SWAHILI

Basic Course
P R E FAC E

This text is a part of the Foreign Service I nstitute’s program m the
preparation of teaching materials for certain of the most important languages of
Sub-Saharan Africa. It has been produced under an agreement with the Office of h
duration, Department of Heallh,E duration and Welfare, under the National
Defense h duration Act. The course is intended far general use by speakers of
English of many occupational background« who are living or expect to live in the
areas were Swahili is used.
The Swahili sentences in this course were provided by t. J. Kazi and
Johannes 0. Mlela of Tanganyika, and by Frederick A N/enga of Kenya. I he
linguist, in chargc u as Earl If. Stevick, Coordinator of the Special African
Language Program. Anicet Nkuabi and Daudi Ballali of Tanganyika, and John
Ngumbi of Kenya assisted m the tear!ing arid checked the original version of the
manuscript. The original was also sent for verification to United States Foreign
Service posts m Swahili-speaking areas, and Unit 1 - 8 0 were kindly checked by a
representative of the East African Swahili Committee.
Suggestions from all the above mentioned sources have been used in the
preparation of the present edition. 4 here there appeared to be clear disagreement
among two or more critics of the original draft, the alternative wordings have
usually been indicated in the text. The Foreign Service Institute, while gratefully
acknowledging the generous help of the many readers of the earlier version, takes
full responsibility for the present edition.
The recordings uhich ai company the text were made m the Foreign Service
Institute Language Laboratory, under the supervision of Gabriel Cordova.

----Howard E. Sollenberger, Dean
School of Language and Area Studies
Foreign Service Institute
Department of State

PREFACE TO TIIE SECOND EDITION

The second edition incorporates certain changes and local corrections
suggested by James l.. Brain of Syracuse University and the State University of
New York, New Paltz, who was at one time official examiner in Swahili for
Tanganyika; by Margaret Bryan of the School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London; and by Frederick K. Kamoga, Instructor in Swahili at
Makerere University. The changes have not been numerous enough to require
preparation of a new set of tapes to replace those that accompanied the original
edition.
The Institute wishes to thank these three experts for their help. Time
unfortunately has not permitted some of the more fundamental changes which the
authors recognize to be desirable.
The corrections were typed by Donna Kowalski and checked by Daria P
ana.

-<J2 U ) <
Earl W. Stevick

^ijurkJL

BASIC COURSE

Introduction
Swahili Basic Course aims first of all at assisting the student to develop ability in understanding and speaking
everyday Swahili of a standard variety. On the basis of well-established speech habits, he can then go on with relatively high
efficiency to the further skills of reading and writing.
The course is designed for use in any of three general types of study situation:

(1) a full-time language program of

thirty or more hours per
week, (2) a language program in which one or more part-time students attend class for three to six hours per week, and (3)
(much the least desirable) individual study in the absence of any speaker of the language.
In any of these situations, the class should be guided in such a way that it concentrates on one small task at a time.
For this reason, the 150 units of the course are comparatively short. Each unit is in turn divided into a brief dialogue (with
notes) and a series of short exercises. The dialogues and exercises are further broken up into individual lines. In most of the
exercises, there is a further division into two or three columns. The word or phrase at the left is called the 'cue. 1 The
sentence in the next column is the ‘desired response’ to that cue. In those exercises having a third column in Swahili, the
sentence in the second column is intended to serve as a secondary cue, and the corresponding sentence in the third column is
the desired response to it.
In teaching with these materials, it is suggested that the instructor emphasize the following activities:
With dialogues:
1,

Individual and group repetition of the dialogue line- by-line, immediately after the instructor.
Books should be closed at first, so that the students may become accustomed to depending on
their ears. The instructor may correct errors by repeating the mispronounced word as it
should have been said.

