Jataka Tales

retold by Noor Inayat Khan
and Judith Ernst

Marathi Interlinear Translation
Romanized Version

White Rabbit Making Elixir of Immortality (Wikipedia)

© 2016 Michael McDonald

DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to Bal Natu, who kindly looked it over and
corrected the Marathi version as much as deemed worthwhile for
the student, and to most-dear Sarah Schall, to whose loving heartsharing, in the selfless spirit of Noor Inayat Khan, we are forever
indebted. And to Beloved Meher Baba, the Producer of the grand
panoply of this illusory world. Any and all errors are my own …

References:
1. Noor Inayat Khan. (1939). Twenty Jataka Tales. Phila., PA:
McKay Company.
2. Judith Ernst. (1995). The Golden Goose King: a tale told by the
Buddha. Chapel Hill, NC: Parvardigar Press.
3. Mani Irani. (1976). The man in the new moon. In: The Search
for the King. Walnut Creek, CA: Sufism Reoriented, Inc.
Judith Ernst has graciously given permission
for the use of her work as quoted in this book
Cover illustration, “White rabbit making elixir of immortality,” is
copyright-free, from Wikipedia. The mystical experience of the rabbit
on the moon is suggested in the story by Mani Irani: “The man in the
new moon,” with this poem:
I hear in the ripples’ untrodden laughter
The eternal promise of ever after …
Rainbow, queen of celestial grace,
Melts within my arms’ embrace
Like bubbles merging into space.

5 Jataka Tales
retold by Noor Inayat Khan

To Wanarãsathi Pul Banla
He Became a Bridge for the Monkeys

Kone eke kali ek motha wanar hota, to himgirit ainshi
Once upon a time

a great monkey was

he in the Himalayas eighty

hajar wanarãcha pramukh hota. Ani jithe te rahat hote
thousand monkeys-of

the leader was

And

where they were living

tithe tya dagadãmadhun Ganga nadi, tya shaharãni
there

through the rocks

the Ganges river

the by cities-

gajbajlelya daryakade wahat hoti.
crowded

valley-towards

was flowing

Ani jithe budbudnare pani dagadãmadhun jat hote,
And

where

bubbling water

through the rocks

was going

tithe ek utkrisht jhad hote. Wasant ritu madhye tya
there

a magnificent

tree

was

In the spring season

the

jhadawar komal pandhri phule umalli; nantar tya
tree-on

tender

white

flowers

bloomed

later

the

phulãchi phale jhali, ti phale sarwotkrisht hoti; ani tya
flowers-of

fruits

became those fruits

most excellent

were

and

the

parwatatil madhur jhulukine ti madha-itki god jhali.
mountain-in (its) sweet breeze-due to

they

sweet as honey

became

Kiti sukhane te wanar rahile! Ti phale khat, te tya
How

happily

the monkeys lived!

The fruits

eating they that

adbhut jhadachya sawalit rahile. Tya jhadachya eka
marvelous

tree’s

shade-in

lived

Of the tree

one

bajula, tya phandya nadiwar pasarlya hotya. Mhanun tya
side-to

the branches over the river

had spread

Therefore those

phandyãwar phule alyawar, wanar ti nahishi karaychi.
branches-onto

flowers having come

the monkeys would destroy them
1

Ani jar ekhade phal alech, tar wanar te todun takayche.
And

if

any

fruit did come then

the monkeys would pluck it off

Te tase karayche karan tyanchya pramukhane tyãna
They like that would do

because

their

leader

to them

tashi adnya keli hoti: “Kalji ghya, eksuddha phal nadilike that

had ordered:

Take care

even one fruit

the river-

madhe padu deu naka. Nahitar nadi te shaharãkade neil,
in

don’t allow to fall

Otherwise the river it

to the cities will carry

ani manasãna te sapadel, tyawarun te aplya jhadacha
and

to the men

it will be found because of that they

of our tree

shodh ghetil. Te nadichya margane ikde yetil, ani
will take search

They

on the river’s path

this way will come

and

tyãna aple jhad sapadel. Te aplya jhadachi sagli phale
to them

our tree

will be found They

of our tree

all the fruits

tyanchyakade netil, ani aplyala ithun palun jawe lagel.”
to their homes

will carry and

to us

from here will be required to flee

Tya wanarãni tyache bolne manle ani khup kal ek-hi
The monkeys

what he said

obeyed

and for a long time a single

phal nadimadhe padle nahi. Pan shewti ek piklele phal,
fruit

into the river

didn’t fall

But

finally

a ripe fruit

je panãmadhe kunala disat nahwte, te nadit padle,
which among the leaves

ani
and

khadakal

no-one had seen

daryatun

it fell in the river

Gangechya kathi aslelya

out from the rocky valley

the on the bank of the Ganges-being

Waranasi hya mothya shaharakade tarangat gele. Ani
Benares

towards this great city

it went floating

tya diwashi, te phal Waranasi
on that day

the fruit

jawalun

And

tarangat

past Benares

floating-

jatana, raja Brahmdatt nadit anghol karit hota. To
going-while king Brahmadatta

in the river

2

was taking a bath

He

don kolyãni dharlelya jalyãmadhe pohat hota, ani
two fishermen-held

nets-between

was swimming

and

suryakiranãshi khelat hota. Tyaweli te phal eka jalyat
sunbeams-with

was playing

At that time

the fruit

in a net

tarangat gele.
went floating

Eka kolyane te pahile ani to mhanala, “Wah! He phal
A fisherman

saw it

and

he said

Wow!

This fruit

kuthun ale? Ashi phale kuthe ahet?” Ani chakit houn
came from where?

Such fruits

where are they?

And becoming dazzled

tyane te phal pakadun rajala dakhawle.
he

after grabbing the fruit

showed it to the King

Brahmdatt tya phalakade pahat rahila ani tyachya
Brahmadatta

at the fruit

kept on looking

and

its

saundaryamule ashcharyat padla. “Hya phalache jhad
beauty-because of

became surprised

This fruit’s tree

kuthe sapadu shakel?” ase rajachya manat ale. Mhanun
where might (it) be found?

like this

in the King’s mind came

Therefore

tyane kahi nadijawalchya lakud todnarya lokãna bolawle
he

some river-neighboring

wood-cutting folk

summoned

ani tyãna wicharle, “He phal kashache ahe? He kuthe
and

asked them

What kind of fruit is this?

This where

sapadu shakte, tumhala mahit ahe ka?”
can (it) be found

do you know?

“Maharaj, te phal mhanje amba, ek nawalaicha amba!
Great King

that fruit is a mango

a wonderful mango!

Ashi phale aplya daryat wadhat nahit, himgirit wadhtat,
Such fruits

in our valley don’t grow

tithe hawa nirmal ahe,
there

in the Himalayas they grow

suryakiran tejaswi astat.

the air is clean

the sunrays are bright

3

Hya phalache jhad nadijawal ugawle asawe, tyatun
This fruit’s tree

near the river must have sprung up

from that

te nadit padle asawe ani ikde tarangat ale.”
it in the river must have fallen and here

came floating

Rajane tya lokãna phalachi chaw ghyayla sangitli, mag
The King

to those people of the fruit

told to taste

then

tyane suddha chaw ghetli, ani tyachya sewakãna te dile.
he

also

tasted (it)

and

to his servants

gave it

Saglya lokãna te atyant ruchkar ani sarwotkrisht watle.
To everyone

it

exceedingly tasty

and most excellent

seemed

Tyanantar kahi kal haluhalu gela, ani Brahmdatt
After that

some time

slowly-slowly

went

and

Brahmadatta

adhik adhik aswasth jhala, tyala punha phalachi chaw
more and more restless

became

to him

again

a taste of the fruit

ghenyachi ichchha jhali. Eka ratri tyane swapnãt
of getting

the desire occurred

One night

he

in dreams

te mohak jhad pahile, tyachya phandyãwar shekdo
the enchanting tree

saw

on its branches

hundreds of

sundar wa ruchkar phale hoti.
beautiful

and

tasty

fruits

were

Dusrya diwashi raja mhanala, “Te jhad sapadlech
The next day

the King said

That tree

found

pahije,” ani mag tyane jahaj tayar karayla adnya keli.
must be

and

then

he

a ship

to be prepared

ordered

Ani Brahmdatt aplya manasãbarobar naditun prawas
And

Brahmadatta

with his men

via river

the journey

karit Himgirila, jhad shodhayla nighala.
making to the Himalayas

set out to seek the tree

Prawas lamb hota, pan shewti eka sandhyakali to raja
It was a long journey

but finally

4

one evening

the King

Aplya manasãbarobar Himgirila pohochla.Dur antarawar,
with his men

at the Himalayas arrived

At a far distance

tyãna kay disle? Tithe chandraprakashat te jhad ubhe
what did they see?

There in the moonlight

the tree standing

hote, ani tyachi soneri phale panãmadhun chamakat hoti.
was

and

its golden fruits

through the leaves were glittering

Pan he kay! Pratyek phandiwar kahitari halat hote.
But what’s this!

On every branch

something was moving

Kahi prakarchya wichitra sawalya panãmadhun disat
Some kind of

strange shadows

visible through the leaves

hotya?
were?

Ek manus mhanala, “Ti paha, wanarãchi toli ahe.”
One man

said

See there

a troop of monkeys

“Wanare ti phale khat ahet!” raja udgarle. “Jhadala
Monkeys

the fruits

gheraw ghala,
a blockade form

naka.

are eating!

the King exclaimed

To the tree

ani ekahi wanarala tithun jau deu
and

even one monkey

from there

allow to go

Sakali apan tyãna golyãni thar maru, ani

don’t In the morning we

them

with bullets

will kill

and

wanarache mas apan ambyãbarobar khau.”
monkey-meat

we

with mangoes

will eat

He bolne wanarãchya lakshat ale, ani te thartharat
This speech

to the monkeys’ attention

came

and they

trembling

tyanchya pramukhala mhanale, “He, amchya malaka,
their

chief-to

said

Hey

our master

tumhi amhala sawadh kele hote, parantu ekhade phal
you

us

had warned

but

some fruit

nadit padle asawe, mhanun manase ikde ali. Tyãni aplya
in the river must have fallen

therefore the men came here

5

They

our

jhadala gheraw ghatla, ani apan ithun jau shakat nahi,
tree

blockaded

and

we

from here

are unable to leave

karan dusre jhad udi marayla jast dur ahe. Amhi eka
because

another tree

to jump (to)

too far away

We

one

manasala ase boltana aikle: ‘Sakali apan tyãna golyãni
man

like this speaking heard: In the morning we

them with bullets

thar maru, ani wanarache mas apan ambyãbarobar khau.’”
will kill

and

monkey-meat

we

with mangoes

will eat

“Majhya chhotya mitrãno, mi tumhala wachawnar ahe,”
My little friends

I am going to save you

tyancha pramukh mhanala. “Ghabaru naka, pan jase mi
their

chief

said

Don’t be frightened

but

like

I

sangto, tumhi tase kara.” Tyawar to shaktiwan pramukh
say

you do like that

On that

jhadachya sarwat unch
the tree’s

the powerful chief

phandiwar

chadhla,

branch-onto

climbed

highest

ani
and

waryachya wegane tyane dusrya jhadawar udi marli,
with swiftness of the wind

he

onto another tree

jumped

te jhad dur antarawar nadichya dusrya kathawar hote.
the tree

at a far distance

on the river’s other bank

was

Tikde tyane ek lamb bambu upatla, ani asa wichar kela:
There

“Mi

he

a long bamboo

hya bambuche

I

this bamboo’s

uprooted

and

like this thought:

ek tok jhadala bandhto, ani
one end to the tree

am binding

and

dusre tok majhya payala. Jewha mi parat ambyachya
the other end to my foot

When

I

back

the mango-

jhadawar udi maren, tewha bambucha pul tayar hoil;
tree-onto

will jump

then

a bamboo bridge will become ready

tyawarun majhe wanarlok jaun sutu shaktil.” Ani tyane
from over it

my monkey-folk will be able to go and escape

6

And

he

ti toke tashi bandhli, ani anandane udi marli.
the ends like that

tied

and

with joy

he jumped

Pan kay durdaiw! To bambu titka lamb nahwta ani
But what misfortune!

The bamboo that very long

wasn’t

and

tyane khup kaushalyane tya jhadachi phandi pakadli.
he

with great skill

Tyane

the tree’s branch

grabbed

tyachya ainshi hajar wanarlokãna bolawun

He

his

eighty thousand monkey-folk

after summoning

sangitle: “Majhya pathiwar jaun bambuwar palun ja ani
told:

After going on my back

over the bamboo run away

and

tumche jiw wachawa.”
your

lives

save

Ekamagun ek te wanar tyachya angawarun ani bamOne by one

the monkeys

his

body-from over

and

bam-

buwarun palun gele. Pan tyãpaiki eka wanarane tyachya
boo-from over

ran away

But among them

one monkey

his

pathiwar jast jorane udi marli, ani hay re! tyachya
back-onto

too forcefully

jumped

and

alas!

his

pathit chamak nighali, karan tyachi path modleli hoti.
back-in shooting pain came out

because

his back had broken

Ani to bephikir wanar tyachya margane nighun gela;
And that heedless monkey

on his way

went away

tyane aplya pramukhala dukhapat karun sodun dile.
he

his chief

after injuring

abandoned

He sagle Brahmdattane pahile. Tyane tya wanarãAll this

Brahmadatta

saw

He

the mon-

chya marat alelya pramukhakade baghitle, ani tyachya
keys’

dying

chief (at)

watched

and

his

dolyãtun ashru padle. Mag rajane adnya keli: “Tyala
eyes-from

the tears

fell

Then the King

7

ordered:

Him

jhadakhali anun sarbat dya.” To pramukh jhadakhali
tree-under

after carrying give sherbet

The chief

under the tree

jhopla ani raja tyachya bajune basla ani tyachyashi
lay

and the King

at his side

sat

and

with him

bolla. Raja mhanala: “Tu tujhya angane dusryãsathi
spoke

The King said:

You

with your body

for the others

jhultapul banawlas. Tula mahit nahwte tyamule kay hoil?
a hanging bridge made

You didn’t know

due to that what’d happen?

Tu tujhya lokãsathi tujha jiw dilas. Pawitra wanara,
You

your

people-for

your

life

gave

Blessed monkey

mala sang, tu kon ahes, te tujhe kon ahet?”
tell me

who are you

who are they of yours?

“Aho Maharaj,” wanar mhanale, “mi tyancha pramukh
Oh

Great King

the monkey said

I

their chief

ani guru ahe. Te majhyabarobar hya jhadawar rahile,
and

guru

am

They

with me

on this tree

lived

ani mi tyãna wadilãsarkha ahe, majhe tyanchyawar
and

I

for them

like a father

am

my

for them

prem ahe. He jag sodun janyat mala duhakh hot nahi,
love

is

In abandoning this world

for me

there’s no regret felt

karan mi majhya wanarlokãchi sutka keli ahe. Ani majhe
because I

my

monkey-folk’s liberation have made

And

(if) my

marne tumchyasathi ek dhada hoil, tar mala anand watel.
dying

for you

will become a lesson

then I’ll feel happy

Phakta talwarine tumche rajya challat naste, te prem
Only by the sword

your reign

doesn’t progress

it

lov-

karnyat aste. Tumhi lokãwar premane rajya kara, karan
ing

is in

You

over people

with love

rule

because

te tumchya mulãsarkhe ahet; phakta hya prakare tumhi
they

like your children

are

only

8

in this way

you

khara raja hwal. Majhyamage majha bol lakshat thewa,
will become a true King

After me

aho raja Brahmdatt!”
Oh King Brahmadatta!

my speech

Ani

in mind

keep

tya pawitra wanarane

And

the blessed monkey

aple dole mitle ani jiw sodla.
his

eyes

closed

and

died

Raja ani tyachya lokãna hyamule khup duhakh jhale.
To the King and his people

due to this

much grief was felt

Tyachi athawn rahawi mhanun tyãni ek dewalay bandhle.
His remembrance should remain therefore they

a temple

built

Ani Brahmdatt tyachya lokãwar premane rajya karu
And

Brahmadatta

over his people

with love

to rule

lagla, ani tyanantar pudhe kayamcha sukhane rahila.
began

and

for ever afterwards

happily

lived

The Monkey-bridge
A giant-like monkey once ruled over eighty thousand monkeys in the
Himalaya mountains. And through the rocks where they lived streamed
the river Ganges before reaching the valley where cities were.
And there where the bubbling water fell from rock to rock stood a
magnificent tree. In the spring it bore tender white blossoms; and later
it was laden with fruit so wonderful that none could be compared with
them, and the sweet winds of the mountain gave them the sweetness of
honey.
How happy the monkeys were! They ate the fruit and lived in the shade
of the wonderful tree. From one side of the tree the branches spread
over the water. Therefore, when the blossom appeared the monkeys
destroyed the flowers on those branches that the fruit might not grow
on them, and if a fruit did grow they plucked it, for the chief had
warned them, saying: “Beware, let not a fruit fall into the water lest the
river carry it to the city, where men seeing the beautiful fruit might
search for the tree. Following the river up into the hills, and finding the
tree, they would take all the fruit and we should have to flee from here.”
Thus the monkeys obeyed and for a long time never a fruit fell into the
river. But the day came when one ripe fruit, unseen between the leaves,
9

fell into the water and was taken by the flow of the river down, down
the rocky hills, into the valley where the large city of Benares stands at
the bank of the Ganges. And on that day, while the fruit passed by
Benares, pushed along by the little waves of the river, the King
Brahmadatta was bathing in the water between two nets which some
fishermen held while he swam and played with the little sunrays in the
water. And the fruit floated into one of the nets.
“Wonderful!” exclaimed the fisherman who saw it. “Where on this earth
grows such a fruit as this?” And, seizing it, with sparkling eyes he
showed it to the King.
Brahmadatta gazed at the fruit and marvelled at its beauty. “Where is
the tree which bears this fruit to be found?” he wondered. Then, calling
some woodcutters from near the riverbank, he asked if they knew of the
fruit and where it could be found.
“Sire,” they said, “it is a mango, a wonderful mango. Such a fruit as this
grows not in our valley, but up in the Himalayas, where the air is pure
and the sunrays undisturbed. No doubt the tree stands on the riverside
and a fruit having fallen in the water has been carried here.”
The King then asked the men to taste of it, and when they had done so,
he also tasted it, and gave of it to his attendants. “Indeed,” they said,
“such a fruit is divine; never can another be compared to this.”
The days and the nights went slowly by and Brahmadatta grew more
and more restless. The longing to taste of the fruit once again became
stronger as each day passed. In the night he saw in his dreams the
enchanted tree carrying on each branch a hundred golden cups of honey
and nectar.
“Indeed it must be found,” said the King one day, and he gave orders
that a boat be prepared to sail up the river Ganges, up to the Himalaya
rocks where perhaps the tree might be found. And Brahmadatta went
himself with the men.
Long indeed was the journey, but at last the King and his followers
reached the Himalaya hills one evening, and gazing in the distance
what did they see? There, beneath the moonlight, stood the longed-for
tree, its golden fruit glittering through the leaves.
But what was moving on each branch? What strange little shadows
were sliding through the leaves?
“See,” said one of the men, “it is a troop of monkeys.”
“Monkeys eating the fruit!” exclaimed the King; “Surround the tree that
they might not escape. At dawn we will shoot them and eat of their
meat and of the mangoes.”
These words came to the ears of the monkeys and, trembling, they said
to their leader: “Alas! you warned us, beloved chief, but some fruit may
10

have fallen in the stream, for men have come here; they surround our
tree, and we cannot escape, for the distance between this tree and the
next is too far for us to leap. We heard words coming from the mouth of
one of the men saying: ‘At dawn we will shoot them and eat of their
meat and of the mangoes.’”
“I will save you, my little ones,” said the chief. “Fear not, but do as I
say.” Thus consoling them, the mighty chief climbed to the highest
branch of the tree. And as swift as wind, he jumped a far distance
through space and landed on a tree near the opposite bank of the river.
There, he pulled up a long bamboo by its roots and he thought: “I will
bind one end of the bamboo to this tree and the other end to my foot.
Then I will spring again to the mango tree; thus a bridge will be made
over which my subjects may flee.” And binding the ends of the bamboo,
his heart filled with joy, and he sprang back to the mango tree.
But, alas! the bamboo was too short and he was only just able to seize
the end of a branch. With a mighty effort he clung to the branch and
called to his eighty thousand followers: “Run over my back onto the
bamboo, and you will be saved.”
One by one the monkeys ran over him onto the bamboo. But one among
them jumped heavily upon his back. Alas! a piercing pain seized him;
his back was broken. And the heedless monkey went on his way leaving
his chief to suffer alone.
Brahmadatta had seen all that had happened and tears streamed from
his eyes as he gazed upon the stricken monkey chief. He ordered that he
be brought down from the tree, and that sweet water be given him to
drink. And the chief lay beneath the tree and the King sat at his side
and spoke to him. He said: “You made of your body a bridge for others to
cross. Did you not know that your life would come to an end in so doing?
You have given your life to save your followers. Who are you, blessed
one, and who are they?”
“O King,” replied the monkey, “I am their chief and their guide. They
lived with me in this tree, and I was their father and I loved them. I do
not suffer in leaving this world for I have gained my subjects’ freedom.
And if my death may be a lesson to you, then I am more than happy. It
is not your sword which makes you a king; it is love alone. Rule your
subjects through love because they are your children; in this way only
shall you be king. When I am no longer here forget not my words,
O Brahmadatta!” The Blessed One then closed his eyes and died.
The King and his people mourned for him, and the King built for him a
temple in order that his words might never be forgotten. And
Brahmadatta ruled with love over his people, and they were happy ever
after.
11

Kasaw ani don Hans
The Tortoise and two Geese

Kone eke kali don hans eka khup mhatarya kasawOnce upon a time

two geese

a very aged tortoise-

achya gharat tyachyashi bolat hote, te ghar Himgiritil
his house-at

with him

were talking

the house

a Himalayan

eka lahan talawat hote.
small pond-in

was

Te mhanale, “Mitra kasawa, amchyabarobar ghari ye.
They said

Friend tortoise

with us

come home

Te phar chhan asun, Chitrakut parwatachya soneri
It

being very nice

of Chitrakut mountain

a golden

guhet ahe.”
cave-in

is

Kasaw mhanala, “Mala pankh nahit. Mi tujhya ghari
The tortoise said

I don’t have wings

I

to your house

kase yeu shakto?”
how

can (I) come?

“Tu tujhe tond band karu shaktos ka?” hansãni
You

your mouth

are (you) able to shut?

the swans

wicharle.
asked

“Ho jarur!” tyane uttar dile.
Yes certainly!

he answered

“Hi kathi tujhya tondamadhe dhar,” te mhanale,
This stick

hold in your mouth

they said

“ani amhi tyachi donhi toke amchya chochit dharun
and

we

its both ends

in our beaks

tula amchya ghari gheun jau.”
you

to our house

will take away
12

after grasping

Ani te parwatãwarun udat gele, ani sagle jag khali
And they over the mountains

went flying

and the whole world below

rahile. Thodya welane te Waranasichya gharãwarun
remained

After a short time

they

over Benares’ houses

udat hote. Jewha tyãni te jawalun jatana pahile,
were flying

When

they

them while going past

saw

tewha kahi mule hasun mhanali, “Kiti wichitra ahe!
then

some children

after laughing said

How strange it is!

Don hans ek kasaw hawetun gheun jat ahet!”
Two geese

a tortoise

thru the air

are taking away!

Tyanche bolne aiklyawar, to motha kasaw khup
Their talk

on having heard

the great tortoise

much

bichakla, ani tyache man bhadakle. “Mi hawetun udat
got startled

and

his heart flared up

I

flying thru the air

jayche ki nahi, hyachyashi tumcha kay sambandh?”
am to go

or not

with this

what’s your concern?

ase tyachya manat ale wa tase to mothyane mhanala.
such

came in his mind

&

like that he loudly said

Arthatach, to tyache tond ughadnyashiway bolu
Of course

he

without opening his mouth

to speak

shakat nahwta, tewha tyane tyachya datãtun kathi
was unable

then

he

from his teeth

the stick

sodli, ani bichara kasaw eka rajwadyachya anganat
loosed

and

poor tortoise

into a palace-courtyard

padla. Dusrya kshani, sagle lok tithe uthun ale. Sardar
fell

The next moment all the folk after arising came there

The nobles

ani sewak saglya khidkya ani darwajyãt ubhe rahile.
and servants

all the windows

and

doorways-in

were standing

Rajane ti batmi aiklyawar, to tyachya simhasanaThe King

on having heard the news

he

13

his

throne-

warun uthla
from on

ani

got up

tyachya samajutdar wa hushar

and

his

wise & intelligent

wajirabarobar tithe baghayla gela.
chief minister-with

went there to look

Raja udgarla, “Bichare kasaw! Kashamule te anganat
The King exclaimed

The poor tortoise!

How come it in the courtyard

padle, ani tyache sundar hirwe kawach phutle?”
fell

and

its beautiful green shell broke?

To wajirala mhanala, “Mala sanga, te kuthun ani
He said to the chief minister

Tell me

it

whence

and

kase padle?”
how fell?

Rajala ase bolnyachi saway hoti. To dayalu ani
The King had a habit of talking like this

He

kind

and

udarhi hota, pan to itka kadak hota ki tyachyasamor
also noble

was

but

he was so impetuous

that in front of him

kuni kahihi bolu shakat nahwte. Wajirala kasawachya
anyone anything

wasn’t able to speak

To his minister

the tortoise’s

goshtibaddal sagle mahit hote. Mhanun tyane wichar
story-concerning

all was known

Therefore

he

consid-

kela, “Ata hya rajala ek changla dhada shikawnyachi
ered

Now

to this King

of teaching a good lesson

sandhi ali ahe.”
opportunity has come

To mhanala, “Maharaj, don pakshyãni ek kathi aplya
He said

Great King

two birds

a stick

their

chochit dharli hoti, ani hya kasawane ti kathi aplya
beaks-in

had held

and

this tortoise

the stick

its

datãt dharli hoti. Asha prakare te don pakshi kasawala
teeth-in

had held

In such manner

14

the two birds

the tortoise

udat gheun challe hote. Shaharatil kahi mule tyala
taking flying

had set out

Some city-children

it

pahun hasli. Te hasne aiklyawar te kasaw ragawle,
after seeing laughed

On having heard the laughing the tortoise got angry

ani te tyache tond band thewu shakle nahi. Kasawala
and

it was unable to keep its mouth shut

The tortoise

bolnyashiway rahta ale nahi, ani tyachya tondatun
without speaking

could not remain

and

from its mouth

kathi sutli ani te khali padle. Jo aple tond band thewu
the stick slipped out and

down it fell

He who his mouth

to keep shut

shakat nahi, tyachya nashibat asech aste.”
is unable

in his fate

it is just like this

Te bolne rajachya manala lagle ani patle. Tyala samajle
That speech

the King’s mind affected and convinced

He understood

ki ha dhada aplyasathi hota, ani tyapudhe raja thode
that this a lesson for him

was

and thenceforward the King briefly

ani nemke bolayla shikla, ani tyanantar pudhe kayam
and opportunely to speak

learned

and

for ever afterwards

to sukhane rahila.
he

happily

lived

The Tortoise and two Geese
“Come with us, friend Tortoise,” said one day two wild geese to a kind
old tortoise who lived in a pond in the Himalayas. “We have a fine home
in a golden cave on the mountain Chitrakut.”
“I have no wings,” replied the tortoise. “How can I reach your home?”
“Can you keep your mouth closed?” asked the geese.
“Yes, certainly,” he replied.
“Hold then this stick between your teeth,” said the geese, “and we will
take each end within our beaks and carry you through the air.”
And off they flew over the mountain-tops, and the whole world lay
beneath them. But after some time they flew over the roofs of Benares.
“How strange!” laughed some children who saw them pass. “A tortoise is
being carried by geese through the air!”
15

Master Tortoise, hearing these words, became very restless and a tiny
anger-fire began to blaze in his small heart.
“Why should you care if I am carried through the sky?” he cried aloud.
Of course he could not speak without opening his mouth; his teeth lost
their hold of the stick, and down fell poor Master Tortoise into the
courtyard of the palace of the King. In a moment, the Court was
aroused. Ministers, noblemen, and royal guards stood at every window
and every door. News was brought to the King, who rose from his
throne and went to the scene together with his counselor, a wise man of
the Court.
“Poor tortoise!” exclaimed the King. “What caused him to fall in this
courtyard, and break his beautiful green shell?”
“Tell me,” he said to his counselor, “from where has he fallen and why
did he fall?”
Now it so happened that the King’s habit was to talk very much. He
was kind and good-hearted, but in his presence it was difficult for
others to get in a word. Thus the counselor, knowing the reason of the
tortoise’s fall, thought: “Here is my chance to give our talkative King a
lesson.”
“Lord,” he said, “some birds were carrying a tortoise through the air by
holding between them in their beaks a stick, to which he clung with his
teeth. The tortoise heard the children in the city laughing at him. This
no doubt made him angry and he could not forbear speaking to them,
wherefore he lost hold of the stick and fell. Such is the fate that comes
to those who cannot hold their tongues.”
These words pierced the King’s heart; he knew that the lesson was
meant for him, and from that day his words were few and wise; he
talked only when it was time to speak, and he lived happy ever after.

