What is quality -- the experts opinion

“Only through the collective efforts of their individual
members do companies change; companies are
incapable of changing themselves.”
-- V. Daniel Hunt

This question has been debated for many years and varies considerably even with the
quality experts (as outlined in the comparison tables below). For certain, the experts
agree, the outcome affects all businesses today and will continue to do so in the future.
(note: this comparison was originally based on
an article published in the "Quality" magazine, May 1992)

Table 1 - A comparison of Deming, Juran, and Crosby
W. Deming

J.M. Juran

P. Crosby

Basic orientation
toward quality

Technical

Process

Motivational

What is quality?

Nonfaulty systems

Fitness for use;
freedom from
trouble

Conformance to
requirements

Who is responsible
for quality?

Management

Management

Management

Importance of
customer
requirements as
standard

Very important

Very important;
Very important
customers at each
step of product life
cycle

Goal of quality

Meet/exceed customer Please customer;
needs; continuous
continuous
improvement
improvement

Continuous
improvement; zero
defects

Methods for
achieving quality

Statistical; constancy of
purpose; continual
improvement;
cooperation between
functions

Cost of quality;
quality trilogy:
planning, control,
improvement

14-point framework;

Chief elements of
implementation

14-point program

Breakthrough
projects; quality
council; quality
teams

14-step program;
cost of quality;
quality management
"maturity grid"

Role of training

Very important for
Very important for
managers and workers managers and
employees

For additional
The W. Edwards
details, see web site: Deming Institute

Juran Institute

Very important for
managers and
employees
Philip Crosby
Associates II

serviceability. quality teams methods across the company Role of training Important but not clearly defined Very important for Important but not defined managers and supervisors For additional details. aesthetics. see this Total Quality Management quick summary. Taguchi Basic orientation toward quality Strategic. proactive What is quality? Competitive opportunity What customer says it is Customer's performance requirements Who is responsible Management for quality? Everyone Engineers Importance of customer requirements as standard Very important Very important Very important Goal of quality Pleasing customers. continuous improvement improvement improvement Methods for achieving quality Identifying quality Total quality niches control (TQC). Garvin A. eliminating variations of design characteristics and "noise" through robust design and processes --- For additional details.A comparison of Garvin. Felgenbaum. reliability. see web site: --- --- Statistical methods such as Loss Function.Table 2 . features. excellence-driven rather than defectdriven Chief elements of implementation Eight dimensions of product quality: performance. conformance. systemic Technical. Felgenbaum G. durability. continuous requirements. perceived quality Statistical and Statistical design of engineering experiments.V. . Meet customer Meet customer continuous needs. academic Total. and Taguchi D..

The UK is currently lagging behind Germany. yet do not create as much value as our international competitors.productivity What is it? Productivity compares input factors in production to output.Productivity 04 February 2003 00:00 Simon Kent investigates the UK’s most elusive business concept . This can be measured in a number of ways including: Labour Productivity: Output produced per unit of labour used. France and the US in terms of productivity. Rather than being innovative and forward-thinking. Why is it important? Increasing productivity is the only way an economy can achieve higher standards of living. Expressed as output per worker or output per hour worked. capital and other material resources used in production. Therefore. how much value is derived from the labour. Where did it come from? . managers are unadventurous and staid.Ten-minute tutorial . Total Factor Productivity: This measure includes capital expenditure as an input to production. In other words. Applying these measurements to a particular company it can be seen that by focusing on productivity the organisation seeks to maximise its output given a set level of inputs. We work longer hours. The Government is seeking to address this through economic policy (promoting high employment and high levels of economic growth) and by encouraging new and existing businesses through sector and geographically led initiatives. An organisation can increase its productivity through a process of eliminating waste and introducing efficiencies. If output only increases when production inputs are increased there is unlikely to be any overall rise in profitability. Addressing productivity directly benefits the bottom line and recent reports suggest that one of the reasons for poor productivity in the UK is the lack of skills and talent in UK management. increasing productivity means getting higher output from existing resources. the organisation will not perform to maximum capacity. thereby compromising the overall performance of any organisation. Unless and until this is done.

