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AME2510

Contacts in LS-Dyna

Session delivered by:

Mr.Suman M.L.J.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP

AME2510

Session Topics

•Types of Contacts

•Interaction between parts

•Brief discussion about how contacts works?

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

2

PEMP

AME2510

LS-DYNA'S CONTACT ALGORITHMS

**•Flexible body contact
**

•Flexible body to rigid body contact

•Rigid body to rigid body contact

•Edge-to-edge contact

•Eroding contact

•Tied surfaces

•Rigid walls

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

3

Bengaluru 4 .S.PEMP AME2510 CONTACT TYPES •Single surface •Nodes to surface •Surface to surface CONTACT OPTIONS •Normal •Automatic •Rigid •Tied •Tied with failure •Eroding •Edge M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

•Accurate modeling of contact interfaces between bodies is crucial for the prediction capability of the finite element simulations. It is useful for impacting one part over other part.S.PEMP AME2510 CONTACT MODELING IN LS-DYNA •Contact provides a way of treating interaction between different parts or disjoints parts. Bengaluru 5 . •Contact forms an integral part of many largedeformation problems. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. M. Contact occurs when one segment of a model’s outer surface penetrates another segment. •Contact in LS-DYNA is defined using contact surfaces.

contact segment area .element stiffness M. Bengaluru 6 .larger risk for instability Penalty stiffness depends on: . High penalty .PEMP AME2510 INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTS CONTACT INTERFACES • Penalty stiffness: Determines the size of the force applied on the nodes in contact.element volume .smaller penetrations and .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

part3. M. part4 Contact entities (analytical surfaces) can be attached to rigid bodies.PEMP AME2510 • Definition of segments: 1. Segment by segment 2. part2 slave . Example: master .S. Bengaluru 7 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. and interact with deformable parts. By property sets.part1.

PEMP AME2510 INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTS Contact Interfaces Master Slave F = f. Bengaluru 8 . dp .dp f .Penalty Scale factor k.k.Penetration M.Proportionality const. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

.S. Bengaluru 9 . Consider when a part contacts itself M.Single surface contact is the most general type of contact used because in LS-DYNA program automatically searches all of the external surfaces within a model to determine if penetration has occurred. no contact or target surface definitions are required.PEMP AME2510 • Single-Surface Contact: -The single surface contact algorithm establishes contact when an external surface of one body contacts itself or the external surface of another body .Since all of the external surfaces are included. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

PEMP AME2510 •Most impact and crash applications require single surface contact to be defined. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Automatic General. Eroding Single Surface and Single Edge.where as in single surface contact in LS-DYNA will cause minor CPU time increase •The valid contact types used are Single Surface. •Single surface contact can be very powerful for self contact or large deformation problems where areas of contact are not known beforehand. Crush box M. where over-defining contact will dramatically increase CPU time. Bengaluru 10 . Automatic Single Surface. • Unlike Implicit modeling.S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 11 .S.PEMP AME2510 Example for single surface contact: Side impact simulation using MDB M.

Bengaluru 12 .PEMP AME2510 •Nodes to Surface Contact -Node to surface contact algorithm establishes contact when a contacting node penetrates a target surface. M.S. Here only the contact nodes impacting the target surface is considered -Node to surface contact is very robust for problems where the contact area is relatively small and the contact area is known beforehand. It is the fastest algorithm because it is asymmetric. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

• One part will be MASTER.PEMP AME2510 Nodes to surface cont… The following guidelines should be used with nodes to surface type of contact: Flat or convex surfaces should be the target surface(Master) while concave surfaces should be contact nodes (Slave). another part will be Slave • A node may belong to several parts • An interface node can be in rigid body • Breaks down with bad or disjointed mesh M. Coarse meshes should be target surface and finer meshes should be contact surfaces. Bengaluru 13 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

Bengaluru 14 . Apply forces to reduce penetration Detection of Closest master node M. Compute penetration 5. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Check if slave node has penetrated the master segment 3.PEMP AME2510 Nodes to surface cont… Algorithm 1. Find contact point 4. For each slave node finds the closest master node or master segment 2.

New closest master node •S2 . S1. Bengaluru 15 .PEMP AME2510 Nodes to surface cont… Search for master node with minimum distance to slave node Node S4 S5 M2 S0 S2 S6 M1 S1 S3 •S0 . S2.S. S6 New possible closest master segment Detection of Closest master node M. S5.S4.Previous closest segment to N at time t1 •M1 -closest node to N belonging to S0 •S0. S3 Segments connected to M1 •M2 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 Nodes to surface cont… Example for Node to surface contact: Drop test of a Liquid tank M.S. Bengaluru 16 .