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SWAHILI

2« When the students are able to repeat the lines of the dialogue correctly,
they should open their books. The instructor reads the dialogue and
the class repeats, line-by-line, at the same time following with their
eyes the printed words.
3. After going through the dialogue two or three times in this way, students should
take turns reading aloud.
4. Finally, students should close their books, and practice assuming one of the roles in
the dialogue until they are able to do it from memory-—without mistakes.
With exercises:
1. Students repeat after the instructor the 'desired response' sentences of the exercise.
2. The instructor gives only the 'cue' for each line.
Individual students give the desired responses.
It should be noted that very little English is needed in any of these activities. In fact, the instructor
or the student who finds that more than 20®/« of the words he uses in class are in English, may be sure that
he is proceeding with less than maximum efficiency.
For individual study, tape recordings of the dialogues and the exercises are available. It is also
suggested that while practicing the exercises, the student make use of a notched card which can be slid
down the page as he goes along. As soon as he has given his own response to a particular cue word or
phrase, he slides the card down to reveal the answer, thus receiving immediate confinnation or correction of
his own reply. At the same time, the next cue word or phrase appears in the notch:
kahawa

_______Kahawa inatosha.

chai
(cf.

Unit

17,

Exercise 2B.)
Rate of progress and total achievement, then, should be measured in terms of answers given to the
following questions:
Concerning each dialogue:
Level 1# Can the student repeat the dialogue accurately, line- by-line, after the instructor, with book
closed?
Level 2. Can the student read the dialogue aloud independently of the instructor, with excellent
pronunciation and intonation?

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6

BASIC COUHSii

Level 3. Can the student take anj role in the dialogue, without hesitation or mistakes, book closed?
Concerning each exercise:
Level i « Can the student repeat the Swahili sentences of the
dialogue accurately, line-by-line, after the instructor?
Level 2. Can the student give the Swahili sentence after hearing the Swahili cue word, or the
English translation, with his book closed?

General Hints to the Instructor
1.

When you speak to a student, look directly at him, and insist that he speak directly to you when

he replies.
2.

Don’t spend too long with one student; if a student continues to make the same mistake after

three or four tries, go on to another student. Later, come back to the student who made the error*
3* The students should learn to understand and speak Swahili at a normal rate of speed* For this
reason, do not speak to them more slowly or clearly than the slowest and clearest style in which you might
speak with another speaker of Swahili.
L. The students' books should be closed about 8o“/o of the time in class.
5* Don't try to explain how the language works: teach the language, not the grammar*

7
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SWAHILI

6. Emphasize:
hearing before understanding, hearing and understanding
before repetition, repetition before independent production,
speaking before reading and writing.
The Pronunciation of Swahili
The pronunciation of Swahili varies slightly from one geographical area to another. In addition,
since most speakers of Swahili have learned it after first learning some other language, there are noticeable
discrepancies among the speech of persons with different national or tribal backgrounds. The following
notes do not attempt to set forth any of these variations but only to indicate those points which are essential
to an intelligible and widely acceptable pronunciation of the language.
The standard treatment of this subject is A, N. Tucker and E, 0. Ashton, Swahili Phonetics
(Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand Press, 1942), It consists of bound reprints of two major
articles which appeared originally in African Studies for that
year.
Vowels, There are five vowels.
Examples
Letter
a

Description
When stressed, similar to a in

basi 'only' kitabu

father, or o in (American English) ni^t
Technically: a low central unrounded vowel.

'book'

When unstressed, between a of father and u of
Letter
e

o

up.

Description
Technically: a slightly raised low central
Similar to e in bet.
unrounded vowel.
Technically:
a lax lower-mid
vowel.
Speakers
of English
must stillfront
take care
not to

kusoma 'to need' birika
'water vessel'

Other varieties
of this
sound have/a/been
'reduce'
the quality
of unstressed
as
Between
reported the
in certain
vowelsenvironments,
of English but those
boat and bought.
allophones
are absent from the speech of
much
as speakers
theyawould
inserved
English.
the two
Technically:
lax,who
lower-mid,
asback
principal
rounded
sourcesunglided.
vowel,
for this investigation.

ui

Examples

Reminiscent
Roughly similar
of the
to vowel
the vowel
of
of English
English
too,
eat.
but lying somewhere between