Therefore. Toyota’s production technique boiled this down to 10 points . empower workers.a term associated with JIT manufacturing.Many of the current theories on increasing productivity have come from Japanese industry. he encouraged organisations to identify and remove barriers to achieving quality.whenever and wherever they can contribute. do it right the first time. Deming’s approach was to focus management on the creation of quality. .Lean management: An approach to managing people and resources to maximise productivity. examining each function and challenging why work is done this way. pull production from customer demand. To begin with. in turn. To do this. Second.Kanban . It is up to HR to create the right atmosphere for this to take place.Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing: Ensuring exact and sufficient resources are available at every stage in the production process. General initiatives to enhance productivity can include: . meet customer requirements. The Personnel factor HR and training can be critical to implementing initiatives and realising successful improvements in productivity. achieving real improvements in productivity entails critically appraising every aspect of the workplace. . and create a culture of continuous improvement. Effective and continuous training is vital if the UK’s managers are to improve their performance. resources are supplied only when demand is registered. . personnel policy can encourage productivity through incentive schemes such as performance-related pay or continuous improvement tools such as knowledge management schemes. minimise inventory. However. Rather than stockpiling. This is a signal which triggers the supply of a resource. design for rapid changeover. To be totally effective the entire workforce should be open and ready for change. maximise flow. partner with suppliers. incentivitising employees to work within an inefficient system simply promotes more waste. Japan. .Continuous improvement: Introducing new initiatives of any size or nature . a happy workforce is more productive. was inspired by the writings of an American called W Edwards Deming (1900-1993).Waste reduction: The identification and elimination of waste in all forms and from all parts of the production process. often empowering the workers to improve the production process themselves.eliminate waste. Toyota’s specific productivity initiatives include: .

processing. Nissan’s Sunderland plant set a new European productivity record in 2000 with 122 cars per employee. inventory and defects. thereby increasing the time the machine was in productive use.gov. with Toyota and Nissan among the leading players.Seven Wastes .hm-treasury. The TUC also sees productivity as an issue and has initiatives dedicated to enhancing industrial relationships to improve productivity. Kanban: Just in Time at Toyota (1989) by J. Edwards Deming. Discipline and Ongoing improvement in the workplace. . Edwards Deming. Toyota’s Just in Time system tackled overproduction and effectively resolved problems in all other areas since overproduction can include all the other wastes.L.uk/documents/enterprise_and_productivity/ent_index. Essential reading: Out of the Crisis (1986) by W. Websites: www.Smed . . David. Who’s on board? / Key players The Government has been researching the issue of productivity for the past few years and is adapting policy as they see fit.areas where an organisation compromises its productivity: Overproduction. Their research has had the backing of the DTI.acronym for Clear up. waiting.Single Minute Exchange of Dies. Includes Deming’s ‘14 Points for Management’ The Deming Management Method: The Complete Guide to Quality Management (1992) by W. transportation. Inspired by a Rudyard Kipling poem.. and initiatives have even entered the service sector where Enterprise Resource Planning has helped to ensure consultants spend the majority of their time engaged in high value activities. some of these concepts have been used in the workplace since the early 20th Century (for example. By analysing the process required to changeover the tools used on a machine. Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation (1996) by James Womack and David Jones.cfm- . Dell Computers and Boeing Aircraft have also implemented lean management techniques. S5 relates to the Japanese words for the same concepts (they all begin with the letter S). motion. the Ford Motor Company was cleaning up continuously back in the 1930s). Contemporary productivity theory and practice grew from the automobile industry in Japan. Japanese engineer Shigeo Shingo was able to reduce the time spent on this operation from hours to minutes.S5 or Cando . Neatness. Arranging.

com Consultants and trainers in continuous improvement www.tuc.oakdenehollins.Government research and reports on UK productivity www.uk/pi TUC’s Partnership Institute site www.kaizen-training.org.co.uk/lean2.html Oakdene Hollins consultants website . www.smed.info Evolving site featuring Smed and other lean management techniques from The Productivity Factory.includes info and introduction to productivity enhancing techniques .