. (Vol. 1st Earl (Vol. 5. Duke of (Vol. Duke of (Vol. III 662) II. 2nd Earl. 3. for engagements and commanders in the war. William IV the reaction and the triumph of reform. Buckingham.ENGLISH. "the Young Pretender" (Vol. 498). Bute. 276). p. (Vol. 22. see the chapter in this Guide For (Vol. 9th Earl of (Vol. p. 25. Lauderdale. (Vol. 4. Monmouth. 12. Army Officers. R. India. Richard (Vol. 25. 17 28. p. Burnet Gilbert (Vol. 737-745) . especially pp. p. p. Duke op 1st. 12. both by P. Cleveland. 161). p. 24. 76). Vaughan. p. 28. 727). Gordon. George Villiers. Stanhope. 9. 434). 403). 9. John (Vol. p. Marquess of. 2. Earl of (Vol. p. p. 471). 580). Oxford. 551-558) are respectively by S. 3rd Earl of (Vol. 5. Argyll. 18. especially p. Lansdowne. p. 737). Yorke. 293). p. Thomas Went worth. p. 158). p. Edward (Vol. Marquess of (Vol. 26. Viscount (Vol. C. John (Vol. On James Test the Revolution and the age of see the article EngHistory (Vol. Mary. p. p. 20. 487). C. p. 852). p. p. p. p. 9. 715) and. Chatham. 27. SCOTCH AND IRISH HISTORY POWDER Plot English (Vol. 1st Earl of (Vol. Grenville. 12. Earl of (Vol. 15. biographer of Charles Dutch Wars p. both by P. 773). 1st Marquess of (Vol. Chesney York. 174). 21. Townshend. 5. 12. Gardiner and W. (Vol. Ship-Money (Vol. p. 17. Alison Phillips. p. 7. Duchess of (Vol. 5. 16. Atkinson and R. Lady Methodism (Vol. 25. for the military operations of the Great Rebellion. p. 542-544) Anne (1689-1714) lish Somers (Vol. p. Great Rebellion (Vol. Hampden. Shrewsbury. p. 428). Duchess of (Vol. p. 138). 6. History (Vol. pp. 760) Airy. 24. Portsmouth. (Vol. Grand Alliance (Vol. . Charles (Vol. by P. Charles Edward. Godolphin (Vol. (Vol. 484). p. 11. George (Vol. GwYN. p. 4. Pym. 28. Tyrconnell (Vol. They should be supplemented by S. Halifax. the articles listed under that heading in the chapter of this Guide entitled For Army Officers. ford. 67). William (Vol.

1st O'Brien. C. 586). C. 28. the reign of Victoria the section of the article English History pp. Parliament (Vol. (Vol. Napoleonic Campaigns (Vol. es- pecially pp. Duke of p. 2nd Earl (Vol. 186). p. Will- Chartism Derby. especially pp. 119). 66). Grey. 745). 380). 507). 250). ments in these wars. 11. Paris. (Vol. etc. and the part since 1870 is by J. p. Cobden. p. 18. AsQUiTH (Vol. 664). 16. and Lloyd George (Vol. Brougham. p. 832). 11. (Vol. p. 12. p. p. 28. E. author of France. 845847) and Representation (Vol. Corn Laws Cobbett. p. 24. E. 22. Crimean War (Vol. or critical sum- mary of Charles French B^mont historical of the by writing. William 606). Pitt. French Revolutionary Wars (Vol. 558-582) gives a very Victoria full Victoria 495). Beaconsfield (Vol. 2nd Viscount (Vol. University of Paris.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 278 184). Earl (Vol. editor-in-chief of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 14th Earl (Vol. 6. 731). of which the first part. (Vol. p. 4. Albert (Vol. 953). J. 813). 5. 567). 645). 953). p. 5. p. p. 7. W. Salisbury of Gladstone. 171). and the changes in the eastern The hisfrontier from 1598 to 1789. is by Paul Wiriath. of such (Vol. 10. 193). 563). For Guide see the Army chapter Officers in this Caroline . Chamberlain Campbell-Bannerman (Vol. 249). biographer Russell. STON (Vol. Wellesley. p. p. 450). Londonderry. torical part of the article closes with a historiographic section. 3. 111-113). (Vol. 20. Transvaal. Gladstone. 506). and the articles on reEdward VII cent political leaders p. 3. p. p. p. and on the reform of the House of Lords Parliament (Vol. p. by G. Wellington. E. 5. 28. For the years since 23. Marquess (Vol. p. 66). 3rd Duke (Vol. p. p. p. (Vol. 843) Melbourne. 2. 72). Russell. G. On Peel. 27. 21. and George V. Canning. "Alabama" Arbitration (Vol. p. (Vol. 969). Lord (Vol. C. History (Vol. Richard (Vol. 131). 11. p. by Hugh Chisholm. and in the American War for Independence. Marquess of. (Vol. Rhodes. see: . 5. (Vol. 7. Bodley. S. 28). Parnell. Gordon. 667). 6. 464). p. p. down to 1870. p. for leaders and engagep. 12. 216) and. 174). pp. 1. 5. 23. p. RosEBERY (Vol. iam Smith (Vol. (Vol. 16. 13th and 14th centuries. treatment. 254). 8. William (Vol. Bright. 8. 19. by the same author. 19. p. Supplementing this main treatment. 21. p. 9. in the Peninsular War. Portland. 652). 607). 40). especially p. p. p. Palmer- (Vol. 20. 90). Opposite page 802 are four coloured historical maps showing France at the end of the 10th. director of the ficole Superieure Pratique de Commerce et d'Industrie. p. Castlereagh (Vol. p. (Vol. (Vol. 4. 863). 801-906) equivalent to 320 pages of this Guide. p. 854). W. p. Victoria's death Edward see the articles: VII. p. C. p. John (Vol. Sir Robert (Vol. 20. William IV. 28. (Vol. 20. 997) George V Balfour (Vol. p. 23. Amelia Augusta (Vol. CHAPTER XLVI FRENCH HISTORY THE article France in the Encyclopaedia Britannica includes a section on History (Vol. 769). 23. George (Vol. which should be supplemented by the study articles as: 1.