PEMP AME2510 • Surface to Surface Contact -Surface to Surface contact algorithm establishes contact when the surface of one body penetrates the surface of another Master . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. -For Surface to Surface contact . Nodes may belong to multiple contact surfaces. -Surface to Surface contact is a general algorithm and is commonly used for bodies that have large contact areas and the contact surfaces are known.slave contacts -Surface to Surface contact is fully symmetric so that the choice of contact and target surfaces are arbitrary. Bengaluru 17 .nodal components are required for the contact and target surfaces. Fm3 f s k d ps fs = penalty scale factor k = proportional constant dp3=penetration at node M.

such as a block sliding on a plane.Not affected by bad mesh M.PEMP AME2510 Surface to Surface Contact cont… -Surface to Surface contact algorithm records the overall resultant contact forces in the ASCII rcforc file.Works good when both are convex .On the master side segments must be with shell or Solid elements .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 18 . -Surface to Surface contact is most efficient for bodies that experience large amounts of relative sliding. .Simulate impact between two surfaces .

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 19 .PEMP AME2510 Surface to Surface Contact cont… Example for Surface to Surface Contact Impact of a two bar M.S.

Automatic contact allows contact to occur on both sides of shell elements . Bengaluru 20 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.Difference in automatic orientation of surface .S.Automatic contact is most commonly used .PEMP AME2510 •Automatic Contact .Checks are made in both sides of shell M.

PEMP AME2510 • General Contact .General contact is Simple and widely used .Advantage is extremely fast and robust . only when no penetration M.Orientation will occur. Bengaluru 21 .Concern is surface orientation .S. . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.General contact does not consider shell thickness on contact force calculations.

As it has to mimic the real world conditions Impact of a projectile to a plate M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. -By using these type of contact where solid elements should fail after an impact. Bengaluru 22 . after the elements originally forming the outer surface have failed.PEMP AME2510 • Eroding Contact -The purpose of defining eroding contact is to allow contact to occur with the remaining elements.S.

Gluing together of contact surface to target surface.mesh2 ) .Master can deform . May be of interest when the meshes do not fit together .Often used to model bolted parts M. and slave will follow .Thereafter contact nodes are forced to maintain the iso-parametric position .Both should be coplanar initially .PEMP AME2510 •Tied Contact . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.Coarser mesh will be master (i.e. Bengaluru 23 .

Bengaluru 24 .For sheet metal forming Impact of a corrugated plates M.S.PEMP AME2510 • Edge contact . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. .Edge contact will be used when the surface normal are orthogonal to the impact direction.

•List the defined contact surfaces prior to solution to ensure that contact has been properly defined. it will automatically move the overlapping surfaces out of contact. M. •Always use realistic material property and shell thickness values.PEMP AME2510 General Contact Guidelines •Initial penetrations between contact surfaces are not allowed. •Do not make multiple contact definitions between the same parts.The material properties and geometry of contacting surfaces are used to determine k. Bengaluru 25 .S. •Use single surface contact if the exact contact behavior is not known beforehand. If LS-DYNA detects initial penetration between surfaces. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 Controls in LS-DYNA Session delivered by: Mr.Suman M.S.J. Bengaluru .L.

LS-Dyna Binary and ASCII output files. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Simulation control Solution Control Card Format and creation M. Bengaluru 27 .PEMP AME2510 Session Topics Basic solution control options in LS-Dyna.S.

-Here actual solution time should be of very short duration.PEMP AME2510 Basic solution control options The basic parameters to be specified in an explicit solution are: • Time -The actual time for which the physical process is being simulated. Bengaluru 28 .S. M. • Critical Time step -The time step for an explicit analysis is determined as the minimum stable time steps in any deformable finite element in the mesh. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. often in milliseconds.

t is the time needed for the wave to propagate through the length l l is the characteristic length c is the acoustic wave M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.. Bengaluru 29 .PEMP AME2510 Critical Time step cont…. -This is determined by the CFL condition (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy criterion) that determines the stable time step in an element as characteristic length divided by the acoustic wave l t c Where.S.

