Job Family

Job Shadowing

Learning Organization Senge

Lone Worker

A job family is a collection of related jobs that requires employees having similar knowledge, skills and abilities at different levels. Thus, a job family has jobs at progressing levels
defining a career path for an individual, with incremental requirement of the similar knowledge, skills and abilities.
Job families help in providing flexibility to managers while selecting employees with differing competencies and thus helping in devising an effective training and development plan for
the job family. This even helps in succession planning for high potential employees in the organization. This in turn helps in employee retention and better human resource
Job shadowing is basically a ‘career exploration activity’. Here a student or a non-student gets an opportunity to spend time with a professional currently working in his/her career field
of interest.
Job shadowing thus offers a real-time chance to observe, feel and know what it’s actually like working in that specific job. Here apart from the observation they can discuss their queries
and concerns with the person they are shadowing.
This theory was given by a well-known strategist Peter M. Senge. The theory defines what is called as a ‘Learning Organization’
Quoting Mr. Senge here, he describes learning organizations as:
‘…organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective
aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.’
The rationale behind such lines of thinking for any organization is response to the market. In today’s scenario where the competitive environment is changing rapidly, only the
companies that are flexible, adaptive and productive will survive. Being a learning organization is just a way to do so.
The theory calls for companies to work on these on five dimensions:
• Systems thinking
• Personal mastery
• Mental models
• Building shared vision
• Team learning
Lone worker is a person working alone without assistance and isolated from other workers without a supervisor. Such a person could be vulnerable to risk. Lone workers, since they are
not directly supervised, faces more risk than other workers. The employers have to take necessary steps for the safety of the lone worker. The employers should maintain the written
health and safety policy and give a clear understanding about that to the employee.
Lone worker includes many different kinds of workers such as: 1. People who work in a fixed base and working alone on the premises, like employees working in petrol pumps and in
shops. 2. People working separately from others but in the same premises as other employees, like security staff or the people working outside the normal hours. 3. People working
away from the fixed base, like agriculture and forestry workers, electricians, healthcare workers, service or maintenance workers etc. 4. People working from home, like freelancing,
software code developers etc. 5. People working on mobile, like taxi drivers.
The employer should provide a safe system to work because in case of electricians and maintenance employees it would be very risky if the systems are not good. Employers have prove
safe work environments to work, else it would be dangerous to the employees working in petrol pumps. And maintenance workers should not be asked to go to any place or any client
for work, the employer has to make sure it is safe before asking the employee to go there. The employer has to give necessary training to the employees before assigning the work.

Mad Hatter

A Mad Hatter is a CEO or a person at a managerial level whose ability to lead a company is questionable. A mad hatter takes decisions that is of little sense and makes employees and
other stakeholders puzzled and suspicious. They usually make unusual and impulsive decisions and do not think about the consequences of such decisions on the company.
Sometimes the decisions are taken for personal gains but at other times they are just bad decisions.
Mad Hatter was a character in Lewis Carroll’s book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.

Operant Conditioning

Operating conditioning is a type of learning coined by BF Skinner that is based on the premise that learning occurs through consequences of their actions. A desirable behaviour can be
enhanced or repeated through positive reinforcement whereas unwanted behaviour can be eliminated through punishment. BF Skinner tested this theory using a lab rat that was put
into a cage. By pressing a lever in the cage the rat would receive a treat.
Once the rat had learnt the purpose of the lever, it would directly reach for the lever when put into the cage. This portrayed that positive reinforcement could help develop repeated
behavior. Later another rat was put into a different cage. The second cage however was built to give a small electric shock when the lever was pushed. When the rat learnt of the
punishment it did not repeat the behaviour of pressing the lever again.
The advantage of using operant conditioning is that organizations can motivate their employees through positive reinforcements. This could include incentive, bonuses and other
benefits linked to the performance of the individual. Similarly they can also control undesired behaviour through punishment such as demotion, although most successful organizations
use the former.
A disadvantage however is that motivation is only gained through external factors such as a bonus. When the organization stops giving bonuses the desired behaviour will also
eventually stop. Therefore operant conditioning is not a permanent motivator.

Performance Prism

Business performance is a concept that has many dimensions and driven by multiple parameters. Most of the existing frameworks do capture the components of performance
measurement, but in isolation and not as one integrated unit. This is solved by the performance prism framework.
Firstly, it talks about understanding the requirements of the stakeholders of the organisation- Investors, Suppliers, Customers, Employees, and Intermediaries etc. This step is very
essential to build the strategies in alignment with the goals of the stakeholders. Strategies should be formed only after understanding the key stakeholder needs. In order to execute
these strategies, the processes needed are then identified and to support the functioning of the processes, the capabilities of the organisation in terms of manpower and other
resources are then addressed. Finally, in order to support these capabilities, it becomes important to understand the type and extent of contribution from the stakeholders to ensure

Just like a prism which exhibits the multiple components and the complexity of a simple white ray of light, this model shows the complexity involved in performance management and
measurement and a comprehensive approach to the concept.
Reputation Quotient Harris Fombrun
It is a tool which measures the corporate reputation and captures all the stakeholders which come under it which are:• Consumers
• Employers
• Investors
It gives in depth analysis of the drivers of the company which determine the reputation.
And also gives reputation comparisons between the departments of the same industry as well as across different industries.
The business reputation of any firm is assessed based on 6 attributes: • Emotional appeal
• Products and services
• Vision and leadership
• Workplace environment
• Financial performance
• Social responsibility
Operational Performance Measurements
Operational Performance Measurements are the key metrics which are used to measure the operational performance of a company. Different companies have different metrics to
measure their own performance but few of the metrics are common across the entire business environment. Few of these metrics include:
• Customer Satisfaction Index
• Employee Satisfaction Index
• Revenue Generation
• Productivity
• Gross Profit
Keeping in mind the above few mentioned points and points specific to the industry to which the company belongs, a company generally evaluates itself and is evaluated by other
agencies in terms of operational performance. Generally keeping a high index or score on all the above mentioned points indicate that the company’s operational performance is good.
These metrics which cumulatively determine the operational performance of the company are very useful and important as these help the company to identify the particular area in
which the company is lacking and it tries improving on these aspects. A company with a high operational performance is seen in good light by all, customer, employees and investors so
all companies are continuously trying to improve this.
For example: A company wants to measure it’s performance, it’s weightage for customer satisfaction index is 20%, employee satisfaction index is 10%, revenue generation is 30%,
Productivity is 10% and Gross Profit is 30%. The scores for each of these parameters are given on a scale of 1 to 10. The company scores 7,8,6,7 and 7 for each aspect in the order
mentioned above. So, the total score for operational performance of the company becomes 6.8 on a scale of 1 to 10 and the calculation for that is: ((7*0.2) + (8*0.1) + (6*0.3) + (7*0.1) +
Valley of Despair
With each new project, there is a period of time where productivity decreases immediately after implementation. This loss in productivity occurs as a result of shifting your routine away
from the way things are—how your employees do business before the change—to your desired outcome. Ideally, after this period of reduced productivity passes, your new project
becomes a program and delivers the desired outcome, and your success will climb well beyond the level experienced before implementation.