and. Childebert. Charles VI. F. 251) Robert "the Strong" (Vol. on Roman remains. 13. and Philip VI (Vol. p. p. 5. 399). 706). and the articles. 898). Feudalism. Albigenses. Boniface VIII. Prof. by Prof. 17. Shotwell's article on 70) . Charles II "the Bald" (Vol. Le Coq. 3. Prof. Shotwell. p. Mary . 917). Romorantin. 17. Sluys. Agincourt. p. p. Alcuin. 1498-1589. p. NImes. 718). 10. J. Philip V and Charles IV. Sigebert. Etampes (Vol. Anne of 5. Druidism. 69). Jacquerie. and. Eleanor OF Aquitaine (Vol. p. Le Daim. by p. Diane de Poitiers. 68). p. On the Franks. 17. p. p. by Dr. 23. 924). 4. Louis IV (Vol. Caesar. T. 17). Lothair (Vol. 35). 18. Saisset. p. Louis". Marcel. Charles III "the Fat" (Vol. II and III. p. Cond6. Charles IX. Pavia. Clotaire II. (Vol. Gabelle. p. 682). 942). Philip IV. St. (Vol. 432). Charibert. 24. p. Christian Pfister of the Sorbonne. 5. Flanders. Francis I by Prof. and the article Crusades. Suger. Anne of Brittany (Vol. Shotwell's article on Louis VII. p. by Prof. Carolingians. Charles VII. Louis X. 291). Fredegond. 13. Louis II and III. Oxford. Orange.l8). Marguerite D'Angoul^me (Vol. Coeur. Arthur III of Brittany (Vol. Armagnac. Roland. Praguerie. p. Dauphin^. 858). du Guesclin. L'H6pital. (Vol. 381). Henry (Vol. 2. Charles VIII. (Vol. 441) Poitiers. p. p. the articles Franks Law (Vol. BrunHiLDA. Templars. Charles II of Navarre (Vol. 21. For the Capetian period. and the OrLouis XII and Amboise. 14. J. 17. on Caesar's campaigns. by and Salic Prof. Dauphin. p. prehistoric (Vol.the articles Capet (Vol. John II (Vol. 699). 25. 40). BiBRACTE. 857). Philip Augustus (Vol. . Julius. and for detail of the war the articles under that head in the chapter For the Army Officer in this Guide. p. Louis V. Philip I p. Louis VI Prof. Louis XI. Saint Andr6. Coligny. Louise of Savoy. leans dynasty. p. Clotaire. 803). p. 15. 290). Haverfield. Carloman. (Vol. and for French and English relations. 2. Philip III "the Bold" (Vol. 445). p. p. Odo. beginning Bourbon (with genealogical chart). Blanche of Castile (Vol. Pippin I. 932). 9. p. Louis VIII. p. p. 860). Catherine de' Medici. Isabella of Bavaria (Vol. AlESIA. Guise (Vol. States 16th Century 824). Hugh Capet Medieval France 13. p. Ren6 Poupardin. For the Valois line and the history of the period (1328-1498). Artevelde . Columbia University. Du Prat. Merovingians. 15. p. Charles "the Bold" of Burgundy (Vol. Ingeborg. 11. p. 402). Childeric. Einhard. Nogaret. (Vol. Aqueduct. Charlemagne. Dagobert. Charles Martel (Vol. History. the article Hundred Years' War. Marignano.' 9. 11.FRENCH HISTORY On Gaul and Roman France. 12. 378). 5. the well-known au- on thority Roman Early History occupation of Britof France ain and Gaul. III. p. Bruno. 378). 897). Francis II. p. Austrasia. 21. Brez:6. Anne de Montmorency (Vol. Henry I (Vol. Itlus PoRTUS. 35). p. and Amphitheatre. 533). p. Louis I "the Pious. p. Ebroin. Balue. Cr^icy. Benedict XIII (Vol. Clovis. Robert "the Pious" (Vol. 13. 5. Agnes Sorel (Vol." LoTHAiR (Vol. Jules Isaac of the Lyons Lyc^e. Huguenots. Henry II (Vol. 21.' Architecture. Hugh "the Great" 279 Louis IX "St. For the years. 934). Charles V (Vol. 5. John "the Fearless" (Vol. secretary of the Ecole des Charles. p. France (Vol. Joan of Arc. Arles. p. 21. Amboise. 2. Bartholomew. 5. 35) p. (Ja- cob and Philip van). Isaac. 17. 787). Guntram. For 1589 the Bourbon kings. Liege. General. Richard I and John of England. 17. 383). Childeric. 168). 23.

Marat. Mountain. Retz and La Rochefoucauld. Brissot. by Prof. Marie Therese. The Kingdom Due de Berry. NiER La Fayette Montmorin de SaintHerem. 10. Jacobins. Due de Richelieu (Vol. . Fouche. Favre. Cyres. Fronde. Duke of Officers . Montague. the Napoleonic period. 17. Du Barry. Robespierre. Mirabeau. Dupont de L'Eure Berryer. George The Edinburgh University. On the Bourbon Decazes XVIII. equivalent to 58 pages of this Guide). Comte d' Argenson (Vol. the articles Louis XVI. Mol6. Frank Puaux. Mazarin. Ledru-Rollin. Fenelon. jnre. Guizot. Junot. besides most of the articles in the preceding paragraph. by Albert Thomas. French Revolutionary Wars. . p. 165). Again lJile (Vol. Louis restoration. Des Moulins. of by Viscount St. Chateauroux. Maintenon. Garnier-Pa- Montalembert. by Prof. Louis XIII. the articles Louis Philippe (Vol. F. by Robert Anchel. Saint-Simon Fourier. Peninsular War and Waterloo and the articles listed under these two heads in the chapter in this Guide Bonaparte family. men- leaders in these wars the articles in that conflict the titles listed in the tioned under this head in the chapter in Guide entitled For Louis XIV. Maupeou. Talleyrand. Roland. T. 19. Casimir Perier. —for figures of example. Royal. Turenne. Beaumarchais. and for leaders and engagements London. Turgot. and for details of military operations and sketches of commanders the articles enumerated in the chapter in this Guide For Army Philip II. Pompadour. Maurepas. T. Soubise. Corday. Louis XV Orleans (Vol. C. . Moun- lege. Vil- Charles 5. War. Marie de' Medici. Carnot. president of the Societe de 1' Histoire du Protestantisme Fran§ais. 19. A. by Prof. Lom^nie de Brienne. p. Gfes. (Vol. Gardane. by Prof. Camisards. 459). p. the articles Army Officers. author of Napoleonic Studies. H. by M.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 280 Henry Duke IV. etc. Louis Blanc. Bossuet. La Salle. Saintsbury senism. Marmont. and on the First Empire principal Napoleonic period. LuYNES . Franco-Prussian War. Jan- the Port For chapter Army in this Officers. on Napoleon 190) (Vol. . and for battles and . Shotwell. Richelieu. liere. Sully. Lafitte. of Mayenne. archivist to the Department de 1' The Revolution Eure. Cavaignac. On the revolution of 1830 and the rule of Louis Philippe. Champlain. Columbia University. Ollivier. Crimean War. Fleury. p. . Picard. 302). Diamond Necklace. 51). Shotwell. Cinque-Mars Rohan Thirty Years' . Constant. Officers. Necker. Lamennais. author The Second . Calonne. J. J. La Val- this Montespan. . p. Aiguillon. —equivalent to 65 pages of this Guide. Le Tellier. 20. Empire of The Second EmCr:6mieux. Italian Wars. Narbonne-Lara. On the Revolution and the period immediately before it. Louvois. Jansenism. University Col- Guide For Army On by J. Girondists. Columbia. by Prof. Napoleon III. Thiers. Choiseul. 23. 2. French Revolution (Vol. Vergennes. 154. Due de Beaufort. Fouquet. by Prof. Rouher. Morse Stephens. Grant of Leeds University. Directory. . Barrot. p. X 921). Martignac. Colbert. Edict OF Nantes The Bourbons p. J. p. ConciNi . AssiGNATs. 286). Danton. On the revolution of 1848 and the second Empire. Polignac. Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War and articles under these heads in the chapter in this Guide For Army Officers. University of California. Marie Antoinette.. Grand Alliance. Napoleonic Campaigns. SiEYEs. the articles Holland Rose. Babeuf.