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Technically:
that
vowel and
a high
the vowel
front unrounded
of took. livelingua.com
vowel,
vita
'war'
bure
'free'
kuruhusu
'to
kuleta
'to rafiki
bring'
mtoto
'child'kujenga
8
unglided,
andabe
less
slightly
tenselowered
than itshigh-back
nearest
b, d, j, g TheseTechnically,
sounds may
pronounced
'friend'
permit'
'to build' 'ox'
embe 'mango'
ng'ombe
English counterpart.
vowel, unglided.
Consonants rounded
as in English bow, dough, Joe, go respectively.

com .BASIC COUHSii 9 Hosted for free on livelingua.

while in Swahili it may occur there. t. kejrs respectively. Technically: A dorso-velar nasal resonant. But in English. The degree of aspiration associated panga 'large knife' tisa '9' with these sounds varies. alvealar. cheese. ng' This sound is pronounced like ng in English sing. these sounds are pronounced 'matter' gogo 'lag' implosively by most speakers. p. The palatal stop has strong affrication. palatal. These sounds may be pronounced as ^ in English peas. palatal. Technically: There is no noticeable difference between these sounds and the corresponding nasal sounds of English. ch. None of the speakers chache 'few' kaka 'elder consulted in the preparation of this course has a brother' contrast of aspirated vs. however. and velar unvoiced stops. baba 1father' dada When not in combination with a nasal 'sister' jambo consonant. Before vowels this sound ng'ombe 'ox' ngozi 'leather' . unaspirated unvoiced stops.Technically: Bilabial. alveolar. m. Technically: Bilabial. The sound represented by the letter ^ has little or no affrication. tease. n These sounds may be pronounced as in English. and velar voiced stops. this sound never mama 'married woman' nene 'fat' occurs at the beginning of a word.

zoo. but before other consonants. nyumba 'house 1 nchi 'land. respectively. Like the initial sounds of English sue. it is spelled n* ay As in Spanish cafion. country' ftje 'outside' Technically: A palatal nasal* Before vowels. Technically: An unvoiced palatal grooved fricative. with accompanying liprounding. Portuguese nenhum.) h Like the initial sound of English how. French gagner. it is spelled n* th. saa 'hour' kuzaa 'to produce offspring' (Note the lack of a voiced counterpart.is spelled ng'. z. but before other consonants. this sound is spelled njr. respectively* Technically: Unvoiced and voiced ungrooved dental fricatives* s. Technically: Alveolar grooved unvoiced fricatives* sh thelathini '30' kadhalika 'likewise' Like the sound spelled the same way in English she. shamba 'farm' kurusha 'to cause to fly' kuhama 'to change residence' . dh These sounds are like the initial sounds of English thin and then.

1. completely cutting off the flow of air. as in kulala 'to lie down' sawa English. r kuficha 'to hide' vivu This sound is pronounced like the sound written with the same letter in the standard 3ritish kuruka to fly pronunciation of very. It is made with the back of the tongue against the soft palate. 'equal1 haya 'these' gh This is the only Swahili sound that is likely to cause noticeable difficulty for speakers of English. vine. y These sounds may be pronounced . It is thus not very different from the sound written tt in the common American pronunciation of witty. the tongue makes momentary contact with the soft palate. Technically: Unvoiced and 1 idle* voiced labio-dental fricatives. on the other hand. the back of the tongue does not make contact all the way across the soft palate. For Swahili gh. respectively.Like the initial sounds of English fine. it comes so close to it that the flow of air from the ghali 'expensive' gharama 'amount of money' .alveolar flap. Instead.' For English g’. however. w. in the same 1 position as for English 'golly. Technically: A voiced apico .

.

which consists of a slight increase in loudness.PA. Stress In general.com . This seems to be true for n. the nasal sounds may be pronouhced as separate syllables. ny and ng' only when they are at the beginning of a word and when only one vowel comes after them in the word. This gives rise to audible turbulence. usually with some increase also in length.velar fricative. the nsxt to last syllable of a Swahili word or phrase receives a stress. In some words in which they precede other consonants. In these materials. syllabic nasals are indicated by a grave accent.' Technically: A voiced dorso.SIC COURSE lungs is constricted. mg^nl mletrfe 'bad' (personal class singular) flne flchi 'four* 'land' •scorpion' (pronounced ng'ge) syllabic nge may be in words of any length: 'stranger* 'bring to him' 'he doesn't know hi*' hamjui mbdvu 'bad' (N class) These are not distinguished from one another in the customary spelling of Swahili. or 'friction. In those instances where the stress faja s rLii Hosted for free on livelingua. Syllabic Nasals. It is also true of these three nasals that the consonants before which they occur are those which are formed at the same position of articulation as the nasal: Syllabic and nan-syllabic m contrast with one another in: i&bdvu A fly ng' The sound m. on the other hand.