Well Pay

Well-Pay is an incentive scheme for employees, which was implemented to reward the employee for not being sick and absent from the working place. Well-Pay essentially combats the
problems arising due to sick leaves.
The employer is not entitled to provide the employee with a paid sick leave. But in order to fight the problems related to absenteeism - it was important to construct paid sick leaves.
But research shows that sick leave plans may actually increase the sick leave use by the employees. There is empirical which suggests that organisations with sick leave programs face
almost twice the absenteeism of organisations without a program.
Therefore it was imperative to introduce Well-Pay scheme as they will incentivise employees for not being sick, keeping physically healthy and reporting to work regularly.
The Well-Pay scheme will increase the overall effectiveness of the organisation as it encourages people to be on the job and not take unnecessary leaves on the pretext of being sick these leaves are a farce in a significant number of cases and this scheme will reduce the employees' tendency to lie and take the leave.
Following are the objectives of the Well-Pay scheme
a. It offers the employee an incentive to stay well
b. Lower the absenteeism rate faced by the organisation. The exact proportion of a fake sickness cannot be determined. So, with the help of this - we can ensure that the fake sick leaves
are reduced to whatever extent.
c. Improve the productivity of the organisation.

Work Sample Tests

Work Sample Tests are the methods which are used for the purpose of judging a person’s ability to do an assigned job and evaluating them based on their performance in the particular
job. The context and content may vary but the ultimate aim remains the same.
A typical example of work sample test is when in any interview a prospective employee is asked short and simple question like how will you react to a particular situation or he may be
given a scenario and asked to analyze the same. These tests are used as an indicator of employees’ future behavior as they judge him under real life situations or real life tasks.
Categories of Work Sample Tests:
(a) Tests of Trainability
(b) Simulation based
(c) In Basket Exercises
(d) Low Fidelity Simulations

Work-Life Employee Benefits

Work/life employee benefits are the incentives for the employees work hard and perform better. It also encourages them to continue working with the same organization for a long
All employees, including star performers, assign equal importance to work/life employee benefits. Employees today want to be a part of an organization that is supportive and trusts
staff. They want flexibility in their work so as to be able to have a perfect work-life balance.Hence, organizations must provide some work/life benefits to the employees. These will help
them retain the right employees, get the best out of them and thus improve productivity. This will enable to be the employer of choice as well.
Eg – Some of the work/life employee benefits that employees should provide aresick leaves, education allowance, medical allowances, Leave Travel Allowance, retirement plans, etc.
Some organizations that provide excellent work/life benefits as per Fortune are Google, SAS, BCG, etc.

Rookie Ratio

This word was introduced to me by my classmate from IIM Calcutta “Pratima Srivastava”.
Rookie Ratio is defined as number of people with less than 2 years employment. Recently employed people are less stable than old. They are also less efficient, because they have not
yet socialized into the tradition of the organization, so they do not know the most efficient way around.
Formula (Headcount.0_to_2_years / Headcount )
It is important to recognise that there is no ‘perfect’ level of rookies in an organisation. Too many and too few can both be problems. The real focus has to be on identifying particularly
high or low levels, the reasons for this and the implications for the business.
Typically, ‘rookie’ employees can be less efficient in the immediate term than those employees who have been with the company for a while as:
• they are still learning the organisation’s systems and processes;
and • they place greater demands on the HR team.
In fact for many, getting rookies to stay is an integral part of the resourcing lifecycle.
Nevertheless, they bring significant benefits and their presence is often used as part of overall ‘organisational health’ assessments. In particular, organisations with a low turnover of
staff can suffer from limited levels of experimentation and innovation.
A flow of new recruits provides new ideas, impetus to challenge existing ways of working and ensures a supply of new talent entering the management structure. The challenge for
businesses is to find the optimal balance between fresh ideas and retaining existing organizational knowledge.

Abilene Paradox

The Abilene Paradox refers to a situation when a group makes a collective decision that is counter to the thoughts and feelings of its individual members. The Abilene Paradox occurs
because individuals do not want to ‘rock the boat’ or ‘be a killjoy,’ even though their perceptions of the other members’ feelings are incorrect.
The Abilene Paradox was introduced by management thinker Jerry B. Harvey, Professor Emeritus of Management at The George Washington University, in an article on the subject. It
occurs because human beings have a natural aversion to going against the feelings of a group - they want to conform socially. According to Harvey, the paradox may be driven because
individuals believe they will experience negative attitudes or feelings if they ‘speak up’ on a topic. Of course, if no-one speaks up, the group will make a decision that is counter to the
wishes and feelings of the group.
The paradox is similar to groupthink but generally when the Abilene Paradox occurs, the individual members of the group feel the overall decision is a poor one, but this isn’t always the
case with groupthink. Efficient groups must work to overcome both groupthink and the Abilene Paradox as part of optimising group dynamics.

Transition Stay Bonus

Transition Stay Bonus is an extra payment for employees whose jobs are being terminated, thereby motivating them to remain with the organization for a period of time. A transition
stay bonus is a tool in the hands of an organization which helps them in retaining as well as motivating the employees at the senior management level positions as well as the key
It’s a common phenomenon especially when the company is being sold off due to its poor financial condition or when the company is insolvent or there might be a possibility of
redundant buying wherein a small private firm is being acquired by a corporate giant. It’s the usual tendency of the organization to pay off such bonuses at the end of the sale period,
requiring employee participation till the time the transaction ends.
Stay bonuses helps the management achieve a number of objectives:
a. Such bonuses which are paid to the employee are paid in cash and not in stocks. Also, the money or the cash that the employee gets depends on the value of the company at the time
when it is being sold.
b. Since, employees receive the entire benefit amount if they stay in the organization for at least 2 years, the tendency or probability of employees leaving the organization is minimized
to a large extent.
c. Motivate employees during company’s low phase.
According to the study conducted by Birol the concept of retention bonus is not about bringing loyalty in an organization it’s all about keeping the triage during the period when
different transitions are taking place in the organization. They help the company in a positive manner as they help in retaining the desired talent at the time when it’s required the most.
It often comes under a contract wherein the longer you tend to stay with the organization the higher is the bonus that you get.
It is very crucial especially for:
a) Preservation of the talent pool.
b) Maintaining the key people and functions in continuation to help the organization.
c) Building a long and fruitful relationship with the employees.

Top Down Programs

Top down programs is an information processing strategy where in the information - orders and decisions trickle down from the top management to the bottom ones. Herein the
hierarchical structure of any organisation plays a huge role.
Flat versus heavily layered organisations have different ways. Most diversity and strategic initiatives start with a top down approach. When a change has to be brought about keeping
philosophy in mind, top down programs come into play.
The overview of a system is formulated in case of top down programs. The bird's eye view is taken into account and decision are made. Processes and strategies are developed to
promote awareness and appreciation of differences, ensure fair treatment, increase representation, and create a culture of inclusion.
Elements of Top Down Approach in case of Human Resource Management
a. Leadership development - Develop leadership skills and address the important skill gap to attain sustainable competitive advantage
b. Training - Train the employees and ensure that the learning is retained
c. Equal employment - There needs to be fairness for all
d. Zero tolerance policies - Discrimination on any unlawful grounds should not be tolerated
e. Social responsibility initiatives - Corporate Social Responsibility should be taken seriously and as a component of business goals
f. Recruitment and retention programmes - Talent Management is a philosophy and not a mere task
g. Linking diversity to business goals - This is particularly important in the case of an ever changing globalised world

Six Thinking Hats de Bono

Self Directed Work Teams

Edward de Bono wrote a book called Six Thinking Hats to look at the decision from different perspectives. The book is used as a management tool to record the responses from different
perspectives in a group discussion.
The six perspectives as mentioned in the book include:
Information: (White)
Emotions (Red)
Bad points judgment (Black)
Good points judgment (Yellow)
Creativity (Green)
Process control (Blue)
The underlying principle behind the book says that every decision can be looked from six different perspectives which he clubbed by different colours and hence in case of a group
discussion every member used to wear the cap of a certain colour and use to respond from that perspective and then the cap rotates and the member reacts from the new perspective
as asked by the cap.
Self directed work teams are those who carry out a business operation with little or no input from a supervisor or manager. The team handles both the managerial and operative tasks.
Organizations with a decentralized decision making process are more suitable to accommodate self directed work teams since they empower employees to take the right decisions.
3M is an example of a company that promotes self directed work teams. The post-it notes product of 3M was invented because of this freedom and the intrapreneurial characteristics of
its employees. An optimal self managed team should have between 5 to 9 members.
An advantage of promoting self managed teams is that it improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. The managers can spend their time on other work instead of
supervising the team. Self managed teams promote innovation and hence they are more likely to device innovative solutions to problems faced by the organization.
One drawback however is that if the members of the team do not possess managerial skills, the team will not be able to operate efficiently and may lead to chaos. Furthermore the
decision making time is longer since there is no deadline set by the superiors. The initial stage of the formation of the self directed work team may lead to lower productivity before the
group gains momentum and starts to produce efficiently.