Casimir-Perier. Rouvier. This leads to autocracy in politics. thought of as members of a family. Ribot. FalliI^res. Re- Briand. p. 385). Barthi^lemy. in this chapter. Sir T. 382). DsLCASsi:. Chambord. administrative head of the statistical survey of India and one of the editors of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. On the Third Republic. The People (p. Freycinet. MacMahon. China and Japan. Lesseps. will sufficiently indicate to the student the plan adopted in the Britannica's treatment of all the countries in the far East. ous in the history of the first Eastern country dealt with in this chapter. which is written by Sir William Wilson Hunter. WaldeckRousseau. Holdich. and economic position of the Orient in general. of the service .THE FAR EAST 281 under those heads in musat. Dupuy. the Oriental geologist. 734). Lock- wood Kipling. 1870 and the following years. Pellet an. Simon. Combes. of Mexico (Vol. and gives a survey of the field covered by articles on Eastern countries other than the three dealt with in this chapter. 14. which 749) of the ar- noteworthy in connection with current political questions: ticle begins. Millerand. is by Sir Richard Strachey. Ribot. rather than as entities with a destiny and rights of their own. of the principal articles dealing with the history of India. and Indian Costume (p. differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small. state or religion. with the historical section (p. 417). Boulanger. Maximilian . Jaures. Dreyfus. and conservatism in both. 375). INDIA In the article India (Vol. It amounts to this. Hindus. Lemire. as revealed by Characteristics British diplomatic history. Pareditor of this same Gazetteer. of the Indian Frontier Survey. known illustrator of his son's to many as the book Kim. 17. and Philip Lake. 2. Broglie. And the student of Oriental history will find it possible to gain a little comprehension . pp. equivalent to 140 pages of this Guide) there is much of value to the historical student besides the chapter on History (p.. the famous Indian administrator. and Turks. H. he should read Asia which defines the social All three of these are certainly conspicu- groups of articles. Brisson. and articles listed Eugenie to 100 pages of this Guide) is to be sup- Gambetta. p. M^line. and by James Sutherland Cotton. Sir Charles Eliot. 924). Dufaure. Ferry. Thiers. Administration (p. (Vol. 873-904 (equivalent Modern Times plemented by the articles CHAPTER XLVII THE FAR EAST AN account. but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways. is The words " Asiatic and " oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and " homogeneous type. This article. the story in Vol. equivalent in length to 65 pages of this Guide. But before turning to these three Chinese. 10. ticularly important are the sections. Cl6menceau. Gr^vy. the chapter in this Guide ForArmy Officers. that Asiatics have not the same sentiment of independence and Individuals are freedom as Europeans. etc. fatalism in religion. 395). p. The general survey of Asiatic characterAsiatic istics. illustrated from pen-and-ink drawings by J. Carnot. Loubet. Faure. Galliffet. Poincar:^.

p. on the Rig Veda)—and in general the articles Aryan and Dra- Fleet. on the invasions from the North.C. p. N. Margoliouth. 21. Kanishka. the Chinese pilgrims of India. and Zoroaster (Vol. D. Darius (Vol. 1. Indian Law (Vol. The first paramount ruler of India was Chandragupta (Vol. Sydney.. especially pp. by reading in the Britannica such articles as Caste Hinduism (Vol. The records of the next four centuries are confused and vague. p. by Rev. 5. Of his grandson Asoka we have already spoken in outlining the growth and decline of Buddhism. With the 6th century we come to the beginning of the Buddhist period. 839). 20. 14. author (Vol. and Par- Western influences on India. author of Manual of Comparative Philology. Mac- donald. Peter Giles. p. Far more important was the conquest by Alexander the Great and the establishment of the Hellenistic empire of the Seleucids in Syria. Alexander's admiral and navigator. 399). On the earliest literary description of the Aryans in India and their contests with the Dravidians see the article Sanskrit. p. and Seleucid Dynasty. 434). Brahman and BrahMANA (Vol. D. p. the Buddhist king of Kabul and Kashmir. especially pp. Marburg. W. by Prof. Mahomet (Vol. p. the great Buddhist emperor and organizer of the faith. overlapping the is marked by the beginning of Buddhist. Fa-Hien and Hsuan Tsang. W. — author of Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings. An interesting reconstruction of the civilization of the primitive Aryans on the basis of languages will be found in the article Indo-European Languages (Vol. vidian. Bactria and India: see Alexander the Great (Vol. Bkahmanism. For the Persians in India see the articles Persia (Vol. 17. but enough has been given to put the student on the track of valuable articles which might otherwise escape his notice. 209-210). especially p. 28. Julius Eggeling.. Hartford Theological Seminary. both by Prof. T. who under p. by Sir William Markby. The Yue-Chi founded the Kushan dynasty.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 282 —at — least of Oriental ways of thought. the only historic test for which is the rock inscriptions. Buddha and Buddhism (Vol. all by Prof. 4. who left important records of early Buddhism and of Brah- manism. Karl Geldner. and this j)icture of Aryan life before the conquest of India will hold in the main for the earlier period of the Aryans in India. 161 of Vol. 417). 832). S. Oxford. and Scylax. p. 464). G. p. 621). sees (Vol. in The Hindu period. by Sir Charles Norton Edg- — — cumbe Eliot. 1039). by Prof. See the article Jains. . the Greek Darius's orders explored the course of the Indus. 498-500). 866). 501). 13. Edinburgh. W. see the article Inscriptions. the articles on Buddhism already menEarly tioned. in which the greatest king Vvas . 24. p. p. G. etc. 4. 14. This list of ar- subsidiary to the history of India could be prolonged almost indefinitely. p. S. see Saka and Yue-Chi. author of Lectures on English Law. Thatcher. Menander. 5. 548). by J. Eucratides. F. Mahommedan Institutions and Mahommedan Law (Vol. etc. 378). Cambridge. 17. by Prof. and the arBuddhism tides: Asoka. Camden College. 14. and Mahommedan Religion (Vol.. 411). which was steadily growing power and strength. of Sacred Boohs of the Buddhas. Nearchus. 7. 737). western India was invaded again by western troops: see Demetrius. In this period Greek thought and art influenced India greatly. Indian (Vol. ticles Before we come to the authentic history of India there is a legendary period.whose rock inscriptions throughout India are so valuable as historical records. by Dr. whom the Greeks called Sandracottus and who crushed the Seleucid power and founded the Maurya dynasty. 17. Rhys Davids of Manchester. Eastern setting and colour. and in the period immediately northfollowing the 2nd century B. Vedic Period (especially p.

