DEPICTION OF RELATIONSHIPS CONNECTING CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM TO PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS AND DESIGN.

TECHNOLOGY
Predefined, concise, efficient , standards based, prepare for workforce, accountability. Competency based and outcome based, skill/content mastery

REALISIM

SUBJECT MATTER

Focus: Truth in physical universe. Scientific method. Focused on skills,
content, knowledge acquisition.

Traditional, systematic, efficient. Outcomes approach.

Teachers: are subject matter specialists

Materials easily available, both teacher and learner accustomed to this design.
Single Subject: Increasing specialization

PERSONAL SUCCESS

Methods: Performance and competency based, measurable ends. Lecture, labs, field work, guest speakers.

Means to an immediate and practical end. Faculty’s chief concern is job place-

In Vocational School: Focuses on world outside classroom, job specific skills

Correlated: multidisciplinary, > 2 related but subject identity kept, broader
understanding

Limits: Focuses on specifics, may not teach continuing learning skills and

Broad Fields: integrated view of subject matter
Interdisciplinary Integrated: Shared focus on subject around core theme

PRAGMATISM
PERSONAL COMMITMENT TO LEARNING
Ongoing passion for intellectual exploration beyond school .

Focus: Process AND content. Experience valuable if within context of learning objective. Psychological and sociological aspect of individual.

Disadvantages: Knowledge fragmentation
Out of context of student’s world

Teachers: facilitate group activities.
Methods: Learning by doing. Recognizes differences in student motivation.
In Vocational School: Foster desire for life-long learning.

Process oriented

Personally satisfying for each student. Help students discover for self, and
assists them be what they want to be

Focus on first hand genuine learning

IDEALISM
Focus: Character development, self realization, against specialization, favors broad understanding. Teacher focused.

Most tradition bound, provides cultural transmission and promotes a generic
knowledge base that all must learn.

Teachers: Bonds ideas and world. Plans activities to development. Role
model of ideal adult.

Content-independent skills. Open ended and growth oriented. School should
be enjoyable and improve personal growth.

SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION / RELEVANCE
Social needs over the individual. Promotes both survival in an ever changing
society, as well as the belief that education should shape societal change.

Connect content and assessment with children’s interest.

Disadvantages: Don’t learn common body of knowledge.
Teachers lack resources to instruct this way.

Methods: Active participation of students, socratic lesson—ask/answer
lecturing.
In Vocational School: Weak application. Against specialization.

COGNITIVE PROCESS

Based on needs / interests of learners. Highly relevant, and learn process
skills useful in life.
No predetermined objectives

SELF-ACTUALIZATION (HUMANISTIC)

ACADEMIC RATIONALISM

LEARNER BASED

Limits: Focuses on specifics, may not teach continuing learning skills and
adaptability.

SOCIETY—CULTURE
Social life / problems, high relevance to student.
Problem solving processes rather than acquiring content.

RECONSTRUCTION

Learning outcomes are not prescribed in advance

Focus: Society is in need of change, education is the source of this change.
Produce reflective and critical thinkers.

3 Themes: 1) persistent life situation approaches

Teachers: Content knowledge, politically / socially active

2) problems of community life
3) social action or reconstruction for improvement

Methods: Activity based. Agent of societal change.

Disadvantages: Scope and sequence poorly defined.

In Vocational School: Takes over where realism leaves off, prepares for
dynamic workplace of future.

Decreased exposure to cultural heritage.