Wage Drift

Wage drift is defined as the differential amount by which the wages paid to a worker exceeds the previously negotiated amount of wage, collectively agreed upon. The main reason for
this occurring is the worker having worked for extended durations (excess overtime wages) or the ambient economic condition resulting in a shortage of worker availability. In the latter
case, an employed worker will receive wages higher than the national wage rate.
In the field of human resources, wage drift poses a real problem for HR managers to precisely predict and fix wages, the reason being the factors causing wage drift mostly lies beyond
the control of the recognised procedure of scheduling wages.
The mechanism of wage drift has two possible ways of occurrence. Firstly, when the earnings increase beyond the agreed upon terms, a worker’s earnings between two successive
raises may increase without any change in the degree of utilisation of his labour. Or, secondly, the earnings may remain constant but his labour may be underutilised. When earnings
increase faster than labour inputs, unit labour cost to the company will increase irrespective of the cause being a wage drift or not.

Wage Curve

Wage curve is a curve which represents a relationship between the rate of unemployment (plotted on the X-axis) and wage rate (represented on the Y-axis). Example. The wage curve in
a particular mall will be lower when the rate of unemployment is high. It’s is a representative of relationship between the two variable at the local level i.e between local wages and local
level of unemployment.
Initially, it was supposed that the there is a relationship between unemployment & wage rate, and also the unemployment in a particular area is directly related to the changes in the
rate of wages in a particular area. This is contrary to what is explained by the wage curve according to which their exists an inverse relationship between the two.
Understanding the Wage Curve:
We know that the supply/number of labors is directly related to the wages, ie. the higher the organization pays the more is the number of hours of work the individual is ready to put in,
but there is a twist in it in terms of the fact that the individual might not be ready to sacrifice an hour or more of his rest/leisure time (which is quite essential). The lower the rate of
unemployment , fewer is the number of people available for a particular job and hence higher is the wage per employee.
Example. If a person can put in a maximum of 8 hours of work daily @ Rs.80/hr. If the same person is paid @ Rs. 100/hr, which is higher in terms of returns that the person gets after
putting in the same amount off work. Therefore, more number of people will be required for getting the work done.
Implications: Wage Curve
1. It gives us an idea of how the rate of unemployment varies in different countries and also the reasons for the same.
2. It also explains why labors are willing to move from an area with low wage rate and high unemployment to an area with high wage rate and low unemployment.


Utilisation Review

Sensitive line.

Threat rigidity response

Utilisation review is a process that is conducted by a Health Insurance company when it reviews a request for medical treatment. Through this process, the insurance company can
process the entire plan offered - and try to somehow reduce the costs. It also gives the customer the opportunity to explore the health plan and file a legal complaint if the health
insurance does not agree.
Utilisation review is sometimes confused with utilisation management. Utilisation management is with respect to approval of future needs and utilisation management is for review of
past records and medical treatment.
Utilisation review is also called retrospective review. It reviews the following:
a. The treatment services that have been used and prescribed by the doctors.
b. The relative comparison between the past treatment file and guidelines.
c. The records also serve as a database for the Medical Insurance company - that helps it to make decisions. All the stakeholders involved the process - patient, nurses, doctors,
insurance agent - give on their feedback and perspective, that is also documented.
Example of a Utilisation Review Plan - The Layout and Topics covered
1. Objectives - Set the aim of the review
2. Scope - Set the limits and defined boundaries for the process
3. Peer Review
4. Conflict of Interest - physician who is in charge of the process will not participate in the review
5. Confidentiality details
Types of Review
a. Prospective Review
b. Concurrent Review
c. Admission Review
d. Continued Stay Review
The concept of sensitive line refers to the point at which individuals become defensive or protective when encountering information about themselves that is inconsistent with their self
concept or when encountering pressure to alter their behaviour. Most people regularly experience information about themselves that doesn't quite fit or that is marginally inconsistent.
For example, a friend might say, "You look tiered today. Are you feeling okay?" If you are feeling fine, the information is inconsistent with your self awareness. But because the
discrepancy is relatively minor, it would not be likely to offend you or evoke a strong defensive reaction. That is, it would probably not require that you reexamine and change your self
On the other hand, the more discrepant the information or more serious it's implications for your self concept, the closer it would approach your sensitive line, and you would feel a
need to defend yourself against it. For example, having a coworker judge you incompetent as a manager may cross your sensitive line if you think you have done a good job as a
manager. This would be especially true if the coworker was an influential person. Your response would probably be to defend yourself against the information to protect the image you
hold of yourself. This response is known as threat rigidity response.
When individuals are threatened, when they encounter uncomfortable information, or when uncertainty is created, they tend to become rigid. They hunker down, protect themselves,
and become risk averse. Consider what happened when you are startled or suddenly shocked by something unexpected. Physically, your body tends to become rigid in order to protect
itself. It tightens up to safeguard stability. Similarly, individuals also become rigid psychologically and emotionally when they encounter information that is a threat to their self concept.
They tend to redouble their efforts to protect what is comfortable and familiar. They rely on first-learned or most reinforced behavioral patterns and emotions. When discrepancies
instead self image are encountered, in other words, the validity of information or its source is denied, or other kinds of defence mechanism are used to ensure that the self-concept
remains stable. Crossing the sensitive line creates rigidity and self preservation.



Acculturation is the process of transformation that takes place, when there is an intermixing between two or more cultures. In acculturation, the people form group adopt the concepts,
traits, beliefs etc. of the other group.
The changes can be seen over two aspects,
1. Group Level: Change in the culture, food habits, draping sense, etc.
2. Individual Level: Daily behavior over a period of time, measures of physiological & psychological well being
The best part is that the even though the original cultural patterns of the groups change, the groups remain distinct. The concept was studied in detail in the fields of psychology,
anthropology & sociology. The focus for acculturation has predominantly been the minorities, immigrants, and how they adapt to the society.
As acculturation is a sum total of the various factors at play, we build certain conceptual models keeping those factors intact. The most predominant have been the
1. Kramer’s Model
2. Kim & Gudykunst
3. Fourfold Model: It takes into account Assimilation, Separation, Integration & Marginalization.
Given the various ideas & thought process relating to acculturation, we could conclude that it is a cultural merging or rather the change in a person by borrowing certain traits from the
other cultures.