: Mahal. the Mausoleum built by Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz Mai. see medan period in India the student should read the articles on Mahommedanism almentioned. Chandragupta. On the principal Deccan dynasties of the Hindu pe- Chalukya and Rashtrakuta. and more particularly for Portuguese explorations and settlements the articles Vasco da Gama (Vol. p. p. and for the beginning of British influence in India the articles East India Company. 17. 716). author of Vasco da Gama and His Successors: for Dutch rule the article Dutch East India Company (Vol. The "last stand made by the national faith in India against conquering Islam" was in VijAYANAGAR (Vol. G. who was paramount monarch of northern India in the first half of the 7th century and whose administration was described by Hsiian-Tsang. 397). the temple city which he captured and sacked in 1025. DuPLEix. already mentioned as a Buddhist ruler whose policy marked the beginning of the end of Buddhism in India. India is quite definitely Moslem see Baber. p. was made by the English. History (Vol. p. where the first English fort was built in 1640 and the first grant. a crushing defeat for the Mahrattas. For a general notion of the Mahomriod. 26. and for the earlier risings of the Mahrattas. History (Vol. Sivaji. -and GoA the capitol of Portuguese India. 17. ready Mahommedans and for more definite and Moslems information about articles India. 1. Jayne. 11. see Afghanistan (Vol. French Governor-General in Pon- The British dicherry. Jahangir. And for ticle rise of Afghan power under the Durani dynasty and the battle of Panipat in 1761. see Afghanistan. Surat. 14) for the Taj — 283 decay. Plassey. His attempt to conquer the Mahommedan kings of the Deccan gave the natives an opportunity to regain power: see the ar- Mahrattas. Shah Jahan. see Harsha. the on the 11th century invader Mahmud of Ghazni (Vol.THE FAR EAST Kanishka (Vol. Conquest his of the British pire and of the Company rival Clive the founder power in India. especially p. Hyder Ali and Mysore for the 1761. and for the culmination of the Mogul power. See Deccan and Gujarat for the Moslem conquest of these states by Ala-ud-din. and on Somnath. p. except for factory use. 1. and for the period after Clive the articles Warren Hastings. 516). 433. Madras. 404). p. and the article On on Calcutta. 28. Akbar. founder of Calcutta. (Vol. Job Charnock. and Agra and Indian Architecture (especially Fig. 14. On the White Huns and their invasion consult the articles Ephthalites and Huns. 8. 994). On the succeeding dynasty see the article Gupta. p. Albuquerque 433). On earlier European settlements in the India see the article India. p. (Vol. the last article being by K. opposite p. Mahrattas for the first Mahratta war. 15. and refer again to the article Fa-Hien for the Chinese account of the rule of the second Gupta king. Aurangzeb. On the only other great king of this period. and Ahmad Shah. Sir John and Sir Josiah Child. the beginning of its Vol. which followed Ala-ud-din's successors. 316). see the articles on PoNDicHERRY. British political history in India in the 18th century. 1. 653). 315) and TiMUR by Major-General Sir Frederick John Goldsmid. HuMAYUN. Abul Fazl the historian of Akbar's reign. for the siege of the city . acquired from Portugal in 166165. Bombay. With the 16th century and the Mogul dynasty. —on whom in legend see Vikramaditya. especially p. and the article Deccan. and the first sign of Moslem bigotry and intolerance on the part of the Mogul emperors. 62). of the Em- East India Eyre Coote who took Pondicherry from the French in SuRAj-uD-DowLAH and Calcutta and story of the Black Hole. Shah Alam for the massacre of Patna. For the destruction of the Tughlak dynasty.

Canning. Carpini (see Vol. Marquess of Hastings. for the stormy period of the '40's. 23. Tippoo Sahib and CoRNWALLis for the second Mysore war. so with China. the People (pp. James Legge. and for the close of the Company's rule. Metcalfe. the latter the form of Buddhism in vogue in China. Sir Henry Lawrence. and Buddhism and Lamaism. Curzon and Kitchener. Sir Hugh Gough. Section V. Earl Roberts. Macnaghten. p. of the article China opens with a treatment by Sir Henry Yule. S. the whole of the article in the Britannica is of value to the historical student. Suttee. J. since 1858.generalship . the articles Bentinck.*E. Auckland. Teignmouth and Bengal. and Oudh for its annexation. H. and of Cathay itself Marco — Polo (see Vol. Bharatpur and Combermere. ElPHINSTONE. Nana Sahib. Inglis. Sikh Wars. Mencius. Dufferin (see also Panjdeh for the Russian scare of 1885 and Burma and Burmese Wars for the dispute with Thebaw). Richard Baird Smith. of his short tenure of office. Sib R. Sale and Sind. Lawrence. SiR JoHN MaLcolm. 6. the founder of a philosophy debased into Taoism. Havelock. Punjab. pp. ternal history of China begins The in- (Vol. 171174). (181-188). Edwardes. Dalhousie. 397) and Rubruquis (see Vol. On India under the Crown. with a coloured map. for the administration (1823-28) of Lord Amherst. Burmese Wars. Wellington and first As with India. Lucknow. MahRATTAS. the famous Orientalist. Lord Lawrence. an elaborate merit system. Burmese Wars for the second war of 1852. Ochterlony and Nepal for the war in Nepal. 810-812). the particularly important student should turn to the articles LaoTszE. p. p. Outram. Mayo. 191) with a discussion of Chinese origins: "anthropological arguments seem to contradict the idea of Babylonians. 7-10). Thugs by Reinhold Rost. Afghanistan. . 5. Lord important part for the student of history section V. Ripon (see also Ayub Khan. for the permanent settlement of Bengal under Cornwallis. and Abdur Rahman Khan). and Confucius. the study of religions is and besides the section Religion in the article China. G. 166-231) is equivalent to 200 pages of this Guide. see particularly the articles on the viceroys. particularly "Cathay" and the early explorers of Mongolia. W. Sir J. Hardinge. of the European knowledge of China before 1615. AH (213-216) with illustrations. for a view background that is so baffling to an occidental studying the Far East. 188-212) on History: but such parts of the article as Geography. 16. late secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. and for the Sikh wars. Economics (177Government and Administration 181). for Bentinck's rule. and Minto. Lytton (see also Shere Ali and Yakub Khan). pp. John Nicholson. Sir Colin Campbell. Northbrook. 22. 184 on the Civil Service. the articles Amherst. Religion (174-177). Elgin. Sir Henry — Lawrence. Section IV. 85) for the campaigns against the French and natives during Wellesley 's governor. and the editor of The Chinese Classics. all by the Rev.284 BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES CHINA Mysore war. for the wars of 1817 the articles Pindaris. the articles Lord Canning. Neill. author of The Religions of China. pp. H. Assyrians. 6. Ranjit Singh. Cawnpore. As was the case with India. and he should remember that there are some Mahommedans in China. Indian Mutiny. The article China (Vol. Government and Administration. In connection with the latest developments in Chinese history he should read with great care in the article China. Sir Neville Chamberlain. The most Lake (Vol. and Mysore. and Language and Literature (216231) are all of importance to help get the is MiNTO for the years from 1807 to 1813. or . Ellenborough. especially p. Sir W. any connection with Egyptians. Delhi. (pp. Wellesley and Tippoo Sahib and Seringapatam.