9. M.PEMP AME2510 Critical Time step cont….LS-Dyna solver automatically calculates the minimum time step size of each element based on the length and density. This is used to decrease the time step. T cri L c E Where.To ensure stability maximum timestep is normally multiplied by a scale factor (TSSFAC) of 0. .S. E = Young’s modulus = Density . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. but could reduce to as low as 0..66. Bengaluru 30 .

PEMP AME2510 Critical Time step cont….1 ms – a commonly used minimum timestep for crashworthiness problems Note: The critical Time step size for explicit time integration depends on element length and material properties (sonic speed) M.Timesteps may also be plotted in LS-Pre/Post for debugging . Bengaluru 31 .. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.The actual time step size used by LS-Dyna is the smallest of these values .Elements resulting in the 100 smallest timesteps are reported in the d3hsp file for debugging during solution . .S.

Fn is the stress divergence vector.F n + Hn Where. only numerical solutions are possible.S. LSDYNA uses the explicit central difference method to integrate the equation of motion The semi-discrete equations of motion at time n is given as Man = Pn. and Hn is the hourglass resistance. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. pn accounts for external and body force loads. Bengaluru 32 . M.PEMP AME2510 TIME INTEGRATION For nonlinear problem. M is the diagonal mass matrix.

M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 Comparision of time integration techniques Explicit predicts the solution at time t+dt by using the solution at time t. Bengaluru 33 . and n3 at time level t.S. and also using the solution which has been found for time t. Implicit solves the equation at time t+dt based on itself. n2. and n3 at time level t. and also the unknown displacements of nodes n1 and n3 at time level t+Δt. n2. The displacement of node n2 at time level t+Δt is equal to known values of displace-ment at nodes n1. The displacement of node n2 at time level t+Δt is equal to known values of the displacement at nodes n1.

the more time increments needed to reach the termination time. TIME STEP tn-1 tn tn+1. stiffness density Element size Speed of sound TIME STEP M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 34 .S..PEMP AME2510 TIME INTEGRATION • TERMINATION TIME. 0 Tt Time step size t The shorter time step.

Reduce termination time .Choose a simpler element type. Bengaluru 35 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. formulation .decrease the stiffness • Special methods to increase the time step: .increase the density .Speed up loading process M.S.increase the element size (merge small elements) .Reduce the number of elements .PEMP AME2510 TIME INTEGRATION Cont… • Direct methods to increase the time step: .Mass scaling • increases density in elements to get larger time step • increases the total mass • Methods to decrease the total CPU-time: .

PEMP AME2510 GLOBAL DATA • INITIAL VELOCITIES: Initial velocities can be applied to the complete system or to parts. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 36 . M.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 GLOBAL DATA cont… • BODY FORCES: Body forces or “ base acceleration” is a force acting on a volume or certain mass. The unit for body forces is N/kg or m/s2. Bengaluru 37 . Examples: M.

Bengaluru 38 .PEMP AME2510 OUTPUT CONTROL • OUTPUT DATA .S.Output data for plotting • ANIMATIONS: Position. stresses and strains are stored in binary files with an interval specified by the user.Output data for animations . displacement. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. • PLOT DATA: Various variables can be stored and are normally stored in different ASCII files depending on type of data M. velocities. acceleration.

.PEMP AME2510 OUTPUT CONTROL cont.Number of CPU’s for execution .Dynamic relaxation .Global system damping . Bengaluru 39 .Mass scaling .ALE options M.Coupling options (MYDAMO) . • OTHER COMMON CONTROL OPTIONS: .Time step computation method .Input method for materials and parts .Standard formulations for beams and shells .Global penalty for sliding interfaces .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

try to repair the mesh or use mass scaling. – 100 most critical time steps (search for 100 smallest timesteps).PEMP AME2510 POST-PROCESSING • Output File .S. If just a few elements spoil the time step. and Inertias (search for mass of body) – Mass scaling information (search for added mass). Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.must not be smaller than the actual time step (search for surface timestep) – Initial contact penetrations (search for penetration) – Masses. M. COGs. Bengaluru 40 . Should not be larger than 5% of the total mass.d3hsp File (ASCII) – Errors and warnings – Echo of input data – Critical contact time step .