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort on holding contradictory cognitions or different ideas in the mind simultaneously. Cognitive dissonance results in tension often when
what a person believes is different how he acts. However, this is known to be a strong psychological motivator where in a person tries to change one or the other beliefs so that the
beliefs are no longer conflicting.
How strong cognitive dissonance is is directly related to how important the subject/decision in question is to the person and to what extend the person is unable to rationalize the
situation and explain the conflict.
Collectivism is a political theory which states that power should be distributed in the hands of people as a whole and not in the hands of few people. It is a social ideology which places
significant emphasis on groups. Collectivism encourages people to conform to groups and discourages individuals from working individually out of groups.
Collectivist cultures favor interdependence and loyalty to family or clan. Examples of collectivist cultures are Asians, Arabians, South American and South European cultures. This was
found out by Hofsteade in 2001 after he conducted a survey of IBM employees in 30 countries. He surveyed people with similar jobs in different countries but in the same company to
measure difference in culture if any. He created an index for measuring individualism and collectivism and accordingly classified the countries.
There are two types of collectivism horizontal and vertical collectivism. In horizontal collectivism all members of the group are considered to be very equal and they share resources and
responsibilities. Example: a cooperative enterprise. In vertical collectivism people maintain a social hierarchy and people submit to those above them in the hierarchy. Example: a
military hierarchy.



A compa-ratio of ‘100 %’ would mean that the employee’s current salary for a job position and the range mid-point for a comparable position are equal.
Compa-ratio= (Employee' s current salary )/(Range mid-point) X 100 %
Compa-ratio is used by the employer to benchmark the salary being paid to the employee with that of the market. The ratio is determined on the basis of the strategy of the
organization and the budget allocated for the workforce.
A salary range – minimum and maximum – is defined and the range mid-point is found. This procedure is followed for each grade level. This helps achieve internal equity. A Market
Reference Point can be used instead of a range mid-point to achieve external equity. An employee’s work experience, performance, and skills would indicate the compa-ratio at which
the salary is to be fixed.


Constraints on Recruiting Efforts Constraints on the recruiting efforts are the hindrances faced during the recruitment process. In real world practice it is actually difficult to find and select a suitable candidate fit for the
job. The recruiting organization’s mode of communication may not be an appropriate one.
Some of the brilliant applicants may feel that the vacancy is not in line with their current expectation or their talent. An organization may not be able to select the candidates freely even
though they offer much better salaries and amenities.
Following are few constraints faced by the organization during the recruitment:1. Reputation of the organization- The reputation of the organization influences the recruitment process to a great extent. A candidate may not apply to the enterprise if it doesn’t carry
a good image in the society. The probability of attracting large pool of applicant is reduced in such a case. This usually happen due to poor working conditions, delay in salary, rude
management, etc.
2. Unattractive Jobs- If the job is hazardous, tension ridden, boring, unattractive, lacks opportunities, very few of the candidates would be applying for it. At the same time if there is
opportunity of growth, flexible working hours, good working conditions, high salary, there would be large number of applicants for such kind of jobs.
3. Trade union- In some of the cases, agreement with the trade unions may be the constraint to recruit employee from outside. An agreement with the union to fill certain percentage of
posts will restrict the choice of the management.
4. Organizational Policies- The internal policy framework of the organization also acts as a constraint sometimes for recruiting any applicant. A policy of recruiting higher positions from
outside might discourage a deserving candidate to apply in such an organization.
5. Government Policies- Sometimes the government policies also act as a constraint on recruitment policy of the enterprise. Government policy may require certain percentage of seats
to be reserved for the weaker section of the society. Government policy may also require selecting a candidate from the list provided by the government employment exchange. Such
kind policies restrict the management from recruiting by their choice.
Criterion-Related Validity

In HRM, criterion-related validity is associated with the extent to which one measure is related to one outcome. It is used to assess that if a test showcases some specific set of abilities.
This is a type of validity that is used to determine the relationship between a predictor and a criterion. The strength of relationship, or correlation is measured with the criterion-related
validity coefficient. To use criterion-related validity for any test, the first step is to calibrate it with respect to a known standard.
For example, this type of validity can be used as a test of measure of work performance in a departmental store. Some indicators of employee performance can be absence, ratings
given by supervisor, length of employee service, number of errors made and laziness. To validate the relationship between employee performance and any of the above mentioned
criterion, the supervisor will have to choose one of the criterion, and then show a statistically significant relation between the work performance and the criterion, say the number of
errors made in a year. Another example would be the relationship displayed by the test scores of candidates with their leadership traits in a test for being an effective manager.
Criterion related validity is further classified into either concurrent validity or predictive validity. Under concurrent validity, the comparison between the measure and outcome is made
simultaneously. That is, it is a measure of the relationship between the criterion and the result at a particular point in time. On the contrary, predictive validity attempts to derive a
relationship between the measure and outcome at a future point of time.
It is important to realise the minute difference between the two and use the correct validity as per the situation. For example, comparison of geometry exam scores in an institute with
grades in the course can help to determine the relationship between the extents to which test score is related to class performance in geometry. This is concurrent validity. An example
of predictive validity would be an exit poll that tries to measure the future voting intentions.

Concession Bargaining

In concession bargaining unions give back to the management something it has gained from the management previously like pay rises, work practices, good working conditions and
similar other things in return for job security. This kind of bargaining takes place mainly when there is a recession condition in the market.
This is a form of collective bargaining and the term is used frequently in labor laws and it is opposite to all other forms of union –management bargaining where unions demand
something from the management. It was coined in the 1980’s.This bargaining is used by labor unions to save jobs during times of recession when there are layoffs by the company. The
amount of trust that the union has on the management and the credibility of the management to the union affects the extent to which concessions take place in concession bargaining.
One example of concession bargaining was the concessions on wage and benefits made by the International Union of Electric Workers to General Motors to save 3000 jobs.
There are three types of concession bargaining-integrative, distributive and ultra concession bargaining.
In integrative concession when unions give back some kind of concession to the employer, the employer along with job security also engages in other forms of reciprocating exchange
like allowing the unions to participate in decision making, sharing information, engaging employees, profit sharing etc.
In distributive concession bargaining employers make use of hard times in business to allow trade unions to make concessions in their working conditions and pay in return for job
security. No concession is granted in participation in decision making or recognition of trade unions.
In ultra concession unions have no power at all. In this form of concession bargaining employers gain a lot of concession from unions and in return they give very few or no benefits to
the unions. Also employers turn hostile to unions and try to suppress the unions.


Contingent Staff

Contingent Staff is a group of contingent workers who usually work under a contract for a fixed period of time or for a specific project. They are paid according to number of hours
worked and they don’t get any benefits and allowances that permanent employees get.
They are also known as freelancers, or temporary contract workers.
Contingent Staff works in casual employment and working arrangements are less formal for them.
They are popular in industries with fluctuating demands.
Temporary Agency Worker
Seasonal Worker
Costs saving in terms of benefits given to permanent employeesCan have an immediate access for the specialized skill not present in the organizationFlexibility in number of resources as
per the requirementFlexibility in type of resources as per the requirementSavings in long term compensation
Fitting the new employees in the organization culture can be difficultEmployee loyalty will be lesserTraining costs will be higherHigh turnover rateEmployer lacks control over the
contingent worker, company has only monetary control over him/her
A salesperson can be an example of contingent worker where the company has hired him in peak loads of sales. The company focuses on results and not on the methodology adopted
by the salesperson.