Charles George Gordon ("Chinese Gordon"). . The earliest hieroglyphics of the Chinese. The Portuguese arrival at Canton in 1517 marked the beginning of modern intercourse with Europe. This date corresponds exactly with August 29. One of these signs was an eclipse of the sun the date and month being . Their civilization was already old at a time when Britain and Germany were peopled by half-naked barbarians. 18. On the T'ai-p'ing rebellion." There is much that is purely legendary and mythical in these early records. for the foundation of the Mongol dynasty. Douglas. 9. Li Hung Chang. for the first important work of a Christian Foreign missionary in China Relations early in the 17th century. both by Sir Robert K. . Mongol rule was broken in the 14th century by the founder of the Ming dynasty. On the Russian boundary disputes of 1858 and 1860 see Amur and Vladivostok. Immediately thereafter came the Manchu invasion.C. by Sir R. the "Arrow" affair. K. p.vassals. British diplomatic missions for the improvement of the condition of traders in Canton were unsuccessful. and they place his life-time in the years 2852-2738 . Earl of Elgin (Vol. Mekong for the dispute of 1895 with Great Britain.) betray the Mongol character of the nation that invented them by the decided obliquity of the human eye whenever it appears in an ideograph. that of the agnostic. and HongKong. The history of China since 1875 is told pretty completely in the article China. ascribed by them to the Shang dynasty (second millenium B. p.C. Tseng Kuo-fan. 316). see the article Canton.THE FAR EAST Indians." Chinese legendary history goes back to Fu-hi as the "first historical emperor.Japanese War for the military details of the struggle by which Japan got command of the Korean coast-line. 776 B. and the second interferNapier. Port Arthur and WeiHai-Wei for the seizures of 1897 and . and astronomers have calculated that on that precise date an eclipse of the sun was visible in North China." It is an inter. we Definite Date find a veritable record: in an ode referring to a wicked emperor there is mention of "certain signs showing that Heaven itself is indignant at Yu-wang's crimes. therefore. and the sec- tion Medieval Cathay (Vol. the first on 1875-1901 being by Sir Valentine Chirol. author of The Far Eastern Question. Trade with Europe on a large scale began in the second half of the 18th century. 15.. But in connection with the general treatment the student should read the articles on Korea. KiAOCHOw Bay.C. 712-719) and Jenghiz Khan (Vol. and see the article Matteo Ricci by Sir Henry Yule. On the period immediately following see KuBLAi Khan. . 189) of 285 the article China and missionary for early exploration effort. B. 6. Chino. but in 1840 the opium war made China feel the weight of Great Britain's power when Hong Kong was ceded to the English and other ports were opened to trade: see Lord Hugh Gough. on which see the article Manchuria. clearly stated. . . to all appearances. The first outstanding event in the history of China was nearly 20 centuries later the Mon- — gol invasion. Our standpoint as regards the origin of the Chinese race is. and the philosophical and ethical principles on which it is based remain. Sir ence of Great Britain with China. from which time was reckoned in the Greek calendar though there are no certain dates in Greek history until much later. pp. in two sections.C. author of The Life of Jenghiz Khan. esting coincidence that this earliest sure date in Chinese history is the date of the first Greek Olympiad. . p. but with the The First year 776 B. Annam andToNGKiNG for the earlier efforts to detach from the Chinese empire these quasi. Douglas. Parkes. see the articles Mongols (Vol. see Sir H. S. as firmly rooted as ever. 268).

arising from want of proper knowledge of Japanese character and feelings. Domestic History. America's part in Peking and Tientsin for details added to the general account in the article China. the eyelashes. p. it be well for the student of Japanese history to make himself familiar with the will Britannica's full material on native resee Vol. the cheekbones and the beard. editor of the Japan Mail. 15. Laninto 10 parts guage and Literature. and it is nearly always straight. so that the tips are nearer together than the roots. etc. after the war with Russia were "ready and eager to fight with the United States" whereas the Japanese have always regarded the Americans with a special good will. to compete with Japanese labour. Russia and Great Britain John Hay for the Open Door policy. Religion. 164) of the physical characteristics of the Japanese. rather than the upper classes. from Korean and Chinese neighbors as their JAPAN article best authorities are agreed that the the inhabitants of Northern from those of Southern Europe." the "misrepresentation." that the Japanese Japanese in America . Economic Conditions. and not upon the colour of the Japanese skin or any other peculiarity of appearance. Brinkley's careful study (p." their resenting "any discrimination against them as an Asiatic people. A History of Japan. and is almost entirely the work of Captain Frank Brinkley. People. author of Japan. The cheekbones are prominent among the lower. noting especially that in the section on Shinto it is ligion: "The grandson of the sun goddess sovereign of Japan. as Europe differ As in the study of India and China. which the president of the Imperial University of Academy Kyoto and of the Imperial Japan discusses "the ambi- of tion of the Japanese people to be recognized as an equal by the Great Powers. instead of diverging as they do in occidentals. and a fold of the upper lids hangs over the roots of the upper lashes." Any justifiable discrimination against the Japanese as Asiatics must of course be based upon such characteristics of custom and thought as render Japanese im- — differ." said: was the first . and they look upon the idea of war between Japan and the United States as ridiculous. The lashes. An Unabridged Japanese-English Dictionary. The article proceeds to discuss the moral characteristics of the Japanese. are short and scanty. and converge. Japanese do not The Japan much (Vol. 15. 156) is equivalent to 370 pages of this Guide. But it is none the less interesting to turn from Baron Dairoku Kikuchi's argument to Capt." Marks of The eyeball does not differ the Race from that of an occidental. living in reasonable comfort. Art. migration undesirable. The article is divided Geography. but the eye is less deeply set.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 286 1898 by Germany." Some of the bodily traits which distinguish the Japanese from races of European origin are to be observed "in the eyes. in nese View. due no doubt to the steady liberal attitude of the American government and people towards Japan and Japanese. . too. Government and Administration. making the eyes apparently oblique. There is but little hair on the face (except among the Ainus). p. Foreign Intercourse. of the "Boxer" rising. A Japaby Baron Dairoku Kikuchi. respectively. attributing to them a degree of frugality and endurance such as to make it virtually impossible for any occidental race. physically. 222. and The Claim of Japan. and his descendants have ruled the land in unbroken succession ever since. Manchuria for Russian encroachments before. immediately . The conspicuous peculiarity is that the upper eyelids are much heavier at the inner corners than at the outer. and Japan for Manchuria after the Russo- "The Japanese War.