A strictly ghonemic transcription of utterances would then contain no word spaces. each vowel counts as a syllable. at least for some speakers. its location is indicated in these materials by an acute accent: l£zima 'necessary. Hosted for free on livelingua.sonantal nasals are sometimes syllabic.' MorphologyC&1 word boundaries (for almost all woras ) woula then fall after the firs* syllable following a primary or secondary stress. there exist. In Swahili. Some linguists niay prefer to do without the word juncture.com 14 .' The most conspicuous difference between them is that in the first. which might be called 'secondary.1 In Swahili. writing the two pronunciations respectively: wafanya ghasia 'they create a disturbance' wafanyaghasia 'rioters' In so doing. pre-con. word space sets apart units (words) which have been established on a non-phono. and each stress would be marked explicitly. they make use of a pedagogical orthography.SWAHILI on some other syllable. which is thought to be most suitable for the use of foreign learners of the language. Examples: simlet^i '1 don't bring to him' kuk^a 'to stay' nilimpa ku<5mba '1 gave to him' •to request' nctmna naifina hamna 'kind. One such pair of expressions is spelled with the letters: w a f a n y a g h a s i a One of the pronunciations corresponding to these letters means 'they create a disturbance.' while the other means 'rioters.last syllable of a word which has been established on this basis. These facts must be taken into account in calculating which syllable is the next-to-last. In it. introducing instead an in+^^ediate aegree of stress.logical basisj stress is written only when it does not occur on the next-to. of course. Instead. sort' 'you don't have' Word Juncture. we have introduced into our inventory of the Swahili sound system an entity which might be called word juncture. In neither pronunciation is fa as prominent—as heavily stressed as the syllable si. We may attribute the differing degrees of stress on fa to the presence or absence of word boundary. The lessons in this book do not employ that kind of transcription. and in addition. the syllable fa is more prominent than it is in the second. two distinct pronunciations for a number of pairs of expressions which are identical with respect to their vowels and consonants.

and will not be described further here. Hoste d for free on livelin gua. This aspect of the language has been discussed in some detail by Mrs. It is important not to confound these three types of graphic representation of a language. although the details of Swahili sentence intonation are. Ashton. can afford to do away with the marking of any and all stresses. 19 UU ). but different in musical pitch patterns and in meaning. unlike other Bantu languages. Ashton.SWAHILI A practical writing system. Swahili does make use of a system of sentence intonation which is comparable to the intonation systems of Indo-European languages. is not a tone language. peculiar to Swahili. there do not exist in the language pairs of words which are identical in their vowels and consonants. Swahili. Pitch Phenomena. of course. That is to say.c om 25 . 0. Swahili Grammar (Including Intonation) (London: Longmans. unlike either the phonemic transcription or the pedagogical orthography.

1 Hosted for free on livelingua.com .BASIC COURSE UNIT 1 Unit_i 1« Basic Dialogue* Routine greeting sequence.

1 Hosted for free on livelingua. of Kenya.BASIC COURSE UNIT 2 or A. of Tanganyika. Mutisya is a member of the Wakamba tribe. Sangai is a member of the Wabondei tribe. B.com . This is an exchange of greetings between two men between the hours of daybreak and noon. Mr. Note that the first sound of Jambo is not quite the same as the usual English pronunciation of the first consonant in Jim.

) and (N) which follow certain words in the buildups will be explained in Unit 15* s Hosted for free on livelingua. we will not need to mark accented syllables in Swahili except in the very few words which violate the rule. D.UNIT 1 SWAHILI C. The symbols (MA. Note that in each word it is the next-to-last syllable that is accented* For that reason.com .