Assessment Centre

Assessment Centre or Management Assessment Centre is one of the selection techniques used in organizations to measure the knowledge, skills & abilities (KSA) of a person. A
traditional assessment centre involves six participants and lasts from one to three days. The participants are evaluated by trained assessors by various techniques likesimulations and
also sometimes using interviews & tests.
In the simulation technique, the participants are asked to perform realistic tasks in hypothetical situations. Some of the commonly used simulation exercises include:
•In-basket exercise
•Leaderless group discussion
•Management games
•Fact-finding exercises
•Individual presentation exercises
When the participants work through these exercises, the assessors evaluate their behaviour & knowledge level. After that, they share their observations and prepare the evaluation
report. It is especially done for management level candidateslike plant managers, general managers etc. It is a very good technique to predict future job performance.
In some of the companies the assessment is done through external agency also. Many manufacturing companies use this method where large number of applicants must be
processed.Toyota for example assessed 22,000 applicants by this method to staff their 3000 person plant in Kentucky.
The Process was introduced by the German army during World War II. After several high ranking officials of the army failed to deliver as expected, the army appointed psychologist Max
Simoneit to conduct leadership tests.
Today this is a common exercise used by armies across the world for personnel selection and is being adopted slowly by industries.
A selection committee is formed of trained psychologists and experienced managers. They observe the candidates closely during the exercises and evaluate them. The evaluation report
is used to select the right candidate. It is also used for their future training and development.

Contrast Error

Contrast Error is a concept during a performance appraisal of a candidate where his/her valuation is impacted by the fact that the previous candidates were relatively good or bad. It is
an error where a person sets a certain benchmark, which affects the appraisal of the candidate being interviewed.
From HR perspective, this kind of error occurs during interviews and performance appraisals. In a process of performance appraisal or interview, mistakes induced as a result of
previously appraised or interviewed participants on the questioner. It creates an alarmed or unalarmed comparing of one participant with the other, and inclines towards exaggerating
their differences.
For example: A, B and C are interviewing for a job opening. A is up first, and he gives a poor performance .Consequently, the rater gives B and C a more favourable rating because the
bar was set so low by A. Even though they did not perform remarkably, yet they received better reading.


Compensable Factors

Compensable factors can be simply understood as the criteria used to evaluate a job and on the basis of which salary/wages of the employee is computed. It is like the organization is
willing to pay based on certain must have competencies or other eligibility factors. Compensable factors are usually determined and defined based on the values and objectives of the
Each of the compensable factors have their own importance and weight in the process of final evaluation. The 4 most basic compensable factors: effort, skill, responsibility and working
conditions. There are usually 5 to 12 compensable factors in any evaluation procedure. The compensable factors are different for different evaluations.
For example, following could be the compensable factors for preparing a job description:1. Experience- the prior experience of the employee, whether he has worked in similar industry previously or some other.
2. Education- all the educational qualifications that are mandatory for the job.
3. Working Condition- the working condition of the job in which the employee would be working.
4. Confidential Data- the extent to which the employee is exposed to the confidential data.
5. Consequences of errors- consequences of the error occurrence by the employees, results of the mistake.
6. Complexity of duties- the difficulty level of the task, whether too much decision making is required or not.
7. Responsibility- the extent of the responsibility the employee entitled to.
8. Mental and physical demands- the degree of concentration and the environment accordingly.
Following are the Advantages of compensable factors:-

Double Burden

1. It eliminates ambiguity for the evaluation procedure.
Double burden is a phenomenon where an individual is given two equally difficult and usually conflicting roles to play, and they are not given any monetary benefit for one of the roles.
On a general note, the term Double burden is used to describe the position of women who two roles that is the paid job outside and also homemaking and child care done inside home.
It is double burden because, the work done inside the home is an unpaid work and this causes a perception that this work is something of less value than the paid work performed
Traditionally HR used to play a role more like an Administrator, formulating policies and implementing them. HR used to involve more with the employees, understanding their
aspirations, Suggesting their carrier growth plans, dealing with their issues, giving proper recognition, formulating policies for their welfare, turning the environment into employee
friendly and also increasing the productivity of the employees and making the employees successful in the organization. But in the present scenario the role of HR has been shifted to a
strategic partner, where HR participates in formulating business strategies, designing organization structure, participating in business decisions, setting organization wide culture,
business goals and objectives.
In this way, now the HR has to play two roles in the organization. Being a strategic partner, HR has to have clear focus in satisfying the customer needs, which can be achieved only
through the employees. Hence the HR has to work on building employee satisfaction, which directly results in customer value creation and strong customer relationship, helping in
customer retention and satisfaction.


Reverse Mentoring

Reverse mentoring refers to an initiative in which older executives are paired with and mentored by younger employees on topics such as technology, social media and current trends. In
the tech industry or other businesses that rely heavily on technology, reverse-mentoring is seen as a way to bring older employees up to speed in areas that are often second nature to
20-something employees, whose lives have been more deeply integrated with computers and the Web.
The idea that senior executives could stand to learn a thing or two from new employees goes against traditional workplace practices, where most more experienced workers often
provide the most input, make decisions and provide mentorship to newer employees with less experience. However, the fast-moving developments in technology and trends has
reversed this logic in some offices, where older workers may have experience and insight, but lack strong skills in newer technologies.
Also, while some older executives are insulted by the notion of being mentored by a new employee, many see it as an opportunity for give and take, where new and experienced
employees share their knowledge, boosting both groups' understanding and improving overall communication and collaboration in the workplace.
Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, has been credited with helping to spread the popularity of reverse mentoring. Back in the '90s, he realized that GE management had much
to learn about the Internet, so he mandated that top executives at the company (including himself) take on a reverse mentor. High-profile cases like this have helped to ease the stigma
of reverse mentoring, even getting it to the point where some older employees are actually requesting it.
The good news is that reverse or reciprocal mentoring can take place within existing company mentoring programs. It doesn’t require a lot in the way of new processes, just the ability
to match up employees of different generations and then encourage each team to meet regularly to exchange ideas and challenge each other. Mentoring relationships shouldn’t be
restricted to people of the same gender or who have similar backgrounds – because there’s much we can learn from people who are different from ourselves!

Frictional Unemployment

Frictional Unemployment is a period of an individual between the Unemployment and Employment ‘or’ Earlier Employment and Employment. This is also called natural unemployment.
It is the transition time of an individual shifting from one job to another. One of the reasons is that he did not have a particular skill for the employment ‘or’ there is a gap between
his/her expectations and reality.
The mismatch is due to the following reasons.
I. Time period
I. Skills
II. Payments
III. Attitude
IV. Taste
There is another type of unemployment called wait unemployment. It means that the workers are paid more than the market equilibrium. It indicates the excess amount which can be
paid to the others workers in a sector which will help country to reduce employment in country.
Some type of unemployment can be avoided by reducing the gap of information between need of jobs and need of employment. The frictional employment stays for a short period of
time. Hence, it does not have a large impact on an economy of country. The economist also does not account for the frictional employment for calculations of GDP, GNP etc.
Recently, numbers of engineering colleges are increasing rapidly. It leads to large supply of engineers in job market. But, on the other side of coin, the commerce stream faces severe
shortage of students as well as good faculty in market. It indicates frictional unemployment for Engineering graduates and commerce faculty at undergraduate level.



Regiocentrism can be defined as a process in which the selection staffing and recruitment of personnel is done from population that is residing in that particular country of a region for
running the business in some other country of the same region. For e.g. - A multinational company like HUL recruiting people of Indian origin for operating the Bangladeshi business
Advantage of using Regiocentrism approach
1. It helps organization to select people that are more culturally fit and related to that particular region and hence better aware of business and problem of people in that particular
2. It helps in cost cutting if a costs of hiring talent in the host country are significantly higher
3. It helps in knowledge sharing which can be used to better train the personnel in knowledge of business.
Disadvantage of using Regiocentrism Approach
1. Regiocentrism can be a problem if the people in host country are hostile towards the people of other country
2. Sometime the managers may lack the expertise to deal with people of other origin and therefore situation could turn grave.
3. Communication barrier may arise due to different language which may be problem in doing business. At times this problem is counteracted by providing training to the employees.