Nozu. Itagaki. Saigo. YamaGATA. guese shipwrecked in Japan in 1542 or 1543 opened the country to Portuguese trade and in 1549 landed the great Jesuit missionary. Nanshan.D. and the articles Shogun and Mikado. The conventionaccepted date of the establishment of the Empire is 660 B. G. Nogi. "the first to organize and lead a political party in ally Japan". From the middle of the 17th to the beginning of the 19th century Japan was prac- untouched by Western civilizapart of the United States navy in opening the country to trade in 1853 is described in the article Japan (pp. Inouye. but Japanese annals are self-contradictory and are proved faulty by Chinese and Korean records. Mutsu. Oyama. Jayne. Even the famed Japanese invasion of Korea in 200 is possibly apocryphal. 238) to the work done by another American. Komura. but the student should read besides the articles War. On the Japanese feudal system beginning in the 12th century see: the article BusHiDo. Read also the biographies of Katsura. . Mutsu Hito. Hayashi. Ito. and from this year all dates are reckoned.THE FAR EAST 287 In Japanese history two main topics of study present themselves foreign intercourse and domestic or internal history the former naturally the more attractive to the foreign student. and Russo-Japanese War. The last of these would be equivalent to 40 pages of this Guide. or dates before 500 A. became strong. Yamagata. it is important to note that early Japanese history is more purely mythical and legendary. The article Japan also tically tion. Sanjo. Francisco de Xavier: see the article by K. The contest between Spain and Portugal for Eastern trade and between Jesuits and Franciscans for Japanese converts to Christianity and the other factors that resulted in the suppression of Christianity and the consequent persecutions and missionaries are told in the article Japan and so also is the story of the foothold that Dutch and in 1614 of converts — English traders got before the Japanese practically excluded them also. In the middle of the 6th century Chinese influence. and there are few trustworthy recorded facts before 400 A. Iwakura Matsukata. Manchuria. Enomoto. 237238) and in the article Matthew CalBRAiTH Perky. As for domestic history. Townsend Harris. Okuma. The devotes much space (p. Port Arthur. as Christians rather than as foreigners or traders. Liao-Yang. and is Domestic History chronologically untrust- worthy for a longer period than is Chinese his- tory. author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.D. The remainder foreign relations of the story of Japan's is Recent Wars Chino . Togo. who was less known than Perry. A century later legislative government and administrative reform began. in the article Japan the account of the earlier army. Okubo TosHiMiTsu.Japanese given in the main article Japan. it is accompanied by the following plans: General Dispositions after Foreign Intercourse Mukden: and — and of additional inter- est both because of its picturesque and romantic early detail and by reason of its explaining the sudden emergence of Japan Portuas a power in world politics. and it is a remarkable critical summary of the military operations of the war. through Korea. Kodama. and in 552 Buddhism was introduced from Korea. Kato. The more important separate articles for the later period are: Tokugawa and Arisugawa for the rival families of the 17th-19th centuries. C. Kuroki. but who carried through the immensely important first commercial treaty. Okuma. the financier.

penal and charitable institutions) are among the topics presented in the course on Questions of the Day. D. Victor Mirabeau. 899). article. John Stuart Mill. Sir William Petty. Eugen Boehm von Bawerk. R. For public finance. see Jean Bodin. Robert Torrens. R. de Sismondi. topics in the field of eco- population (such as immigration. laers and Financiers. Stanley Jevons. E. Ingram. For the chief branches of economic theory read Value (Vol. E. R.Sir Dudley North. Thorold Rogers. S. Mel- chiorre Gioja. by W.values are considered. Du pont de Nemours. is Economics. W. Thornton. E. Edinburgh University.Beccaria-Bonesana. formerly director of the London School of Economics. A. p. Pierre Davenant. W. see the chapter For BankTariffs. James Mill. author of Prin: ciples Economic Theory of Political Economy." three laws of value supply and demand. nomics and social science are treated with some detail in other parts of this Guide. W. W. Cliffe Leslie. aliens and race-conflict. L. Henry Charles Carey. Thomas Robert Malthus. Bemis. Henry ThornJovellanos. distinguishes between utility and value to be valuable a "thing must have some utility. W. Jean Baptiste Say. David Ricardo. Henry George. K. Hewins. Emile de Laveleye. Seligman. Sir William TemGreat Sir Josiah ple. G. Harriet Martineau. secretary of the tariff commission. Jean C. E. Francis Amasa Walker.CHAPTER XLVIII ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE MANY ton. J. W. Fenelon. for instance. J. Walter Bagehot. (Vol. Hadley. A. Charles Boisguilbert. In this chapter is a brief outline of the entire subject. Montesquieu. Ely. 25 etc. Ashley. equivalent to 35 pages in this Guide. Anne Robert Jacques Turcot. The key article. A. Antonio GenoJosiah VEsi. J. FRANgois Quesnay. and there must be some There are difficulty in its attainment. Gaetano Filangieri. Karl Heinrich Rau. M'Culloch. in the discussion of which monopoly. trusts. 867) by Dr. Benjamin Franklin. J. in which 288 — — . S. T. Richard Jones. 27. T. Caspar Melchor de . bour questions and the problems of Bonamy Price. professor of political economy. Thomas Tooke. This equivalent to pages of this Guide. J. L. Auguste Comte. Friedrich List. Taussig. Ferdinando Galiani. Thomas Mun. For the history of economic theory in biographies of great economists. T. including these special topics. Adam Smith. Arnold Toynbee. the liquor traffic. F. eugenics. R. Sumner. and E. p. BrenTANo. Count Justus Moser. T. Nassau W. Tucker. Cairnes. Vauban. that of cost of production. William Cunningham. Senior. Dewey. Hobbes. Nicholson. J. J. Frederic Bastiat. David Ames Wells. Sib James Steuart.values and competition. 8. OF Carli-Rubbi Pedro Rodriguez. Economists Child. Alexander Hamilton.