The greeting with mchana may be used at any time during the daylight. C. B. Greeting at any time of day may begin either with Jambo or with hujambo.BASIC COURSE UNIT a Unit a i. Jambo is an abbreviation of hujambo. Basic Dialogue.com . bwana. Notes A. Midday greetings. 3 Hosted for free on livelingua. The replies to each are as shown in Units 1 and a. do not produce a vowel sound either before or immediately after the m. Hellol (said to a man) Mutisja sijambo I Sijambo.) mchana daytime Habari za Achana? How are you today? Nzuri. In pronouncing the word Achana. Sangai hujambo you have no affair/trouble? Hujambo. Pine. but particularly in the middle part of the day. have no affair/trouble (reply to Hujambo. but is not the best usage.

re particularly likely to 'reduce' such vowels when they are in unstressed syllables. B. Be sure you have not been pronouncing the last a in bwana and the first a in habari. The quality of both vov/els in bwana and the first two vowels in habari should be practically identical. These simple perfunctory greetings (Units 1-7) are those which would be used by people who see each other almost every day. Finel Motes A. Mr. bwana. Speakers of English . C.) Habari za jioni? How are you this evening? or Habari za usiku? Sangai Habari nzuri. like the last vowel sound in English sofa or the first in English above.. Routine evening greetings. Hello (sir) 1 Mirambo Jambo. Mirambo is a member of the Nyarawezi tribe (Western Tanganyika)• Hosted for free on livelingua.UNIT SWAHILI 3 Unit 3 1« Basic Dialogue.m. Sangai Jambo. Hello (sir) l usiku(U) night (starts about 7 p.com . bwana.

Finel Motes A. and in some other circumstances.UNIT SWAHILI 3 Unit 4 1* Basic Dialogue. mama. and Mrs. Many people use mama as the polite form of address to any grown woman. Smith'.com . Hamisi mama mother Hujambo. Bibi is used in the expression Bwana na Bibi Smith 'Mr. Greetings to a lady. Mirambo Sijambo# (reply to HUjJambo) Habari za asubuhi? How are you this morning? Hamisi Nzuri. Hello (ma 'am) l Mrs. Hosted for free on livelingua. Some people may use bibi •lady' in place of mama in the above exchange.

('good news') Notes A. . (another reply to ^ambo) Habari za mchana? How are you today? ('News of daytime?') Mirambo ~ jema good Njema. Hello (sir)l Sangai Sijambo.Unit 5 i• Basic Dialogue• Some variants on the greeting routine. Fine. bwana. In some parts of East Africa. Mirambo Jambo. Fine. The new expressions in this exchange are interchangeable with their counterparts in the preceding units. ('good') or Habari njema. the word nzuri is preferred to n^eraa in these contexts.

Fine* Notes Habari gani za Achana? The answer of course remains the same* A* The questions in Units 5 and 6 may be combined to give: ('What kind of news of daytime?') .Unit 6 1« Basic Dialogue* One more common variant in routine greetings* Sangai Hujambo. Hellol Mirambo sana Sijambo sana* gani? Habari gani? very much (Another reply) what kind oft How are you? ('What kind of news?') Sangai Habari njema. bwana.

Listen to the following dialogues. and the time of day or night Hujambo. Hujambo. Hujambo. bwana. bwana. Sijambo. Habari za mchana? Habari gani za asubuhi? Nzuri. Huj ambo. summarize it by specifying the sex of the person spoken to. Si jambo. mama. . Nzuri. bwana. After each. bwana. Sijambo bwana. bwana. Habari njema. Habari za asubuhi? Habari za usiku? Njema. Sijambo.Unit_J Test.

na uji na mayai. nileteeunataka mayai. please. Waiter tafadhali 3® please -l9tea to bring for/to bring niletee welli/tall mei (used here to introduce the yes-no question) me to want Please bring me [some] eggs* you want -taka Tafadhali.com . and eggs.BASIC COURSE UNIT 8 Unit_8 i» Basic Dialogue. bwana. kuna there is gani? what kind? Kuna chakula gani? What kind of food is there? Waiter tunda (MA) a piece of fruit matunda fruit na and uji (U) thin porridge/gruel yai (MA) egg mayai eggs Kuna matunda.) unataka chakula': Would you like [some] food? Aramian (an American) ndiyo that is it Ndiyo. gruel. Yes. Aramian Hosted for free on livelingua. Breakfast in the dining room of the hotel. There is fruit. chakula (VI) food (je.