Servant leadership

Servant leadership is both a leadership philosophy and set of leadership practices. Traditional leadership generally involves the accumulation and exercise of power by one at the “top of
the pyramid.” By comparison, the servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible.
Most writers see servant leadership as an underlying philosophy of leadership, demonstrated through specific characteristics and practices. The foundational concepts are found in
Greenleaf’s first three major essays, "The Servant as Leader", "The Institution as Servant", and "Trustees as Servants."
Larry Spears identified ten characteristic of servant leaders in the writings of Greenleaf. The ten characteristics are listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization,
foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of others, and building community. Leadership experts such as Bolman, Deal, Covey, Fullan, Sergiovanni, and Heifitz also reference
these characteristics as essential components of effective leadership.
The Center for Servant Leadership at the Pastoral Institute in Georgia defines servant leadership as a lifelong journey that includes discovery of one’s self, a desire to serve others, and a
commitment to lead. Servant-leaders continually strive to be trustworthy, self-aware, humble, caring, visionary, empowering, relational, competent, good stewards, and community
Kent Keith, author of The Case for Servant Leadership, states that servant leadership is ethical, practical, and meaningful. He identifies seven key practices of servant leaders: selfawareness, listening, changing the pyramid, developing your colleagues, coaching not controlling, unleashing the energy and intelligence of others, and foresight.'
James Sipe and Don Frick, in their book The Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership, state that servant-leaders are individuals of character, put people first, are skilled communicators, are
compassionate collaborators, use foresight, are systems thinkers, and exercise moral authority.
Unlike leadership approaches with a top-down hierarchical style, servant leadership instead emphasizes collaboration, trust, empathy, and the ethical use of power. At heart, the
individual is a servant first, making the conscious decision to lead in order to better serve others, not to increase their own power. The objective is to enhance the growth of individuals
in the organization and increase teamwork and personal involvement. A recent behavioral economics experiment demonstrates the group benefits of servant leadership. Teams of
players coordinated their actions better with a servant leader resulting in improved outcomes for the followers (but not for the selfless leaders).


Technical Conference Method

Technical Conference is a Data Collection method. Here in a conference of supervisors initiate the discussion and give their expert advice and views regarding the job. This method is
considered to be inaccurate in some cases.
Job Analysis is the process of studying, collecting and understanding the information related to a particular job. A detailed job analysis gives us Job Description and Job Specification. The
critical stage of conducting a Job Analysis is Collecting the Data.
Important Elements of Technical Conference Method
a. It is based on the advice of SMEs or Subject Matter Experts. Example of a subject matter expert is a Human Resource Specialist for Compensation and Benefits.
b. Brain storming sessions are conducted where in these SMEs discuss the various details and elements of the Job.
Advantages • This is direct data from years of experience and in most cases gives deep insight that a researcher cannot
• The data that is collected is comprehensive and covers all the possible aspects of the job discussed
• The SME is chosen because he is highly competent and efficient. He adds a lot of value to the process.

Disadvantages • The SME may not be able to break the work in tasks as he is looking at the job from a bird's eye view.
• The whole process is highly time consuming and may take the SME from his other responsibility or pressing concern.
Distributive Justice

• There is can be a difference in opinion of the conference. This difference will lead to a waste of time and an unresolved status quo.
A just organization is equitable, fair, impartial and unbiased. Organizational justice can be defined in two ways, one of them being Distributive Justice and the other is Procedural Justice
(fairness of the process).
Distributive Justice refers to equitable distribution of benefits and burdens. These benefits and burdens could be in the form of income, power, wealth, education, religious activities and
other economic, social or organization variable. This leads to an important question that, what exactly constitutes the fair and equitable distribution? Globally, it is one of the major
concerns and people are still fighting over equitable distribution of resources. Problem is still to be dealt with on a global and larger scale.
In management, it is concerned with the results. It focuses on the fairness in the result of a decision and assumes that there is a large amount of fairness in the organization/society.
Employees expect a fair and unbiased decision, attitude and pay for each of the employees from the employer. They believe that there should be an equal distribution of resources
among all the people working in the organization.
Example: Does the company follow a fair appraisal policy?
Did I get an equitable pay as compare to others working in the same organization as well as people working in the same industry? Is everybody getting an equal chance or opportunity in
the organization?
Principles of distributive justice:
• Nature of the recipient: Individual persons, group of persons, divisions, organization etc.
• Basis of distribution: Equality, according to individual, priority, maximization etc.
• Relevance: Income, opportunity, wealth etc.

Resource Leveling

Resource leveling is a technique of resource management which aims to find underused people or resources within a company and put them to work. Resource leveling looks at all
resources, people and equipment to determine if some of those assets are being underused or could be used more effectively elsewhere. An example would be a manager of one
department who could also oversee another department, or a person in the accounting department who would actually be very beneficial in the IT department.

Employee Champion

A company is termed as an employee champion if its policies are directed towards the welfare of the employees. The rights and needs of the employees are the central focus of all the
activities conducted by the company and its Human Resource department.

Nero-linguistic Programing

The company does its best to ensure a safe and congenial working environment, maintaining healthy employee relations, work-life balance, fair compensation and respect for every
Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder inCalifornia, United
States in the 1970s. NLP has since been overwhelmingly discredited scientifically, but continues to be marketed by some hypnotherapists and by some companies that organize
seminars and workshops on management training for businesses.
NLP's creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and that
these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life. Bandler and Grinder also claim that NLP methodology can "model" the skills of exceptional people, allowing anyone to acquire
those skills. They claim as well that, often in a single session, NLP can treat problems such as phobias, depression, tic disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, near-sightedness, allergy,
common cold, and learning disorders.
There is no scientific evidence supporting the claims made by NLP advocates and it has been discredited as a pseudoscience by experts. Scientific reviews state that NLP is based on
outdated metaphors of how the brain works that are inconsistent with current neurological theory and contain numerous factual errors. Reviews also found that all of the supportive
research on NLP contained significant methodological flaws and that there were three times as many studies of a much higher quality that failed to reproduce the "extraordinary claims"
made by Bandler, Grinder, and other NLP practitioners.Even so, NLP has been adopted by some hypnotherapists and also by companies that run seminars marketed as leadership
training to businesses and government agencies.

Left/Right hemisphere thinking

Ref: Wikipedia
A particular conceptual block exists in western cultures against the kind of thinking that uses the right hemisphere of the brain. Left- hemisphere thinking, for most people, is concerned
with logical, analytical, linear, or sequential tasks. Thinking using the left hemisphere is apt to be organised, planned, and precise. Language and mathematics are left-hemisphere
Right - hemisphere thinking, on the other hand, is concerned with intuition, synthesis, playfulness and qualitative judgement. It tends to be more spontaneous, imaginative, and
emotional than left-hemisphere thinking.
The emphasis is most formal education is towards left-hemisphere thought development even more in Eastern than in Western cultures. Problem solving on the basis of reason, logic,
and utility is generally rewarded, while problem solving based on sentiment, intuition, or pleasure is frequently considering tenuous and inferior.
A number of researchers have found that the most creative problem solvers are ambidextrous in their thinking. That is they use both Left- and right - hemisphere thinking and easily
switch from one to the other (Hermann, 1981; Hudspith, 1985; Martindale, 1999). Creative ideas arises most frequently in the right hemisphere but must be processed and interpreted
by the left, so creative problem solvers use both hemisphere equally well.

resource dependency theory

Resource dependency theory argues that firms are dependent on others in their network for important resources, and that the nature of the dependency relationship will impact on the
leeway available to the firm to choose its own solutions to managerial dilemmas.
Some researchers have noted that whilst the RBV tends to assume that organisations have a completely free choice in how to deploy their resources and the new institutionalist
framework suggests that constraints over choice exists at the national level, neither approach of the influence that organisations within a firm's immediate network can exert.