5. p. on Bacon's "New Atlantis. based on a study of consumption. Saint-Simon and Oneida Community. trades unions and wages. p. 121) p. Elizabeth (Vol. 7. Charles Francis Bastable. formerly treasurer of the Morton Trust Co. ferences. Kropotkin. F. Wealth (Vol. p. author of Modern Science and Anarchism. and on "anarchist" outrages see Chicago McKinley. It distinguishes between nominal and real wages. director of Barclay Anarchism (Vol. on Campanula's "Civitas Solis" or "City of the Sun. and Humbert. Reclus (like Kropotkin. Vol. etc. Conant. p. also by Dr. 278) is accumulated wealth available for earning inIt terest and producing fresh wealth. and deals with such topics as state regulation of wages. p. effects of machinery on wages." The "importance of ability is ." the article Cam(Vol. well known as a geographer). Silver. 28. New Harmony. and The Web of Empire. (Vol. 28. p." must not be overlooked. (Vol. Brook Farm. p. p. p. 6. as against much of modern theorizing against capitalism. creation of utilities. . 686). 547.. 82). describes the economic wages fund theory. 9. S." the article Sir Thomas More (especially p. 334). see these four groups of articles: Robert Pal- of the Dictionary of Political Trust Company Monetary and Bimetallism." the article Francis Bacon (especially p. p. the article Hobbes PANELLA Samuel Butler "Erewhon" and and Edward Revisited". and editor and Finance are by Prof. and on Plato's "Republic. etc. 3) on Hobbe's "Leviathan. BakuNiN. Ltd. 13) . more particularly in the field of finance. and biographies of William Godwin. (Vol. and a contributor to the Britannica on Russian geography. 18) . 818819. by Prince Kropotkin. Tolstoy. 3. general description York. by . on More's "Utopia. "destruction of utilities. Alexander M. 21).. Con- On "Ideal" social systems. who adopts the of wealth connected with the by the definition name of Adolf von Held. Fourier. Wages (Vol. 329) is Co-Operation (Vol. p.. Most. 144. p. Nicholson. p. Further information. Nihilism (Vol. 6. is equivalent to 17 pages in this Guide. (especially p. Carnot. A. Cabet. by 19. 285). author of Russia. p. Vol. Don- Mackenzie Wallace. Communism (Vol.. . require — "consumable labour for and can be changed." Production 289 by C. 347) See also the articles on Gold. factory legislation. 27. Socialism. and Anarchism. Morton Trust Co.ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE of raw material and wages are obvious factors. Vol. 914). Sir ald "Erewhon Bellamy (Vol. p. & Backward. 791). 694) literary pictures of 694) for "Looking an well-known ideal common- wealth. Proudhon. Shakers. or brain-work. p. 887) for . but accumulated savings of labour and of the profits accruing from the savings of labour. 18. 125). Money late treasurer of the New 10. Co. . Vol. 1. 22. Capital (Vol. of Austria (Vol. 229). cost — rent. Considerant. 3. author of Public Finance." the latest of the Economy. with a special treatment of American banking by Charles A. and with the by Sir grave. University of Dublin. will be found in: Banks and Banking (Vol." which utilities their production and ex- appropriated Consumption 23) is the (Vol. production and distribution of wealth. Clemence Louise Michel. 4. New York City. Conant. 7. Amana." 825. 423) is the (Vol. 437) is same author. II of Russia." Plato (especially pp. and see also Robert Owen. and that of increasing cost with increased quantity of producupon which depends the theory of tion. and author of History of Modern Banks of Issue. p. 5. the not antithetical to labour. (Vol.

FederalParty. 25. Carroll D. Commissioner of Labor. Bebel. James. by E. 422). p. American approaches to co-operation the articles Hopedale. by Jenks of New York University should be supplemented by the artiProf. § 373 (p. p. (p. Legislation (Vol. 26. and United States History (Vol. Among the more interesting general . author of Theorie and Geschichte des Socialismus a Socialist member and a leader of and formerly the Reichstag German of the Socialist movement away from Marx. by James Bonar. 11. contributed by the late Professor Charles Gross of Harvard University. arch- deacon of Ely. business. and supplement this by the (especially p. lish Protection (Vol. p. Rodbertus. 708). 734. labour legislation see the special article Employers' Liability (Vol. The most imLabour and port ant articles on modern conditions Wages will article serve as Trade Unions and Lockand Labour 1024) are (Vol. and author of Twenty-eight Years of Cooperation at Guise. §354 728). Schmoller. Morrill. 9. One of the great branches of economics is the study of statistics. and Dr. 689). and local articles. Karl Marx. by Edward Bernstein. . John Burns. Vol. Taussig. 23. p. Raiffeisen and Schulze-Delitzsch for German co-operative banks and rural credit. economic topics are tariffs . William Cunningham. Democratic Party. The article Trusts (Vol. chairman of executive. 716). Advisedly . Wright. Joseph Chamberlain. 464). author of History of American J. 27. W. 15). Russia on the Artel). Neale.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 290 Aneurin Williams. Jaures. cle W. (especially p. 12. 27). and author of The Tariff History of the United States. 25. articles: Tariff by (Vol. 887. France Italy (especially p. p. 22. 14. and for articles Robert Owen. etc. 718). 140). J. Kettler. §195 (p. author of Growth of EngIndustry and Commerce. Ireland (especially p. espe- pages 725-726. 694). McKiNLEY. 7). 782. Dr. Gilds (Vol. G. and trusts. by Dr.. 16. . See the Trusts. 356) and the sections on legislation and miscellaneous laws in separate state articles. E. §297 (p. Guise. both collaborative articles by Sir Edward William Brabrook. and Building Societies (Vol. etc. all with American sections by Carroll D. V. p. president of the University of Illinois. Vol. Tariff Legislation. Cobden. Pullman and Mormons (especially p. p. 729. Vol. Friendly Societies (Vol. 728). 301). Bernard Shaw. p. Free Trade (Vol. 11. Vol. Whig Party. Socialism (Vol. On late U. 729). 18). 334). And for the English tariff legislation hundred years. 766) and 4. United States. For the history of tariff legislation in the United States. Strikes outs (Vol. p. 14). etc. the in the last articles Corn Laws. 27. The on Gilds just referred to an introduction to the subject of labour and labour organizations. by the articles Interstate Commerce (Vol. in addition to the articles mentioned under Communism above: Rochdale. 749. p. See also under separate state headings. History cially 14. Vol. ist Anti-Federalist Party. 217). matters of constant and great importance both in politics and Tariffs. §241 (p. Mille- rand Henry George William Morris H. 27) especially §113 (p. 701). p. S. Andr6 Godin. p. especially New Zealand and Finland. and for the different co-operative experiments. Wright. p. author of Philosophy and Political Economy. 88). John Bright. Henry Clay. §314 (p. § 370 (p. see. International Co-Operative Alliance. Lassalle. etc. 846. and for American Trust Legislation. 711) and (Vol. J. S. Jean BapTisTE. 10). F. §151 (p. late United States Commissioner of Labor. Republican Party. etc. Liebknecht. 14). professor at Harvard. Wells. late chief registrar of friendly societies. the articles Alexan- der Hamilton.