Doshi Kutre
The Guilty Dogs

Kone eke kali eka rajane tyachi rajshahi saha
Once upon a time

ghodyãni

odhleli

horses-drawn

a

gadi

King

his

regal

shaharamadhe

chariot

in the city

six

neli. Ratra
drove

Night

jhalyawar to rajwadyat parat ala, ani tyane ghode
become-on

he

to the palace

returned
16

and

he

the horses

tabelyat nyayla
to the stable

sangitle. Pan gadi ani ghodyacha

told to take

But the chariot and

horse’s

khogirwar saj anganat rahila.
saddle-equipage remained in the courtyard

Nantar sagle lok rajwadyat jhople, tyanantar paus
Later

all the folk

in the palace

slept

after which rainfall

suru jhala. “Ata apan gammat karu,” rajwadyatle kutre
began

Now

we will have fun

the palace-dogs

mhanale, karan pausamadhe te chamadyache patte
said

because

in the rain

the leather-straps

naram jhale hote. Te kutre lapat anganat gele, ani tyãni
soft

had become

The dogs stealthily went into the courtyard and they

te sundar patte chawun takle. Ratrabhar te tase
the beautiful straps

chewed up

All night they like that

khelat rahile, ani pahat honyapurwi te nighun gele.
kept on playing

and before becoming dawn

they departed

“Rajachya gadiche patte kunitari chawle ahet, nikami
The King’s

chariot-straps

someone has chewed

useless

kele ahet!” sewaklok sakali anganat alyawar udgarle.
has made! the servants in the morning into the courtyard on coming exclaimed

Ani te thartharat rajala sangayla gele.
And they

trembling

went to tell the King

“Maharaj, ratri tumchya gadicha saj nikami kela ahe.
Great King

at night

your chariot’s equipage was made useless

Te kutryãche kam asawe, karan te sundar patte te
It

must be the work of dogs

because

the beautiful straps they

chawat hote.”
were chewing

Rajane ragawun adnya keli, “Shaharatlya saglya
The King having become angry ordered

17

All the city’s

kutryãna marun taka.”
dogs

kill off

Rajachi adnya tya shaharatlya satshe kutryãchya
The King’s order

the city’s

700 dogs’

lakshat ali, ani te mothyane radu lagle. Pan ek kutra
attention-to came and

they began to weep loudly

But

one dog

tyancha pramukh hota, to saglyãwar prem karit hota,
their

leader

was

he was feeling love for all (of them)

ani saglyãna sambhalaycha. Mhanun te sarwa kutre
and

all of them

he would take care of

Therefore

all the dogs

ekatra tyachyakade gele.
together

went to his place

“Aj tumhi sagle ikde ekatra kashala ala ahat?”
Today

you all

here

together

why have come?

pramukhane tyãna wicharle, “ani kashamule tumhi
the leader

asked them

and

how come you

itke duhakhi dista?”
so very sad

appear?

“Aplyawar sankat ale ahe,” kutre mhanale. “Ratri rajUpon us

calamity

has come

the dogs said

At night the King

achi gadi anganat ubhi rahili hoti, ani tyache chamade
his chariot in the courtyard

had stood

and

its leather

nikami jhale, ani aplyawar tyacha dosh ala ahe. Rajane
became useless

and

upon us

its blame has come

The King

ragawun adnya keli, ‘Saglya kutryãna marun taka.’”
having become angry ordered

“Shaharatle

kutre

The city-dogs

All the dogs

rajwadyachya

kill off

anganat

in the palace courtyard

jane
to go

shakya nahi,” pramukhane wichar kela. “Jar rajwadyatisn’t possible

the leader

thought

18

If (in) the palace-

lya kutryãni te patte nikami kele naste, tar dusre kuni
(its)

dogs

the straps

didn’t make useless

then

who else

te kele? Mhanje doshi kutre suttil, ani nirdoshi kutre
did it?

That is

the guilty dogs will escape

and the innocent dogs

marle jatil. Mi nakki rajala doshi kutre dakhawin, ani
will be killed

I definitely to the King the guilty dogs will demonstrate

and

shaharatle kutre wachtil.”
the city-dogs will be saved

Tya dhit pramukhane tasa wichar karun tyachya
The

bold

leader

after thinking thusly

his

lokãche santwan kele, mag to ekta rajwadyat gela.
folk

consoled

then

he

went alone to the palace

Rajwadyacha dwarpal tyachya cheharyawarcha bhaw
The palace’s doorkeeper

the feeling on his face

ashcharyane baghat rahila, ani tyala rajwadyat jau dile.
remained looking at with surprise

and allowed him to go into the palace

Mag to diwankhanyat gela, jithe raja gadiwar basla
Then

he went into the hall

where the King on his throne seated

hota, ani sardarlok tyachyajawal ubhe rahile hote. Thodwas

and the noblefolk

were standing near him

A short

ya welane pramukh mhanala, “Maharaj, tumchi adnya
time-after

the leader said

Great King

your order

ashi ahe ki saglya shaharatlya kutryãna marle pahije?”
is it thus

that all the city-dogs

must be killed?

“Ho,” raja mhanala, “majhi tashi adnya ahe.”
Yes

the King said

such is my order

“Tyãni tumche kay nuksan kele, aho maharaj?”
What did they damage of yours

Oh Great King?

“Tyãni majhya gadicha saj nikami kela.”
They

my chariot’s equipage

made useless

19

“Saglyach kutryãna marle pahije ka, ki tyatun kahi
Every one of the dogs

must be killed?

or out of them any

kutryãna jiwant rahu dyayche?”
dogs

are to be allowed to remain alive?

“Phakta rajwadyatle kutre jiwant rahu dyayche!”
Only the palace-dogs

are to be allowed to remain alive!

“Aho maharaj,” pramukh halu awajat mhanala, “kashOh Great King

the leader said in a low voice

how

ala rajwadyatle kutre nirdoshi ahet, ani shaharatle kutre
come

the palace-dogs

are innocent

and

the city-dogs

doshi ahet kay? Aho maharaj, tumcha nyay asa kasa ahe?”
they’re guilty, what?

Jara wel

Oh Great King

how is this justice of yours?

rajane wichar kela, mag to mhanala,

For some time

the King thought

then

he said

“Tu hushar ahes, mag mala sang, kon doshi ahet?”
You’re wise

then tell me

who are the guilty ones?

“Radwadyatle kutre,” pramukhane uttar dile.
The palace-dogs

the leader answered

“Mala tujhya shabdãtil satya dakhaw.”
To me

the truth in your words

demonstrate

“Mi tumhala tase dakhawun dein,” pramukh mhanala.
I

to you

will give such a demonstration

the leader said

“Rajwadyatlya kutryãna ithe anaychi adnya kara, ani
The palace-dogs

of bringing here

make order

and

darbh wa tak khayla dya.”
give spear-grass & buttermilk to eat

Pramukhane te jase sangitle, tase rajane kele, ani
The leader

just as he said it

the King did like that

and

rajwadyatle kutre tyanchyasamor anawayla sangitle.
the palace-dogs

told to have brought before them

20

Kutryãni

darbh wa tak

The dogs

khallyanantar,

tyanchya

after having eaten spear-grass & buttermilk

their

tondãtun chamadyache tukde okun jaminiwar padle,
mouths-from

bits of leather

after vomiting fell on the floor

wa asha prakare tyane doshi kutryãna shodhun kadhle!
&

in this manner

he

the guilty dogs

Raja

uthun mhanala,

The King

after rising said

discovered!

“Tujhe bolne barobar ahe.
Your speaking is correct

Jiwat jiw aseparyant tu majhya athawnit rahshil.”
As long as I’m alive

you

in my memory

will remain

Ani rajane adnya keli, “Shaharatlya kutryãcha changla
And the King ordered

Of the city-dogs

good

sambhal kara,” tyanantar sarwa kutre sukhane rahile.
care take

after that

all the dogs lived happily

The Guilty Dogs
One day, a king drove through the city in his magnificent chariot
drawn by six white horses. At the fall of night, when he returned, the
horses were taken to the stable, but the chariot was left in the
courtyard with the harnesses.
And when everyone was asleep in the palace, it started to rain.
“This is our time to have some fun,” said the palace dogs, when they
saw the leather harnesses wet and softened by the shower. Down they
went, on tip-toe, into the courtyard, and bit and gnawed at the beautiful
straps. And after thus playing the whole night, they slipped away
before the dawn.
“The straps of the royal chariot, eaten, destroyed!” exclaimed the
servants as they entered the courtyard the next morning. And with
trembling hearts they went to tell the King.
“Gracious lord,” they said, “the harnesses of the royal chariot have
been destroyed during the night. It is certainly the work of dogs, who
have been gnawing the beautiful straps.”
The King rose up in fury. “Kill them all,” he commanded. “Slay every
dog you see in the city.”
The King’s order became known to the seven hundred dogs of the city
and they all cried bitterly. But there was one dog who was their chief,
21

for he loved them and protected them, and all together they went to his
place. “Why are you gathered together today?” asked the chief, “and
what makes you all so sad?”
“Danger is upon us,” replied the dogs. “The leather of the royal
chariot, which stood during the night in the palace courtyard, has been
destroyed, and we are blamed for the damage. The King is furious and
has ordered us all to be killed.”
“It is impossible for any dog of the city to enter the palace gates,”
thought the chief. “Who therefore could have destroyed the harnesses if
not the dogs of the palace? Thus the guilty ones are spared and the
innocent ones are to be destroyed. Nay, I will show the guilty ones to
the King, and the city dogs shall be saved.”
Such were the thoughts of the brave chief, and after consoling his
followers, he went alone through the city. And he walked into the
palace, and the palace guards, spellbound at his appearance, let him
pass through the gates.
Thus he entered into the hall where the King sat on his throne and
the courtiers stood around. After some time the chief spoke. “Great
King,” he said, “is it your command that all the dogs of the city be
killed?”
“Yes,” replied the King, “it is my command.”
“What harm have they done, O King?” he asked.
“They have destroyed the harnesses of the royal chariot.”
“Is every dog of the city to be killed, or are some dogs to be allowed to
live?”
“The palace dogs only are to be allowed to live.”
“O King,” said the chief in a gentle voice, “why should the dogs of the
palace be judged innocent, and the dogs of the city guilty? O King,
where is your justice?”
The King thought for awhile and then said: “Wise chief, tell me then,
who are the guilty ones?”
“The palace dogs,” replied the chief.
“Show me that your words are true,” said the King.
“I will show you,” answered the chief. “Order that the palace dogs be
brought here and be given durva grass and buttermilk to eat.”
The King did as the chief asked, and the palace dogs were brought
before him and given durva grass and buttermilk to eat. Soon after they
had eaten, shreds of leather came out of their mouths and fell on the
ground. The guilty ones were found.
The King rose from his throne. “Your words are true,” he said to the
wise chief, “I shall not forget you as long as I live.”
22

He then ordered that all the dogs of the city be well taken care of, and
they all lived happy ever after.

Chhota Popat
The Little Parrot

Kone eke kali eka tekdiwar ek lahan wan hote. Tya
Once upon a time

on a hilltop

a small woods

was

The

wanat eka popatãcha raja apli rani ani thawyabarobar
woods-in

a

king of parrots

with his queen and flock

rahat hota. Raja wa rani hyãna ek pillu jhale, te atishay
was living

The king & queen to them a fledgling occurred

it extremely

sundar hote!
beautiful was!

Khup warshe jhali, ani raja wa rani mhatare jhale,
Many years passed

and the king & queen

became old

ani tyanche pillu dusryãpeksha mothe wa balkat jhale.
and their fledgling

exceptionally big & strong

became

Ani eka diwashi te tyachya aiwadilãna mhanale, “Priy
And one day

it

said to its parents

Dear

mataji wa pitaji, ata mi motha wa balkat jhalyamule, mi
mother & father

now

I

due to having become big & strong

I

tumchyasathi shetatle dane gheun yeil.”
for you

in the field (its) grains

will bring

Ani darroj to thawyabarobar tandulachya shetãt udAnd every day

he with the flock

in the rice-fields

used-

aycha, ani tyane dusrya pakshyãbarobar khallyanantar
to fly

and

he

with the other birds

after having eaten

chochit motha ghas gheun aplya aiwadilãna anaycha.
taking a large mouthful in his beak

used to bring it to his parents

Eka diwashi tya popatãna ek changle shet sapadle.
One day

to the parrots

a good field
23

was found

Te dusryãpeksha supik hote, mhanun tyanantar te
It was more fertile than others

so after that

they

tithe khayla gele. Shetatlya majurane tyãna pahile, ani
went there to eat

The field-laborer

saw them

and

wichar kela, “Mi shetachya malakala sangen ki popat
thought

I will tell the farm’s owner

that parrots

tyachya shetatil tandul khat ahet.”
his

field’s rice

are eating

To malakala jaun mhanala, “Saheb, aple shet supik
He

to the owner

after going said

Sir

our field

fertile

ahe, ani tyacha tandul dusrya shetãchyapeksha changla
is

and

its rice

more than that of the other fields

good

ahe. Pan ek popatãcha thawa darroj aple dhanya
is

But

a flock of parrots

daily

our grain

khayla yet ahe, ani tyat ek popat saglyãpeksha sundar
is coming to eat

ahe,
is

and in it one parrot more than all (the others) beautiful

to khallyanantar chochit motha ghas gheun
he

after eating

taking a large mouthful in its beak

udun jat asto.”
is flying away

Malakala to popat baghnyachi ichchha jhali, jo chochit
To the owner

of looking at the parrot

desire became

who in beak

jast dane gheun jaycha.
too many grains would take away

“Phas banawa ani to popat pakadun ana,” malak
Make a snare

and

that parrot

catch & bring

the owner

shetmajurala mhanala. “Pan to jiwant asawa.”
to the field-laborer

said

But he should be alive

Dusrya diwashi shetmajurane ek phas banawla, ani
The next day

the field-laborer

24

prepared a snare

and

popat utartana tyacha chhota pay adakla. To na oradla
the parrot while landing

his little foot was caught

He neither yelled

na tyane madat magitli, karan tyane wichar kela ki,
nor

did he ask for help

because

he thought that

“Dusrya popatãna mahit jhale, tar te ghabartil, ani
To the other parrots

(if) it became known then they’d be frightened

and

tyanche tandulache dane khau shaknar nahit. Mhanun
their

rice-grains

wouldn’t be able to eat

Therefore

tyãni khallyanantar, mi oraden.”
after they’ve eaten

I will yell

Ani tyãni tandul khallyanantar to oradla, pan kuni
And

after they ate rice

he yelled

but anyone

tyala madat karayla ale nahi; sagle popat bhitine udun
to help him

didn’t come

all the parrots

with fear

flew-

gele. To ekta hota, ani to mothyane oradla.
away

He was alone

and

he yelled loudly

Thodya welane shetmajur tya thikani ala, ani anandAfter a short time

the field-laborer came to that place

and

joy-

ane pakshi pakadun mhanala, “Jyala mala pakadayche
with after grabbing the bird

said

The one whom I needing to catch

hote, to tuch ahes.” Ani shetmajur popat gheun malakawas

that’s you

And the field-laborer took the parrot & the owner-

kade gela. Malakane popat haluch tyachya hatat ghetla.
to

went

The owner

the parrot softly

took in his hand

“Majhya popata,” to mhanala, “he tujhe shet ahe kay?
My parrot

he said

this is your field, what?

Tu tandul kuthe lapun thewtos? Karan tu majhya shetat
You the rice

where

keep hidden?

Because you

in my field

te khallyanantar, nehmi tujhi choch danyãni bharun
after having eaten it

always

your beak

25

after filling with grains

udun jatos, he changle ahe ka?”
fly away

is this good?

Popat sundar manasachya awajat mhanala:
The parrot in a beautiful man’s voice said:

“Darroj mi majhe ek kartawya karto,
A duty of mine I do every day,

tyacha satha mi jamawun thewto.”
The store of that I hoard away.

Malak mhanala, “Je kartawya tu kartos, te kay ahe,
The owner said

The duty which you do

what is it

mala sang? Jo satha tu jamawun thewtos, to kuthe ahe?”
tell me?

The store which you hoard away

where is it?

“Majhe aiwadil mhatare ahet, ani tyãna udta yet nahi.
My parents

old

are

and they are unable to fly

Majhe kartawya mhanje roj tyãna dane dene. Ani
My duty

is

daily

to give them grains

And

majha thewa mhanje premane bolne wa premane wagne:
my treasure-store

is

to speak with love

and to behave with love:

jo kamkuwat asel, tyala madat karne, ani jewha kuni
who(ever) might be weak

to help him

and when anyone

bhukela asel, tewha tyala khayla dene.”
might be hungry

then to give him (food) to eat

He aiklyawar,
On having heard this

malakane smit hasya kele,
the owner

gently smiled

ani
and

mhanala, “He shet sagle tujhech ahe. Tujhya aiwadilãsaid

This field

all yours

is

Your parents-

kade udun ja, te tujhi wat pahat astil. Pan darroj
to

fly away

they will be waiting for you

tu shetat parat yet ja.”
you to the field go on returning

26

But every day

To changla popat lawkar aplya wanakade udala, jithe
The good parrot

quickly

to his woods

flew

where

tyache aiwadil tyala hak marit hote. Ani sagle popat
his parents

him

were calling

And all the parrots

tithe ekatra ale, tyãni lahan popatachi gosht aikli.
there

together came

they heard the young parrot’s story

Wanatle sagle popat ekatra rahile, ani pudhe te
In the woods all the parrots

together lived

and afterwards they

nirantar sukhane rahile.
forever

lived happily

The Young Parrot
At the top of a hill there was a wood, and in that wood lived a flock of
parrots with their king and queen. And the king and queen had a
beautiful child-parrot, more beautiful than any parrot in the world!
Time passed, and the king and queen grew old, and the little childparrot grew up to be all glorious and larger than any parrot in the
world. And he said one day to his parents: “Dear ones, now that I am
grown and strong I will go to bring food from the fields for you.”
And each day he flew with the flock to the rice fields. And after eating
with the rest he took away in his beak a large share to give to his
mother and father.
But one day the parrots found a beautiful field, more fertile than any
other. And after that they went there to eat.
“I must tell my master that parrots are eating his rice,” thought the
farmer’s man.
And he went to the farmer and said: “Master, our field is fertile and
truly the rice is more beautiful than in any other field. But a flock of
parrots comes each day to feed of the grains, and one among them, more
beautiful than the others, after eating leaves with a beak full of rice to
store away.”
“Make a trap and catch that parrot,” he said to his man, “but bring
him to me alive.”
The next day, the laborer set a trap, and, while landing, the young
parrot felt his tiny foot caught. He did not cry or call for help, for he
27

thought: “If my comrades know I am caught, they will be frightened and
will not eat. I must wait till they have eaten, and then I will call.”
And when they had eaten he called, but none came to help him; all, in
fear, flew away. He was left alone, and he cried bitterly.
Before long the laborer came to the trap, and, joyfully seizing the bird,
he exclaimed: “Why, you are the very one I wished to catch.” And he
brought him to his master. The field-owner took the parrot gently
between his hands.
“My bird,” he said, “have you a little farm somewhere? Is it there you
hide away the rice? When you have eaten from my field, away you fly,
your beak filled with grain, you naughty little bird!”
The parrot replied in a sweet human voice:
“A duty I fulfill each day,
A treasure do I store away.”
“Tell me,” said the field-owner, “what is the duty you fulfill, and the
treasure which you store away?”
“My duty,” said the parrot, “is to bring food to my parents who are old
and cannot fly; and my treasure is a forest of love. In that forest, those
who are weak are given help, and those who hunger are given food.”
On hearing this the old man smiled. “The field belongs to you all,” he
said. “Fly back to your parents who are awaiting you. But return to my
field each day.”
The beautiful bird quickly flew back to the woods where his parents
were calling for him. And all the other parrots gathered round and
listened to the young parrot’s story. All the parrots of the woods were
united, and they lived happy ever after.

Chandrawar Disnara Sasa
The Rabbit Seen on the Moon

Kone eke kali ek lahan sasa eka aranyat rahat hota.
Once upon a time

a young rabbit

in a forest

was living

Ek parwat, ek khedegaw, wa ek nadi tya aranyajawal hoti.
A mountain

a village

& a river

near the forest

were

Khup sase maidanãwar ani aranyãmadhe dhawayche,
Many rabbits

on fields

and in forests
28

used to run

pan saglyãt to sasa asa hota ki tyachya-itke sundar
but among them all that rabbit was such

that as beautiful as him

kuni nahwte.
there was no-one

Tyache tin mitra hote: ek kolha, ek pan-manjar, ani
Of his

three friends

were:

a jackel

a water-weasel

and

ek makad. Darroj sandhyakali, tyanche bhaksh shodhna monkey

Every day in the evening

seeking their food

yache kam samplyanantar, te char mitra ekmekãna
(of)

after the work was finished

the four friends

one another

bhetayche ani gappa marayche. To guni sasa tyachya
would meet

and would gossip

The virtuous rabbit

his

mitrãshi bolaycha, ani tyãna khup goshti shikawaycha.
friends-with would speak and

would teach them many things

Sashachya mitrãni tyache bolne aikun ghetle, ani
The rabbit's friends

his talk

took heed to

and

saglya aranyatlya pranyãwar prem karayla shikle, ani
for all the forest-creatures

learned to feel love

and

te phar anandat rahile.
they lived very happily

“Majhya mitrãno,” eka diwashi sasa mhanala, “udya
My friends

one day the rabbit said

tomorrow

apan upas karu ya, ani tya diwashi sapadlele bhaksh
let's take a fast

and on that day

the food found

bhetlelya garib lokãna deu ya.” Saglyãni tase karnyasathi
to having met poor people

let's give

They all

for doing like that

hokar dila, ani dusrya diwashi pahate tyãni aplya
agreed

and

the next day early morning

they

their

nehmichya ritine bhaksh shodhnyache kam suru kele.
usual manner-in

work of food-seeking began

29

Eka gawatyla jhopdit tya kolhyala kay sapadle?
In a hut in town

to the jackel

what was found?

Ek masacha tukda, ani eka lahan madkyamadhe dahi,
A piece of meat

and

curds in a small earthen pot

dorichya don tokala bandhlele hote. Tinda to mothyane
(which was) tied to the two ends of a rope

Three times he loudly

mhanala, “He konache mas ahe? He konache dahi ahe?”
said

Whose meat is this?

Whose curds is this?

Pan jhopdimadhe kunich nahwte, ani uttar na milalyaBut within the hut

there was no-one

and

answer

not obtained-

mule tyane mas tyachya tondat dharle, ani madkyachi
due to

he held the meat in his mouth

and

the pot’s

dori tyachya manebhowti gundalli, ani to aranyakade
rope

wrapped around his neck

and he towards the forest

palat gela. Ani bajula lapun thewtana tyane wichar kela,
went running

And while putting them hidden aside

he thought

“Mi kiti changla ahe! Kuni ikde ali nahi tar udya mi
How very good I am!

(If) no-one comes this way then tomorrow I

mala sapadlele bhaksh khain.”
the food (which) I’ve found

will eat

Ani chhotya pan-manjarala tyachya phirtiwar jatana
And

to little water-weasel

while going on his round

kay sapadle? Eka kolyane kahi chamaknare soneri
what was found?

A fisherman

some

sparkling golden

mase pakadle hote, ani te walut lapawlyanantar, to
fish

had caught

and after having hidden them in the sand

he

adhik mase pakadayla, nadiwar parat gela!
in order to catch more fish

returned to the river!

Parantu tya pan-manjarala ti lapun thewnyachi jaga
However

to the water-weasel

the hiding-place

30

sapadli, tyane mase walutun kadhle, ani tinda mothyane
was found

he drew out the fish from the sand

and

three times loudly

mhanala, “He soneri mase konache ahet?”
said

Whose are these golden fish?

Pan kolyala phakta nadichya budbudnyacha awaj
But the fisherman

only

the bubbling sound of the river

aiku yet hota, tyamule tyane kahi uttar dile nahi.
was able to hear

for that reason

he gave no answer at all

Mhanun pan-manjar mase ghari gheun gela, ani tyane
Therefore

the water-weasel the fish

took away home

and

he

wichar kela, “Mi kiti changle pan-manjar ahe! He mase
thought

How very good a water-weasel I am!

These fish

mi aj khanar nahi, pan kadachit udya khain.”
I won’t eat today

but perhaps I’ll eat tomorrow

Makadsuddha parwatawar chadhla, ani kahi piklele
The monkey too

climbed on the mountain

and some ripe

ambe sapadlyawar, to te gheun parat aranyat gela, ani
mangoes on having found

he after taking them returned to the forest

and

jhadakhali te thewun dile. Ani tyane wichar kela,
under a tree

(he) stored them

And he thought

“Mi kiti changle makad ahe!”
How very good a monkey I am!

Pan to sasa aranyamadhe
But

the rabbit

karunyane

gawatat jhopla,

within the forest in the grass

lay

ani
and

tyachya sundar dolyãt pani ale. Tyane

compassionately

into his beautiful eyes

water came

He

wichar kela, “Jar bhukela prani ithe ala, tar mi tyala
thought

If

a hungry creature came here

then I

to him

kay deu shaken? Mi tyala gawat deu shakat nahi, ani
what

could give?

I

can’t give him grass

31

and

tyala dyayla majhyakade na bhat na shenga ahet.”
to give him

belonging to me

Mag achanak
Then

are neither rice nor peanuts

tyane anandane udi marli. Tyane

suddenly

he

jumped with joy

He

wichar kela, “Jar kuni ithe ale, tar mi majhya sharirache
thought

If someone came here then

I

my body’s

mas tyala deun taken.”
flesh would give away to him

Tya aranyat ek pari rahat hoti, tiche naw Sakka hote.
In the forest

a fairy

was living

her name was Sakka

Je sagle kahi aranyat ghadle, tyachyabaddal tila sagli
Everything which happened in the forest

concerning it

to her

all

mahiti hoti. Saglya pranyãche wichar tila mahit hote,
information was

All the creatures’ thoughts

she knew

gawatachya ranphulãche wicharsuddha. Ani tya diwashi,
even the thoughts of the wildflowers of the grass

And on that day

te char mitra upas kartil, ani tyãni sapadlele bhaksh
the four friends

will take fast

and

the food found by them

bhukelya lokãna detil, hesuddha parila mahit hote.
to the hungry folk

will give

even this

the fairy knew

Mhanun Sakkane eka mhatarya bhikaryache rup ghetle,
Therefore

Sakka

an aged beggar’s

form

took

ti wakun kathi dharun chalu lagli.
she bending & holding a stick began to walk

Pahilyanda ti kolhyala jaun mhanali, “Mi khup diwas
At first

she after going to the jackel said

I

many days

payi challe, ani kahich khayla sapadle nahi. Mala ajun
walked on foot

and did not find anything at all to eat

To me anymore

bhaksh shodhnyachi shakti nahi. Kripa karun mala
of seeking food

capability isn’t

32

Do a favor and

me

khayla de, aho kolhedada!”
give (food) to eat

Oh jackel-bro’!

“Ha masacha tukda ghya, ani he madkyamadhle dahi,”
Take this piece of meat

and this

in the pot (its) curds

kolha mhanala. “Mi te eka gawatlya jhopditun chorle,
the jackel said

I

stole it out of a village-hut

ani majhyakade dusre kahi denyasathi nahi.”
and belonging to me

(there) is nothing else for giving

“Kadachit mi wichar karun nantar ghein,” ti mhanali,
Perhaps

I

after considering

will take it later

she said

ani dat jhadimadhe nighun geli.
and into the dense vegetation

went away

Mag

Sakkane

pan-manjarala

Then

Sakka

the water-weasel

bhetun

wicharle,

after meeting asked

“Tumchyakade mala denyasathi kahi ahe ka, aho
Belonging to you

is there anything for giving me?

Oh

manjardada?”
weasel-bro’?

“Aho mhataryabai, he mase ghya, ani thodawel hya
Oh old woman

take these fish

and for awhile

this

jhadakhali aram kara.”
tree-under

take it easy

Garib mhatari mhanali, “Nantar,” ani ti aranyaThe poor old lady said

Later

and

she the forest-

madhun nighun geli.
through

went away

Adhik pudhe gelyawar, Sakka makadala bhetun
On having gone further on

Sakka

after meeting the monkey

mhanali, “Kripa karun mala tumchyakadchi phale dya.
said

Do a favor and

give me those fruits belonging to you

33

Mi garib asun, bhukeli ahe, ani thakleli ahe.”
I

being poor

I’m hungry and I’m weary

“He sagle ambe ghya,” makad mhanala. “Mi tumchyaAll these mangoes

take

the monkey said

I

you-

sathi he sagle todle hote.”
for

all of them

have picked

“Kadhitari nantar, pahu,” ase mhanun ti tithun geli.
Sometime later, please

so saying

Mag Sakka sashala
Then

Sakka

she went from there

bhetun mhanali,

the rabbit

after meeting said

“Ghandat
The dense

aranyatlya rahnarya majhya mitra, mala sang, mi
forest-in (its)

dweller

my friend

tell me

I

majhe bhaksh kuthe shodhu? Mi aranyat wat chukli ahe,
my food

where may seek?

I have lost my way in the forest

ani majhe ghar dur ahe.”
and

my home is far off

“Mi tumhala majhe sharir khanyasathi dyayla tayar
I

to you

my body

prepared to give for eating

ahe,” sasa mhanala. “Sarpan gola kara, ani ag petawa.
am

the rabbit said

Gather firewood

and light the fire

Mi agit udi takin, ani tumhala chhotya sashache mas
I in the fire a leap will take and

you

a small rabbit’s meat

khayla milel.”
will get to eat

Sakkane jadune sarpan anun ag petawli, ani sashane
Sakka

by magic after bringing firewood lit a fire

and the rabbit

anandane tya chamaknarya agit udi marli. Pan jwala
with joy

jumped into the glowing fire

But the flames

panya-itkya thand jhalya, ani tyala kahich bhajle nahi.
as cool as water

became

and

34

didn’t burn him at all

Tyane Sakkala wicharle, “Mala jwalãchi ushnata
He asked Sakka

To me

the flames’ heat

ka janawat nahi?”
why

is not felt?