Aesthetic labour

Aesthetic labour is where employees are required to look (dress, self-presentation) or sound (voice, language used) in a particular way as part of their paid employment, normally in
order to match the desired image of the organisation.
The term aesthetic labour has been coined by Warhurst et al (2000) to refer to circumstances where physical appearance and embodied capacities and attributes form the basis of
employment. In other words, part of paid employment is concerned with how people look, sound, and present themselves.
Warhurst et al argues that these embodied capacities and attributes which individuals possess are then mobilised, developed, and customised by employers. As such they recruit, select
and train staff to suit a predefined corporate style. They report on how employers use the phrases in job advertisements, such as smart appearance, well spoken and very well
presented, to signal the kind of people they wish to employ.

Reverse recruitment

Workplace flexibility

As defined by Gerg Ferro, Reverse recruitment is a term used to describe the process whereby a person is ' encouraged ' to take their skills to another organisation where they will be
appreciated. Because they aren't appreciated by your managers and/or co-workers. Note that reverse recruitment is a sensitive issue, but is often followed by more direct techniques if
gentle encouragement fails.
For recruiters, as suggested by Dr. John Sulvian, reverse recruitment is when you start the recruitment process by identifying what you have to sell and then target the type of people
who would be attracted to those features.
This is one of the biggest feature of networking, where a person land up to a job of his expectations and thus there is an increase in job satisfaction.
Flexibility in organization can be viewed in two main ways - flexibility for organisations and flexibility for individuals. Alis et al (2006) have made the distinction between flexibility of and
flexibility for employees. The first of these is where organisations look for flexibility in the way in which they utilities the labour so that they can match the supply with their need for
labour more closely. This need to manage labour in flexible ways stems from an increasingly competitive business environment, where employers need to manage labour related costs
as efficiently as possible.
Individual, by contrast, look for flexibility in the way in which they work in order to help them achieve an acceptable relationship between work and non-work activities. Interest in
achieving a work-life balance is as a result of social change, both in relation to the way in which work is considered and as a result of increased rates of parents, particularly mothers in
paid employment.

Predictive Validity

Workplace flexibility involves changes to the amount, timing and/or location of work and may also involve different organisations. It may be designed to meet the needs of employers or
Different research tools are used attain different research objective. But importance of validity remains the same in all the validity we mean how effectively a test 0r
assessment measure what they intend to measure. Through above explanation we can definitely say that there are always certain inherent factors which affect the desired results.
Predictive validity relates to the efficiency of an instrument in predicting behavior or performance of an individual on some future simply defines the ability of one measure to
predict another future measure of the same concept.
For example- how well a common admission test predicts the future performance of the candidate?
The concept of validity helps us to know that does the test measure what it intends to measure and can the results be used to predict the future behavior of the participants ?in other
words it addresses that how well a specific assessment tool predicts the future behavior.
Predictive validity can be ascertained by calculating correlation coefficient between the results of the assessment and the subsequent targeted behavior .degree of correlation positively
affects the degree of predictive validity i-e stronger the degree of correlation greater will be the degree of predictive validity and vise a versa.
Practical example
Many organizations use psychometric test as a part of their selection process wherein they tries to identify the personality traits of applicants so as to get right fit for the job. Here comes
the role of predictive validity which helps to ascertain the future behavior of the applicant, ultimately leading us towards the right selection decision.


Recruitment marketing

Recruitment marketing is the strategies and tactics an organization uses to find, attract, engage and nurture talent before they apply for a job, called the pre-applicant phase oftalent
Analyst firm Brandon Hall Group defines recruitment marketing as all activities and strategies aimed at building and maintaining employer brand, extending reach and exposure of
career opportunities, building and nurturing candidate relationships, and all management of messaging and advertising of talent acquisition efforts
The focus is initiating relationships with candidates prior to talent needs and beyond job openings by engaging them through the many touch points of the modern job search. The goal
of a recruitment marketing strategy is to increase the number of qualified candidates in an organization’s talent pipeline. This strategy can be achieved through the use of a recruiting
stack software solution. The recruiting stack can be a single or collection of tools and processes to meet the needs of recruitment marketing. Bersin by Deloitte defines a talent pipeline
as an organization’s ongoing need to have a pool of talent that is readily available to fill positions at all levels of management (as well as other key positions) as the company grows.In
contrast, traditional recruitment is focused on the immediate need of filling a specific job requisition.
A recruitment marketing strategy leverages principles of inbound marketing and integrates messaging across the employer brand, job distribution (through website boards like Indeed,
SimplyHired, Career Builder and more), SEO, mobile recruiting, landing pages, content marketing, career sites, social media marketing, employee referrals and email marketing to
reach and engage potential candidates to opt-in to an employer’s talent network. Once in the CRM (Candidate Relationship Management), the focus is building relationships and
nurturing candidates through personalized content, alerts and calls-to-action to send them relevant information, as well as job openings.
By tracking, measuring and analyzing the effectiveness of recruiting efforts, recruitment marketing is turning talent acquisition into a data-driven function that consistently and
predictably drives more qualified leads into the hiring funnel. Using an integrated recruiting stack solution fueled by business intelligence and data science, companies can now report on
the entire hiring process including the effectiveness of their recruitment marketing strategy and the value of their talent pipeline.

Human Capital Supply Chain

"Human capital supply chain" refers to the integration of business planning, strategic workforce planning, staffing and recruiting processes and technology to enhance corporate
productivity and profitability. Employing methods of common manufacturing and distribution supply chain management principles to human resources and human capital, corporations
create an end-to-end, human capital supply chain.
The term was introduced in the 2009 book, Human Capital Supply Chains by Tim Giehl and Sara Moss. The concept consolidates 30 years of expertise by companies like Toyota, WalMart, and Dell in total quality management, lean and strategic supplier relationships, and applies it to the human resources industry. The major aim when implementing a human capital
supply chain is to reduce labor costs. While that is attained in the short-term, the long-term tuning of the supply chain can result in growth and strategic competitive advantage.


Career anchors

A career anchor is ‘that one element in a person’s self-concept that he or she will not give up, even in the face of difficult choices’.
In Career anchors: discovering your real values, Edgar Schein explores how personality, motivation and values affect career choices and preferences, through the metaphor of an anchor
which pulls people towards specific role types in their work life.
Schein argues that the early years of a career are often a crucial time of learning, and full of surprises. Frequently people’s dreams of themselves and what their work will be like are
inconsistent with their actual work experiences, causing ‘reality shock’.
As their experience accumulates, preferences and strengths begin to emerge, and ‘only when […] confronted with difficult choices does a person begin to decide what is really important
to him or her’.
Schein identifies eight different anchor types. Do any of these seem to match your interests and preferences, as identified through your work experience so far?
Technical expertise
This type prefers to specialise in their skill, and they tend to pursue excellence and enjoy being challenged in this area (eg sales, engineering, teaching). They dislike being moved into
managerial positions.
This type of person is a generalist who sees specialisation as a trap. They enjoy leadership and advancement and are happy to move around in different areas of work.
This type dislikes being bound by rules, hours, dress codes, etc. They dislike the organisation of the workplace and seek autonomy or independence. They often work for themselves.

