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1. Studying the movement of substances across a semi-permeable membrane.

Problem statement: How does the size of molecules affect the diffusion of substances
across a semi permeable-membrane?
Hypothesis: The diffusion of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane is based on the size of
the molecules.
Manipulated variable: Size of solute molecules.
Responding variable: Colour of solution in the visking tube.
Fixed variable: Surrounding temperature, time and volume of solutions.
Apparatus and materials : Benedicts solution, 1% starch suspension, iodine solution, 30% glucose
solution, a visking tube, cotton thread, test tubes, beakers, Bunsen burner.
Procedures :
1. A visking tubing is soaked in water for 5 minutes to soften it.
2. One end of the visking tubing is tied firmly with a piece of cotton thread to prevent leakage.
3. The visking tubing is filled with 15ml of glucose solution and 15ml of starch suspension.
4. The other end of the visking tubing is tied with another piece if thread. The colour of the solution is
5. The outer surface of the visking tubing is rinsed with distilled water.
6. 400ml of distilled water and 15ml of iodine solution are mixed in a beaker. The colour of the
solution is recorded.
7. The visking tubing is immersed in the beaker of solution and left to stand for 40 minutes.
8. After 40 minutes, the visking tubing is transferred to a dry beaker.
9. The colour of the solutions in the visking tubing and the beaker is observed and recorded.
10. Both solutions are for the presence of glucose using Benedict solution.
11. (a) 2ml of each solution are poured into separate test tubes and 1ml of Benedict solution is then
added to each test tube.
(b)The solution is heated in a boiling water bath for about 5 minutes and the change in colour is
then recorded.
Presentation of data:

Type of solution
Glucose solution
Starch solution

Initial colour

Final colour