Mag Sakkane tiche pariche rup parat ghetle, ani
Then

Sakka

her fairy-form

again

took

and

tyala dusryãpeksha atyant madhur awajat mhanali,
to him

in an exceptionally extremely sweet voice

said

“He mitra sasha, mi pari Sakka ahe. Hi khari ag nahwti,
Hey

friend rabbit

I am the fairy Sakka

This wasn’t really fire

nusti pariksha ghenyasathi petawli hoti. Tumcha dayalujust

for putting to the test it had been lit

Your

kind-

pana attapasun saglya jagatlya lokãna mahit hoil.
ness

from now on

to all the people in the world will be known

Ase mhanun Sakkane kathi parwatawar marla, ani
So saying

Sakka

struck (her) stick on the mountain

tyachyatun nighnarya

adbhut rasane

with a marvelous juice coming out from it

and

chandrawar
on the moon

sashache chitra kadhle.
painted the rabbit’s picture

Dusrya diwashi, sasa tyachya mitrãna bhetla, ani
The next day

the rabbit met his friends

and

saglya aranyatle prani ekatra ale. Ani sashane je sagle
all the forest-creatures

came together

And the rabbit everything-

kahi ghadle hote te tyãna sangitle, ani tyãna khup anand
which had happened

told it to them

and

they

very happy

jhale. Ani pudhe te sagle nirantar sukhane rahile.
became

And they all lived happily ever after

35

The Rabbit and the Fairy
A young hare once lived in a small forest between a mountain, a
village, and a river. Many hares run through the heather and the moss,
but none as sweet as he.
Three friends he had: a jackel, a water-weasel, and a monkey. After
the long day's toil, searching for food, they came together at evening, all
four, to talk and think. The good hare spoke to his three companions
and taught them many things. And they listened to him and learned to
love all the creatures of the woods, and they were very happy.
“My friends," said the hare one day, "let us not eat tomorrow, but the
food we find in the day we will give to any poor creature we meet.” This
they all agreed to. And the next day, as every day, they started out at
dawn in search of food.
The jackel found in a hut in the village a piece of meat and a jar of
curdled milk with a rope tied to each handle. Three times he cried
aloud: "Whose is this meat? Whose is this curdled milk?" But the hut
was empty, and hearing no answer, he put the piece of meat in his
mouth, and the rope of the jar around his neck, and away he fled to the
forest. And laying them at his side he thought: "What a good jackel I
am! Tomorrow I shall eat what I have found if no-one comes this way."
And what did little water-weasel find on his rounds?
A fisherman had caught some sparkling golden fish, and after hiding
them under the sand he returned to the river to catch more! But the
water-weasel found the hiding place, and after taking the fish out of the
sand, he called three times: "Whose are these golden fish?"
But the fisherman heard only the rippling of the river & none answered his call! So he took the fish home, and thought: "What a good waterweasel I am! These fish I shall not eat today, but perhaps another day."
Meanwhile monkey-friend had climbed the mountain, and finding
some ripe mangoes, he carried them down into the woods and put them
under a tree, and he thought: "What a good monkey I am!"
But the hare lay in the grass in the woods, and his beautiful eyes
were moist with sadness. "What can I offer if any poor creature should
pass by the way?" he thought. "I cannot offer grass, and I have neither
rice nor nuts to give." But suddenly he leaped with joy. "If someone
comes this way," he thought, "I shall give him myself to eat."
Now, in the little wood lived a fairy whose name was Sakka. She
knew everything that took place in the wood. She knew the thoughts of
all the little creatures, even of the poor little flowers in the grass. And
she knew that day that the four friends in the wood were not eating,
36

and that any food that they might find was to be given to any poor
creature they might meet.
And so Sakka changed herself into an old beggar man, bent over,
walking with a stick.
She went first to the jackel and said: "I have walked for days and
weeks, and have had nothing to eat. I have no strength to search for
food! Pray give me something, O jackel!"
"Take this piece of meat, and this jar of curdled milk," said the jackel.
"I stole it from a hut in the village, but it is all I have to give."
"I will see about it later," said the beggar, and she went on through
the shady trees.
Then Sakka met the water-weasel and asked: "What have you to give
me, little one?"
"Take these fish, O beggar, and rest awhile beneath this tree,"
answered the water-weasel.
"Another time," the beggar replied, and passed on through the woods.
A little farther Sakka met the monkey and said: "Give me of your
fruits, I pray. I am poor and starved and weary."
"Take all these mangoes," said the monkey. "I have plucked them all
for you."
"Some other time," replied the beggar, and did not stay.
Then Sakka met the hare and said: "Sweet one of the mossy woods,
tell me, where can I find food? I am lost within the forest and far away
from home."
"I will give you myself to eat," replied the hare. "Gather some wood
and make a fire; I will jump into the flames and you shall then have the
flesh of a little hare."
Sakka caused magic flames to rise from some logs of wood, and full of
joy the hare jumped into the glowing fire. But the flames were cool as
water, and did not burn his skin.
"Why is it," said he to Sakka, "I do not feel the flames?"
Sakka then changed herself into her fairy form again, and spoke to
the hare in a voice sweeter than any voice he had ever heard.
"Dear one," she said, “I am the fairy Sakka. This fire is not real, it is
only a test. The kindness of your heart, O blessed one, shall be known
throughout the world for ages to come."
So saying Sakka struck the mountain with her wand, and with the
essence which gushed forth she drew the picture of the hare on the orb
of the moon.
Next day the hare met his friends again, and all the creatures of the
woods gathered round them. And the hare told them of all that had
happened to him, and they rejoiced. And all lived happy ever after.
37

Soneri Hansãcha Raja
The Golden Goose-King
retold by Judith Ernst

Kone eke kali apli rani Khemabarobar Samyam
Once upon a time

with his queen Khema

Samyama

ha Waranasicha raja hota, tyaweli Buddh nawwad hajar
he was king of Benares

at that time the Buddha ninety thousand

soneri hansãchya thawyacha raja mhanun Chitrakut
golden geese-of

as the flock’s king

Chitrakut

parwatawar rahat hota. Eka diwashi pahate rani
Mountain-on

was living

One day at dawn

the Queen

ardhwat jhopet astana, tila don soneri hans disle. Ti
while (she) was half-asleep

she

two golden geese

saw

She

rajwadyachya gadiwar basun tyanchyashi madhur bolat
sitting on a couch of the palace

sweetly talking with them

hoti. Pan ti jagi jhalyawar te disenase jhale. Te nuste
was

But

she

on awakening

they disappeared

It

just

swapna hote, pan tila te itke kharyasarkhe bhasat hote
a dream

was

but to her

it so much as if true

was seeming

ki diwasbhar ti aswasth hoti. Tila tyanche madhur awaj
that all day long

she

restless

was

To her

their sweet voices

punha aiknyachi, tyanchya adbhut saundaryakade baghagain

of hearing

at their wondrous beauty

of look-

nyachi ichchha jhali. Ranine tyababat jitka wichar kela,
ing

desire occurred

The Queen

as much as (she) thought about it

titki tila khatri patli ki te bhawya pakshi kuthetari
that much certain she became

that those magnificent birds

somewhere

jagat astil. He manat alyawar ti aplya rajala jaun
in the world exist

On this coming to mind

she

after going to her king

mhanali, “Prabhu, mala soneri hansache madhur bolne
said

Lord

to me

a golden goose’s
38

sweet talk

aiknyachi, ani
of hearing

tyala mishtann

and

to him

denyachi

wa

food-delicacies of giving

har

& garland-

ghalnyachi ichchha ahe. Majhi ichchha purn karnyasathi
draping

my desire

is

My desire

for fulfilling

tumhi kay karu shakta?”
what can you do?

Rajache aplya raniwar phar prem hote, ani jyane
The King

his wife

greatly loved

and whereby

ti sukhi hoil te to karaycha. Mhanun tyane aplya
she’d become happy

that he would do

Therefore

he

his

mantryãna bhetun soneri hans pakadnyasathi yojna
ministers

after meeting

for catching a golden goose

a plan

karayla sangitli. Tyãni tyanchya shaharajawal eka
told to make

They

near their city

a

chhan pakshyãchya abhay aranyat ek sarowar bandhle.
fine

bird-sanctuary-in

constructed a lake

Tyawar kamale tarangat hoti. Pakshyãchya khanyasathi
On it

lotuses were floating

For bird-food

tyabhowti nirnirali dhanya
around it

wa phale hoti. Saglya

various grains & fruits

were

All

prakarche pakshi tithe yayche, ani madhmashyãni tithe
kinds of birds

would come there

and

honeybees

there

poli banawli. Kunahi manasala tya swargasarkhya jagehives

made

To any man whatsoever

that heaven-like place-

war janyachi parwangi nahwti, karan jar te tithe gele
to

of going

permission

wasn’t

because if they

to go there

aste tar pakshyãna bhiti watli asti. Phakta eka manasala
were

then the birds would feel frightened

Only

to one man

tithe rahnyachi parwangi dili hoti: to kushal pardhi
of living there

permission was given:

39

he

a skilled hunter

hota, tyala saglya pakshyãchya sawayinchi mahiti hoti.
was

to him

the habits of all birds were known

Tyala soneri hans pakadnyache kam nemlele hote.
To him

the task of catching a golden goose

had been assigned

Jara welane sarowar bandhlyanantar, saglya prakarSome time

after the lake was constructed

all kinds-

che hans tithe yeu lagle. Pahilyanda hirwe hans ale,
of geese

began to come there

First of all the green geese came

magomag piwle hans. Mag piwlya hansãni tyababat
right afterwards the yellow geese

Then regarding it the yellow geese

lal hansãna sangitle, ani tyãnihi pandhrya hansãna
told the red geese

sangitle,

and

they also

the white geese

nantar shubhra hansãna.

told

afterwards the bright geese

Ase ghadle ki
It so happened that

shubhra hans ani soneri hansãmadhe wiwah jhala hota,
between the bright geese and the golden geese

a marriage had occurred

tyamule tya sundar sarowarababatchi batmi tya soneri
for that reason

news regarding the beautiful lake

the golden

hansãna kalli. Eka diwashi soneri hansãchya rajacha
geese-to

was known

One day

the golden goose-king’s

pramukh Sumukh shubhra hansãshi tyababat bollyaleader Sumukh

having spoken with the bright geese regarding it-

nantar, aplya rajala jaun mhanala, “Maharaj, amhala
after

went to his King and said

Great King

to us

batmi kalli, ek nawin sundar sarowar Waranasijawal
news became known

a new beautiful lake

near Benares

ahe, te itkya kamale wa itar phalãni bharle ahe ki
is

it is filled with so many lotuses and other fruits

that

aple sagle hans tithe khau shaktil. Mala watte ki apan
all our geese

will be able to eat there

40

I think that we

tithe udat jawe. Aplyala majhi suchna kashi watte?”
should go flying there

How does my suggestion seem to you?

Soneri hansãcha raja ek wriddh wa samajutdar
The golden geese’s king

a venerable & wise

pakshi aslyamule, tyala manushyachya labadichi mahiti
bird

because of being to him

knowledge of mankind’s trickery

hoti, ani tyala sanshay ala. Tyane wicharle, “Hyapurwi
was

and he became suspicious

He asked

Before this

tithe sarowar kase nahwte? Kadachit labadi asawi,
how is it there was no lake there?

Perhaps it’d be trickery

sarowar aplyala pakadnyasathi bandhle asawe.”
the lake

for catching us

might’ve been constructed

Rajala sanshay ala tari tyane shewti aplya thawyachi
(Although) the king was doubtful nevertheless he finally

his flock’s

ichchha manli, hansãna tithe janyachi khup awad hoti.
desire obeyed

the geese had much liking of going there

Ani nawwad hajar hansãcha thawa sarowarakade
And

the flock of ninety thousand geese

to the lake

udat gela. Tithe tyãni potbhar khalle, mag te Chitrakut
went flying

There they ate their fill

then they

Chitrakut

parwatawar paratle.
Mountain-to

returned

Pan hans sarowarajawal khat astana, pardhi jhudapãt
But while the geese were eating near the lake

the hunter in the bushes

lapun basla hota. Ani hans udat gelyawar to rajwadyahad sat hidden

And on the geese having flown off

he

the palace-

kade tyachi hakigat sangayla palat gela. Raja wa rani
to

in order to say his report

went running

The king & queen

tyachya batmine phar khush jhale, ani raja pardhyala
by his news

became very pleased

41

and the king to the hunter

mhanala, “Ata soneri hansala pakadnyachi wel ali ahe.
said

Now the time of capturing the golden goose

has come

Lakshat thew! Jar tu soneri hans pakadshil, tar tula
Keep in mind!

If you capture a golden goose

then to you

wa tujhya kutumbala khup kirti wa man milel.”
&

to your family

much fame & honor will be gotten

Mhanun dusrya diwashi pardhi jhudapãt lapun hansãSo the next day

the hunter hid in the bushes & the geese

cha sanchar baghat rahila, ani tyache kahitari lakshat ale.
(of) kept watching the movements

and of that he realized something

Bahutek hans sarwottam phulatil bhag khayla ikdetikde
Most of the geese

to eat the best flower-portions

hither-thither

hindayche, karan tyãna bhiti wataychi ki ase kele nahi
would wander

because they would be afraid that (if) such weren’t done

tar tyãna changle khayla milnar nahi. Pan tyapaiki ek
then they wouldn’t get to eat well

But among them one

hans dusryãpeksha motha wa sundar hota, to ekach jagi
goose

was exceptionally large & beautiful

he in a single spot

rahun tithe je sapadel te khayche. He pahun pardhyachya
after staying that which he’d find there he’d eat

After seeing this the hunter’s

manat ale, “Ha hans lobhi nahi, hyalach pakadle pahije.”
mind-in came

This goose isn’t greedy

this very one must be captured

Adlya diwashi jithe ha hansãcha raja tyala disla hota,
On the previous day

where this goose-king had appeared to him

tithe dusrya diwashi pardhi lapun basla. To pakshi
there

on the next day

the hunter sat hidden

That bird

tyach jagewar punha khanyasathi ala. Tyachya lapun
to the same spot

again came for eating

His hiding-

rahnyachya jagetun pardhyane pahilyanda hansãchya
place-from

the hunter

42

the first time

the goose-

rajala nit pahile. To bhawya pakshi phar motha wa soneri
king

saw properly

That magnificent bird

very large

&

golden

rangacha hota, ani angawar tin lal patte hote. He sundar
color-of

was

and on his body were three red stripes

This beautiful

drishya pahilyawar pardhyane wichar kela, “Ha pakshi
sight

on having seen

the hunter thought

This bird

lal reshmi dhagyãmadhe bandhlelya chakaknarya sonya(having been) bound within red silken threads

glittering gold-

sarkha disto. Ha hansãcha raja asawa, ani mi hyalach
like

appears

This must be the goose-king

and I this very one

pakadle pahije.”
must capture

Saha diwas hansãni asha prakare khalle, ani pardhi
Six days

the geese

in this manner

ate

and the hunter

tithe lapun hansãchya rajakade, tyachya pudhchya
hidden there

at the goose-king

his next

utarnyachi jaga nit pahnyasathi baghat rahila. Satwya
landing-spot

for properly sighting

remained looking The seventh

diwashi pardhyane ek phas banawun kathila lawun
day-on

the hunter

after making a noose & attaching it to a stick

tyach jagewar thewla, ani mag hansãchya rajane
put it at that very spot

and then

the goose-king

nemkya tyach jagi utarun tyacha pay phasat adakla.
landing in the exact same spot

his foot was caught in the noose

Ani phasane tyacha pay pakadun dharla!
And the noose

grabbed his foot & held it!

Hansãchya rajane phas todnyacha prayatna kela,
(When) the goose-king

attempted to break the noose

tewha phasane tyacha pay dukhawla. Tyala watle ki
then

the noose caused hurt to his foot

43

He felt that

jakhmi sharir rajala shobhat nahi, mhanun to shant
a wounded body

is not befitting to a king

therefore

he peaceful

rahila. Jakhamene khup tras hot hota, pan tyane wichar
remained

He had a lot of trouble due to the wound

but

he

consid-

kela, “Jar ata mi oradlo tar majhe hans khallyashiway
ered

If I shouted now

then

my geese

without eating

palun jatil, ani thakun te gharaparyant udu shaknar
would flee

and they after tiring

to fly all the way home

would be

nahit.” Mhanun jakhamechi wedna hot astana tyane
unable

Therefore

while the pain of the wound was occurring

he

saglya hansãche khane sampeparyant swathapan khat
until all the geese’s eating might be finished

himself-also

eating-

aslyache bhasawle. Mag nantar to oradla, ani sagle hans
of having been pretended

Then afterwards he shouted

and all the geese

bhitine udun gele.
in fear

flew away

Pankhãcha awaj wa oradnyãchya gadbadimadhe SuThe sound of wings

&

the noise of shouting-in

Su-

mukh jo hans-rajacha pramukh hota achanak ghabarla,
mukh

who was the goose-king’s chief

suddenly became afraid

karan tyala kalle ki apla raja bakichya thawyabarobar
because he realized that

his king

with the rest of the flock

nahi. Mag to wegane sarowarakade udat parat gela. To
isn’t

Then he swiftly went flying back to the lake

That

sundar hansãcha raja phasat adaklela wa chikhalawar
beautiful

padlela
fallen

goose-king

sapadla.
was found

caught in a noose

&

on the mud

Sumukh rajache santwan karun
Sumukh

after consoling the king

mhanala, “Bhiu naka, Maharaj! Mi tumchyabarobar
said

Don’t fear

Great King!

44

I

with you

rahin!” Ani donhi hans shantpane tyanchya nashibachi
will stay!

And both geese

calmly

their fate

wat pahat astana, tyaweli to kathi hatat dharlela pardhi
while awaiting

at that time

the club-wielding hunter

tyanchyajawal ala. Tyane tyanchyakade pahilyawar,
came near them

He

on looking at them

achanak pardhyachya manat ale, “Dusra hans phasat
suddenly to the hunter’s mind came

The other goose in the snare

adaklela nastana, ithe ka thambla?”
while not-being caught

why’d he wait here?

Tewdhyat Sumukh aplya rajala pakadnarya pardhyaJust then

Sumukh

his king-capturing hunter

jawal udat yeun, madhur manasachya awajat mhanala,
after flying-approaching

in a sweet man’s voice

said

“Ase watu deu naka, mitra, ki tumchya phasat ekhada
Don’t let (yourself) think so friend

that in your snare

some

samanya hans adakla ahe. Tyaulat to nawwad hajar
ordinary goose has been caught

On the contrary he

ninety thousand

hansãcha samajutdar wa sajjan raja ahe. Tyala tumchyageese-of

is the wise & virtuous king

Him

you-

barobar gheun jau naka. Mihi soneri hans ahe. Jar
with

don’t take away

I too am a golden goose

If

soneri pise pahijet tar majhi ghya. Jar paise pahije tar
you want golden feathers

then take mine

If you want money

then

mala wika. To majha raja ahe ani mi tyacha sewak ahe.
sell me

He is my king

and I am his servant

Mi tyala ektyala sankatat sodun jau shakat nahi.”
I

him to himself

in calamity

cannot abandon

Tyachi wilakshan nishtha wa bhakti pahilyawar,
His extraordinary loyalty & devotion

45

on seeing

pardhyache man adarane bharun ale ani to udgarle,
the hunter’s heart

with respect

filled up

and he exclaimed

“Kiti samajutdar wa pawitra pakshi tumhi ahat!” Ani
How very wise

&

blessed

birds

you are!

And

tyane anand houn hatatil kathi khali takli ani hat jodun
he became happy &

threw down the stick in his hand

and joining hands

tya donhi pakshyãchya gunãna abhiwadan kele.
to both the birds’ virtues

made salutation

Pardhi jakhmi hansãchya rajajawal premalpane ala,
The hunter

near the wounded goose-king

lovingly came

ani tyala aplya hatat gheun mau gawatat thewle.
and after taking him in his hand

placed (him) in the soft grass

Mag tyane hansacha phasat adaklela pay sodawla, ani
Then

he

the goose’s noose-caught foot

released

and

payachi jakham premane wa kaljipurwak swachchh keli.
the foot’s wound

lovingly & carefully

cleansed

Pardhyachya hya dayalu swabhawane wa hansachya
The hunter’s

this kindly disposition-due to

&

the goose’s

sadgunãmule adbhutprakare jakham bari jhali, ani
virtues-because of

the wound miraculously became well

and

hansãchya rajala anand jhala.
the goose-king

became happy

Mag Sumukhane pardhyala wicharle, “Tumhi majhya
Then Sumukh asked the hunter

You

my

rajala phasat kashala pakadle?” ani pardhi mhanala,
king

in a snare

“Waranasicha

why

captured?

raja Samyam

Benares’ king Samyama

and the hunter said

hyane
he

mala he kam
to me

this task

nemun dile,” ani tyane sarwa hakigat sangitli: ranichya
assigned

and he told the complete account:

46

the Queen’s

swapnapasun rajachya nemun dilelya kamaparyant.
dream-from

the King’s

work assignment-up to

He aiklyawar, Sumukhane wichar karun aplya rajala
On hearing this

Sumukh

after thinking

to his King

pakshyãchya bhashet mhanala, “Maharaj, hya pardhin bird-language

said

Great-King

this hunt-

yane apli mothi sewa keli ahe. Jar tyane tumhala sodle
er

our great service

has done

If

he

let you go

naste, tar tyala kadachit khup paise milale aste. Apan
hadn’t

then to him

perhaps much money’d have been gotten

We

tyachyabarobar Waranasicha raja wa ranila bhetayla
with him

to meet Benares’ king & queen

jau ya, karan tyamule tyala khup kirti wa paise milel.”
let’s go

because due to that

he will get much fame & money

Sumukh pardhyakade walun manasachya bhashet
Sumukh

mhanala,

after turning towards the hunter

“Maharaj,

said

in man’s language

amhala tumchya rajachi bhet

Great Sir

us

a visit to your king

ghyayla hawi, pan pakadlyãsarkhe nyayla nahi. Majhya
is needed to take

but

not led as if captured

My

rajasathi ek motha pinjara banawa, tyawar pandhri
king-for

a large cage

build

on it

white

kamale thewa, ani majhyasathi dusra chhota pinjara
lotuses

put

and for me

a second small cage

banawa, tyawar gulabi kamale thewa. Majhya rajala
build

on it

pink lotuses

put

My king

pudhe gheun ja, ani mala tyachya mage wa kami unchitaking go ahead

and

me

behind him

&

less height-

war. Amhala lawkar gheun ja, tumchya rajala bhetayla.”
at

Take us away quickly

to meet your king

47

Mhanun pardhyane tyãna tyaprakare Waranasichya
So

the hunter

them

in that manner

Benares’

rastyãwarun rajwadyakade anle, tewha khup lokãni tya
streets-through

took to the palace

then many people

the

don pinjarãtlya soneri hansãchya drishyakade ashcharytwo cages-in

of golden geese

at the sight

surprise-

ane baghitle. Tyanche yene Waranasichya rajala kalawle,
with

looked

Their coming was informed to Benares’ king

ani rajane tyãna tyachyasamor bolawla. Raja tyãna pahand the king summoned them before him

The king them on hav-

ilyawar udgarle, “Majhya manatli ichchha purn jhali!”
ing seen

exclaimed

My heart’s desire became fulfilled!

Rajane aplya sardarlokãna adnya keli ki pardhyache
The king ordered his noblefolk

that the hunter’s

kes kapun swachchh panyane tyala anghol ghala ani
hair after cutting

with clean water give him a bath

and

tyala kimati kapde ghalayla dya. Ase kelyanantar te
give him costly clothes to put on

After having done such they

tyala parat rajasamor gheun gele, ani rajane tyala jamin,
brought him back before the king

and the king

to him

land

ghodagadi, ek sundar ghar, ani bharpur paise dile, ani
a horsecart

a beautiful house

and lots of money

gave

and

tyache kautuk kele. Pardhi phar lajjit jhala, ani rajala
made much of him

The hunter became very abashed and to the king

mhanala, “Maharaj, to hans samanya nahi, to nawwad
said

Great King

that is not an ordinary goose

he

ninety

hajar hansãcha raja ahe, ani dusra hans tyacha mantri
thousand geese’s king

is

and the other goose

his minister

ahe.” Ani nantar tyane ashcharyachi gosht sangitli, ki
is

And later

he told the surprising story

48

that

tyane kase saha diwas soneri hansãche khane baghun
how after he watched the golden geese’s eating for six days

tyanchya rajache sadgun kase pahile, wa tyala kase
how he saw their king’s good qualities

& how he him-

pakadle, ani tyanantar kay kay jhale. Tyachi sagli gosht
captured

and what-all happened after that

His whole story

aiklyawar, Waranasicha raja hansãchya rajala mhanala,
on having heard

the king of Benares said to the goose-king

“Kripa karun ithe basa,” ani tyane ek kimati WaranasiPlease sit here

and

he

a costly Benares-

chya reshimane jhakleli gadi basayla dili, ani pramukhala
(of)

silk-covered couch gave in order to sit

and to the chief

ek waghachya katadyane jhakleli soneri khurchi dili.
a tiger’s

skin-covered golden chair

he gave

Waranasichya rajane tyãna madhat makyachi lahi wa
Benares’ king

them

popcorn in honey

&

soneri bhandyãtun usacha ras dila.
sugarcane juice from golden vessels

gave

Sumukhachi aplya rajasathi jiw denyachi tayari
Sumukh’s

preparedness to give his life for his own king

Waranasichya

rajala

the king of Benares

phar awadli. Mhanun surya
greatly liked

Therefore the sun

mawallyanantar, diwe lawun rani Khema at alyawar,
after it was set

after lighting the lamps and queen Khema having entered

rajane sabhyapanane Sumukhala saglya lokãsamor
the king

politely

to Sumukh

before all the people

bhashan karayla sangitle. Pan hansãcha pramukh
to make a speech

mhanala,
said

bade

But the geese’s chief

“Mi nusta sewak ahe, Maharaj.
I am just a servant

49

Great King

Majha
My

samajutdar wa sajjan raja majhya dawya bajula baslela
wise & virtuous King

to my left side

seated

astana, ani Waranasicha motha raja majhya ujwya bajula
while being

and the great King of Benares

to my right side

baslela astana, mi kase bolu shaken?”
seated

while being

how could I speak?