Achievement test
An achievement test is a test of developed skill or knowledge. The most common type of achievement test is a standardized test developed to measure skills and knowledge learned in a
given grade level, usually through planned instruction, such as training or classroom instruction.
Achievement tests are often contrasted with tests that measure aptitude, a more general and stable cognitive trait.
Achievement test scores are often used in an educational system to determine what level of instruction for which a student is prepared. High achievement scores usually indicate a
mastery of grade-level material, and the readiness for advanced instruction. Low achievement scores can indicate the need for remediation or repeating a course grade.
When writing achievement test items, writers usually begin with a list of content standards (either written by content specialists or based on state-created content standards) which
specify exactly what students are expected to learn in a given school year. The goal of item writers is to create test items that measure the most important skills and knowledge attained
in a given grade-level. The number and type of test items written is determined by the grade-level content standards. Content validity is determined by the representativeness of the
items included on the final test.



Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical
work of Josef Breuer and others. Over time, psychoanalysis has been revised and developed in different directions. Some of Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and
Carl Jung, went on to develop their own ideas independently. Freud insisted on retaining the term psychoanalysis for his school of thought, and Adler and Jung accepted this. The NeoFreudians included Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, and Harry Stack Sullivan.
The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include:
1. a person's development is determined by often forgotten events in early childhood rather than by inherited traits alone
2. human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives that are rooted in theunconscious
3. it is necessary to bypass psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms when bringing drives into awareness
4. conflicts between the conscious and the unconscious, or with repressed material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic
traits, anxiety, depression etc.
5. liberating the elements of the unconscious is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention).


Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behavior, communication, and social interaction. Proxemics is one among several
subcategories in the study of nonverbal communication, including haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics(paralanguage), and chronemics (structure of time).
Edward T. Hall, the cultural anthropologist who coined the term in 1963, defined proxemics as "the interrelated observations and theories of man's use of space as a specialized
elaboration of culture. In his foundational work on proxemics, The Hidden Dimension, Hall emphasized the impact of proxemic behavior (the use of space) on interpersonal
communication. According to Hall, the study of proxemics is valuable in evaluating not only the way people interact with others in daily life, but also "the organization of space in [their]
houses and buildings, and ultimately the layout of [their] towns." Proxemics remains a hidden component of interpersonal communication that is uncovered through observation and
strongly influenced by culture.


Spatial empathy

Cyberbullying is a communication phenomenon in which a bully utilizes electronic media in order to harass peers. Adolescents favor CMC forms of bullying over more direct face-to-face
interactions because it takes advantage of social norms for displaying female aggression. Online bullying has a lot in common with bullying in school: Both behaviors include harassment,
humiliation, teasing and aggression. Cyberbullying presents unique challenges in the sense that the perpetrator can attempt to be anonymous, and attacks can happen at any time of
day or night.
The main factor that encourages cyber bullying is the fact that a cyber bully can hide behind the shield of online anonymity. In other words, social media magnifies the face-to-face social
space into a virtual space where a cyber bully can say anything about the victims without the pressure of facing them.
Spatial empathy is the awareness that an individual has to the proximity, activities, and comfort of people surrounding them. It is closely related to the notion of personal space, the
concept that an individual has ownership of their immediate surroundings; and for others to invade this space represents an infringement on their privacy.
The degree to which different cultures exhibit spatial empathy differs dramatically. Typically, many developed Western countries consider unnecessary closeness to or physical contact
with strangers (such as in a train carriage or store) as taboo. However, many Asian and Eurasian cultures do not exhibit the same aversion.
Spatial empathy was first termed by expatriate workers inHong Kong, themselves typically from nations such asAustralia, England, France and the United States. Part of the 'culture
shock' of moving to this still very westernised city was the crowded walkways and public transport systems, where navigation through a crowd while avoiding physical contact often
proved more difficult than in their home countries.
Spatial empathy has also been defined as awareness of the spatial condition that a remote person experiences. An "empathy vest" is a tool to achieve this.


Mere-exposure effect

The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this
effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of things, including words, characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric
figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing and likeable that person appears to be.
The mere-exposure effect exists in most areas of human decision making.

Human resource accounting

Human resource accounting is the process of identifying and reporting investments made in the human resources of an organization that are presently unaccounted for in the
conventional accounting practices. It is an extension of standard accounting principles. Measuring the value of human resources can assist organizations in accurately documenting their
To furnish cost value information for making proper and effective management decisions about acquiring, allocating, developing, and maintaining human resources in order to achieve
cost effective organizational objectives.To monitor effectively the use of human resources by the management.To have an analysis of the Human Asset, i.e. whether such assets are
conserved, depleted, or appreciated. To aid in the development of management principles and proper decision making for the future, by classifying financial consequences of various
Approaches to human resource accounting (HRA) were first developed in 1691. The next approach was developed from 1691-1960, and the third phase was post-1960. There are two
approaches to HRA. Under the cost approach, also called the "human resource cost accounting method" or model, there is an acquisition cost model and a replacement cost model.
Under the value approach, there is a present value of future earnings method, a discounted future wage model, and a competitive bidding model under.

Narcissistic leadership

Narcissistic leadership is a leadership style in which the leader is only interested in him/herself. Their priority is themselves - at the expense of their people/group members. This leader
exhibits the characteristics of a narcissist: arrogance, dominance and hostility. It is a sufficiently common leadership style that it has acquired its own name. Narcissism is most often
described as unhealthy and destructive. It has been described: "narcissistic leadership (preferably destructive) is driven by unyielding arrogance, self-absorption, and a personalegotistic
need for power and admiration."
According to Alan Downs, corporate narcissism occurs when a narcissist becomes the chief executive officer (CEO) or other leadership roles within the senior management team and
gathers an adequate mix of codependents around him (or her) to support the narcissistic behavior. Narcissists profess company loyalty but are only really committed to their own
agendas, thus organizational decisions are founded on the narcissist's own interests rather than the interests of the organization as a whole, the various stakeholders, or the society in
which the organization operates. As a result, "a certain kind of charismatic leader can run a financially successful company on thoroughly unhealthy principles for a time. But... the
chickens always come home to roost".
Neville Symington has suggested that "one of the ways of differentiating a good-enough organisation from one that is pathological is through its ability to exclude narcissistic characters
from key posts."


Golden hello

A Golden hello is
1. a generous welcome package for new employee from a rival firm to entice the employee to leave the competing company. A payment made to induce an employee to take up
employment. Unlike a signing bonus, a golden hello is more likely to be extended to executive-level employees than to lower-level employees.
2. a payment from a government to an employer who takes on new staff when jobs are hard to find in a recession.
3. is more like financial incentive for graduates in STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths) subjects into teaching, in the UK.
Risks of offering Golden hello
If the employee worth the money
A hiring company may spend millions of dollars for golden hello package. Hiring company hope the poached executive generates more benefits for them than the cost of
bonuses.Following the financial crisis of 2008-2009, such compensation methods have become controversial.
If the payment rate is right
It's difficult to make the payment rate be incentive for employee. Generally, employees who are senior-level receive higher golden hello than entry-level or mid-level employees,
considering the skills, experience and talent for specific positions.
Advantages of offering Golden hello
Attracting talented recruitment
In a study by Aerotek and the Human Capital Institute, 46% of professionals (570) at companies said that the best way to attract senior-level employees is bonuses.
Employers can offer a one-time signing bonus or promise a specific timeline for raises to salaries.