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# By replacing k by ka in Equation 4.9.

1, we can write Chebyshev’s inequality as

P{\X­ > ka] < \lk^Thus it states that the probability a random variable differs from its
mean by more than k
standard deviations is bounded \yy \!k^.We will end this section by using Chebyshev’s
inequality to prove the weak law of
large numbers, which states that the probability that the average of the first n terms in a
sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables differs by its mean
by more than s goes to 0 as w goes to infinity.

Theorem 4.9.3 The Weak Uw of Large NumbersLet X\,X2,.­­, be a sequence of
independent and identically distributed random vari ables, each having mean E]Xi\ = /t.
Then, for any £ > 0,
it follows that X\ + X2 + ■ ■ ■ + X„ represents the number of times that E occurs in the
first n trials. Because E[Xi\ = P{E), it thus follows from the weak law of large numbers
that for any positive number £, no matter how small, the probability that the proportion of
the first n trials in which E occurs differs from P{E) by more than £ goes to 0 as «
increases.

Problems
1. Five men and 5 women are ranked according to their scores on an examination. Assume
that no two scores are alike and all 10! possible rankings are equally likely. Let X denote
the highest ranking achieved by a woman (for instance, X = 2 if the top-ranked person
was male and the next-ranked person was female). Find P{X = /},i= 1,2,3,...,8,9,10.
2. Let X represent the difference between the number of heads and the number of tails
obtained when a coin is tossed n times. What are the possible values ofX?
3. In Problem 2, if the coin is assumed fair, for n = 5, what are the probabilities associated
with the values that X can take on?
4. The distribution function of the random variable X is given 0 X<0

0<X<1 2

Suppose the random variable X has probability density function .X\ + • • • + X„  >s  Proof  0 asw—>•cx) We shall prove the result only under the additional assumption that the random variables have a finite variance a^. (c)  WhatisP{2 <X < 4}? . Now. (e)  What is P{X =1}? and the result is proved. (a)  Plot this distribution function. Letting 1 if E" occurs on trial i0 if £ does not occur on trial i  5. ■For an application of the above. . suppose that a sequence of independent trials is per formed. (b)  WhatisT{X > i}? . as 2 —  = and Var(^^'^ ^ it follows from Chebyshev s inequality that ^ 2<x < 3 1 3<X  [\X\+■■■+X„  ­M >€\ <  . (d)  What is P{X < 3}? . Let £ be a fixed event and denote by P{E) the probability that E occurs on a given trial.

cx if 0 < X < 1 .