He aiklyawar, Waranasichya rajala anand jhala, ani to
On hearing this

the king of Benares became happy

and he

Sumukhala mhanala, “Aho Maharaj, pardhyane tujhyasaid to Sumukh

Oh Great Sir

the hunter

you-

baddal kelele kautuk khare ahe. Aplya rajawar nishtha
concerning

his admiration is correct

Loyalty to one’s king

wa tyachi sewa kashi karnyachi hyacha tu adarsh ahes.
and

how his service is to be done

you are a model of this

Jyachyamule tula itke dnyan milale, mi ata tujhya
Because of whom

you got so much wisdom

I

now

your

samajutdar rajakade laksh deto.” Ani tyane soneri
wise king-toward

pay attention

And he

the golden

hansãchya rajala winanti keli ki tyane dusrya lokãna
geese’s

king-to

requested

that he

to the other people

tyacha dnyanacha khajina thodase dyawa.
his treasure-store of wisdom

should just a little give

Asha prakare soneri hansãcha raja Waranasichya
In this manner

the golden goose-king

the Benares’

rajashi sukhane sanwad karu lagla, ani tyane bolnyat
king-with

freely

began to converse

and he in his talk

udarpane rajya karnyachya naitik niyamãcha ullekh
of nobly reigning

mention of the moral rules

kela. Ratrabhar to tase bolat rahila, mag thodya welane
made

All night he like that kept on talking

50

then within a short time

pahatepurwi tyane Waranasichya rajala aplya pramukhbefore dawn

he

to the king of Benares

his chief-

abarobar nighun janyachi parwangi magitli.
with

of departing

permission requested

Mag Waranasichya rajane tya pakshyãna soneri
Then

the king of Benares

to the birds

golden

bhandyãt nashta dila, ani har ghalun tyancha adar kela.
vessels-in

breakfast gave

and garlanded & showed them respect

Pahat honyachya nemkya kshani to khidki ughadun
At the exact moment of becoming dawn

he opened the window &

mhanala, “Ja ata!” ani hans udat nighale.
said

Now go!

and the geese set out flying

Hansãcha raja Waranasichya raja wa ranisamor udat
The goose-king

in front of the king & queen of Benares

flying-

astana mhanala, “He sajjan lokãno, amchya janyamule
while

said

Hey gentle-folk

because of our going

shok karu naka, pan mi je bollo te lakshat thewa. Udardon’t grieve

but that which I spoke keep it in mind

Nob-

pane rajya kara ani aplya lokãche prem milawa.” Ase
ly

reign

and earn the love of your people

So

mhanun, to ani Sumukh saral Chitrakutawar udat gele,
saying

he and Sumukh

went flying straight to Chitrakut

jithe tyancha thawa tyanchi wat aturtene pahat hota.
where

their flock

were impatiently awaiting them

The Golden Goose-King
retold by Judith Ernst
In the cool of the evening the greatest man of his time would sit and
discuss with his companions the events of the day. This would often be
the occasion for him to tell a story about his adventures in other lifetimes. For all creatures Gotama the Buddha had come: to the deer he
had been the most magnificent stag in the forest; to the elephants he had
51

come rainbow-tusked and white, showing them perfect compassion; to
the monkeys he had been the most heroic one of their number, giving his
life to rescue them from danger.
One evening Gotama and his companions talked about an
extraordinary event that had occurred that day. An enemy of Gotama
had given liquor to a bull elephant and released the drunken ... animal
into the Buddha’s path. The disciple Ananda threw himself between the
elephant and Gotama, only to be miraculously removed by the Buddha
at the last moment ... After discussing these events with his companions,
Gotama told this story of his life as a great golden goose.
Once upon a time when Samyama reigned in Benares with his queen
Khema, the Buddha lived as the king of a flock of ninety thousand
golden geese who dwelt on Mount Cittakuta. One morning just at
daybreak, as the Queen lay in bed enjoying that state between sleeping
and waking, she had a vision of two gold-colored geese. In her mind’s
eye she saw them perched on the royal throne, speaking sweetly to her.
But soon she awoke, only to find that her vision had vanished. It had
been just a dream. All that day she was troubled. The dream had
seemed so real that she longed to hear once again the sweet voices of
the geese, ... and to feast her eyes on their great beauty. The more she
dwelled on these thoughts, the more convinced the Queen became that
these magnificent birds must indeed exist somewhere in the world.
With this thought in mind, she went to her husband, the king, saying,
“My Lord, I long to listen to the sweet speech of a golden goose, to feed
it delicacies, present it with flowers, and pay homage to it. What can be
done to fulfill my wish?”
The King, who loved his wife dearly and who would do anything to
make her happy, consulted with his advisors and decided on a plan to
capture a golden goose. A lake was built on the edge of the city to be a
sanctuary for all birds. It was a lovely place, planted with ... lotuses,
and surrounded by various types of grains and fruits for the birds to
feed upon. All sorts of birds flocked there, and the bees swarmed. People
were not allowed to visit this paradise, for their presence would have
frightened the birds. But one person was allowed to stay there: a skilled
fowler, trained to know everything a human being could know about the
habits of birds. It was he who was charged with the task of catching a
golden goose.
After the lake had been established for some time, the different
families of geese started to arrive. First came the grass (green) geese,
followed by the yellow geese. Then the yellow geese told the scarlet
geese, and they told the white geese, who were followed by the paka
52

(clear) geese. Now it so happened that the clear geese were related to
the golden geese by marriage, and that is how the golden geese came to
hear of the beautiful lake ... One day Sumukha, the captain of the
Golden Goose King, who had been talking with some of the clear geese
about this wondrous lake that had appeared near the city of Benares,
went to the Goose King, saying, “Sire, we have heard of a new lake, so
bountifully stocked that all of our geese can find more than enough to
eat. I think we should fly there. What does My Lord say to my
suggestion?”
Being an ancient and wise bird, the Goose King had experienced the
tricks of the human race, and he was understandably suspicious. “Why
was there never before such a lake?” he asked. “This could be a trick.
The lake might have been made just to capture us.”
In spite of the king’s reservations, he finally gave in to the wishes of
his flock, who were all very excited about the prospect of visiting such a
perfect place. So off flew the flock of ninety thousand geese to the lake,
where they ate their fill, and then returned to Mount Cittakuta.
But while the geese had feasted at the lake the fowler had lain
concealed in the bushes. As soon as the geese flew away, off he ran to
report what he had seen to the King and Queen of Benares. They were
greatly excited by the news, and the king said to the fowler, “The time
has now come to capture one of these marvelous creatures. Remember!
If you should catch a golden goose, great honor will come to you and
your family!”
So the next day the fowler, expecting the geese to return, lay
concealed in order to observe their movements. While huddled in the
bushes unobserved, the fowler made a startling discovery. Most of the
geese, wanting to eat the choisest morsels from the lake, moved quickly
from place to place, afraid that they wouldn’t get their share. But one of
the geese, an especially large and beautiful one, stayed in one location
and ate what was available there. Noticing this, the fowler thought,
“This goose is not greedy. This is the one I must catch.”
On the next day the fowler concealed himself close to the spot where
the Goose King had alighted the previous day, and as anticipated, the
bird came down in the same spot and continued eating where he had
left off. Looking through a crack in his hiding-place, the fowler for the
first time got a close look at the great Goose King. To his amazement he
saw a huge bird, ... gold-colored, with three red stripes ... At this
beautiful sight the fowler thought, “This bird shines like a lump of the
purest gold bound by red silk thread. This must be their king, and this
is the one I will capture.”
53

For six days the geese fed in this manner, and for six days the fowler
lay concealed, watching the Goose King as he ate, hoping to learn
enough about his habits in order to anticipate the exact spot of his
descent. On the seventh day the fowler made a snare ..., and fixing it
upon a stick, placed it where he now knew the Goose King would alight.
As expected, the Goose King landed right where the snare was placed,
thrusting his foot into the loop. It ... held him fast!
At first the Goose King tried to break the band, but struggling caused
the band to cut through the flesh of his leg. Thinking that it would not
befit a king to have a maimed body, the goose ceased to struggle. The
pain from the wound increased, but the king thought, “If I cry out now
that I’ve been captured, my birds will all flee before they’ve finished
eating, will be too weak to make the journey home, and will fall from
the sky.” So the king, suffering from the pain of his wound, pretended to
be feeding until the entire flock had finished their meal. Only then did
he shout the cry of capture. The geese all flew away in terror.
The sound of beating wings and terrified cries pierced the air. In the
midst of this chaos the King’s captain, Sumukha, realized to his horror
that his king was not with the rest of his flock. He raced back to the
lake. There he found the beautiful goose caught in a snare ... lying on
the muddy ground. Comforting the King, Sumukha said, “Fear not,
Sire! I will stay with you!” And as the two birds rested, calmly awaiting
their fate, the fowler walked toward them, club in hand ... But as he
gazed at the two geese, it suddenly occurred to the fowler to wonder
why the second goose, who was apparently free to go, had not fled.
Just at the moment when the thought came into the mind of the
fowler, Sumukha flew up to his lord’s captor and, poised in the air, said
in a sweet human voice, “Do not imagine, Friend, that an ordinary
goose has been caught in your snare. You have captured the chief of
ninety thousand geese. He is a king, ruling with virtue and wisdom.
You must not take him. I too am gold-colored. If you desire his feathers,
take mine; ... or if you wish to make money, make it by selling me. He is
my king and I serve him. I cannot leave him to face an evil fate alone
while I fly to safety.”
Witnessing this extraordinary loyalty and devotion, the fowler was
overcome and exclaimed, “What wise and holy creatures these are!” He
dropped his club, and raising his joined hands to his forehead, stood
joyously proclaiming the virtues of the two birds.
Tenderly approaching the wounded goose king, the fowler took him in
his arms, laid him on some soft grass, and loosed the snare from his
foot. Then feeling a great affection for the bird, the fowler carefully
washed his wound. The power of the fowler’s kindness and the
54

greatness of the Goose King’s character then caused the wound
miraculously to heal ... The great Goose King sat and rejoiced at his
wounded foot once again made whole.
Sumukha then asked the fowler why he had trapped the goose king in
the snare. “I was employed by my lord Samyama, King of Benares,”
replied the fowler, and then he told them the whole story, from the time
of the Queen’s dream to the point ... when the King had ordered the
fowler to catch one of the golden geese. Hearing this story gave
Sumukha an idea, and turning to the Goose King, he said in bird
language, “Sire, this fowler has done us a great service. If he had not
freed you he might have won great wealth. Let us go with him to see the
King and Queen of Benares and thereby bring upon him great honor.”
Turning to the fowler, in human speech he said, “Sir, we wish you to
present us to your king, but do not take us as captives. Make a large
cage shaded with white lotuses for my lord, the Goose King. For me,
build a small cage covered with pink lotuses. Carry my king in front
and me behind, somewhat lower. Take us quickly and introduce us to
your lord.”
So the fowler carried them in that manner through the streets of
Benares, making his way toward the palace through crowds of people
amazed at the sight of the two golden geese housed in lotus cages. At
the palace door they were announced and then brought before the King
of Benares, who upon seeing them exclaimed, “My heart’s desire is
fulfilled!”
The King ordered his courtiers to take the fowler and have his hair
and beard trimmed and have him bathed and dressed in the finest
clothing. Afterward he was brought once again into the King’s presence,
and the King awarded him land, a chariot pulled by two of the finest
thoroughbreds, a beautiful house, and much gold and silver, and
bestowed upon him great honor. Abashed, the fowler sought to explain
to the King what he had done. “Sire, this is no ordinary goose that I
have brought to you. He is the king of ninety thousand geese and this
other goose is his chief captain.” Then the fowler told the King the
whole story-- how he had watched the geese feed for six days and noted
the outstanding qualities of the Goose King; how he had then set a
snare and caught the goose (etc) ... After hearing the fowler relate these
wonders, the King offered to the Goose King a precious throne spread
with costly Benares silk, and to Sumukha he offered a golden chair
covered with a tiger skin. Then he fed them both parched corn, honey,
and molasses from golden vessels.
The King of Benares had been especially touched by Sumukha’s
readiness to give up his own freedom for that of his master. So as the
55

sun set, the lamps were lit, and Queen Khema entered, the King
politely asked Sumukha to speak to the assembly. To this request the
goose captain replied, “I am a servant, my Lord. How could I speak,
Sire, when to my left sits my king, wise and virtuous of character and
beautiful to behold, while on my right sits the mighty King of Benares?”
On hearing this the King’s heart was uplifted and he said to
Sumukha, “Sir, the fowler’s praise of you was just. You are truly an
example of loyalty and service to your lord. I must then turn my
attention toward the source of your wisdom, toward your wise king and
master.” And turning toward the Golden Goose King, the King of
Benares begged the bird to preach his wisdom to the gathering.
So the Golden Goose graciously entered into pleasant conversation
with the Royal Couple, skilfully bringing into the talk the moral
precepts that good kings and queens ought to rule by. The whole night
the Golden Goose spent preaching the law, and when the sun was near
to rising he asked permission of the King to leave with Sumukha.
Once again the King served the birds in golden dishes, and then
offering them scented wreaths, and paying great homage to them, ... at
the moment of sunrise they opened the window, and saying, “Sirs,
away!” let them loose.
As the Great Goose flew out of the window he stopped for a moment,
poised in the air, and said to the King and Queen, “Good people, be not
troubled by our leaving, but remember the moral laws that I have
preached. Rule your kingdom righteously and win the hearts of your
people.” So saying, he flew away with Sumukha and made straight for
Mount Cittakuta where his flock of geese anxiously awaited his return.
After telling this story to his attentive audience, the Buddha explained
that his chief companion, Ananda, had before been Sumukha, the goose
captain… Then the Buddha assigned the other parts of the story as
follows: “At that time the fowler was my companion Channa; Queen
Khema was the nun now also named Khema; the King of Benares was
my companion Sariputta; and the Goose King was I myself.” The
Buddha concluded by saying:
“Thus all whose hearts are full of love succeed in what they do,
Just as these geese back to their friends once more in safety flew.”

56

*Glossary*
Marathi script is essentially phonetic; however, except for initials, the
a-vowel is not written in Marathi script, so it was added. Italics indicate
high mid-vowels (a and Sanskrit ri as in ‘rishi’); italic terminal -e is
pronounced ‘eh’ in written Marathi, more often ‘uh’ in spoken Marathi.
Underlining indicates lengthening of the i- and u-vowel sounds; in the
last syllable of a word, consonant-bracketed i or u is shortened when an
ending is added. An -a was added to help pronounciation of certain
Marathi terminal consonant clusters (it’s written in smaller type in the
glossary). Pronounce double-vowels elided sequentially: eg, kay ‘ka-eeh’.
Vowel-pronunciation:
a as in ‘but’
a as in ‘pot’
i as in ‘bit’
i as in ‘beet’
u as in ‘put’
u as in ‘boot’
e as in ‘bait’ or ‘bet’
o as in ‘boat’
Retroflex consonants (italicized) are formed with the tongue flexed
backwards against the roof of the mouth; the corresponding (nonitalicized) dental consonants are formed with tongue touching the teeth.
Retroflex ‘l’ sounds Japanese (“so solly”); dental ‘l’ sounds clipped.
Pronounce ‘ch’, ‘jh’, & ‘sh’ similarly to English. Otherwise the ‘h’ following a consonant indicates aspiration: ‘ph’ is an aspirated ‘p’, midway
between English ‘p’ & ‘f’. The w-sound is lightly fricated, varying
between that of English ‘v’ & ‘w’. The consonant ‘r’ is lightly trilled.
Doubled consonants are pronounced with extra emphasis (bollo ‘bol-lo’).
Abbreviations: M,F,N (gender); T, I, R, S (Trans, Intrans, Semi, Reverse), Pl (plural)

-abhay aranya: (N) a sanctuary.
-abhiwadan: (N) salutation.
-abhiwadan karne: to make salutation, salute.
-achanak: suddenly, unexpectedly.
-adakne: (I) to catch (in or on something); to stick fast; to be impeded.
-adar: (M) respect.
-adar karne: to show respect.
-adarsh: (M) ideal, model.
-adbhut: strange, marvelous, miraculous, wondrous.
-adbhutprakare: in a miraculous manner, miraculously.
-adhik: more (adhik adhik ‘more and more’).
57

-adle: previous, earlier.
-adnya: (F) order.
-adnya karne: to order.
-ag: (Fi) fire.
-ag petawne: to start a fire.
-ahat: are.
-ahe: is, am.
-ahes: are.
-ahet: are.
-aho: Oh; Say! (respectful vocative interjection).
-ahot: are.
-ai: (F) mother.
-aikne: (T) to hear, listen.
-aikun ghene: to listen to, take heed to.
-ainshi: eighty.
-aiwadil: (M Pl) parents (“mother-father”).
-aj: today.
-ajun: still, yet, “anymore”.
-amba: (M) mango.
-amche: our/ours (exclusive).
-amhala: to us, for us (exclusive).
-amhi: we (exclusive).
-anand: (M) happiness, joy; bliss (-anandane ‘with joy’).
-anand hone: to become happy (tyala anand jhala ‘he became happy’).
-anand watne: to feel happy (mala anand watte ‘I feel happy’).
-anandat: in happiness, happily.
-anawne: to have brought (i.e., ‘cause to bring’).
-ang: (N) body.
-angan: (N) courtyard.
-anghol: (Fi) bath.
-anghol ghalne: to give a bath; anghol karne: to take a bath.
-ani: and.
-ann: (N) food, victuals.
-anne: (T) to bring.
-antar: (N) distance, interval (antarawar ‘at a distance’).
-apan: we (inclusive); you (formal).
-aple: our (inclusive); your (formal); “one’s own” (reflexive).
-aplyala: to/for us (inclusive); to/for you (formal).
-aram: (M) rest, relaxation.
-aram karne: to take rest, relax, take it easy.
-aranya: (N) forest, jungle (aranyatla rahnara ‘forest-dweller’).
-ardhwat: half; incompletely, semi-.
58

-arthatach: of course.
-ase: such; so, like this, this way (-asech ‘just like this’).
-ase kase: How is (it like) this?
-ashcharya: (N) surprise (-ashcharyache ‘surprising’).
-ashcharyat: surprised (literally: ‘in surprise’).
-ashi: (morphophonemic rule: -se becomes -sh- when i/ya added) see ase.
-ashru: (M) tear.
-aslele: being/having such, such being (pluperfect adjectival; see 3.324).
-aslyache: of (something) being such (see 3.318).
-aslyamule: because of its being such.
-asne: (I) to be, exist (-asawe: might probably be, “must be”).
-aswasth: uncomfortable, restless, uneasy.
-at: in, within, inside.
-at/-t: (post) in, inside; among, between.
-ata: now; -atta: (more emphatic form) right now.
-athawn: (Fi) memory, remembrance; reminder.
-atishay: extremely.
-atun: (post) out from; through.
-aturta: (F) restlessness, impatience (-aturtene ‘impatiently’).
-atyant: exceedingly, extremely, very.
-awad: (Fi) liking.
-awadne: (R) to like (mala awadat nahi ‘I don’t like’).
-awaj: (M) sound, noise; voice, tone.
-babat: (post) regarding.
-baddal: (post) about, concerning.
-baghne (past: -baghitle): (T) to look at, watch.
-bahutek: the majority, most of.
-bai: (F) woman; (suffix) term of respect for a woman.
-baju: (F) side.
-bajula: on/to the side, aside (bajula thewne ‘to put aside’).
-bajune: alongside.
-baki: the rest, remaining.
-balkat: strong, mighty.
-bambu: (M) bamboo.
-banawne: (T) to make, build, construct.
-band: closed, shut.
-band karne: to close, shut; band thewne: to keep closed, shut.
-bandhne: (T) to tie, bind; to build, construct.
-banne: (I) to become; to be made, be shaped.
-bare: good, well (bare hone ‘to become well, heal’).
-barobar: correct, proper; along with; (post) with.
-basne: (I) to sit.
59

-batmi: (F) news.
-bephikir: careless, heedless.
-bhadakne: (I) to fly in a rage; to flare up.
-bhag: (M) part, portion.
-bhajne: (T) to burn; to roast, bake.
-bhaksh: (N) food; article of food, edible prey.
-bhakti: (F) devotion.
-bhande: (N) pot, pan, cooking vessel; dish.
-bhar: (post) the whole, full (-ratrabhar ‘all night’).
-bharne: (T) to fill; (I) to be filled (-bharun yene ‘to fill up’).
-bharpur: much, abundant, a lot of.
-bhasawne: (T) to pretend (to cause to seem, “make a pretence of”).
-bhasha: (F) language.
-bhashan: (N) speech (bhashan karne ‘to make a speech’).
-bhasne: (I) to seem.
-bhat: (M) cooked rice.
-bhaw: (M) feeling, state of mind.
-bhawya: grand, magnificent.
-bhet: (Fi) meeting, visit.
-bhet ghene: to visit with.
-bhetne: (S) to meet.
-bhikari: (M,F) beggar, poor person.
-bhine (past -bhyayle): (I) to be afraid, to fear.
-bhiti: (F) fear, fright.
-bhiti watne: to feel fear, be frightened.
-bhowti: (post) around.
-bhuk: (Fe) hunger, appetite.
-bhukele: hungry.
-bichakne: (I) to get startled, start.
-bichare: poor, miserable, wretched.
-bol: (M) speech, saying, words.
-bolawne: (T) to summon, call.
-bolne: (S) to speak, say, talk; (N) speech, talk.
-budbudne: (I) to bubble.
-buddh: (M) The Enlightened One (the Buddha).
-ch: (emphatic particle suffix) just, only.
-che: (possessive suffix) its, one’s, etc.
-chadhne: (I) to climb, rise.
-chakakne: (I) to gleam, flash; to shine brightly, glitter.
-chakit: astonished, dazzled.
-chalawne: (T) to cause to move, drive.
-chalne: (I) to walk, move, go; to set out, proceed, progress.
60

-chamade: (N) leather (-chamadyache ‘of leather, leathern’).
-chamak: (F) shining, sparkle; (shooting) pain (like lightning pains).
-chamakne: (I) to glitter, sparkle, gleam, glow.
-chandra: (M) moon.
-chandraprakash: (M) moonlight.
-changle: good.
-chaw: (Fi) a taste.
-chaw ghene: to taste.
-chawne: (T) to chew, bite.
-chehara: (M) face, expression.
-chhan: nice, fine.
-chhote: little, small.
-chikhal: (M) mud.
-chitra: (N) picture.
-chitra kadhne: to draw or paint a picture.
-choch: (Fi) beak.
-chorne: (T) to steal.
-chukne: (I) to make a mistake, err (wat chukne ‘to lose one’s way’).
-da:(suff) times (tinda ‘thrice’).
-dada: (M) father or elder brother; honourable suffix (here -bro’ is used).
-dagad: (M) rock, stone.
-dahi: (N) yogurt, curds.
-dakhawne: (T) to show, exhibit, demonstrate.
-dana: (M) grain; a single grain.
-dar: each, every (-darroj ‘every day, daily’).
-darbh: (M) kusa grass (spear grass).
-dari: (M) valley.
-darwaja: (M) door, doorway.
-dat: thick, dense.
-dawe: left (dawya bajula ‘on/to the left side’).
-dayalu: kind, merciful.
-dayalupana: (M) kindness.
-dene (past -dile): (T) to give, let, allow; (2nd verb) let/allow (to be done).
-deun takne: to give away.
-dewalay: (N) temple.
-dhada: (M) lesson.
-dhaga: (M) thread, strand.
-dhanya: (N) grain.
-dharne: (T) to grasp, hold, keep (hatat dharlele “wielding”).
-dhawne: (I) to run.
-dhit: bold, courageous.
-dhune (past: dhutle): (T) to wash.
61

-disenase hone: to disappear.
-disne: (R) to be visible, seen; to appear, seem (mala diste ‘seems to me’)
-diwa: (M) lamp, light.
-diwa lawne: to light a lamp.
-diwankhana: (M) drawing room, hall.
-diwas: (M) day (-diwashi ‘on the day’).
-diwasbhar: the whole day, all day long.
-dnyan: (N) knowledge, wisdom; gnosis.
-dola: (M) eye.
-don: two (-donhi ‘both’).
-dori: (F) rope, string.
-dosh: (M) blame, fault (-doshi ‘guilty’).
-drishya: (N) sight, scene.
-duhakh: (N) sadness, grief; pain, suffering, distress.
-duhakh hone: to feel grief, regret (mala duhakh jhale ‘I felt grieved’).
-duhakhane: sadly.
-duhakhi: unhappy, sad.
-dukhapat: (Fi) injury (dukhapat karne ‘to injure’).
-dukhawne: (T) to cause hurt or pain, harm.
-dur: far, distant.
-durdaiw: (N) misfortune.
-dusre: second, (an-)other, the next (pahile ‘1st’, tisre ‘3rd’, chauthe 4th).
-dusre kahi: what else, anything else.
-dusryãpeksha: more than the others, “exceptionally”.
-dwarpal: (M) doorkeeper.
-ek (oblique: eka): one, a (ekach/ek-hi ‘a single, the same’).
-ekamagun ek: one after the other, one by one.
-ekatra: together; in one place; in association.
-ekhade: some, any (unspecified person or thing).
-ekmek: (requires a post, e.g: ekmekãna) one another, each other.
-ekte: alone (kunala ektyala ‘to someone by oneself’).
-gadbad: (Fi) noise, racket.
-gadi: (F) cart, car, carriage, chariot, etc.
-gadi: (F) couch; seat of power, throne.
-gajbajne: to be crowded and bustling.
-gammat: (Fi) fun.
-gammat karne: to do something in fun.
-gappa: (F Pl) chatting.
-gappa marne: to chat, gossip.
-garib: poor.
-gaw: (N) town, village.
-gawat: (N) grass.
62

-ghabarne: (I) to become frightened.
-ghadne: (I) to happen, occur.
-ghalne (past: ghatle): (T) to put in; to put on, wear.
-ghandat: very dense.
-ghar: (N) house, home (-ghari ‘to/at home’).
-ghas: (M) mouthful of food.
-ghene (past -ghetle): (T) to take.
-gheraw: (M) blockade.
-gheraw ghalne: to (form a) blockade.
-gheun jane: to take away.
-gheun yene: to bring.
-ghoda: (M) horse.
-ghodagadi: (F) horsecart.
-god: sweet.
-gola: (M) round thing, mass.
-gola karne: to collect, gather.
-goli: (F) small round thing, bullet.
-gosht: (Fi) thing, matter; story.
-guha: (F) cave.
-gulabi: pink.
-gun: (M) quality; good quality, virtue (-guni ‘talented, virtuous’).
-gundalne: to wrap around.
-guru: (M) guru, religious teacher or guide.
-ha: this; he, this one.
-hajar: one thousand.
-hak: (Fe) call or loud cry.
-hak marne: to call.
-hakigat: (Fi) account, narrative, report.
-halne: (I) to move.
-halu: low; softly; quietly; slowly.
-haluhalu: slowly-slowly, gradually, little by little.
-hans (actually pronounced hãws): (M) goose, swan.
-har: (M) garland.
-har ghalne: to garland.
-hasne: (I) to laugh; (N) laughing, laughter.
-hasya: (N) laugh; smile (smit hasya ‘a gentle smile’).
-hat: (M) hand; arm (-hatat ‘in hand’).
-hawa: (F) air.
-hawe: (is) wanted or needed.
-hay re: (interjection; re is an emphatic particle-tag) alas!
-he: this, it; they, these; (vocative interjection) hey.
-hi: she, it, this; they, these; (emphatic particle suffix) also, even, too.
63

-hila: to her, for her.
-himgiri: (M) the Himalayas (from: him ‘snow’, and: giri ‘mountain’).
-hindne: (I) to roam, wander.
-hirwe: green.
-ho: yes (interjection indicating asssent, agreement).
-hokar: (M) assent.
-hokar dene: to give assent, agree.
-hone (past -jhale): (I) to become, happen, occur, take place.
-hushar: intelligent, clever.
-hya: (F) they, these.
-hyache: his, its.
-hyala: to or for him, it.
-hyãna: to or for them.
-hyanche: their/theirs.
-ichchha: (F) desire, wish, longing.
-ikde: here, this way.
-ikdetikde: hither-thither, to & fro.
-itar: other.
-ithe: here (-ithun ‘from here’).
-itke: so much/very or many, this much; (post) as much as.
-jadu: (F) magic.
-jag: (N) the world.
-jag: (Fe) wakefulness, waking (-jagi ‘awake’).
-jaga: (F) place, spot (jagi ‘in/at the spot’).
-jahaj: (N) ship.
-jakham: (Fe) wound.
-jakhmi: wounded.
-jale: (N) net, web.
-jamawne: (T) to collect, gather together.
-jamawun thewne: to collect and store, to keep collected, “hoard away”.
-jamin: (Fi) ground, floor; land.
-jane (past -gele): (I) to go.
-janawne: (R) to feel, perceive (mala te janawat nahi ‘I don’t feel it’).
-jar: if (jar ... tar: if ... then).
-jara: somewhat, a little, rather.
-jara wel: for some time (jara welane ‘after some time’).
-jarur: certainly, surely; definitely.
-jast: more; too much/many.
-jawal: near; (post) near (jawal yene ‘to come near, approach’).
-jawalche: neighboring, nearby.
-jawalun: by, from near, past.
-je: that (the one) which; those who/which.
64

-jewha: when (jewha ... tewha ‘when ... then’).
-jhad: (N) tree.
-jhadi: (F) dense vegetation.
-jhakne: (T) to cover.
-jhale (past of: hone): became, happened, occurred, finished, passed.
-jhop: (Fe) sleep (-jhopet ‘asleep’).
-jhopdi: (F) hut, cottage.
-jhopne: (I) to lie down; to sleep.
-jhudap: (N) a small tree or bush.
-jhultapul: (M) hanging bridge.
-jhuluk: (Fi) gentle breeze.
-ji: she who, those which; (post) respectful address: Sir / Ma’am.
-jithe: where (jithe ... tithe ‘where ... there’).
-jitke: as much or many (jitke ... titke ‘as much ... that much’).
-jiw: (M) life.
-jiw dene: to give one’s life, commit suicide; jiw sodne: to die.
-jiwant: alive.
-jiwat jiw aseparyant: as long as one is alive (there’s life in one’s life).
-jo: he (the one) who, that which.
-jodne: (T) to join together.
-jor: (M) strength, force (-jorane ‘forcefully’).
-jwala: (F) flame.
-jyala: to whom.
-ka: why; (indicating a yes/no question) is it? (yes or no?).
-kadachit: perhaps, maybe.
-kadak: tough, strong; fierce, ardent, impetuous (an aggressive quality).
-kade: (post) at, to, towards; belonging to (majhya kade ‘at my place’).
-kadhi: when, ever.
-kadhitari: sometime.
-kadhne: (T) to take out or off; to draw or drag out.
-kahi: some (thing), any (sagle kahi ‘everything’).
-kahi nahi: nothing, not at all.
-kahihi: anything (emphatic).
-kahitari: (N) something (of).
-kal: (M) time; duration (-kali ‘at the time’).
-kalawne: (T) to inform.
-kalji: (F) anxiety, worry, care.
-kalji ghene: to take care.
-kaljipurwak: carefully.
-kalne: (R) to come to realize, understand, be known to (kalle? ‘Got it?’).
-kam: (N) work; job, task.
-kamal: (N) lotus, water lily.
65

-kami: less.
-kamkuwat: weak (from: kami and kuwat ‘strength, ability’).
-kapda: (M) article of clothing; (in plural) clothes.
-kapne: (T) to cut.
-karan: because.
-karne (past -kele): (T) to do, make.
-kartawya: (N) duty.
-karunya: (N) compassion, pity.
-kase: how (kase kay ‘how are things, how is it’).
-kasaw: (M,N) tortoise, turtle.
-kashache: of what, what sort or kind.
-kashala: what for, why, “how come”.
-kashamule: for what reason, how come.
-katade: (N) animal skin or hide, leather.
-kath: (M) border; bank (kathi ‘on the bank’).
-kathi: (F) stick, club.
-kaushalya: (N) skill.
-kautuk: (N) making much of, admiration (kautuk karne ‘to admire’).
-kawach: (N) hard shell; crust; armor.
-kay: what, whatever; (rhetorical yes/no question; compare ka) what?
-kay kay: what-all.
-kayam/-kayamche: continually, permanently.
-kes: (M) a hair; (in plural) hair.
-khadak: (M) rock.
-khadakal: ‘rocky.
-khajina: (M) treasury; treasure.
-khali: (post) under, below.
-khane (past -khalle): (T) to eat; (N) an edible (thing), food.
-khare: real, true; really, truly.
-khatri: (F) certainty, confidence.
-khatri patne: to be convinced; to feel certain.
-khayla dene: to give (something) in order to eat.
-khedegaw: (N) village (literally: ‘hamlet-village’).
-khelne: (T) to play.
-khidki: (F) window.
-khogir: (N) saddle.
-khup: much, many, “a lot of”; very.
-khurchi: (F) chair.
-khush: pleased, satisfied.
-ki: or (short for: kiwa); that.
-kimati: valuable, expensive, costly.
-kirti: (F) fame, renown.
66

