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(kN/m2)= .z

where:

= unit weight of soil (kN/m3)

z = depth / thickness from ground surface (m)

STRAIN

= L/LO

where:

L= difference in length

LO = initial length (m)

Non-Linear and Elastic Strain.STRESS-STRAIN MODELS Stress. Stress. Linear and Elastic Strain. .

Stress. . Elastic Perfectly Plastic Strain.STRESS-STRAIN MODELS Stress. Elasto-Plastic Strain.

To simplify. dx dz H xz xz = dx/H z = . only simple shear tests will be considered.dz/H = v t .STRESS-STRAIN RESPONSE OF SOILS Triaxial tests are the standard means of investigating the stress-strain-strength response of soils. The simple shear test is an improved shear box test which imposes more uniform stresses and strains.

e Id = emax .SAND BEHAVIOUR Depends on: • Mean Effective stress (Normal effective stress in simple shear) • Relative density. Id emax .emin d 1 Id Gs w = 1+ e = dmin 1 dmin - - 1 d 1 dmax .

SAND BEHAVIOUR Bina Nusantara .

SAND BEHAVIOUR Bina Nusantara .

irrespective of the initial relative density Initially dense samples attain higher peak angles of friction Initially dense soils expand (dilate) when sheared Initially loose soils compress when sheared .SAND BEHAVIOUR Find the mistakes??? For tests performed with the same normal stress All samples approach the same ultimate shear stress and void ratio.

SAND BEHAVIOUR Find the mistakes??? The ultimate values of shear stress and void ratio depend on the applied normal stress The ultimate stress ratio and angle of friction are independent of density and stress level Initially dense samples attain higher peak angles of friction. Increasing the normal stress causes less dilation (more compression) . but the peak friction angle decreases as the stress increases Initially dense soils expand and initially loose soils compress when sheared.

data presented as a function of OCR rather than relative density.normal consolidation line CSL log s’ It is found that NCL and CSL have the same slope in e-log s’ .CLAY BEHAVIOUR Essentially the same as sands. However. OCR is defined as pc OCR e swelling line NCL .

CLAY BEHAVIOUR – DRAINED CONDITION Bina Nusantara .

In a shear box (or simple shear) test the normal stress is usually kept constant. and hence the response is fixed in the t. • Knowing the sign of the volume change enables the likely stress-strain response to be estimated. and this ultimate (or critical) state can be determined from the t. • The change in void ratio can then be determined. s’ plot. • The soil heads towards a critical state when sheared. .CLAY BEHAVIOUR – DRAINED CONDITION • In drained loading the change in effective stress is identical to the change in total stress. s’ plot.

CLAY BEHAVIOUR – UNDRAINED CONDITION Bina Nusantara .

and knowing e the critical state can be determined from the e. The soil must head towards a critical state when sheared. Once the critical state has been determined in the e. ’ plot the ultimate shear stress is also fixed. t ult su cos ult . ’ plot. This relation can be obtained by considering a Mohr’s circle.CLAY BEHAVIOUR – UNDRAINED CONDITION In undrained loading the void ratio (moisture content) must stay constant. The ultimate shear stress is related to the undrained strength.

and the pore pressure is simply the difference between the total stress and effective stress.CLAY BEHAVIOUR – UNDRAINED CONDITION In undrained loading the effective stresses are fixed because void ratio (moisture content) must stay constant. The total stresses are controlled by the external loads. The CSL provides an explanation for the existence of cohesion (undrained strength) in frictional soils From the CSL it can also be seen that changes in moisture content (void ratio) will lead to different undrained strengths .

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SAND AND CLAY All soils are essentially frictional materials but different parameters are used for sands (Id) and clays (OCR) e Clay Loose Sand Dense NCL 0.1 1 10 NCL 100 log ’ (MPa) .

APPLICATION Bina Nusantara .

volumetric strain vs a). (10 marks) .QUESTION 1 An understanding of the stress-strain response of soils is useful in interpreting the results of laboratory tests. With the aid of diagrams (i. discuss the stress-strain response to soils (both dense and loose sands) based on drained test. 1 .3 vs a.e.

ANSWER Typical stress-strain curves from triaxial shear tests on dense and loose sands are shown below: Based on axial stress-strain curve Based on volumetric strain vs. axial strain curve: .

and the stress may then decrease significantly as strains are further increased. the strengths will become similar at large strains. regardless of the initial density. . if large strains are required to reach a peak axial stress. 15 percent axial strain should be taken as the stress at failure). peak load is reached at much smaller strains than for loose sands. Specimen normally does not have a significant peak point (1 3 max). it is appropriate to use some value of strain as the failure criterion (i.e. In dense sands. If loose and dense specimens of the same sand are sheared to large strains at the same confining pressure. or if the test data show no peak.ANSWER • Based on axial stress-strain curve: For loose sand. However. the axial stress may increase with increasing strain up to 20 or 25 percent axial strain or even more.

Loose sands tend to compress (volume decreases) during shear. but they then expand as they are sheared to larger strains.Dense sands also tend to compress initially when sheared. . .ANSWER Based on volumetric strain vs. axial strain curve: .

Please fill in the blanks and explains the terms used to relate with the-stress-strain behaviour .QUESTION 2 Figure shows the related stress-strain curve of the modulus of elasticity. E.

A tangent modulus is the slope of a line drawn tangent to a point on the stress-strain curve. A secant modulus is the slope of a line connecting 2 points on the stress-strain curve. the stiffer or stronger the material. it should be clear that a tangent modulus or a secant modulus will not be constant for all parts of the curve. Based on figure.ANSWER - - - - The higher the value of E. .

E’ . E Secant stiffness. E’sec Tangent stiffness. K’ Stress-strain model Young’s Modulus. G Bulk Modulus.Ice breaking session ? ? ? Shear Modulus.

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