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. strains.d3plot Files – Animation – Gives displacements.res file using hmdyna or use HyperView for direct input – Check for validity (contacts. velocities. stresses. penetrations.. • Animation Data . …) – Translate in HyperMesh . accelerations. overall deformation) – Check for failing regions (plastic strain) – Shell results are given on the different planes of the shells M.PEMP AME2510 POST-PROCESSING Cont. Bengaluru 41 .

relative displacements. secforc. need filtering to obtain essential information) M. • Plotting Data . accelerations (very noisy. Bengaluru 42 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. distances) – rcforc.PEMP AME2510 POST-PROCESSING Cont. …: Forces.. rwforc.S.ASCII Files – xy plotting – glstat: Energies • watch kinetic energy if mass scaling is used • watch hourglass energy to be < 5% of internal energy • watch interface energy • check how kinetic and internal energy behave to each other • stability of solution (no jumps in energy. or noise) – nodeout: Displacements (calculate intrusions.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 43 . • Filtering (low pass filter) fc ..PEMP AME2510 POST-PROCESSING cont.cutoff frequency 0dB pass region block region fc Frequency [Hz] M.

PEMP AME2510 POST-PROCESSING cont. 600. Bengaluru 44 ..S. 1000 Hz (1/s) – Recommended usage: Vehicle structural analysis Collision simulation input 60 Integration for velocity and displacement 180 M. • SAE Filter – Low pass filter – Filter classes by frequency: 60. 180. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. • Using Filters – – – – Always state how the result was filtered Be sure how the filter affects the result Be careful about the beginning and the end of the curve If results are compared between physical and numerical experiment use the same filter class M.. Bengaluru 45 .PEMP AME2510 POST-PROCESSING cont.

sw3. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. • To use Sense Switch controls Type in the LS-Dyna solver as shown below ‘Control-C’ Interrupt LS-Dyna solver and prompts for a sense switches sw1. M. A plot state is written and LS-Dyna continues calculations. LS-dyna responds with time and cycle numbers. sw2.PEMP AME2510 SIMULATION CONTROL • Sense Switch controls allow the user to interrupt the solution process and to check for the actual state. A restart file is written and LS-Dyna terminates. A restart file is written and LS-Dyna continues calculations sw4. Bengaluru 46 .

contact problems) to the LS-Dyna output window and to the file d3hsp • The First estimation of CPU time is usually too high. failed elements. M.PEMP AME2510 SOLUTION CONTROL • The LS-Dyna solver writes all important messages (errors. Bengaluru 47 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. So by using CTRL-C to interrupt the solver and by typing sw2 (Sense Switch controls) for the actual values of the global statistics.S. warnings.

k file in LS-Dyna solver to get “d3plot” output file •Post process the d3plot file in LS-Dyna post processor M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 48 .k” input file •Solve the .PEMP AME2510 General Approach involved in solving LS-Dyna •Create FE Model •Choose Material Model and Properties •Assign Material and Property •Assign loads and boundary condition •Specify control parameters •Create “.

PEMP

AME2510

**Approach to modeling – things to remember,
**

tips,

pitfalls

1.Components

•

•

•

**All material model : Elastic modulus , density and
**

Poisson’s ratio are common input require

All additional parameters are material model dependent

Unit consistency needs to be carefully examined for

various material models while providing numerical values

for various material model parameters.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

49

PEMP

AME2510

**•All stress-strain data must be provided in the form of true stresstrue strain data
**

•Time step should not be less then critical time step otherwise

computational error will grownup and instability will develop in

the solution

2.Interfaces/Contacts

1. While creating contact slave and master segments are

necessary for one way contact.

2. If necessary then only specify the cards value other wise

go with default values.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

50

PEMP

AME2510

INPUT FORMAT

•Input decks for analysis consist of data blocks, each consisting of

a keyword followed by data pertaining to the keyword

•Data blocks are either free- or fixed-format

•Input can change from free- to fixed-format anywhere within the

input deck, but not within a data block

•Input is order independent except for the *END keyword at the

end of the input deck

•Keywords are left justified and start with a ‘*’ in the first column

•A ‘$’ sign in the first column indicates a comment line

•Input is case insensitive

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

51

Bengaluru 52 .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 COMMANLY USED KEYWORDS *KEYWORD *SECTION *BOUNDARY *TITLE *EOS *INTERFACE *DATABASE *HOURGLASS *RIGIDWALL *CONTROL *SET *NODE *DEFINE *ELEMENT *CONTACT *MAT *CONSTRAINED *PART *INITIAL *INCLUDE *LOAD M.