-kiti: how (very); how much or many.
-kolha: (M) fox, jackel.
-koli: (M) fisherman; spider.
-komal: gentle; soft; tender.
-kon: who.
-konache (variant: kunache): whose.
-konala (variant: kunala): to whom.
-konalahi: to whomsoever.
-kone eke kali: “once upon a time”.
-kripa: (F) favor, kindness (pronounced krüpa).
-kripa karne: to do a favor.
-kripa karun: please (literally: ‘do a favor and ...’).
-kshan: (M) moment (-kshani ‘in/at the moment’).
-kunala: for or to someone/anyone, to whom.
-kuni: someone/anyone; by whom (kuni nahi ‘no-one’).
-kunitari: someone.
-kushal: skilled or skillful, expert.
-kuthe: where.
-kuthetari: somewhere.
-kuthun: from where, whence.
-kutra: (M) dog.
-kutumb: (N) family.
-la: (suffix) to, for.
-labadi: (F) trickery, cheating, dishonesty.
-lagne: (T) to hit or hurt; (S) to affect; (I) to be attached.
-lagne (2nd verb): (I) to begin to; (R) to be forced to (“have to”).
-lahan: small, young.
-lahi: (F) popped grain (makyachi lahi ‘popcorn’).
-lajjit: ashamed or abashed.
-laksh: (N) attention.
-laksh dene: to pay attention.
-lakshat thewne: to keep in mind.
-lakshat yene: to come to the attention, realize.
-lakud: (N) wood.
-lakud todne: to cut wood.
-lal: red.
-lamb: long; far, distant.
-lapat: stealthily, covertly (hiding, concealing oneself).
-lapawne: (T) to conceal, hide (something).
-lapne: (I) to hide, be concealed.
-lapun basne: to go into hiding; to sit hidden.
-lapun rahne: to remain hidden; lapun thewne: to put/keep hidden.
67

-lapun thewnyachi/rahnyachi jaga: hiding place.
-lawkar: quickly; soon, early.
-lawne: (T) to apply, attach, fasten.
-lobh: (M) greed, intense desire (-lobhi ‘greedy’).
-lok: (M Pl) people, folk.
-madat: (Fi) help.
-madh: (M) honey.
-madhe/-madhye: in (the middle); (post) in, within, between, among.
-madhmashi: (F) honeybee.
-madhun: (post) from within, among; through.
-madhur: sweet.
-madke: (N) earthen pot.
-mag: then; upon that, whereupon.
-mage: (post) behind, after.
-magne (past: magitle): to ask for, request.
-magomag: (post) immediately/directly after or behind, right afterwards.
-magun: (post) after, from behind.
-maharaj: (respectful address) Great King; Highness; Great Sir.
-mahit: known (mala mahit ahe ‘I know’).
-mahiti: (F) information (mahiti asne ‘to be known’).
-maidan: (N) level tract of land, field.
-majhe: my.
-majur: (M) manual laborer.
-maka: (M) corn, maize (-makyachi lahi ‘popcorn’).
-makad: (N) monkey.
-mala: to or for me.
-malak: (M) owner; master, employer.
-man: (N) mind, heart.
-man: (M) honor, respect; (Fe) neck.
-manjar: (N) cat (used as abbrev. for pan-manjar, thus: ‘weasel’).
-manne: (T) to respect, accept, obey.
-mantri: (M) minister.
-manus: (M; neuter in plural: manase) man, human being.
-manushya: (M) man(kind), human being.
-marg: (M) path, way, street.
-marat alele: nearly-dead (pluperfect adjectival; see 3.215 and 3.324).
-marne (past: mele): (I) to die.
-marne: (T) to strike, beat; to kill, destroy; (idioms) to do forcefully.
-marun takne: to beat to death, kill off.
-mas: (N) meat, flesh.
-masa: (M) fish.
-mata: (F) mother (respectful: ‘mataji’).
68

-mau: soft.
-mawalne: (I) to set (sun).
-mhanje: that is (to say), meaning; (defining) “is”.
-mhanne (past: mhanale): (S) to say (ase mhanun ‘so saying’; see 3.314).
-mhanun: therefore, so; therefrom (as result); as (conjoining appositives).
-mhatara: (M) old man.
-mhatare: aged, old (person/animal).
-mhatari: (F) old lady.
-mi: I, me.
-milawne: (T) to get, obtain, acquire, earn.
-milne (past: -milale): (I) to be available; (R) to obtain, get, receive.
-mishtann: (N) good food, delicacies.
-mitne: (T) to close (eyes).
-mitra: (M) friend.
-modne: (T) to break (into pieces), fracture.
-mohak: attractive, enchanting.
-mothe: big, large; great (-mothyane ‘loudly’).
-mul (plural: mule): (N) child (unidentified gender; compare: mulga).
-mule: (post) because of, due to.
-mulga (plural: mulge or mule): (M) boy, son.
-na (negative): not- (na milalyamule ‘due to having been not-obtained’).
-na ... na: neither ... nor.
-nadi: (F) river.
-nahi (plural: nahit): no, not; isn’t.
-nahise (nahi-ase): disappeared (nahise karne ‘to destroy’).
-nahitar: otherwise, if not (then).
-nahwte (contraction of na-hote): wasn’t.
-naitik: moral
-nako (plural: naka): (R) not wanted; don’t.
-nakki: definitely, certainly.
-nantar: afterwards, later on; (post) after.
-naram: soft.
-nashib: (N) fortune, luck, fate.
-nashta: (M) breakfast.
-nasne: (I) to not be; to be lacking.
-naw: (N) name.
-nawalai: (F) novelty, wonder (-nawalaiche ‘wonderful’).
-nawin: new.
-nawwad: ninety.
-ne (plural: -ni): (suffix) with or by means of, because of, due to; from.
-nehmi: always, usually (-nehmiche ‘the usual’).
-nemke: at the appropriate time, opportunely; appropriately, exactly.
69

-nemne: (T) to appoint, assign (kam nemun dene ‘to assign a task’).
-nemun dilele kam: (N) work-assignment.
-nene: (T) to carry, take, drive, lead (bring).
-nighne (past nighale): (I) to start/set out, come out; (2nd verb) to set out.
-nighun jane: to leave, depart, go away.
-nikami: out of order, useless.
-nir: (prefix) negative (example: -nirdoshi ‘not guilty, innocent’).
-nirantar: constantly, forever.
-nirmal: clean, uncontaminated.
-nirnirale: various, different.
-nishtha: (F) devotion, loyalty.
-nit: properly; neatly.
-niyam: (M) rule.
-nuksan: (N) loss, damage.
-nuste: merely, just.
-nyay: (M) justice.
-odhne: (T) to pull, drag, draw.
-okne: (I) to vomit.
-oradne: (I) to cry out, shout, yell.
-padne: (I) to fall; to occur, become, happen.
-pahat: (Fe) early morning (-pahate ‘at dawn’).
-pahilyanda: at first, to begin with; at/for the first time.
-pahije: (R) to want or need.
-pahne (past -pahile): (T) to see, look at (te paha ‘see there’).
-pahu: please.
-paiki: (post) from among.
-paisa: (M) money.
-pakadne: (T) to catch, grab, capture, hold onto.
-pakshi: (M) bird.
-palne (past: -palale): (I) to run (palat ‘running’).
-palun jane: to run away, flee.
-pan: but, yet; (emphatic particle suffix) also.
-pan: (N) leaf.
-pan-manjar: (N) otter (lit: “water-cat”), “water-weasel”.
-pana (oblique: -pana): (M suff) abstract noun-maker (-ness).
-pandhre: white.
-pane: (suff) adverb-maker (shantpane ‘calmly’).
-pani: (N) water.
-pankh: (M) wing.
-parantu: but, however.
-parat: back, again, in return.
-parat jane: to go back, return.
70

-parat yene: to come back, return
-paratne: (I) to return
-pardhi: (M) hunter.
-pari: (F) fairy.
-pariksha: (F) examination, test.
-pariksha ghene: to examine, put to the test.
-parwangi: (F) permission.
-parwat: (M) mountain, mountain range.
-paryant: (post) until, up to, as far as (gharaparyant ‘all the way home’).
-pasarne: (I) to spread or stretch out.
-pasun: (post) from, since.
-path: (Fi) back.
-patne: (R) to be convinced.
-patta: (M) strip; strap; stripe.
-paus: (M) rain, rainfall.
-pawitra: pure, holy, blessed.
-pay: (M) foot, leg (-payi ‘on foot’).
-peksha: (post) than, more than.
-petawne: (T) to light, ignite.
-phakta: only.
-phal: (N) fruit.
-phandi: (F) branch.
-phar: much, very.
-phas: (M) noose; snare.
-phirti: (F) tour, touring, round.
-phul: (N) flower.
-phutne: (I) to break, shatter, burst.
-pikne: (I) to ripen (-piklele ‘ripened, ripe’).
-pillu: (N) baby (of an animal); fledgling (of a bird).
-pine: (S) to drink.
-pinjara: (M) cage.
-pis: (N) feather.
-pita: (M) father (respectful: ‘pitaji’).
-piwle: yellow.
-pohochne: (I) to arrive, reach, get to.
-pohne (past -pohole): (I) to swim, float.
-pole: (N) beehive.
-popat: (M) parrot.
-pot: (N) stomach, belly.
-potbhar: bellyfull, one’s fill.
-prabhu: (M) lord; Lord (respectful address).
-prakar: (M) kind, sort, type of thing.
71

-prakarche: kind, sort or type of.
-prakare: in a manner or way (asha prakare ‘in this manner’).
-pramukh: (M) chief, leader.
-prani: (M) creature, being.
-pratyek: every, each.
-prawas: (M) trip, travel, journey.
-prawas karne: to travel, take a trip.
-prayatna: (M) effort, attempt, try.
-prayatna karne: to attempt, try.
-prem: (N) love, affection (-premane ‘with love’).
-prem karne: to (feel) love (kunawar prem karne ‘to love someone’).
-premal: filled with love or affection, loving (-premalpane ‘lovingly’).
-priy: dear.
-pudhche: next, upcoming.
-pudhe: ahead; later on, afterwards (pudhe kayam/nirantar ‘ever after’)
-pul: (M) bridge.
-punha: again.
-purn: whole, entire, complete.
-purn hone: to get fulfilled; purn karne: to fulfill.
-purwi: (post) before.
-purwak: (suff) with.
-radne: (I) to cry, weep.
-ragawne: (I) to become angry or mad.
-rahne (past -rahile): (I) to live, dwell, stay, remain; (2nd verb) continue.
-raja: (M) king.
-rajshahi: royal, regal, kingly.
-rajwada: (M) palace (of the king).
-rajya: (N) kingdom; reign, rule.
-rajya karne: to rule, reign.
-ran: (prefix) wild (-ranphul ‘wildflower’).
-rang: (M) color (-rangache ‘colored’).
-rani: (F) queen.
-ras: (M) juice.
-rasta: (M) road, street.
-ratra: (Fi) night (-ratri ‘at night’; -ratrabhar ‘all night’).
-reshim: (N) silk (-reshmi ‘silken, of silk’).
-rit: (Fi) custom, manner.
-ritu: (M) season.
-roj: daily (darroj ‘every day, daily’).
-ruchkar: tasty.
-rup: (N) form, shape; appearance.
-rup ghene: to take a form.
72

-sabhya: polite, well-bred, courteous.
-sabhyapanane: politely.
-sadgun: (M) good quality.
-sagle: all, everyone; whole, entire (-saglyãt ‘of all’).
-saha: six.
-saheb: (M) lord or master; Sir (address); (suffix) Sir, Master.
-saj: (M) finery, adornments, equipage.
-sajjan: good, virtuous (sajjan lok “gentle-folk”).
-sakal: (F) morning (-sakali ‘in the morning’).
-salla: (M) advice.
-sallagar: (M) advisor.
-samajne: (R) to understand, comprehend.
-samajutdar: sensible, wise.
-samanya: common, ordinary.
-sambandh: (M) connection, relationship; concern.
-sambhal: (M) caring for.
-sambhal karne: to take care of.
-sambhalne: (T) to take care of.
-samor: (post) in front of, facing, before.
-sampne: (I) to end, be finished or done.
-sanchar: (M) movements, traffic, coming & going.
-sandhi: (F) opportunity, chance.
-sandhyakal: (F) evening (-sandhyakali ‘in the evening’).
-sangne (past -sangitle): (T) to say, tell (karayla sangne ‘to tell to do’).
-sankat: (N) calamity.
-sanshay: (M) doubt, suspicion (sanshayat ‘in doubt’).
-sanshay yene: to become suspicious.
-santwan: (N) consolation.
-santwan karne: to console.
-sanwad: (M) conversation.
-sanwad karne: to converse.
-sapadne: (R) to find (mala te sapadat nahi ‘I don’t find it’).
-saral: straight; straightway.
-sarbat: (N) sherbet, sweetened fruit-juice.
-sardar: (M) officer; nobleman.
-sarkhe: similar, alike; (post) like, as if.
-sarowar: (N) lake.
-sarwa: all, complete (sarwat unch ‘tallest of all’).
-sarwotkrisht: most excellent (from: sarwa ‘all’ & utkrisht ‘excellent’).
-sarwottam: the best of all (from: sarwa ‘all’ & uttam ‘best’).
-sasa: (M) rabbit.
-sat: seven (-satwe ‘seventh’).
73

-satha: (M) store, accumulation, hoard.
-sathi: (post) for, in order to.
-satya: true; (N) truth.
-saundarya: (N) beauty.
-sawadh: alert, vigilant.
-sawadh karne: to alert.
-sawali: (F) shadow, shade.
-saway: (Fi) habit.
-sewa: (F) service.
-sewak: (M) servant.
-shabda: (M) word.
-shahar: (N) city, town.
-shakne: (I) to be able, capable; (2nd verb) to be able to.
-shakti: (F) power, energy; capability.
-shaktiwan: powerful.
-shakya: possible.
-shant: peaceful, calm; quiet.
-shantpane: calmly, peacefully.
-sharir: (N) body.
-she: hundred (used in combination: satshe, ‘seven hundred’).
-shekdo: hundreds of.
-sheng: (Fe) peanut.
-shet: (N) field; farm.
-shetmajur: (M) farm/field laborer.
-shewti: in the end, finally.
-shi: (post) to, with (only with certain verbs and idioms).
-shikawne: (T) to teach.
-shikne: (S) to learn.
-shiway: (post) without, unless, except.
-shobne: (I) to become, be fitting.
-shodh: (M) search.
-shodh ghene: to search for.
-shodhne: (T) to search, look for, seek.
-shodhun kadhne: to find out, discover.
-shok: (M) grief, sorrow (shok karne ‘to grieve’)..
-shubhra: white; bright, spotless.
-simhasan/sinhasan (alternate spellings): (N) throne (“lion-throne”).
-smit: smiling; (N) a smile.
-sodawne: (T) to set free, release, loosen.
-sodne: (T) to leave; to give up, let go.
-sodun dene: to give up, abandon; sodun jane: to leave, abandon.
-soneri: golden.
74

-suchna: (F) suggestion.
-suddha: (emphatic particle suffix) also, too, even.
-sukh: (N) happiness, pleasure, joy (-sukhane ‘happily, freely’).
-sukhi: contented, happy.
-sundar: beautiful.
-supik: fertile.
-suru: started, begun.
-suru hone: to begin; suru karne: to begin (something).
-surya: (M) sun.
-suryakiran: (N) sunbeam.
-sutka: (F) liberation, deliverance.
-sutne: (I) to escape, slip out.
-swabhaw: (M) temperament, nature, disposition.
-swachchh: clean.
-swapna: (N) dream.
-swapna pahne: to dream.
-swarg: (M) heaven.
-swatha: oneself.
-tabela: (M) stable.
-tak: (N) buttermilk.
-takne: (T) to throw, throw out, drop; (2nd verb) to finish up or off.
-talaw: (M) tank, reservoir, lake, pond.
-talwar: (Fi) sword.
-tandul: (M) uncooked rice.
-tar: then, consequently (see jar ... tar).
-tarangne: (I) to float (tarangat ‘floating’).
-tari: still, nevertheless (jari ... tari ‘although ... still/nevertheless’).
-tase: like that, thus.
-tayar: ready, prepared.
-tayar hone: to become prepared; tayar karne: to prepare.
-tayari: (F) readiness, preparation.
-te: it; that, they, those.
-tech/toch/tich/tyach: the very one(s), the same.
-tejaswi: lustrous, bright.
-tekdi: (F) small hill.
-tewdhyat: just then.
-tewha: then, at that time.
-thakne: (I) to get tired, exhausted, worn out (-thaklele ‘weary’).
-thambne: (I) to wait; to stop.
-thand: cool, cold.
-thar: killed, dead.
-thar marne: to kill.
75

-thartharne: (I) to tremble, shiver.
-thawa: (M) crowd; flock.
-thewa: (M) treasure, store.
-thewne: (T) to put, place, keep, preserve; (2nd verb) to keep, maintain.
-thewun dene: to set aside, store.
-thikan: (N) place (thikani ‘in/at the place’).
-thodase: just a little, slightly.
-thode: small in amount, brief(ly); a few, a little; somewhat.
-thodawel: for awhile (a short time).
-ti: she; they.
-tiche: her, of hers.
-tikde: there, thither, that way.
-tila: to/for her.
-tin: three (-tinda ‘three times’).
-tithe: there (-tithun ‘from there’).
-titke: that much or many.
-to: he, that.
-todne: (T) to break (off); to pick, pluck, cut down.
-tok: (N) end, point.
-toli: (F) gang, band.
-tond: (N) mouth.
-tras: (M) trouble, botheration.
-tu: you (familiar).
-tujhe: your (familiar).
-tukda: (M) bit, piece.
-tula: to/for you (familiar).
-tumche: your.
-tumhala: to/for you.
-tumhi: you.
-tun/-un: (post) from; via, thru (naditun ‘via river’, hawetun ‘thru air’).
-tya: they, those; (oblique) that (-tyach: see tech).
-tyache (plural: -tyanche): his, its.
-tyala (plural: -tyãna): to/for him (note formal variant: tyas ‘to him’).
-tyamule: because of that, due to that; for that reason.
-tyanantar: after that, afterwards.
-tyapudhe: thenceforward.
-tyat: in that.
-tyatun: (out) from it; among them.
-tyaulat: on the contrary.
-tyawar: on/at that.
-tyawarun: from over it; because of that.
-tyaweli: at that time.
76

-ubhe: erect, standing.
-ubhe rahne: to stand (remain standing); to be parked.
-udar: generous, noble (-udarpane ‘nobly’).
-udgarne: (I) to remark, exclaim.
-udi: (F) jump, leap.
-udi marne/takne: to jump, leap.
-udne (past: udale): (I) to fly (udat ‘flying’).
-udun jane: to fly away.
-udya: tomorrow.
-ugawne: (I) to sprout, spring up, grow.
-ughadne: (T) to open.
-ujwe: right (ujwya bajula ‘on/to the right side’).
-ullekh: (M) mention (ullekh karne ‘to mention’).
-umalne: (I) to bloom.
-un/-tun (post: -un follows a consonant, -tun follows a vowel): see -tun.
-unch: tall, high.
-unchi: (F) height (-kami unchiwar ‘at less height’).
-upas: (M) going without food, fast (upas karne ‘to fast’).
-upatne: (T) to uproot, pull up.
-us: (M) sugarcane.
-ushnata: (F) heat.
-utarne: (I) to get down, descend, land.
-uthne: (I) to arise, get up.
-utkrisht: excellent, magnificent.
-uttar: (N) answer, reply.
-uttar dene: to give a reply, to answer.
-wa: and (short form, used in lists etc: “&”).
-wachawne: (T) to save (life, time, money, etc).
-wachne: (I) to survive, be saved.
-wadhne: (I) to grow, increase.
-wadil: (M Pl) father; elder.
-wagh: (M) tiger.
-wah: wow, bravo (exclamation of appreciation, astonishment).
-wahne (past: -wahile): (I) to flow.
-wait: bad.
-wajir: (M) chief minister.
-wakne: (I) to bend.
-walne: (I) to turn.
-walu: (F) sand.
-wan: (N) wood, forest.
-wan: (post) having.
-wanar: (M,N) a long-tailed monkey (-wanarlok ‘monkey-folk’).
77

-war: up; (post) on, above; upon; at (-antarawar ‘at a distance’).
-wara: (N) wind.
-warsh: (N) year.
-warun: (post) from; from above, over; through; because of.
-wasant: (M) Spring (wasant ritu ‘spring season’).
-wat: (Fe) way, path.
-wat pahne: to wait for.
-we: (suffix for serial numbers 5 or more) -th (eg, satwe ‘seventh’, etc).
-wedna: (F) pain.
-weg: (M) speed (-wegane ‘swiftly, with swiftness’).
-wel: (M) period of time (thodya welane ‘in/after a short time’).
-wel yene: to become time (for the needful).
-wichar: (M) thought (wichar karne ‘to think, consider’).
-wicharne: (T) to ask, question.
-wichitra: strange, peculiar.
-wikne: (T) to sell.
-wilakshan: extraordinary.
-winanti: (F) pleading, request (winanti karne ‘to request’).
-wiwah: (M) marriage.
-wriddh: aged, old, venerable.
-yene (past -ale): (I) to come; to become; (R) to be affected; to be able to.
-yojna: (F) plan, scheme.

*Grammatical Summary*
adapted from Kavadi & Southworth’s Spoken Marathi, with
additions from Berntsen & Nimbkar’s Marathi Ref. Grammar etc
1. A typical Marathi sentence of the simplest type consists of a subject,
object or complement, and verb, in that order (subject first, verb last);
additional elements are added as needed. Simple sentences can be
modified by addition of adverbs and postpositional phrases (sect 5),
or
addition of particles, such as ka, etc. More complex sentence types are
built up by joining simple sentences together, with or without
conjunctions (sect 6), or with various verbal forms (sect 3.3).
1.1. Sentences containing auxiliaries. An ‘auxiliary’ is the most primitive
verb. The principal auxiliaries are ahe, nahi (sect 2.1), hote, nahwte (sect
2.11), aste, naste, asel, nasel (sect 2.2), etc. All express variations of the
concept of ‘is’ or ‘isn’t’ in different tenses or moods. The ‘nominal’ in the
patterns below is a noun, or a pronoun, or a noun/pronoun plus
modifying adjective or adjective phrase.
78

A. Nominal
te phal
amba

Nominal
amba
wait phal

Auxiliary
ahe
‘That fruit is a mango’
naste
‘Mango isn’t a bad fruit’

B. Nominal
te ambe
ha amba

Adjective
changle
changla

Auxiliary
ahet
‘Those mangos are good’
nahi
‘This mango isn’t good’

C. Nominal
tumcha amba
te jhad

Modifier
jhadawar
kuthe

Auxiliary
ahe
‘Your mango is on a tree’
ahe?
‘Where is that tree?’

D. Nominal + -la* Nominal
tyala
don mulge
mala
kahi ambe
*plural: -na

Auxiliary
ahet
‘He has two sons’
nahit
‘I haven’t any mangos’

Possession: form D is used to indicate possession or relationship. Other
forms for indicating possession include: a possessive adjective (he shet
sagle tujhech ahe ‘This field is all yours’; see 4.2) or a noun plus
possessive -che (kasawache sundar hirwe kawach ‘the turtle’s beautiful
green shell’; see 4.331) or certain post-positions (Tumchyakade mala
denyasathi kahi ahe ka? “Do you have anything to give me?’; see 5.4).
1.2. Sentences containing verbs. Transitive verbs take an object (that is,
the verbal action must be done on something); intransitive verbs do not.
Transitive (T), intransitive (I), semi-transitive (S), and reversed (R)
verbs each occur in characteristic sentence types. The first nominal is
always the subject, the others are objects (exception: R-verbs reversed).
1.21. Intransitive (I) verbs (no object; verb-ending agrees with subject):
Nominal
tu
mi
majha pramukh

I Verb
yeshil
gelo nahi
ala

‘You will come’
‘I didn’t go’
‘My leader came’

1.22. Reversed (R) verbs (awad-, dis-, janaw-, kal-, lag-, mil-, nako,
pahije, samaj-, sapad-, wat-, etc). These require a first nominal with
suffix -la (plural: -na); thus, sentences with these verbs normally begin
with ‘mala’ instead of ‘mi’, ‘tumhala’ instead of ‘tumhi’, ‘tya manasala’
instead of ‘to manus’, etc (the reverse of its English translation). The
verb ending agrees with the second nominal (the actual “subject” of the
Marathi sentence) when possible, or it is neuter:
79

Nominal + -la* Nominal
tyãna
aple bhaksh
mala
bhiti
*plural: -na

R Verbs
sapadle
‘They found their food’
watat nahi ‘I don’t feel afraid’

1.221. Pahije and nako (respectful plural form: naka) are relatively
invariable. Mala pahije means “I want”; mala nako means “I don’t want”;
see sect 3.153 for nako used as the negative imperative (“don’t do it”).
Pahije following a verb in past tense indicates “must be done”.
jar paise pahije tar mala wika
‘If you want money then sell me’
mhatarila kahi mase nako
‘The old lady doesn’t want any fish’
te jhad sapadle pahije
‘That tree must be found’
saglya kutryãna marle pahije ka?
‘Must all the dogs be killed?’
1.23. Transitive (T) verbs take an object (some verbs may take 2 objects).
1.231. With one object:
Nominal
to
amhi

Nominal (+ -la)*
kam
tyala

T Verb
karit nahi ‘He isn’t working’
anu
‘We’ll bring him’

* Animate nominals (esp. human) in this position have the suffix -la (plural -na).