religious statistics. illiteracy. These should be supplemented by accounts of 16. vital statistics death rate. urban and rural population. tistical tables.. urban population. statistician of the This and and Temperance (Vol. — remarkable examples of the Another great problem which the state and the municipality are attempting to U. 27. GouGH. Neal Dow. Temperance and Legislation. dealing is Willcox. where there is a predominant element. too. for instance. although based on dry statistics. articles One of the cities problems of population peculiar to the United States. religious statistics. comparisons are made between native and foreign-born and the foreign-born are classified. Population. 26. Shadwell. p. and Vol. also Theobald Mathew. Other articles coming under the head of population are Infanticide. Legitimacy and Legitimation. Indians. member 457). Arthur Shadwell. etc. by Dr. 587. — on American 291 treatment of a social question from the point of view of a statistician in a most interesting and illuminating manner. and. and that on Divorce —another urgent American prob- —are local (Vol. negroes and whites. particularly the Southern See the article especially the states. 344). John B. with the by Walter F. by Dr. and the articles Liquor Laws (Vol. is Negro part United States. X . p. occupations. 634-638) are treated: growth of the nation geographically and in population. changes in localities. 22. For statistics of much analysis population see. In the chapter in this Guide on Questions of the Day attention is called to the increasing tendency of the state to control and regulate Social Legislation matters which a generation or so ago were considered outside the sphere of government. of this we method learn that the essence of conducting the retail the element of private traffic is that gain is eliminated. Asiatics. but statistics both of and of their meaning. and towns of the Council of the Epidemiological population figures are given from the last census. Census Bureau. Louis. foreign-born and of foreign parentage. 8. Illegitimacy. etc. professor of social science statistics in Cornell p. often with analysis and historical outlines of immigration and its variation and character and amount. pp. p. 26. lem against liquor. an estimate of the influence of this element. marriage. interstate migration. national wealth. The status of the negro in different states is described in the separate state articles. article 334) University and chief 578). sexes. And the state articles give: total population at each census. On the Gothenburg system of Sweden and Norway see Vol. etc. legislation as for example in the articles Maine. which the negro. families. (Vol.ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE we say "study and in the Britannica the student will find cornparatively few sta- of statistics" Statistics. 19. 16. Kansas. South Carolina. pp. etc. birth-rate. where. 769 and 780. like the Germans in Cincinnati and St.g. Two — — economic questions "social evils" we sometimes call them are foremost in this category and on these the student of economics should read in particular the Britannica: The article Prostitution (Vol. S. the section on population in the article United States or in any one of the state or city Under Population and Social articles. and in a manner all the more satisfying and accurate because it carefully has analyzed figures at the back of it. with special consideration of immigration. the reader will find a summary of local divorce laws. Conditions in the article United States (Vol. See besides biographies of temperance reformers e. p.. and there. Society and author of Industrial Efficiency and Drink. with list of In larger cities and population of each. 759) p.

Movement for Old Age Pensions." as used in Testament. St. Thomas its De- Francis and his influence. is made up of an introduction and six parts. etc. Hebrew " Charity." — Medieval Charity and Part V. That was the significance of the Reformation. 837). ties. Hopedale. equivalent in contents to 100 pages of this Guide. of Nonconformists. Part III. for the and Dr. 578) British system. particularly Friends in England Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor (1796). p. etc.. 5. private charity. Poor relief acts and statutory serfdom. Of prime importance to the student is the elaborate article on Charity and Charities (Vol. and the experiments in garden cities. Chari- education. Charity among the Greeks. flourished Charles Stewart Loch. the line of The family among Jews and in the early Christian church. etc. societies. " In Crete and Sparta the citizens were wholly supported out of the public resources. as Charity retary follows " Charity. 3. secto the council of the London Charity Organization Society and author of Charity Organization. we compare: 1. of Howard. p. lastly. p. of Bentham. Part " The —not —After religious life Reformation. 13. " —Charity Roman in Times. 74). Part I. charity by: legal enactment for release of debts. VI. velopment. and the student will quickly learn that these burdens have been borne quite as much by the individual as by the State. Pullman. articles and Vagrancy One (Vol. 13. was ruinous. p. prison reform —such are a few of these topics. article Housing of See the (Vol. charities. Progress of thought in 18th and 19th century: influence of Rousseau. 860)." In Athens. and in a new sense in relation to family and social life it was to be moral. and for American model towns. Primitive Charity highly developed idea of duty to guest or stranger. — — . whether beggar or vagrant. Methods of Social Advance. by means legislation is that of housing. This article. 27. A." Organization of municipal relief. 22. 814). ity. Many movements for social welfare are of a very different character and are based on an entirely different principle from that of represSocial Welfare sive or controlling legislation. Summary of ity. assisted — — — emigration. and proportionally on commerce generally. while it continually increased their number. 465). friendship or love. etc. or to help solve. Aquinas." " The effect on agriculture. which comprises not only the topic of city housing and its faults due to overcrowding. model towns. p. To mark development. Ingram's UnexMPLOYMENT (Vol. Other articles bearing on the subject are: Poor Law (Vol. the was to be democratic in religious bodies. Medieval endowed St. -and the assistance of special classes of poor. Jewish and Christian CharIn Christianity a fusion of Jewish and Greco-Roman practice." — Part IV. but in the whole people. poor relief for infirm and for orphans of soldiers pay for public service. means love and mercy Introduction New : an ideal social state. The care of strangers and.BRITANNICA READINGS AND STUDIES 292 solve. but the subject of rural housing. The Poor Law. by Dr. Part II. care of insane. excessive value of land in great cities. of Law. and most important movements was prison of t