Bengaluru 53 .S.PEMP AME2510 BASIC STRUCTURE Area Geometry Material Contact Component Keyword Nodes *NODE Elements *ELEMENT_ Part *PART Section *SECTION_ Material *MAT_ EOS *EOS_ Hourglass *HOURGLASS Contact Definition *CONTACT_ Rigidwall Definition *RIGIDWALL_ M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 54 .PEMP AME2510 BASIC STRUCTURE Cont… Area Loads and BCs Constraints Component Keyword Loads *LOAD_ BCs *BOUNDARY_SPC_ Load Curves *DEFINE_CURVE Constrained Nodes *CONSTRAINED_N ODE_SET *CONSTRAINED_S POT_WELD *CONSTRAINED_RI VETS Welds Rivets M.

S.PEMP AME2510 BASIC STRUCTURE Cont… Area Output Control Termination Component Keyword Various *DATABASE_ Default *CONTROL_OUTPUT Time *CONTROL_TERMINATION CPU *CONTROL_CPU DOF *TERMINATION_NODE Contact *TERMINATION_CONTACT M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 55 .

S.PEMP AME2510 SAMPLE DECK M. Bengaluru 56 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

S.PEMP AME2510 SAMPLE DECK cont…. M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 57 .

Bengaluru 58 . M.PEMP AME2510 SAMPLE DECK cont…. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

M. Bengaluru 59 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 SAMPLE DECK cont….S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru .optional (HGEN = 2) *CONTROL_PARALLEL Controls the number of CPU‘s required (Default = 1 CPU) M.PEMP AME2510 CONTROL CARDS • Control cards means setting of importand parameters and Input options • Default settings are acceptable but the following settings should be defined by the user *CONTROL_ENERGY Hourglass Energy Calculation .S.

The mass is scaled for elements that violate the time step M. Bengaluru 61 .S.PEMP AME2510 *CONTROL_TERMINATION Sets the end time *CONTROL_TIMESTEP Sets the analysis time step in two ways (1) Time step is determined automatically (default) (2) Constant time setep determined by the user (Paramter DT2MS). Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 DATABASE CONTROL • • • Database control is used for setting result output Default is just the output of the d3hsp file. the protocol file (ASCII) The result output is defined by the *DATABASE_ cards *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT • • Sets the frequency of the displacement and stress output Writes the d3plot files (binary) *DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP • • • Sets the output frequency for the restart file Write the d3dump files (binary) Needed for restart after system failure M. Bengaluru 62 .

S.PEMP AME2510 *DATABASE_GLSTAT • Sets the frequency of the energy output. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 63 . • Writes the glstat file (ASCII) *DATABASE_MATSUM • Sets the frequency of the material-wise result output • Writes the matsum file (ASCII) • Contents are for example the internal energy of a component M.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION • Defines prescribed displacement or velocity over time for a node or node set. Bengaluru 64 . M.

PEMP AME2510 *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES • Nodes that are not a direct part of a Rigid Body can be defined as associated with a Rigid Body. Bengaluru 65 . M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

S. Bengaluru 66 .PEMP AME2510 *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_OPTION • Joints can only be defined between two Rigid Bodies • Joint-Types: M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

PEMP AME2510 *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY • A nodal rigid body consists of several nodes that form a Rigid Body.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Nodal Rigid Body • Important: Nodal rigid bodies cannot have nodes of another Rigid Body M. Bengaluru 67 .

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. COG 1 COG 2 Rigid body 1Rigid body 2 Mass = 20kgMass = 20kg *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES Master = RB 1 Slave = RB 2 Rigid body 1 Mass = 40kg COG 1 M.PEMP AME2510 *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES • One Rigid Body is united with another one. Bengaluru 68 . The resulting body has the ID of the master body.

PEMP AME2510 *CONSTRAINED_RIVET *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD • Connection of two nodes with a rivet or weld • Failure of weld points can be defined M. Bengaluru 69 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

PEMP AME2510 *DEFINE_CURVE • • • Definition of a xy curve Pairs of points are defined and get interpolated linearly. Example: Stress-strain curve of a material M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 70 .S.

nodes. LOAD_BODY_Z). Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. *LOAD_BODY_OPTION • • Definition of base accelerations to the whole system (LOAD_BODY_X.PEMP AME2510 *INITIAL_VELOCITY *INITIAL_VELOCITY_NODE *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION • Definition of initial velocities of node sets. LOAD_BODY_Y.S. Bengaluru 71 . Mostly used for gravity loads M. or parts respectively.

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