1.232. With two objects:
Nominal Nominal + -la Nominal T Verb
mi
tumhala
don ambe dein
‘I’ll give you 2 mangos’
amhi
tyala
ek amba anu
‘We’ll bring him a mango’
1.233. Transitive (T) verbs in the perfect have the first nominal in the
agent form (sect. 4.2); their endings agree with the object. Semitransitive (S) verbs (bhet-, bol-, mhan-, pi-, shik-) take objects just like Tverbs; however, they do not have the first nominal in the agent form, and
their endings agree with the subject (as with I-verbs).
A. Nominal (+ -ne)* Nominal (+ -la)** T/S verb
tyane
pani
anle (T)
to
mala
bhetla (S)

‘He brought water’
‘He met me’

B. Nominal(+ -ne)* Nominal + -la Nominal T verb
tyane
mala
pani
dile
‘He gave me water’
mi
tyala
hakigat sangitle ‘I reported to him’
80

* Mi, tu, amhi, apan, & tumhi do not take -ne/-ni in the agent form.
**Animate nominals (esp human) in this position have the suffix -la (plural: -na)

1.24. Transitive verbs are formed from intransitive verbs by adding -aw
to the base: bhasne ‘to seem’, bhasawne ‘to pretend’ (i.e., make it seem).
1.25. Causative (“double-transitive”) verbs are formed from transitive
verbs in the same way, to indicate actions done through external agency:
anne, ‘to bring’, anawne, ‘to cause to bring (have brought)’.
rajane rajwadyatle kutre tyanchyasamor anawayla sangitle
‘The King told to have the palace-dogs brought before them’
1.26. Passive constructions are used when the agent is to be unstressed;
these commonly employ a verb in past tense followed by a form of jane:
doshi kutre suttil, ani nirdoshi kutre marle jatil
‘The guilty dogs will escape, and the innocent dogs will be killed’
2. Auxiliaries: these were defined in 1.1, and further exemplified in 3.2.
2.1. Forms of ahe and nahi (I am/am not) used in present tense:
1s
2s
3s
1pl
2pl
3pl

mi ahe (nahi)
tu ahes (nahis)
to, ti, te ahe (nahi)
amhi/apan ahot (nahi)
tumhi ahat (nahi)
te, tya, ti ahet (nahit)

I am (I am not)
you are (you are not)
he, she, it is (he, she, it is not)
we are (we are not)
you are (you are not)
they are (they are not)

2.11. The simple past tense of auxiliaries ahe and nahi is ho- and nahw(was/wasn’t); they use the regular perfect I-verb endings (see 3.121):
1s mi
2s tu
3s to, ti, te

hoto/hote* (nahwto/nahwte*)
I was (I wasn’t),
hotas/hotis* (nahwtas/nahwtis*)
etc.
hota, hoti, hote (nahwta, nahwti, nahwte)

1pl amhi/apan hoto (nahwto)
2pl tumhi
hota (nahwta)
3pl te, tya, ti
hote, hotya, hoti (nahwte, nahwtya, nahwti)
*Masc/Fem

2.2. as- and nas- occur in sentences like ahe and nahi, but can have full
verbal suffixes. Some of the examples below may accompany participles
(see 3.21). Some forms not given in this section may be found in sect. 3.3.
81

2.21. Present habitual (as- and nas- with simple present endings): refers
to habitual conditions or general truths; see endings in sect. 3.11:
tithe hawa nirmal ahe, suryakirane tejaswi astat
‘There the air is clean, the sunrays are bright’
to khallyanantar chochit motha ghas gheun udun jat asto
‘After eating he takes a large mouthful in his beak and flies away’
phakta talwarine tumche rajya challat naste, te prem karnyat aste.
‘Your reign doesn’t just go by the sword; it’s in loving’
2.22. Perfect (only in conditional sentences); see endings in sect. 3.12:
rajala sanshayat asla tari tyane aplya thawyachi ichchha manli
‘(Although) the king was in doubt, still yet he obeyed his flock’s desire’
2.23. Future: may be used to indicate simple futurity; also used in
conditional statements, or to mean ‘should/would be’ (likelihood), etc; see
future endings in sect. 3.13:
tujhya aiwadilãkade udun ja, te tujhi wat pahat astil
‘Fly away to your parents, they will be waiting for you’
ani jewha kuni bhukela asel, tewha tyala khayla dene
‘And when anyone would be hungry, then to give him (food) to eat’
to udya ghari asel
‘He’ll (probably) be at home tomorrow’
to ata ghari asel
‘He must be at home now’
2.3. In hypothetical conditional constructions (postulate a hypothetical
situation in the past: if x had/hadn’t happened, then y would/wouldn’t
have happened); auxiliary as- and nas- (with present tense-marker -t-)
take the same perfect endings as the verbs to which they are auxiliary.
jar te tithe gele aste tar pakshyãna bhiti watli asti
‘If they were to go there then the birds would feel frightened’
jar tyane tumhala sodle naste,
tar tyala kadachit khup paise milale aste
‘If he hadn’t let you go, then perhaps he’d have got much money’
3. Verbs. Verbal forms consist of verb stems followed by various suff-ixes;
thus the form jato consists of the stem ja- followed by suffix -to, etc.
Irregular verbs have different stems in the past tense; certain morphophonemic modifications may occur when stems & suffixes combine (3.4).
3.1. Verbal suffixes of simple sentences.
82

3.11. Present habitual (the simple present): regular or habitual actions
which may or may not be occurring at the moment of speaking. This
consists of the stem with the present tense-marker -t- plus the endings
below. For the neg. of these: substitute the participle & nahi (see 3.221).
1s mi
2s tu
3s to, ti, te
1pl amhi/apan
2pl tumhi/apan
3pl te, tya, ti

Masc.
jato
jatos
jato,

Fem.
jate
jates
jate,

Neut.

jatat,

jatat

‘I go’
etc
jate

jato
jata
jatat,

3.12. Perfect (the simple past) consists of the stem with the past tensemarker -l- plus an appropriate ending. For the negative: add nahi, etc.
3.121. I and S verbs; the endings agree with the subject (the 3rd Person
uses adjective endings agreeing with the subject):
Masc.
Fem.
Neut.
1s mi
gelo
gele
‘I went’
2s tu
gelas
gelis
etc
3s to, ti, te
gela,
geli,
gele
1pl amhi/apan
2pl tumhi/apan
3pl te, tya, ti

gelo
gela
gele,

gelya,

geli

3.122. T verbs (adjective endings agree with the object when possible):
Masc.
Fem.
Neut. ‘He gave me ...
tyane mala ek amba
dila
... a mango’
tyane mala ek gadi
dili
... a car’
tyane mala ek bhande
dile
... a vessel’
tyane mala don ambe
dile(t)*
... 2 mangos’
tyane mala don gadya
dilya(t)*
... 2 cars’
tyane mala don bhandi
dili(t)*
... 2 vessels’
*with plural objects: -t may be added to the verb ending
The subject takes the agent form -ne (plural: ni). When there’s only one
object in la-form, the verb always has the neuter singular ending:
mi tyala wicharle
tyane mala wicharle

‘I asked him’
‘He asked me’, etc
83

Whenever tu is the subject, -s is usually added onto the verb ending:
tu tujhya lokãsathi tujha jiw dilas ‘You gave your life for your people’
3.123. Past aych-habitual (‘used to’) uses the Perfect verb endings:
khup sase maidanãwar ani aranyãmadhe dhawayche
‘Many rabbits used to run on fields and in forests’
jar ekhade phal alech, tar wanar te todun takayche
‘If any fruit did come, then the monkeys would pluck it off’
to guni sasa tyachya mitrãshi bolaycha
‘The virtuous rabbit would speak with his friends’
te char mitra ekmekãna bhetayche ani gappa marayche
‘The four friends would meet one another and gossip’
3.13. Future (non-immediate/indefinite: the actual time of the action may
be imminent, but it isn’t felt as immediate or definite). This form has no
corresponding negative: use prospective -nar plus nahi (see 3.14).
Endings after a vowel (or vowel plus -h), and with most T verbs:
1s
2s
3s
1pl
2pl
3pl

mi
tu
to, ti, te
amhi/apan
tumhi/apan
te, tya, ti

(kar)-in
(kar)-shil
(kar)-il
(kar)-u
(kar)-al
(kar)-til

rahin
rahshil
rahil
rahu
rahal
rahtil

jain
jashil
jail
jau
jal
jatil

etc

With some verbs, 1st & 3rd person Sing. endings differ (e instead of i):
1s mi
3s to, ti, te

(sang)-en shaken
(sang)-el shakel

asen/nasen
asel/nasel

etc

3.14. Future using -nar (the immediate/definite prospective: “going to”):
suffix -nar is added to the stem (generally with auxiliary; see also 3.26):
mi tumhala wachawnar ahe
‘I am going to save you’
te gharaparyant udu shaknar nahit
‘They won’t be able to fly all the way home’
3.15. Command forms (“Imperative”).
3.151. Informal command form (used with people addressed as tu); for
most verbs (exceptions: raha and paha are used both for informal &
formal command) this is the bare stem of the verb, e.g, an, ja, kar, ye, etc.
84

mala sang, tu kon ahes, te tujhe kon ahet?
‘Tell me, who are you, who are they of yours?’
amchyabarobar ghari ye, mitra kasawa
‘Come home with us, friend tortoise’
hi kathi tujhya tondamadhe dhar
‘Hold this stick in your mouth’
3.152. Formal command form (for people addressed as tumhi or apan),
formed by adding -a to the stem (see 3.41 for stem-modifications).
ghabaru naka, pan jase mi sangto, tumhi tase kara
‘Don’t be frightened, but do like I say’
mala sanga, te kuthun padle?
‘Tell me, from where did it fall?’
3.153. The negative imperative is formed by adding -u to the stem plus
nako (milder form: naye ‘shouldn’t’); the respectful/plural form is naka.
kalji ghya, eksuddha phal nadimadhe padu deu naka
‘Take care, don’t let even one fruit fall in the river’
he sajjan lokãno, amchya janyamule shok karu naka
‘Hey good people, don’t grieve because of our going’
3.154. Inclusive imperative (‘let’s do it’): add -u to the stem plus ya.
udya apan upas karu ya,
‘Tomorrow let's fast’
ani tya diwashi bhaksh garib lokãna deu ya
‘And on that day let's give food to poor folk’
3.16. Request/instruction form: add -u to the stem, with an interrogative.
mi majhe bhaksh shodhu ka?
mi majhe bhaksh kuthe shodhu?

‘May I seek my food?’
‘Where may I seek my food?’

3.2. Combinations of verb plus auxiliary in simple sentences.
3.21. Participle ‘-ing’ (the stem with -t or -at, or less common optional -it)
with auxiliary. Various forms are given below with various auxiliaries.
The suffixes are:
(a) -t after a vowel (jat, khat, yet, ghet, pit, etc).
(b) -at or -it with all other verbs (bolat, karit, etc).
3.211. Present continuous.
to
to

jat ahe
jat nahi

‘He’s going’
‘He’s not going’, etc
85

3.212. Generalized present.
to
to

jat asto
jat nasto

‘He goes’ (generally)
‘He doesn’t go’, etc

3.213. Past continuous.
to
to

jat hota
jat nahwta

‘He was going’
‘He wasn’t going’, etc

3.214. Probable present.
to
to

jat asel
jat nasel

‘He probably goes, he’s prob. going’
‘He probably isn’t going’, etc

3.22. Present perfect (perfect plus ahe; for negative, nahi, etc). Given this
way here for clarity, they’re often elided in speech:
mi alo (ale)* ahe
mi alo (ale)* nahi

‘I’ve come’
‘I haven’t come’, etc

*parentheses: Fem.

3.23. Past perfect (perfect plus hote; for negative, nahwte, etc): Given this
way here for clarity, they’re often elided in speech:
mi gelo hoto (gele hote)*
mi gelo nahwto (gele nahwte)

‘I had gone’
‘I hadn’t gone’, etc

*parentheses: Fem.

3.24. Pluperfect can be made from the Perfect (or Past Perfect) by
substituting -lel- for -l-, with the same ending (and auxiliary); this
indicates that the action was relatively further back in the past:
tyachya pathit chamak nighali, karan tyachi path modleli hoti
‘A shooting pain came out in his back, because his back had broken’
eka madkyamadhe dahi, dorichya don tokala bandhlele hote
‘A pot containing curds, (it) had been tied to the 2 ends of a rope’
3.25. Probable perfect:
to gela asel
to gela nasel

‘He’s probably gone, he prob. went’
‘He prob. didn’t go’, etc

3.26. Simple future using -nar:
mi janar ahe
mi janar nahi

‘I’m going to go’
‘I’m not going to go’, etc
86

3.27. Past future:
mi janar hoto (hote)*
mi janar nahwto (nahwte)

‘I was going to go’
‘I wasn’t going to go’, etc

*parentheses: Fem.

3.28. Probable future:
to janar asel
to janar nasel

‘He’ll probably go’
‘He prob. won’t go’, etc

3.3. Suffixes added to the verb stem are used to form complex sentences:
they are either invariable (-ayla, -t, -u, -un, -ta, -tana, -ne, -nya-, -lya-); or
else they have variable adjective endings (-ayche, -awe, -nare, -lele).
Note the rule with multiple verbs: the form of the verb-combination is
determined by the last verb, whether it is transitive or intransitive, etc.
3.31. Invariable suffixes.
3.311. -ayla (formal variant: -nyas) indicates ‘to’ or ‘in order to’, used to
complement many adjectives, some nouns, & some verbs. See examples:
Brahmdatt prawas karit Himgirila, jhad shodhayla nighala
‘Brahmadatta journeying to the Himalayas, set out to seek the tree’
dusre jhad udi marayla jast dur ahe
‘Another tree is too far away to jump (to)’
tyapudhe raja thode ani nemke bolayla shikla
‘Thenceforward the King learned to speak briefly and opportunely’
ani jewha kuni bhukela asel, tewha tyala (khane) khayla dene
‘And when anyone would be hungry, then to give him (food) to eat’
tyala dyayla majhyakade na bhat na shenga ahet
‘I have neither rice nor peanuts to give him’
tyane jahaj tayar karayla (karnyas) adnya keli
‘He ordered a ship to be prepared’
3.312. The participle may form the first component in a compound verb.
Following it by another verb serves to complement the participial howstatement; following by rah- may indicate continuation (‘keep doing it’).
Special forms: participle plus imperative ja (karit ja ‘go on doing’); participle of verbs signifying completion plus ale (sampat ale ‘nearly done’),
but note the example below uses a pluperfect adjectival: see 3.324.
to rajwadyakade palat gela
‘He went running to the palace’
te kutre lapat anganat gele ‘The dogs hiding-went into the courtyard’
te thartharat rajala sangayla gele ‘They went trembling to tell the King’
87

ti phale khat te tya adbhut jhadachya sawalit rahile
‘Eating the fruits they lived in that marvelous tree’s shade’
te don pakshi kasawala udat gheun challe hote
‘The two birds had set out to take the tortoise flying’
ratrabhar te tase khelat rahile ‘All night like that they kept on playing’
Brahmdatt tya phalakade pahat rahila ‘B. kept on looking at the fruit’
darroj tu shetat parat yet ja
‘Every day go on returning to the field’
to marat alela pramukh
‘The dying (nearly having died) chief’
3.313. -u (a suffix for combining the first verb with certain 2nd verbs):
dene (‘let/allow to’), nako (‘don’t’), lagne (‘begin to’), shakne (‘be able to’).
dwarpal ashcharyane baghat rahila, ani tyala at jau dile.
‘The doorkeeper remained looking with surprise, and let him go in’
jhadala gheraw ghala, ani ekahi wanarala tithun jau deu naka
‘Blockade the tree, and don’t let even one monkey go from there’
te mothyane radu lagle
‘They began to weep loudly’
tu tujhe tond band karu shaktos ka?
‘Can you shut your mouth?’
3.314. -un (sequential conjunction): Verb with suffix -un followed by
another verb means “after doing the action denoted by the first verb”
(the sequence may be one of cause-effect: kripa karun ‘do a favor & ...’).
Various idioms using this form are in the glossary: gheun yene ‘to bring’;
gheun jane: ‘to take away’, nemun dene ‘to assign’ etc; compare next sect.
tu majhya shetat tujhi choch danyãni bharun udun jatos
‘After filling your beak with grains in my field you fly away’
tyala jhadakhali anun sharbat dya
‘After carrying him under the tree give (him) sherbet’
chakit houn tyane te pakadun rajala dakhawle
‘Becoming dazzled, he after grabbing it showed it to the King’
mi garib asun, bhukeli ahe, ani thakleli ahe.
‘I being poor, I’m hungry and I’m weary’
3.3141. -un (in various compound-verb idioms): followed by tak- (‘do it &
toss it’) emphasizes the completeness of the first verb’s action; followed
by thew- indicates maintenance of its action; followed by rah- indicates
continuation of its action; followed by de- indicates action directed towards others; followed by ghe- indicates action directed towards oneself.
shaharatlya saglya kutryãna marun taka
‘Kill off all the city-dogs’
te kutre anganat gele, ani tyãni te patte chawun takle
‘The dogs went into the courtyard, and they chewed up the straps’
88

darroj mi majhe ek kartawya karto, tyacha satha mi jamawun thewto
‘I do my duty every day, a store of it I hoard away (keep collected)’
tyachya lapun rahnyachya jagetun ‘From his place of staying hidden’
mi tumhala dakhawun dein
‘I’ll give you a demonstration’
sashachya mitrãni tyache bolne aikun ghetle
‘The rabbit's friends listened to his talk’
3.315. -ta plus a form of yene (in neuter sing.) means ‘able/unable to do’;
the subject is in la-form (reverse construction: “the doing comes to me”):
majhe aiwadil mhatare ahet, ani tyãna udta yet nahi
‘My parents are old, and they are unable to fly’
kasawala bolnyashiway rahta ale nahi
‘The tortoise couldn’t remain without speaking’
3.316. -tana indicates the simultaneity of the action of the suffixed verb
with the action of the main verb (‘while being/doing something’):
popat utartana tyacha chhota pay adakla
‘While the parrot was landing his little foot was caught’
te phal Waranasi jawalun tarangat jatana, raja anghol karit hota
‘While the fruit was floating past Benares, the King was bathing’
dusra hans phasat adaklela nastana, ithe ka thambla?
‘While not-being caught in a snare, why’d the other goose wait here?’
3.317. -ne (the “infinitive”: ‘to do’ or ‘doing’) is the neuter verbal noun:
majhe marne tumchyasathi ek dhada hoil, tar mala anand watel
‘(If) my dying becomes a lesson for you, then I’ll feel happy’
shaharatle kutre rajwadyachya anganat jane shakya nahi
‘City-dogs coming into the palace courtyard isn’t possible’
majhe kartawya mhanje roj tyãna dane dene
‘My duty is daily to give them grains’
3.3171. -nya (the verbal noun with oblique ending) plus postposition:
he jag sodun janyat mala duhakh hot nahi
‘In abandoning this world, I feel no regret’
to tyache tond ughadnyashiway bolu shakat nahwta
‘He was unable to speak without opening his mouth’
ratrabhar te khelat rahile, ani pahat honyapurwi te nighun gele
‘All night they kept on playing, and before dawn they departed’
89

3.318. -lya (past tense of -nya) oblique plus postposition. Note use with
the simple possessive -lyache (“of having been”) in the last example.
ratra jhalyawar to rajwadyat parat ala
‘On it having become night (at nightfall), he returned to the palace’
te walut lapawlyanantar, to nadiwar parat gela
‘After having hidden them in the sand, he returned to the river’
uttar na milalyamule tyane mas tyachya tondat dharle
‘Because an answer was not-gotten he held the meat in his mouth’
jar ata mi oradlo tar majhe hans khallyashiway palun jatil
‘If I yelled now then my geese would flee without having eaten’
tyane khat aslyache bhasawle ‘He made pretence of having been eating’
3.319. -i or -e (uses future ending-vowel, as in sect. 3.13) plus paryant,
means “until it (might) happen” or “as long as it (might be) happening”:
tyane hansãche khane sampeparyant khat aslyache bhasawle
‘Until the geese’s eating (might) be done, he pretended to be eating’
jiwat jiw aseparyant tu majhya athawnit rahashil
‘As long as I am alive, you’ll remain in my memory’
3.32. Variable suffixes (agree with the object; otherwise neuter sing).
3.321. “Needful” -ayche (the subject is in agent ne-form, or object la-form
like an R-verb; often with auxiliary) means ‘it is (wanting or needing) to
be done’; with the negative auxiliary, it means ‘it shouldn’t be done’:
phakta rajwadyatle kutre jiwant rahu dyayche!
‘Only the palace-dogs are to be allowed to remain alive!’
jyala mala pakadayche hote, to tuch ahes
‘The one whom I was (needing) to catch, it is you’
mi hawetun udat jayche ki nahi…
‘(Whether) I’m (wanting) to go flying thru the air or not…’
3.322.(1) Desiderative -awe expresses mild obligation (‘would/should do’);
(2) Subjunctive -awe (with I-verbs or the auxiliary) indicates probability
(‘it must probably be’). These 2 meanings are differentiated in context.
Adjective endings are attached to -aw-; these agree with the object or
subject as appropriate, similarly to Perfect tense, otherwise use neuter
sing. (-ne may be added to the nominal). The negative desiderative (‘it
shouldn’t occur’) consists of the verb with suffix -u plus naye (this is
similar to the neg. imperative: see sect. 3.153). Adding a form of lagne
(this is an R-verb) after -awe expresses strong obligation or necessity (‘to
be required/forced to do’).
90

tyane dusrya lokãna tyacha dnyanacha khajina thodase dyawa
‘He should just a little give to others his treasure-store of wisdom’
tyachi athawn rahawi mhanun ek dewalay bandhle
‘His remembrance should remain, therefore (they) built a temple’
to popat pakadun ana, pan to jiwant asawa
‘After catching bring the parrot, but he should be alive’
te nadit padle asawe ani ikde tarangat ale
‘It must (prob.) have fallen in the river, and came floating here’
te kutryãche kam asawe, karan te patte te chawat hote
‘It must (prob.) be dogs’ work, because they were chewing the straps’
aplyala ithun palun jawe lagel
‘We will have to flee from here’
3.323. -nare (“the one doing/being’) converts the verbal nominative to an
adjective, in turn modifying a noun (the noun itself may sometimes be
omitted: aranyatla rahnara ‘forest-dweller’):
chandrawar disnara sasa
‘The rabbit (being) seen on the moon’
ani jithe budbudnare pani dagadãmadhun jat hote
‘And where bubbling water was going through the rocks’
tyane kahi nadijawalchya lakud todnarya lokãna bolawle
‘He summoned some wood-cutting folk near the river’
sashane anandane tya chamaknarya agit udi marli
‘The rabbit jumped into the glowing fire with joy’
Sumukh aplya rajala pakadnarya pardhyajawal udat yeun mhanala
‘Sumukh after coming flying near his king-capturing hunter said’
ghandat aranyatlya rahnarya, mi majhe bhaksh kuthe shodhu?
‘Dweller in the very dense forest, where may I seek my food?’
3.324. -lele is a pluperfect (it means: ‘having done’) used as an adjective:
ek piklele phal
‘A ripe (having ripened) fruit’
tyachi saha ghodyãni odhleli gadi
‘His six horses-drawn chariot’
shaharãni gajbajlelya daryakade ‘Towards the cities-crowded valley’
don kolyãni dharlelya jalyãmadhe ‘Between two fishermen-held nets’
tyane tya wanarãchya marat alelya pramukhakade baghitle
‘He watched the monkeys’ dying (nearly having died) chief’
tya diwashi sapadlele bhaksh bhetlelya garib lokãna deu ya
‘Let's give food found on that day to poor people we’ve met’
Gangechya kathi aslelya Waranasi hya shaharakade gele
‘(It) went towards this city Benares being on the bank of the Ganges’

91

3.4. Modifications. Some verb-stems undergo certain morphophonemic
changes when followed by suffixes beginning with a. The unchanged
form of the stem is the base of the infinitive (the glossary citation form).
3.41. Changes of stems preceding suffixes beginning with ‘a’:
(a) Stems ending in -a:
kha kha, khal, khayla, khayche, khawe.
ja
ja, jal, jayla, jayche, jawe.
(b) Stems ending in -ah (these can vary):
pah paha, pahal, pahayla, pahayche, pahawe.
rah raha, rahal, rahayla, rahayche, rahawe.
(c) Stems ending in -e or -i:
de
dya, dyal, dyayla, dyayche, dyawe.
ghe ghya, ghyal, ghyayla, ghyayche, ghyawe.
ne nya, nyal, nyayla, nyayche, nyawe.
pi
pya, pyal, pyayla, pyayche, pyawe.
ye
ya, yal, yayla, yayche, yawe.
(d) Stems ending in -u or -o (these are unique):
dhu dhuwa, dhuwal, dhuwayla, dhuwayche, dhuwawe.
ho hwa, hwal, hwayla, hwayche, hwawe.
3.42. Irregular verbs have special forms with -le (and -lele) suffix:
bagh- (baghitle); bhi- (bhyayle); de- (dile); dhu- (dhutle),
ghal- (ghatle); ghe- (ghetle); ho- (jhale); ja- (gele); kar- (kele);
kha- (khalle); mag- (magitle); mar- (mele); mhan- (mhanale);
mil- (milale); nigh- (nighale); pah- (pahile); pal- (palale); pi(pyayle); poh- (pohole); rah- (rahile); sang- (sangitle); ud- (udale);
wah- (wahile); ye- (ale).
4. Nominals. A nominal (see sentence formulas in sect. 1) consists of
either a noun (4.1), a pronoun (4.2), or an adjectival (4.3) plus a noun.
4.1. Nouns. Most nouns occur in a straight singular form, a straight
plural form, and an oblique form (the formative form, which occurs before
postpositions, and the various suffixes: agent -ne, object -la, and
possessive -che). Nouns referring to a male person or creature are
masculine (M), and to a female person or creature are feminine (F). Some
word-genders can vary with context (e.g., wanar). Nouns referring to
sexless objects may be of any grammatical gender; but if the gender isn’t
known, one may pragmatically treat sexless objects as if neuter (N).
92

Certain words are only used in plural (e.g., lok & wadil); certain words
are only used in singular (e.g., pani & laksh). An adjective may be used
as a noun when understood from context (e.g., dusryãsathi ‘for others’).
Vocative: a special form for addressing someone (not used with names
or titles). The vocative singular is the bare oblique; the plural adds -no
(he mitra sasha! ‘Hey friend rabbit!’; chhotya mitrãno! ‘Little friends!’).
4.11. Masculine nouns. The forms are given below (with exceptions).
Note the morphophonemic rules, exemplified here (asterisks); these rules
apply to all parts of speech when endings or suffixes are added (cf 3.41):
Singular

Plural

Oblique

1. Ending in -a
amba
sasa

-a  -e
ambe
sase

-a  -yaambyache
sashache*

2. All others:
bhau
dari

no change
bhau
dari

add -abhawala**
daryatun***

Exceptions:
(a) manus (M Sing.)  manasa (N in Plural) and manasala (Obl.)
(b) mulga (Sing.)  mule (Plural) and mulala (Obl.)
(c) titles, names and many imports are invariable (eg, raja)
* -s-  sh- when -i or -ya is added
**final -u/-o  -w- when -a- is added
***final -i/-e  -y- when -a- is added
4.12. Feminine nouns.
Singular Forms
Straight
Oblique

Plural Form
Straight/Oblique

1. Ending in -i
nadi
gadi

no change
nadimadhe
gadiche

-i  -yanadya
gadyãche

2. Ending in -a
adnya
hawa

-a  -eadnyet
hawet

no change
adnya
hawa
93

3. Fi-type
path
talwar

add -i
pathiwar
talwarine

add -i
pathi
talwari

4. Fe-type
man
wat

add -e
manebhowti
watela

add -a
mana
wata

Plural

Oblique

1. Ending in -e
jale
chamade

-e  -i
jali
chamadi

-e  -yajalyat
chamadyache

2. Ending in -u
pillu

-u  -e
pille

-u  -a
pillala

3. Others:
man
jhad

add -e
mane
jhade

add -amanat
jhadawar

4.13. Neuter nouns.
Singular

4.2. Pronouns. Following are the principal forms of pronouns:
Straight form
mi ‘I’
tu ‘you’ Sing.**
to (M) ‘he, that’
ti (F) ‘she, that’
te (N) ‘it, that’
amhi ‘we’ exclusive
apan ‘we’ inclusive
tumhi ‘you’ Plural
te (M), tya (F), ti (N)
‘they, those’
ha (M/N) ‘he/it, this’
hi (F) ‘she, this’
he (M) hya (F) hi (N)
‘they, these’
jo (M), je (N)
ji (F) ‘the one who’
je (M), jya (F), ji (N)
‘the ones who’

Agent form

Object form

Possessive form*

mi
tu
tyane
tine
tyane
amhi
apan
tumhi
tyãni

mala
tula
tyala
tila
tyala
amhala
aplyala
tumhala
tyãna

majhe
tujhe
tyache
tiche
tyache
amche
aple
tumche
tyanche

hyane
hine
hyãni

hyala
hila
hyãna

hyache
hiche
hyanche

jyane
jine
jyãni

jyala
jila
jyãna

jyache
jiche
jyanche

94

kuni ‘someone’
kon ‘who’
kase ‘what kind of’
swatha ‘oneself’

kuni
koni***
kashane
swathane

kunala
konala***
kashala
swathala

kunache
konache***
kashache
swathache

*with adjective endings: (Sing) -a, -i, -e; (Plur) -e, -ya, -i (see 4.31);
possessive-oblique form: possessive form with oblique ending -ya.
**for 2nd person singular, the familiar form is tu (used for close
friends, mother &siblings); the respectful form (most commonly used)
is the plural form tumhi; the honorific (most-respectful) form is apan.
*** kuna is the oblique of kon, so koni, konala, etc, may also be kuni, kunala, etc

4.21. The inclusive ‘we’ includes the person spoken to; the exclusive ‘we’
does not. A pronoun denoting an object may be Masc, Fem, or Neut,
according to the gender of the noun it’s replacing. But note that when
gender is unknown, one may treat all sexless object-nouns as if neuter.
4.22. Swatha is a reflexive (meaning ‘oneself’) pronoun. Aple can also be
used as a reflexive pronoun (meaning ‘one’s own’), when there’s a second
reference to the subject within a sentence. See examples:
tyane hansãche khane sampeparyant swatha khat aslyache bhasawle
‘Until the geese’s eating is done, he himself pretended to be eating’
pahate tyãni aplya bhaksh shodhnyache kam suru kele
‘In the early morning they began their food-seeking work’
tyala samajle ki ha dhada aplyasathi hota
‘He understood that this lesson was for him’
ani tya pawitra wanarane aple dole mitle ani jiw sodla
‘And the blessed monkey closed his eyes and died’
4.23. Oblique: Before postpositions and suffixes (including: -ne, -la, -che),
pronouns are in the oblique form. For pronouns referring to persons the
possessive-oblique form (the possessive form with oblique ending -ya) is
used (tyachyamage ‘behind him’); for pronouns referring to non-personal
nouns, the possessive is usually omitted (tyamage ‘after that’).
4.3. Adjectivals consist of simple adjectives or adjective phrases.
4.31. Adjectives may be invariable (jawal, lamb, dur, etc) or variable
(mothe, chhote, etc; these are all listed in the glossary with -e ending).
Invariable adjectives do not change. Variable adjectives change their
endings in order to agree with the gender of the noun or pronoun they
accompany. The following table shows the variable adjective endings:
95

Singular
Masc.
Fem.
Neut.

Plural

-a (changla amba)
-i (changli gadi)
-e (changle bhande)

-e (changle ambe)
-ya (changlya gadya)
-i (changli bhandi)

4.32. A variable adjective (or adjectives) accompanying a noun in the
oblique form always has the ending: -ya (tya manasala ‘to that man’); but
words ending with -se become -sha in the oblique (asha manasala ‘to
such a man’). The oblique of ek is eka (eka manasala ‘to one man’).
4.33. Adjective phrases are composed mainly of nominals with adjective
endings added. They can be formed from nouns/pronouns and nominal
phrases, nominals with suffixes or postpositions, and from verbals.
4.331. Adjectives may be formed from nouns by adding possessive suffix
-che; this form may be used to indicate simple possession (1st example):
hansãcha raja
phalache chaw
saglya prakarche pakshi

‘the geese’s king’ (the goose-king)
‘the taste of the fruit’
‘all kinds of birds’

4.332. Adjectives may also be formed from nouns with postpositions by
adding possessive suffix -che to the postposition. Nouns with postposition -at/-t ‘in, inside’ (or -madhe), form adjectives by adding -le; the
invariable -atil (or -madhil) can also be used, with the same effect:
tyachya cheharyawarcha bhaw
‘The feeling on his face’
sundar sarowarababatchi batmi ‘News regarding the beautiful lake’
sagle shaharatle kutre
‘All the city-dogs’
he madkyamadhle dahi
‘This curd in the pot’
shaharatil kahi mule
‘Some city-children’
4.333. Adjective phrases with the postpositions sarkhe, itke, and peksha,
and (included here for comparison) phrases using sarwat and saglyãt:
karan te tumche mulãsarkhe astat ‘Because they’re like your children’
pan jwala panya-itkya thand jhalya, ani tyala bhajle nahi
‘But the flames became as cool as water, and didn’t burn him’
ek popat saglyãpeksha sundar ahe ‘One parrot is more beautiful than all’
tyacha tandul dusrya shetãchyapeksha changla ahe
‘Its rice is more good than that of the other fields’
jhadachya sarwat unch phandiwar
‘Onto the tree’s highest branch’
saglyãt tyachya-itke sundar kuni nahwte
‘Of them all no-one was as beautiful as him’
96

4.334. Adjective phrases based on verbs with suffix -nyache (which is
thus the possessive of the verbal noun), or -ayche may be substituted:
tyala punha phalachi chaw ghenyachi ichchha jhali
‘He became desirous of again getting a taste of the fruit’
rajala ase bolnyachi saway hoti
‘The King like this had the habit of talking’
hya rajala ek changla dhada shikawnyachi sandhi ali ahe
‘An opportunity has come of teaching this King a good lesson’
rajwadyatlya kutryãna ithe anaychi adnya kara
‘Order the palace-dogs to be brought here’
5. Sentence modifiers. The principal sentence modifiers are adverbs and
postpositional phrases (postpositions are similar to English prepositions).
5.1. Invariable adverbs: udya, halu, kuthe, etc.
5.2. Variable adverbs:
to bambu titka lamb nahwta
‘The bamboo wasn’t that very long’
tyapudhe raja thode ani nemke bolayla shikla
‘Thenceforward the King learned to speak briefly and opportunely’
hi khari ag nahwti, nusti pariksha ghenyasathi petawli hoti
‘This wasn’t real fire, it had been lit only for putting to the test’
5.3. Postpositional phrases consist of a nominal in suitable form, which
is followed by a postposition (similar to the English preposition, but it
follows rather than precedes), or a suffix. The nominal may be either:
(a) a pronoun: tyachya mage, amchyajawal, etc
(b) a noun: daryat, rastyãwarun, etc
(c) a nominal phrase: tya diwashi, aplya daryat, etc
5.31. A noun followed by a postposition or suffix is in the oblique form
(see 7, regarding nasalization used to indicate plurality for nouns and
pronouns followed by postpositions), except for the following cases:
5.311. The locative suffix -i (‘in/at’) follows the straight form of the noun.
ghari ‘in/at home’; kshani ‘in/at the moment’; thikani/jagi ‘at the place’;
sakali ‘in the morning’; sandhyakali ‘in the evening’; ratri ‘at night’;
tya diwashi ‘on that day’; tyaweli ‘at the time’; pahate, ‘at dawn’; etc.

97

5.312. A noun followed by some postpositions may use possessive-oblique
suffix -chya (eka minitachya at ‘within 1 minute’, although the simple
oblique form is much more commonly used (eka minitat ‘in a minute’).
5.32. Pronouns referring to persons are usually in possessive-oblique
form when followed by a postposition: majhyabarobar ‘with me’, etc.
Pronouns referring to inanimate objects are often in the simple oblique
form, or they may use the more emphatic possessive-oblique form:
tyatun, tyachyatun
tyawar, tyachyawar

‘out from it’
‘on/at that’, etc

5.4. The concept of possession of object(s) may be indicated with certain
postpositions (see also 1.1); the noun or pronoun in suitable form is used
with one of the following postpositions: -kade, -jawal, or -pashi.
tumchyakade mala denyasathi kahi ahe ka?
‘Do you have (is there belonging to you) anything for giving me?’
6. Conjunctions can form complex sentences by joining two or more
simple sentences together in various ways.
6.1. Simple conjunctions: ani, karan, mag, mhanje, mhanun, na ... na,
nahitar, pan, parantu, wa, etc. Examples of ‘na ... na’, and mhanun “as”:
majhyakade na bhat na shenga ahet
‘I’ve neither rice nor peanuts’
to na oradla na tyane madat magitli ‘Neither did he yell nor ask for help’
Buddh thawyacha raja mhanun Chitrakut parwatawar rahat hota
‘Buddha as the flock’s king was living on Chitrakut Mountain’
6.2. Paired conjunctions used in relative constructions. Often the first
element is omitted: eg, the first example could omit jar if the meaning is
still clear (compare the second example). In conditional constructions
(in which the first clause is a condition of the second; see also sect. 2.3),
both verbs may be put into future tense (indicating ‘likelihood’), or more
commonly, the first verb is put into past tense (note first two examples):
jar ... tar ‘if ... then’
jari ... tari ‘although ... still/nevertheless’
jase ... tase ‘just as ... like that’
jitke ... titke ‘as much ... that much’
jewha ... tewha ‘when ... then’
jithe ... tithe ‘where ... there’
je ... te ‘that which ... it’
98

jar kuni ithe ale, tar mi majhya sharirache mas tyala deun taken
‘If someone came here, then I’d give away my body’s flesh to him’
majhe marne tumchyasathi ek dhada hoil, tar mala anand watel
‘(If) my dying will become a lesson for you, then I’ll feel happy’
rajala sanshay ala tari tyane aplya thawyachi ichchha manli
‘(Although) the king was doubtful, still yet he obeyed his flock’s desire’
jase mi sangto, tumhi tase kara
‘You do like I say’
ranine tyababat jitka wichar kela, tila titki khatri patli
‘As much as the Queen thought about it, she was that much certain’
jewha mi ambyachya jhadawar udi maren, tewha pul tayar hoil
‘When I jump on the mango-tree then a bridge will become ready’
ani jithe te rahile tithe Ganga nadi wahat hoti
‘And where they lived there the Ganges river was flowing’
ek phal, je panãmadhe kunala disat nahwte, te nadit padle
‘A fruit which no-one had seen among the leaves fell in the river’
je kartawya tu kartos, te kay ahe? ‘What’s the duty which you perform?’
7. Romanization & rhetoric: The post-consonantal mid-range a-sound
(called a “schwa”) which occurs at the end of words (and between
syllables) is omitted in this text, except when required for pronunciation
of consonant clusters. The ‘-e’ neuter ending in written Marathi is often
pronounced ‘-a’ in spoken Marathi. In this text both forms are indicated
by the italic ‘-e’. A tilde (~) over a vowel is employed in this text to
represent the nasalizing “anuswar” used in Marathi to indicate plurality
for nouns in the oblique (before postpositions). The English letter used to
represent anuswar nasalization (usually m or n) within word-stems
varies depending on the articulatory location (in the mouth) of the
consonant which follows (e.g., m occurs before labial consonants b and p).
7.1. Emphasis: Intervocalic consonants may be doubled for emphasis (eg,
atta ‘right now’). Emphatic particles differ from postpositions in that
they are attached to the straight form of the noun rather than to the
oblique; they may also be attached to other parts of speech.
7.11. -ch. This particle singles out and emphasizes the word to which it is
attached, sometimes with added meaning (tyach jagi ‘in the very spot’).
An English example: “ow” and “ouch!”
te jhad sapadlech pahije
‘That tree must be found’
tyachya nashibat asech aste
‘His fate is just like this’
he shet sagle tujhech ahe
‘This field is all yours’
jyala mala pakadayche hote, to tuch ahes
‘The one I was needing to catch, it is you’
99

7.12. -hi. This particle means ‘even or also’ (particles with equivalent
meanings are: -suddha & -pan), or it can intensify meaning contrast.
jhadala gheraw ghala, ani ekahi wanarala tithun jau deu naka
‘Blockade the tree, and don’t let even one monkey go from there’
mihi soneri hans ahe
‘I too am a golden goose’
mag tyane suddha chaw ghetli
‘Then he also got a taste’
to dayalu ani udarhi hota
‘He was kind and even (also) noble’
kalji ghya, eksuddha phal nadimadhe padu deu naka
‘Take care, don’t let even one fruit fall in the river’
saglya pranyãche wichar tila mahit hote, phulãche wicharsuddha
‘She knew all the creatures’ thoughts, even the flowers’ thoughts’
tyane swathapan khat aslyache bhasawle
‘He himself-also made a pretence of having been eating’
7.13. -se. This may be attached to an adjective (or adverb) to diminish or
modify its force: thodase ‘just a little, slightly’.
tyane dusrya lokãna tyacha dnyanacha khajina thodase dyawa
‘He should give just a little his treasure-store of wisdom to others’
7.2. Q-tags & Interjections: to get attention, convey a query, assent, etc.
tumhala mahit ahe ka?
‘Do you know?’ (yes/no)
he tujhe shet ahe kay?
‘This is your field, what?’
ani hay re! tyachya pathit chamak nighali
‘And alas! a shooting pain started in his back’
Wah! He phal kuthun ale? ‘Wow! where did this fruit come from?’
“Ho jarur!” tyane uttar dile.
‘Yes certainly! he answered’
He sajjan lokãno, amchya janyamule shok karu naka
‘Hey gentlefolk, don’t grieve because of our going’
Aho Maharaj, mi tyancha pramukh ani guru ahe
‘Oh Great King, I am their chief and guru’

100

तो वानर'साठी प,ल बनला

कोण1 ए3 काळी एक मोठा वानर होता, तो 7हम7गरीत ए9शी हजार वानर'चा
=म>ख होता. आिण िजB C राहत होC 7तB Dया दगड'मध,न गIगा नदी, Dया शहर'नी
गजबजJKया दयLकड1 वाहत होती.
आिण िजB ब>डब>डणाM पाणी दगड'मध,न जात होC, 7तB एक उDकOP झाड

होC. वसIत ऋत, मST Dया झाडावर कोमल प'ढरी फWJ उमलली; नIतर Dया

फWल'ची फळ1 झाली, ती फळ1 सवXDकOP होती; आिण Dया पवYतातील मध>र झ>ळ>कीZ
ती मधाइतकी गोड झाली.

7कती स>खाZ C वानर रा7हJ! ती फळ1 खात C Dया अ^_त झाडा`या
सावलीत रा7हJ. Dया झाडा`या एका बाज,ला, Dया फ'aा नदीवर पसरKया होDया.
bहण,न Dया फ'a'वर फWJ आKयावर, वानर ती नाहीशी करायची. आिण जर
एखाc फळ आJच, तर वानर C तोड,न टाकायe. C तf करायe कारण Dय'`या
=म>खाZ Dय'ना तशी आgा 3ली होती: "काळजी iया, एकस>jा फळ नदीमध1 पड,
cऊ नका. नाहीतर नदी C शहर'कड1 Zईल, आिण माणस'ना C सापड1ल, Dयावmन
C आपKया झाडाचा शोध घ1तील. C नदी`या मागLZ इकड1 Tतील, आिण Dय'ना
आपJ झाड सापड1ल. C आपKया झाडाची सगळी फळ1 Dय'`याकड1 Zतील, आिण
आपKयाला इथ,न पळ,न जाp लाqल."
Dया वानर'नी Dयाe बोलण1 मानJ आिण ख,प काळ एकही फळ नदीमध1 पडJ
नाही. पण rवटी एक 7पकJJ फळ, s पान'मध1 कWणाला 7दसत नtहC, C नदीत
पडJ, आिण खडकाळ दयLत,न गIq`या काठी असJKया वाराणसी या मोठuा शहराकड1 तरIगत qJ. आिण Dया 7दवशी, C फळ वाराणसी जवळ,न तरIगत जाताना,
राजा vwदx नदीत आIघोळ करीत होता. तो दोन कोyय'नी धरJKया जाyय'मध1
पोहत होता, आिण स,यY7करण'शी zळत होता. Dयावळी C फळ एका जाyयात
तरIगत qJ.
एका कोyयाZ C पा7हJ आिण तो bहणाला, "वाः! | फळ कWठ,न आJ? अशी
फळ1 कWठ1 आ|त?" आिण च7कत होऊन DयाZ C फळ पकड,न राजाला दाखवJ.
vwदx Dया फळाकड1 पाहत रा7हला आिण Dया`या स~दयLम>ळ1 आ•यLत पडला.
"या फळाe झाड कWठ1 सापड, श3ल?" अf राजा`या मनात आJ. bहण,न DयाZ काही
नदीजवळ`या लाक€ड तोडणायL लोक'ना बोलवJ आिण Dय'ना 7वचारJ, "| फळ
कशाe आ|? | कWठ1 सापड, शकC, त>bहाला माहीत आ| का?"
1

"महाराज, C फळ bहणs आIबा, एक नवलाईचा आIबा! अशी फळ1 आपKया दयLत
वाढत नाहीत, 7हम7गरीत वाढतात, 7तB हवा 7नमYळ आ|, स,यY7करण Cज•वी
असतात. या फळाe झाड नदीजवळ उगवJ असाp, Dयात,न C नदीत पडJ
असाp आिण इकड1 तरIगत आJ."
राजाZ Dया लोक'ना फळाची चव iयायला स'7गतली, मग DयाZ स>jा चव
घ1तली, आिण Dया`या fवक'ना C 7दJ. सगyया लोक'ना C अDयIत ‚चकर आिण
सवXDकOP वाटJ.
DयानIतर काही काळ हळ,हळ, qला, आिण vwदx अ7धक अ7धक अ•व•थ झाला,
Dयाला प>ƒहा फळाची चव घ1„याची इ`छा झाली. एका रा†ी DयाZ •व‡न'त C
मोहक झाड पा7हJ, Dया`या फ'a'वर rकडो स>Iदर व ‚चकर फळ1 होती.
ˆसयL 7दवशी राजा bहणाला, "C झाड सापडJच पा7हs," आिण मग DयाZ
जहाज तयार करायला आgा 3ली. आिण vwदx आपKया माणस'बरोबर नदीत,न
=वास करीत 7हम7गरीला, झाड शोधायला 7नघाला.
=वास ल'ब होता, पण rवटी एका सISयाकाळी तो राजा आपKया माणस'बरोबर
7हम7गरीला पोहोचला. ‰र अIतरावर, Dय'ना काय 7दसJ? 7तB चIŠ=काशात C
झाड उ‹ होC, आिण Dयाची सोZरी फळ1 पान'मध,न चमकत होती.
पण | काय! =DTक फ'दीवर काहीतरी हलत होC. काही =कार`या 7विच†
सावKया पान'मध,न 7दसत होDया?
एक माण,स bहणाला, "ती पहा, वानर'ची टोळी आ|."
"वानMस ती फळ1 खात आ|त!" राजा उŒारJ. "झाडाला घ1राव घाला, आिण
एकाही वानराला 7तथ,न जाऊ cऊ नका. सकाळी आपण Dय'ना गोyय'नी ठार माm,
आिण वानराe मास आपण आI•य'बरोबर खाऊ."
| बोलण1 वानर'`या लŽात आJ, आिण C थरथरत Dय'`या =म>खाला bहणाJ,
"|, आम`या मालका, त>bही आbहाला सावध 3J होC, परIत> एखाc फळ नदीत
पडJ असाp, bहण,न माणf इकड1 आली. Dय'नी आपKया झाडाला घ1राव घातला,
आिण आपण इथ,न जाऊ शकत नाही, कारण ˆसM झाड उडी मारायला जा•त
‰र आ|. आbही एका माणसाला अf बोलताना ऐकJ: 'सकाळी आपण Dय'ना
गोyय'नी ठार माm, आिण वानराचI मास आपण आI•य'बरोबर खाऊ.'"
"मा•या छोटuा िम†'नो, मी त>bहाला वाचवणार आ|," Dय'चा =म>ख bहणाला.
"घाबm नका, पण जf मी स'गतो, त>bही तf करा." Dयावर तो शि‘तवान =म>ख
झाडा`या सवLत उIच फ'दीवर चढला, आिण वायL`या pगाZ DयाZ ˆसयL
2

झाडावर उडी मारली, C झाड ‰र अIतरावर नदी`या ˆसयL काठावर होC. 7तकड1
DयाZ एक ल'ब ब'ब, उपटला, आिण असा 7वचार 3ला: "मी या ब'ब,e एक टोक
झाडाला ब'धतो, आिण ˆसM टोक मा•या पायाला. stहा मी परत आI•या`या
झाडावर उडी माMन, Ctहा ब'ब,चा प,ल तयार होईल; Dयावmन माझ1 वानरलोक
जाऊन स>ट, शकतील." आिण DयाZ ती टो3 तशी ब'धली, आिण आनIदाZ उडी मारली.
पण काय ˆद’व! तो ब'ब, 7ततका ल'ब नtहता आिण DयाZ ख,प कौशKयाZ Dया
झाडाची फ'दी पकडली. DयाZ Dया`या ए9शी हजार वानरलोक'ना बोलव,न स'7गतJ:
"मा•या पाठीवर जाऊन ब'ब,वर पळ,न जा आिण त>मe जीव वाचवा."
एकामाग,न एक C वानर Dया`या आIगावmन आिण ब'ब,वmन पळ,न qJ. पण
Dय'प”की एका वानराZ Dया`या पाठीवर जा•त जोराZ उडी मारली, आिण हाय M!
Dया`या पाठीत चमक 7नघाली, कारण Dयाची पाठ मोडJली होती. आिण तो •7फकीर
वानर Dया`या मागLZ 7नघ,न qला; DयाZ आपKया =म>खाला ˆखापत कmन
सोड,न 7दJ.
| सगळ1 vwदxाZ पा7हJ. DयाZ Dया वानर'`या मरत आJKया =म>खाकड1
बिघतJ, आिण Dया`या डोyय'त,न अ–, पडJ. मग राजाZ आgा 3ली: "Dयाला
झाडाखाली आण,न सरबत aा." तो =म>ख झाडाखाली झोपला आिण राजा Dया`या
बाज,Z बसला आिण Dया`याशी बोलला. राजा bहणाला: "त, त>•या आIगाZ
ˆसय—साठी झ>लताप,ल बनवलास. त>ला माहीत नtहC Dयाम>ळ1 काय होईल? त, त>•या
लोक'साठी त>झा जीव 7दलास. प7व† वानरा, मला स'ग, त, कोण आ|स, C त>झ1
कोण आ|त?"
"अहो महाराज," वानर bहणाJ, "मी Dय'चा =म>ख आिण ग>m आ|. C
मा•याबरोबर या झाडावर रा7हJ, आिण मी Dय'ना व7डल'सारखा आ|, माझ1
Dय'`यावर =1म आ|. | जग सोड,न जा„यात मला ˆःख होत नाही, कारण मी मा•या
वानरलोक'ची स>टका 3ली आ|. आिण माझ1 मरण1 त>म`यासाठी एक धडा होईल, तर
मला आनIद वा˜ल. फ‘त तलवारीZ त>मe रा™य चालत नसC, C =1म कर„यात
असC. त>bही लोक'वर =1माZ रा™य करा, कारण C त>म`या म>ल'सारz आ|त; फ‘त
या =काM त>bही खरा राजा tहाल. मा•यामाq माझा बोल लŽात ठ1वा, अहो
राजा vwदx!" आिण Dया प7व† वानराZ आपJ डोळ1 िमटJ आिण जीव सोडला.
राजा आिण Dया`या लोक'ना याम>ळ1 ख,प ˆःख झाJ. Dयाची आठवण रहावी
bहण,न Dय'नी एक cवालय ब'धJ. आिण vwदx Dया`या लोक'वर =1माZ रा™य कm
लागला, आिण DयानIतर प>ढ1 कायमचा स>खाZ रा7हला.
3

कासव आिण दोन हIस
कोण1 ए3 काळी दोन हIस एका ख,प bहातायL कासवा`या घरात Dया`याशी बोलत
होC, C घर 7हम7गरीतील एका लहान तलावात होC.
C bहणाJ, "िम† कासवा, आम`याबरोबर घरी T. C फार छान अस,न, िच†क€ट
पवYता`या सोZरी ग>|त आ|."
कासव bहणाला, "मला पIख नाहीत. मी त>•या घरी कf Tऊ शकतो?"
"त, त>झ1 तšड बIद कm शकतोस का?" हIस'नी 7वचारJ.
"हो जmर!" DयाZ उxर 7दJ.
"ही काठी त>•या तšडामध1 धर," C bहणाJ, "आिण आbही Dयाची दोƒही टो3
आम`या चोचीत धmन त>ला आम`या घरी घ1ऊन जाऊ."
आिण C पवYत'वmन उडत qJ, आिण सगळ1 जग खाली रा7हJ. थोड›ा pळाZ C
वाराणसी`या घर'वmन उडत होC. stहा Dय'नी C जवळ,न जाताना पा7हJ, Ctहा
काही म>J हस,न bहणाली, "7कती 7विच† आ|! दोन हIस एक कासव हpत,न
घ1ऊन जात आ|त!"
Dय'e बोलण1 ऐकKयावर, तो मोठा कासव ख,प 7बचकला, आिण Dयाe मन
भडकJ. "मी हpत,न उडत जायe की नाही, या`याशी त>मचा काय सIबIध?" अf
Dया`या मनात आJ व तf तो मोठuाZ bहणाला.
अथLतच, तो Dयाe तšड उघड„यािशवाय बोल, शकत नtहता, Ctहा DयाZ Dया`या
दात'त,न काठी सोडली, आिण 7बचारा कासव एका राजवाड›ा`या आIगणात पडला.
ˆसयL Žणी, सगळ1 लोक 7तB उठ,न आJ. सरदार आिण fवक सगyया िखड‘या
आिण दरवा™य'त उ‹ रा7हJ. राजाZ ती बातमी ऐकKयावर, तो Dया`या
•सहासनावmन उठला आिण Dया`या समज,तदार व žशार विजराबरोबर 7तB
बघायला qला.
राजा उŒारला, "7बचाM कासव! कशाम>ळ1 C आIगणात पडJ, आिण Dयाe
स>Iदर 7हरp कवच फWटJ?"
तो विजराला bहणाला, "मला स'गा, C कWठ,न आिण कf पडJ?"
राजाला अf बोल„याची सवय होती. तो दयाळ, आिण उदारही होता, पण तो
इतका कडक होता की Dया`यासमोर कWणी काहीही बोल, शकत नtहC. विजराला
कासवा`या गोPीबŸल सगळ1 माहीत होC. bहण,न DयाZ 7वचार 3ला, "आता या
4

राजाला एक च'गला धडा िशकव„याची सIधी आली आ|."
तो bहणाला, "महाराज, दोन प य'नी एक काठी आपKया चोचीत धरली होती,
आिण या कासवाZ ती काठी आपKया दात'त धरली होती. अशा =काM C दोन पŽी
कासवाला उडत घ1ऊन चालJ होC. शहरातील काही म>J Dयाला पा¡न हसली. C
हसण1 ऐकKयावर C कासव रागवJ, आिण C Dयाe तšड बIद ठ1व, शकJ नाही. कासवाला बोल„यािशवाय राहता आJ नाही, आिण Dया`या तšडात,न काठी स>टली आिण C
खाली पडJ. जो आपJ तšड बIद ठ1व, शकत नाही, Dया`या निशबात अfच असC."
C बोलण1 राजा`या मनाला लागJ आिण पटJ. Dयाला समजJ की हा धडा
आपKयासाठी होता, आिण Dयाप>ढ1 राजा थोड1 आिण Zम3 बोलायला िशकला, आिण
DयानIतर प>ढ1 कायम तो स>खाZ रा7हला.

दोषी कW†1

कोण1 ए3 काळी एका राजाZ Dयाची राजशाही सहा घोड›'नी ओढJली गाडी
शहरामध1 Zली. रा† झाKयावर तो राजवाड›ात परत आला, आिण DयाZ घोड1
त•Kयात ƒयायला स'7गतJ. पण गाडी आिण घोड›ाचा खोगीरवर साज आIगणात
रा7हला.
नIतर सगळ1 लोक राजवाड›ात झोपJ, DयानIतर पाऊस स>m झाला. "आता आपण
गIमत कm," राजवाड›ातJ कW†1 bहणाJ, कारण पाऊसामध1 C चामड›ाe प¤1
नरम झाJ होC. C कW†1 लपत आIगणात qJ, आिण Dय'नी C स>Iदर प¤1 चाव,न
टाकJ. रा†भर C तf zळत रा7हJ, आिण पहाट हो„याप,व¥ C 7नघ,न qJ.
"राजा`या गाडीe प¤1 कWणीतरी चावJ आ|त,

7नकामी 3J आ|त!"

fवकलोक सकाळी आIगणात आKयावर उŒारJ. आिण C थरथरत राजाला
स'गायला qJ.
"महाराज, रा†ी त>म`या गाडीचा साज 7नकामी 3ला आ|. C कW¦य'e काम
असाp, कारण C स>Iदर प¤1 C चावत होC."
राजाZ रागव,न आgा 3ली, "शहरातKया सगyया कW¦य'ना माmन टाका."
राजाची आgा Dया शहरातKया सातr कW¦य'`या लŽात आली, आिण C
मोठuाZ रड, लागJ. पण एक कW†ा Dय'चा =म>ख होता, तो सगyय'वर =1म करीत
होता, आिण सगyय'ना सIभाळायचा. bहण,न C सवY कW†1 एक† Dया`याकड1 qJ.
"आज त>bही सगळ1 इकड1 एक† कशाला आला आहात?" =म>खाZ Dय'ना 7वचारJ,
5

"आिण कशाम>ळ1 त>bही इत3 ˆःखी 7दसता?"
"आपKयावर सIकट आJ आ|," कW†1 bहणाJ. "रा†ी राजाची गाडी आIगणात
उभी रा7हली होती, आिण Dयाe चामड1 7नकामी झाJ, आिण आपKयावर Dयाचा
दोष आला आ|. राजाZ रागव,न आgा 3ली, 'सगyया कW¦य'ना माmन टाका.'"
"शहरातJ कW†1 राजवाड›ा`या आIगणात जाण1 श‘य नाही," =म>खाZ 7वचार
3ला. "जर राजवाड›ातKया कW¦य'नी C प¤1 7नकामी 3J नसC, तर ˆसM कWणी
C 3J? bह„s दोषी कW†1 स>टतील, आिण 7नदXषी कW†1 मारJ जातील. मी न‘की
राजाला दोषी कW†1 दाखवीन, आिण शहरातJ कW†1 वाचतील."
Dया धीट =म>खाZ तसा 7वचार कmन Dया`या लोक'e स'Dवन 3J, मग तो
एकटा राजवाड›ात qला. राजवाड›ाचा §ारपाल Dया`या eहयLवरचा भाव
आ•यLZ बघत रा7हला, आिण Dयाला राजवाड›ात जाऊ 7दJ.
मग तो 7दवाणखाƒयात qला, िजB राजा गादीवर बसला होता, आिण सदLरलोक
Dया`याजवळ उ‹ रा7हJ होC. थोड›ा pळाZ =म>ख bहणाला, "महाराज, त>मची
आgा अशी आ| की सगyया शहरातKया कW¦य'ना मारJ पा7हs?"
"हो," राजा bहणाला, "माझी तशी आgा आ|."
"Dय'नी त>मe काय न>कसान 3J, अहो महाराज?"
"Dय'नी मा•या गाडीचा साज 7नकामी 3ला."
"सगyयाच कW¦य'ना मारJ पा7हs का, की Dयात,न काही कW¦य'ना िजवIत रा¡
aायe?"
"फ‘त राजवाड›ातJ कW†1 िजवIत रा¡ aायe!"
"अहो महाराज," =म>ख हळ, आवाजात bहणाला, "कशाला राजवाड›ातJ कW†1
7नदXषी आ|त, आिण शहरातJ कW†1 दोषी आ|त काय? अहो महाराज, त>मचा
ƒयाय असा कसा आ|?"
जरा pळ राजाZ 7वचार 3ला, मग तो bहणाला, "त, žशार आ|स, मग मला
स'ग, कोण दोषी आ|त?"
"राजवाड›ातJ कW†1," =म>खाZ उxर 7दJ.
"मला त>•या श•द'तील सDय दाखव."
"मी त>bहाला तf दाखव,न cईन," =म>ख bहणाला. "राजवाड›ातKया कW¦य'ना
इB आणायची आgा करा, आिण दभY व ताक खायला aा."
=म>खाZ C जf स'7गतJ, तf राजाZ 3J, आिण राजवाड›ातJ कW†1 Dय'`यासमोर आणवायला स'7गतJ. कW¦य'नी दभY व ताक खालKयानIतर, Dय'`या तšड'त,न
6

चामड›ाe त>कड1 ओक€न जिमनीवर पडJ, व अशा =काM DयाZ दोषी कW¦य'ना
शोध,न काढJ!
राजा उठ,न bहणाला, "त>झ1 बोलण1 बरोबर आ|. जीवात जीव अfपय¨त त, मा•या
आठवणीत राहशील." आिण राजाZ आgा 3ली, "शहरातKया कW¦य'चा च'गला
सIभाळ करा," DयानIतर सवY कW†1 स>खाZ रा7हJ.

छोटा पोपट

कोण1 ए3 काळी एका ˜कडीवर एक लहान वन होC. Dया वनात एका पोपट'चा
राजा आपली राणी आिण थtयाबरोबर राहत होता. राजा व राणी य'ना एक 7पलल,
झाJ, C अ7तशय स>Iदर होC!
ख,प वश© झाली, आिण राजा व राणी bहाताM झाJ, आिण Dय'e 7पलल, ˆसय—ªŽा
मोठ1 व बळकट झाJ. आिण एका 7दवशी C Dया`या आईव7डल'ना bहणाJ, "7=य
माताजी व 7पताजी, आता मी मोठा व बळकट झाKयाम>ळ1, मी त>म`यासाठी rतातJ
दाण1 घ1ऊन Tईल."
आिण दरXज तो थtयाबरोबर त'ˆळा`या rत'त उडायचा, आिण DयाZ
ˆसयL प य'बरोबर खालKयानIतर चोचीत मोठा घास घ1ऊन आपKया आईव7डल'ना
आणायचा.
एका 7दवशी Dया पोपट'ना एक च'गJ rत सापडJ. C ˆसय—ªŽा स>पीक होC,
bहण,न DयानIतर C 7तB खायला qJ. rतातKया मज,राZ Dय'ना पा7हJ, आिण
7वचार 3ला, "मी rता`या मालकाला स'qन की पोपट Dया`या rतातील त'‰ळ
खात आ|त."
तो मालकाला जाऊन bहणाला, "सा|ब, आपJ rत स>पीक आ|, आिण Dयाचा
त'‰ळ ˆसयL rत'`याªŽा च'गला आ|. पण एक पोपट'चा थवा दरXज आपJ
धाƒय खायला Tत आ|, आिण Dयात एक पोपट सगyय'ªŽा स>Iदर आ|, तो
खालKयानIतर चोचीत मोठा घास घ1ऊन उड,न जात असतो."
मालकाला तो पोपट बघ„याची इ`छा झाली, जो चोचीत जा•त दाण1 घ1ऊन
जायचा.
"फास बनवा आिण तो पोपट पकड,न आणा," मालक rतमज>राला bहणाला.
"पण तो िजवIत असावा."
ˆसयL 7दवशी rतमज>राZ एक फास बनवला, आिण पोपट उतरताना Dयाचा
छोटा पाय अडकला. तो ना ओरडला ना DयाZ मदत मा7गतली, कारण DयाZ 7वचार
7

3ला की, "ˆसयL पोपट'ना माहीत झाJ, तर C घाबरतील, आिण Dय'e त'ˆळाe
दाण1 खाऊ शकणार नाहीत. bहण,न Dय'नी खालKयानIतर, मी ओरड1न."
आिण Dय'नी त'‰ळ खालKयानIतर तो ओरडला, पण कWणी Dयाला मदत करायला
आJ नाही; सगळ1 पोपट भीतीZ उड,न qJ. तो एकटा होता, आिण तो मोठuाZ
ओरडला.
थोड›ा pळाZ rतमज,र Dया 7ठकाणी आला, आिण आनIदाZ पŽी पकड,न
bहणाला, "™याला मला पकडायe होC, तो त,च आ|स." आिण rतमज,र पोपट
घ1ऊन मालकाकड1 qला. मालकाZ पोपट हळ«च Dया`या हातात घ1तला.
"मा•या पोपटा," तो bहणाला, "| त>झ1 rत आ| काय? त, त'‰ळ कWठ1 लप,न
ठ1वतोस? कारण त, मा•या rतात C खालKयानIतर, Zहमी त>झी चोच दा„य'नी भmन
उड,न जातोस, | च'गJ आ| का?"
पोपट स>Iदर माणसा`या आवाजात bहणाला:
"दरXज मी माझ1 एक कतYtय करतो,
Dयाचा साठा मी जमव,न ठ1वतो."

मालक bहणाला, "s कतYtय त, करतोस, C काय आ|, मला स'ग? जो साठा त,
जमव,न ठ1वतोस, तो कWठ1 आ|?"

"माझ1 आईवडील bहाताM आ|त, आिण Dय'ना उडता Tत नाही. माझ1 कतYtय

bहणs रोज Dय'ना दाण1 cण1. आिण माझा ठ1वा bहणs =1माZ बोलण1 व =1माZ

वागण1: जो कमकWवत अfल, Dयाला मदत करण1, आिण stहा कWणी भ>3ला अfल,
Ctहा Dयाला खायला cण1."

| ऐकKयावर, मालकाZ ि•मत हा•य 3J, आिण bहणाला, "| rत सगळ1 त>झ1च

आ|. त>•या आईव7डल'कड1 उड,न जा, C त>झी वाट पाहत असतील. पण दरXज त,
rतात परत Tत जा."

तो च'गला पोपट लवकर आपKया वनाकड1 उडाला, िजB Dयाe आईवडील
Dयाला हाक मारीत होC. आिण सगळ1 पोपट 7तB एक† आJ, Dय'नी लहान
पोपटाची गोP ऐकली.
वनातJ सगळ1 पोपट एक† रा7हJ, आिण प>ढ1 C 7नरIतर स>खाZ रा7हJ.

चIŠावर 7दसणारा ससा
कोण1 ए3 काळी एक लहान ससा एका अर„यात राहत होता. एक पवYत, एक
zड1गाव, व एक नदी Dया अर„याजवळ होती. ख,प सf ¬दान'वर आिण अर„य'मध1
8

धावायe, पण सगyय'त तो ससा असा होता की Dया`याइत3 स>Iदर कWणी नtहC.
Dयाe तीन िम† होC: एक कोKहा, एक पाण-म'जर, आिण एक माकड. दरXज
सISयाकाळी, Dय'e भŽ शोध„याe काम सIपKयानIतर, C चार िम† एक-क'ना
‹टायe आिण ग‡पा मारायe. तो ग>णी ससा Dया`या िम†'शी बोलायचा, आिण
Dय'ना ख,प गोPी िशकवायचा. सशा`या िम†'नी Dयाe बोलण1 ऐक€न घ1तJ, आिण
सगyया अर„यातKया =ा„य'वर =1म करायला िशकJ, आिण C फार आनIदात
रा7हJ.
"मा•या िम†'नो," एका 7दवशी ससा bहणाला, "उaा आपण उपास कm या,
आिण Dया 7दवशी सापडJJ भŽ ‹टJKया गरीब लोक'ना cऊ या." सगyय'नी
तf कर„यासाठी होकार 7दला, आिण ˆसयL 7दवशी पहा˜ Dय'नी आपKया
Zहमी`या रीतीZ भŽ शोध„याe काम स>m 3J.
एका गावातKया झोपडीत Dया कोK®ाला काय सापडJ? एक मासाचा त>कडा,
आिण एका लहान मड‘यामध1 दही, दोरी`या दोन टोकाला ब'धJJ होC. तीनदा तो
मोठuाZ bहणाला, "| कोणाe मास आ|? | कोणाe दही आ|?" पण झोपडीमध1
कWणीच नtहC, आिण उxर न िमळाKयाम>ळ1 DयाZ मास Dया`या तšडात धरJ,
आिण मड‘याची दोरी Dया`या माZभोवती ग>Iडाळली, आिण तो अर„याकड1 पळत
qला. आिण बाज,ला लप,न ठ1वताना DयाZ 7वचार 3ला, "मी 7कती च'गला आ|!
कWणी इकड1 आली नाही तर उaा मी मला सापडJJ भŽ खाईन."
आिण छोटuा पाण-म'जराला Dया`या 7फरतीवर जाताना काय सापडJ? एका
कोyयाZ काही चमकणाM सोZरी माf पकडJ होC, आिण C वाळ,त लपवKयानIतर,
तो अ7धक माf पकडायला, नदीवर परत qला!
परIत> Dया पाण-म'जराला ती लप,न ठ1व„याची जागा सापडली, DयाZ माf
वाळ>त,न काढJ, आिण तीनदा मोठuाZ bहणाला, "| सोZरी माf कोणाe आ|त?"
पण कोyयाला फ‘त नदी`या ब>डब>ड„याचा आवाज ऐक€ Tत होता, Dयाम>ळ1 DयाZ
काही उxर 7दJ नाही. bहण,न पाण-म'जर माf घरी घ1ऊन qला, आिण DयाZ
7वचार 3ला, "मी 7कती च'गJ पाण-म'जर आ|! | माf मी आज खाणार नाही,
पण कदािचत उaा खाईन."
माकडस>jा पवYतावर चढला, आिण काही 7पकJJ आI• सापडKयावर, तो C
घ1ऊन परत अर„यात qला, आिण झाडाखाली C ठ1व,न 7दJ. आिण DयाZ 7वचार
3ला, "मी 7कती च'गJ माकड आ|!"
पण तो ससा अर„यामध1 गवतात झोपला, आिण क‚„याZ Dया`या स>Iदर डोyय'त
9

पाणी आJ. DयाZ 7वचार 3ला, "जर भ>3ला =ाणी इB आला, तर मी Dयाला काय
cऊ श3न? मी Dयाला गवत cऊ शकत नाही, आिण Dयाला aायला मा•याकड1 ना
भात ना rIगा आ|त."
मग अचानक DयाZ आनIदाZ उडी मारली. DयाZ िचार 3ला, "जर कWणी इB
आJ, तर मी मा•या श7रराe मास Dयाला cऊन टा3न."
Dया अर„यात एक परी राहत होती, 7तe नाव स‘का होC. s सगळ1 काही
अर„यात घडJ, Dया`याबŸल 7तला सगळी मा7हती होती. सगyया =ा„य'e 7वचार
7तला माहीत होC, गवता`या रानफWल'e 7वचारस>jा. आिण Dया 7दवशी, C चार
िम† उपास करतील, आिण Dय'नी सापडJJ भŽ भ>3Kया लोक'ना cतील, |स>jा
परीला माहीत होC. bहण,न स‘काZ एका bहातायL िभकायLe mप घ1तJ, ती वाक€न
काठी धmन चाल, लागली.
प7हKय'दा ती कोK®ाला जाऊन bहणाली, "मी ख,प 7दवस पायी चालJ, आिण
काहीच खायला सापडJ नाही. मला अज,न भŽ शोध„याची श‘ती नाही. कOपा
कmन मला खायला c, अहो कोK|दादा!"
"हा मासाचा त>कडा iया, आिण | मड‘यामधJ दही," कोKहा bहणाला. "मी C
एका गावातKया झोपडीत,न चोरJ, आिण मा•याकड1 ˆसM काही c„यासाठी नाही."
"कदािचत मी 7वचार कmन नIतर घ1ईन," ती bहणाली, आिण दाट झाडीमध1
7नघ,न qली.
मग स‘काZ पाण-म'जराला ‹ट,न 7वचारJ, "त>म`याकड1 मला c„यासाठी काही
आ| का, अहो म'जरदादा?"
"अहो bहातायLबाई, | माf iया, आिण थोडाpळ या झाडाखाली आराम करा."
गरीब bहातारी bहणाली, "नIतर," आिण ती अर„यामध,न 7नघ,न qली.
अ7धक प>ढ1 qKयावर, स‘का माकडाला ‹ट,न bहणाली, "कOपा कmन मला
त>म`याकडची फळ1 aा. मी गरीब अस,न, भ>3ली आ|, आिण थकJली आ|."
"| सगळ1 आI• iया," माकड bहणाला. "मी त>म`यासाठी | सगळ1 तोडJ होC."
"कधीतरी नIतर, पा¡," अf bहण,न ती 7तथ,न qली.
मग स‘का सशाला ‹ट,न bहणाली, "घनदाट अर„यातKया राहणायL मा•या िम†ा,
मला स'ग, मी माझ1 भŽ कWठ1 शोध,? मी अर„यात वाट च>कली आ|, आिण माझ1 घर
‰र आ|."
"मी त>bहाला माझ1 शरीर खा„यासाठी aायला तयार आ|," ससा bहणाला.
"सरपण गोळा करा, आिण आग ªटवा. मी आगीत उडी टाकीन, आिण त>bहाला
10

छोटuा सशाe मास खायला िमळ1ल."
स‘काZ जा‰Z सरपण आण,न आग ªटवली, आिण सशाZ आनIदाZ Dया चमकणायL

आगीत उडी मारली. पण ™वाला पा„या-इत‘या थIड झाKया, आिण Dयाला काहीच
भाजJ नाही.

DयाZ स‘काला 7वचारJ, "मला ™वाल'ची उ¯णता का जाणवत नाही?"
मग स‘काZ 7तe परीe mप परत घ1तJ, आिण Dयाला ˆसय—ªŽा अDयIत मध>र

आवाजात bहणाली, "| िम† सशा, मी परी स‘का आ|. ही खरी आग नtहती,
न>सती परीŽा घ1„यासाठी ªटवली होती. त>मचा दयाळ,पणा आxापास,न सगyया
जगातKया लोक'ना माहीत होईल.

अf bहण,न स‘काZ काठी पवYतावर मारला, आिण Dया`यात,न 7नघणायL अ^_त

रसाZ चIŠावर सशाe िच† काढJ.

ˆसयL 7दवशी, ससा Dया`या िम†'ना ‹टला, आिण सगyया अर„यातJ =ाणी

एक† आJ. आिण सशाZ s सगळ1 काही घडJ होC C Dय'ना स'7गतJ, आिण
Dय'ना ख,प आनIद झाJ. आिण प>ढ1 C सगळ1 7नरIतर स>खाZ रा7हJ.

सोZरी हIस'चा राजा

कोण1 ए3 काळी आपली राणी zमाबरोबर सIयम हा वाराणसीचा राजा होता,
Dयाpळी ब>j नtवद हजार सोZरी हIस'`या थtयाचा राजा bहण,न िच†क€ट

पवYतावर राहत होता. एका 7दवशी पहा˜ राणी अधYवट झोªत असताना, 7तला
दोन सोZरी हIस 7दसJ. ती राजवाड›ा`या गादीवर बस,न Dय'`याशी मध>र बोलत

होती. पण ती जागी झाKयावर C 7दfनाf झाJ. C न>सC •व‡न होC, पण 7तला
C इत3 खयLसारz भासत होC की 7दवसभर ती अ•व•थ होती. 7तला Dय'e मध>र
आवाज प>ƒहा ऐक„याची, Dय'`या अ^_त स~दयLकड1 बघ„याची इ`छा झाली. राणीZ

Dयाबाबत िजतका 7वचार 3ला, 7ततकी 7तला खा†ी पटली की C भtय पŽी कWठ1तरी
जगात असतील. | मनात आKयावर ती आपKया राजाला जाऊन bहणााली, "=भ,,
मला सोZरी हIसाe मध>र बोलण1 ऐक„याची, आिण Dयाला िमPाƒन c„याची व हार

घाल„याची इ`छा आ|. माझी इ`छा प,णY कर„यासाठी त>bही काय कm श‘ता?"
राजाe आपKया राणीवर फार =1म होC, आिण ™याZ ती स>खी होईल C तो

करायचा. bहण,न DयाZ आपKया मI¦य'ना ‹ट,न सोZरी हIस पकड„यासाठी योजना

करायला स'7गतली. Dय'नी Dय'`या शहराजवळ एका छान प य'`या अभय अर„यात
एक सरोवर ब'धJ. Dयावर कमळ1 तरIगत होती. प य'`या खा„यासाठी Dयाभोवती
11

7नर7नराळी धाƒय व फळ1 होती. सगyया =कारe पŽी 7तB यायe, आिण
मधमा°य'नी 7तB पोळी बनवली. कWणाही माणसाला Dया •वगLसार±या जाqवर
जा„याची परव'गी नtहती, कारण जर C 7तB qJ असC तर प य'ना भीती वाटली
असती. फ‘त एका माणसाला 7तB राह„याची परव'गी 7दली होती: तो कWशल पारधी
होता, Dयाला सगyया प य'`या सवय²ची मा7हती होती. Dयाला सोZरी हIस
पकड„याe काम ZमJJ होC.
जरा pळाZ सरोवर ब'धKयानIतर, सगyया =कारe हIस 7तB Tऊ लागJ.
प7हKय'दा 7हरp हIस आJ, मागोमाग 7पवळ1 हIस. मग 7पवyया हIस'नी Dयाबाबत
लाल हIस'ना स'7गतJ, आिण Dय'नीही प'ढयL हIस'ना स'7गतJ, नIतर श>³ हIस'ना.
अf घडJ की श>³ हIस आिण सोZरी हIस'मध1 7ववाह झाला होता, Dयाम>ळ1 Dया स>Iदर
सरोवराबाबतची बातमी Dया सोZरी हIस'ना कळली. एका 7दवशी सोZरी हIस'`या
राजाचा =म>ख स>म>ख श>³ हIस'शी Dयाबाबत बोलKयानIतर, आपKया राजाला जाऊन
bहणाला, "महाराज, आbहाला बातमी कळली, एक नवीन स>Iदर सरोवर वाराणसीजवळ आ|, C इत‘या कमळ1 व इतर फळ'नी भरJ आ| की आपJ सगळ1 हIस 7तB
खाऊ शकतील. मला वाटC की आपण 7तB उडत जाp. आपKयाला माझी स,चना
कशी वाटC?"
सोZरी हIस'चा राजा एक व´j व समज,तदार पŽी असKयाम>ळ1, Dयाला
मन>¯या`या लबाडीची मा7हती होती, आिण Dयाला सIशय आला. DयाZ 7वचारJ,
"याप,व¥ 7तB सरोवर कf नtहC? कदािचत लबाडी असावी, सरोवर आपKयाला
पकड„यासाठी ब'धJ असाp."
राजाला सIशय आला तरी DयाZ rवटी आपKया थtयाची इ`छा मानली, हIस'ना
7तB जा„याची ख,प आवड होती. आिण नtवद हजार हIस'चा थवा सरोवराकड1
उडत qला. 7तB Dय'नी पोटभर खालJ, मग िच†क€ट पवYतावर परतJ.
पण हIस सरोवराजवळ खात असताना, पारधी झ>डप'त लप,न बसला होता. आिण
हIस उडत qKयावर तो राजवाड›ाकड1 Dयाची हकीगत स'गायला पळत qला. राजा व
राणी Dया`या बातमीZ फार ख>श झाJ, आिण राजा पारSयाला bहणाला, "आता
सोZरी हIसाला पकड„याची pळ आली आ|. लŽात ठ1व! जर त, सोZरी हIस
पकडशील, तर त>ला व त>•या कWट>Iबाला ख,प कीत¥ व मान िमळ1ल."
bहण,न ˆसयL 7दवशी पारधी झ>डप'त लप,न हIस'चा सIचार बघत रा7हला, आिण
Dयाe काहीतरी लŽात आJ. बžCक हIस सवXxम फWलातील भाग खायला इकड17तकड1
•हडायe, कारण Dय'ना भीती वाटायची की अf 3J नाही तर Dय'ना च'गJ
12

खायला िमळणार नाही. पण Dयाप”की एक हIस ˆसय—ªŽा मोठा व स>Iदर होता, तो
एकाच जागी रा¡न 7तB s सापड1ल C खायe. | पा¡न पारSया`या मनात आJ,
"हा हIस लोभी नाही, यालाच पकडJ पा7हs."
आदKया 7दवशी िजB हा हIस'चा राजा Dयाला 7दसला होता, 7तB ˆसयL 7दवशी
पारधी लप,न बसला. तो पŽी Dयाच जाqवर प>ƒहा खा„यासाठी आला. Dया`या लप,न
राह„या`या जाqत,न पारSयाZ प7हKय'दा हIस'`या राजाला नीट पा7हJ. तो भtय
पŽी फार मोठा व सोZरी रIगाचा होता, आिण आIगावर तीन लाल प¤1 होC.
| स>Iदर द´¯य पा7हKयावर पारSयाZ 7वचार 3ला, "हा पŽी लाल M°मी धाµय'मध1
ब'धJKया चकाकणायL सोƒयासारखा 7दसतो. हा हIस'चा राजा असावा, आिण मी
यालाच पकडJ पा7हs."
सहा 7दवस हIस'नी अशा =काM खालJ, आिण पारधी 7तB लप,न हIस'`या
राजाकड1, Dया`या प>ढ`या उतर„याची जागा नीट पाह„यासाठी बघत रा7हला.
सातtया 7दवशी पारSयाZ एक फास बनव,न काठीला लाव,न Dयाच जाqवर ठ1वला,
आिण मग हIस'`या राजाZ Zम‘या Dयाच जागी उतmन Dयाचा पाय फासात अडकला.
आिण फासाZ Dयाचा पाय पकड,न धरला!
हIस'`या राजाZ फास तोड„याचा =यDन 3ला, Ctहा फासाZ Dयाचा पाय
ˆखवला. Dयाला वाटJ की जखमी शरीर राजाला शोभत नाही, bहण,न तो श'त
रा7हला. जख-Z ख,प †ास होत होता, पण DयाZ 7वचार 3ला, "जर आता मी
ओरडलो तर माझ1 हIस खालKयािशवाय पळ,न जातील, आिण थक€न C घरापय¨त उड,
शकणार नाहीत." bहण,न जख-ची pदना होत असताना DयाZ सगyया हIस'e
खाण1 सIªपय¨त •वतःपण खात असKयाe भासवJ. मग नIतर तो ओरडला, आिण
सगळ1 हIस भीतीZ उड,न qJ.
पIख'चा आवाज व ओरड„य'`या गडबडीमध1 स>म>ख जो हIस-राजाचा =म>ख होता
अचानक घाबरला, कारण Dयाला कळJ की आपला राजा बाकी`या थtयाबरोबर
नाही. मग तो pगाZ सरोवराकड1 उडत परत qला. तो स>Iदर हIसाचा राजा फासात
अडकJला व िचखलावर पडJला सापडला. स>म>ख राजाe स'Dवन कmन bहणाला,
"िभऊ नका, महाराज! मी त>म`याबरोबर राहीन!" आिण दोƒही हIस श'तपण1
Dय'`या निशबाची वाट पाहत असताना, Dयाpळी तो काठी हातात धरJला पारधी
Dय'`याजवळ आला. DयाZ Dय'`याकड1 पा7हKयावर, अचानक पारSया`या मनात आJ,
"ˆसरा हIस फासात अडकJला नसताना, इB का थ'बला?"
Cवढ्यात स>म>ख आपKया राजाला पकडणायL पारSयाजवळ उडत Tऊन, मध>र
13

माणसा`या आवाजात bहणाला, "अf वाट, cऊ नका, िम†ा, की त>म`या फासात
एखादा सामाƒय हIस अडकला आ|. Dयाउलट तो नtवद हजार हIस'चा समज,तदार
व स™जन राजा आ|. Dयाला त>म`याबरोबर घ1ऊन जाऊ नका. मीही सोZरी हIस आ|.
जर सोZरी 7पf पा7हsत तर माझी iया. जर प”f पा7हs तर मला 7वका. तो माझा
राजा आ| आिण मी Dयाचा fवक आ|. मी Dयाला एकट्याला सIकटात सोड,न
जाऊ शकत नाही."
Dयाची 7वलŽण 7न·ा व भ‘ती पा7हKयावर, पारSयाe मन आदराZ भmन आJ
आिण तो उŒारJ, "7कती समज,Dदार व प7व† पŽी त>bही आहात!" आिण DयाZ
आनIद होऊन हातातील काठी खाली टाकली आिण हात जोड,न Dया दोƒही प य'`या
ग,ण'ना अिभवादन 3J.
पारधी जखमी हIस'`या राजाजवळ =1मळपण1 आला, आिण Dयाला आपKया हातात
घ1ऊन मऊ गवतात ठ1वJ. मग DयाZ हIसाचा फासात अडकJला पाय सोडवला,
आिण पायाची जखम =1माZ व काळजीप,वYक •व`छ 3ली. पारSया`या या दयाळ,
•वभावाZ व हIसा`या सदग>ण'म>ळ1 अ^_त=काM जखम बरी झाली, आिण हIस'`या
राजाला आनIद झाला.
मग स>म>खाZ पारSयाला 7वचारJ, "त>bही मा•या राजाला फासात कशाला
पकडJ?" आिण पारधी bहणाला, "वाराणसीचा राजा सIयम याZ मला | काम Zम,न
7दJ," आिण DयाZ सवY हकीगत स'7गतली: राणी`या •व‡नापास,न राजा`या Zम,न
7दJKया कामापय¨त. | ऐकKयावर, स>म>खाZ 7वचार कmन आपKया राजाला
प य'`या भाष1त bहणाला, "महाराज, या पारSयाZ आपली मोठी fवा 3ली आ|.
जर DयाZ त>bहाला सोडJ नसC, तर Dयाला कदािचत ख,प प”f िमळाJ असC. आपण
Dया`याबरोबर वाराणसीचा राजा व राणीला ‹टायला जाऊ या, कारण Dयाम>ळ1
Dयाला ख,प कीत¥ व प”f िमळ1ल."
स>म>ख पारSयाकड1 वळ,न माणसा`या भाष1त bहणाला, "महाराज, आbहाला
त>म`या राजाची ‹ट iयायला हवी, पण पकडKयासारz ƒयायला नाही. मा•या
राजासाठी एक मोठा •पजरा बनवा, Dयावर प'ढरी कमळ1 ठ1वा, आिण मा•यासाठी
ˆसरा छोटा •पजरा बनवा, Dयावर ग>लाबी कमळ1 ठ1वा. मा•या राजाला प>ढ1 घ1ऊन जा,
आिण मला Dया`या माq व कमी उIचीवर. आbहाला लवकर घ1ऊन जा, त>म`या
राजाला ‹टायला."
bहण,न पारSयाZ Dय'ना Dया=काM वाराणसी`या र•Dय'वmन राजवाड›ाकड1
आणJ, Ctहा ख,प लोक'नी Dया दोन •पजर'तKया सोZरी हIस'`या द´°याकड1
14

आ•यLZ बिघतJ. Dय'e Tण1 वाराणसी`या राजाला कळवJ, आिण राजाZ Dय'ना
Dया`यासमोर बोलवला. राजा Dय'ना पा7हKयावर उŒारJ, "मा•या मनातली इ`छा
प,णY झाली!"
राजाZ आपKया सरदारलोक'ना आgा 3ली की पारSयाe 3स काप,न •व`छ
पा„याZ Dयाला आIघोळ घाला आिण Dयाला 7कमती कपड1 घालायला aा. अf
3KयानIतर C Dयाला परत राजासमोर घ1ऊन qJ, आिण राजाZ Dयाला जमीन,
घोडागाडी, एक स>Iदर घर, आिण भरप,र प”f 7दJ, आिण Dयाe कौत>क 3J. पारधी
फार लि™जत झाला, आिण राजाला bहणाला, "महाराज, तो हIस सामाƒय नाही, तो
नtवद हजार हIस'चा राजा आ|, आिण ˆसरा हIस Dयाचा मI†ी आ|." आिण नIतर
DयाZ आ•रयाची गोP स'7गतली, की DयाZ कf सहा 7दवस सोZरी हIस'e खाण1
बघ,न Dय'`या राजाe सदग,ण कf पा7हJ, व Dयाला कf पकडJ, आिण DयानIतर
काय काय झाJ. Dयाची सगळी गोP ऐकKयावर, वाराणसीचा राजा हIस'`या
राजाला bहणाला, "कOपा कmन इB बसा," आिण DयाZ एक 7कमती वाराणसी`या
MशीमाZ झाकJली गादी बसायला 7दली , आिण =म>खाला एक वाघा`या
कातड›ाZ झाकJली सोZरी ख>रची 7दली. मग वाराणसी`या राजाZ Dय'ना मधात
म‘याची लाही व सोZरी भ'ड›'त,न ऊसाचा रस 7दला.
स>म>खाची आपKया राजासाठी जीव c„याची तयारी वाराणसी`या राजाला फार
आवडली. bहण,न स,यY मावळKयानIतर, 7दp लाव,न राणी zमा आत आKयावर,
राजाZ स¸यपणाZ स>म>खाला सगyया लोक'समोर भाषण करायला स'7गतJ. पण
हIस'चा =म>ख bहणाला, "मी न>सता fवक आ|, महाराज. माझा समज,Dदार व
स™जन राजा मा•या डाtया बाज,ला बसJला असताना, आिण वाराणसीचा मोठा
राजा मा•या उजtया बाज,ला बसJला असताना, मी कf बोल, श3न?"

| ऐकKयावर, वारणसी`या राजाला आनIद झाला, आिण तो स>म>खाला bहणाला,

"अहो महाराज, पारSयाZ त>•याबŸल 3JJ कौत>क खM आ|. आपKया राजावर
7न·ा व Dयाची fवा कशी कर„याची याचा त, आदशY आ|स. ™या`याम>ळ1 त>ला इत3

gान िमळाJ, मी आता त>•या समज,Dदार राजाकड1 लŽ cतो." आिण DयाZ सोZरी

हIस'`या राजाला 7वनIती 3ली की DयाZ ˆसयL लोक'ना Dयाचा gानाचा खिजना
थोड1f aावा.

अशा =काM सोZरी हIस'चा राजा वाराणसी`या राजाशी स>खाZ सIवाद कm

लागला, आिण DयाZ बोल„यात उदारपण1 रा™य कर„या`या न”7तक 7नयम'चा उKJख
3ला. रा†भर तो तf बोलत रा7हला, मग थोड›ा pळाZ पहा˜प,व¥ DयाZ
15

वाराणसी`या राजाला आपKया =म>खाबरोबर 7नघ,न जा„याची परव'गी मा7गतली.
मग वाराणसी`या राजाZ Dया प य'ना सोZरी भ'ड›'त ना°ता 7दला, आिण हार
घाल,न Dय'चा आदर 3ला. पहाट हो„या`या Zम‘या Žणी तो िखडकी उघड,न
bहणाला, "जा आता!" आिण हIस उडत 7नघाJ.
हIस'चा राजा वाराणसी`या राजा व राणीसमोर उडत असताना bहणाला,
"| स™जन लोक'नो, आम`या जाणयाम>ळ1 शोक कm नका, पण मी s बोललो C
लŽात ठ1वा. उदारपण1 रा™य करा आिण आपKया लोक'e =1म िमळवा." अf bहण,न,
तो आिण स>म>ख सरळ िच†क€टावर उडत qJ, िजB Dय'चा थवा Dय'ची वाट
आत>रCZ पाहत होता.

16

Related Interests