2* Substitutions in single sentences* Hosted for free on livelingua.) vs. The forms kipo or kiko are used in some parts of East Africa where in this dialogue we have used kuna.are 'subject prefixes' partly corresponding to the English subject pronouns you (sg*) and I* C. In this way it is somewhat comparable to English SayI Je is not necessary in yes-no questions.is a first person singular prefix standing for I or me. Tafadhali* Though we hare given glease as a rough English equivalent of tafadhali. The subject prefix slot: ni ( 1 sg. the syllable ni.com . B. u ( 2 sg. £.and ni. In the form which ends with -e it stands for the object (me). but would not be likely to be used by an 'inferior' to a 'superior' as in the dialog for this unit. the latter is used in Swahili less often than please is used in English* D* Ni as subject or object prefix* Compare the forms: ninataka niletee 'I want' 'bring me' In both forms. Je at the beginning of a yes-no question.BASIC COURSE UNIT 8 Notes A. The word je is used at the beginning of a question to focus the hearer's attention.)• Compare the forms: unataka 'you want' ninataka 'I want' The syllables u.

unataka natunda? Do you want fruit? chakula Je. unataka chakula? Do you want food? Je. unataka chakula? Do you want food? mayai B. niletee chakula. Unit_9 1« Basic dialogue* Breakfast at the hotel.Tafadhali. Please bring me fruit. Please bring me food. niletee natunda. Niletee matunda. Please bring me eggs. Kuna chakula gani? What kind of food is there? Kuna mayai. unataka chalk ula ? Je. Niletee mayai. niletee uji.UNIT 9 SWAHILI A. natunda chakula 3. niletee mayai « Tafadhali. Please bring me eggs. bring me eggs. There is gruel. Unataka mayai? Do you want eggs? Ndiyo. bring me fruit. Bring me gruel. Substitution in sets of sentences* uji natunda mayai Kuna chakula gani? What kind of food is there? Kuna uji. There is fruit0 Unataka matunda? Do you want fruit? Ndiyo. Niletee uji. niletee mayai. Yes. niletee mayai. unataka mayai? Do you want eggs? natunda Je. There are eggs. mayai Tafadhali. Yes.Je. Yes. uji Tafadhali. Tafadhali. revisited* . Kuna chakula gani? What kind of food is there? Kuna matunda. Please bring me porridge• Tafadhali. Unataka uji? Do you want gruel? Ndiyo.

niletee chungwa moja (basi). B. the plural of embe 'mango 1 is embe (N)• 12 Hosted for free on livelingua. [I would] (sir)* Kuna matunda gani? What kind of fruit is there? ndizi (N) banana/bananas Kuna ndizi? Waiter Are there [any] bananas? chungwa (MA) orange machungwa oranges embe (KA) mango maembe mangoes Kuna ndizi na machungwa na There are bananas and oranges and maembe* Aramian mangoes* moja basi one that is all (an interjection) Tafacihali. In some parts of East Africa. unataka matunda? some fruit? Would you like ('do you want') Aramian Ndiyo.com . Please bring me one orange* Notes N. bwana* Yes.UNIT 9 SWAHILI Waiter Je.

There uji Kuna maembe na uji. Substitutions in sequences of sentences.BASIC COURSE UNIT 9 a. are mangoes and gruel. 13 Hosted for free on livelingua. is fruit and eggs. 3. Kuna_____________ na____________ Kuna ndizi na naembe. Kuna_______________2 A* ndizi Kuna machungva? Are there any oranges? Kuna Are there any bananas? ndizi? maembe natunda uji chakula mayai B. Substitute various combinations of names of fruits in this conversation. There natunda Kuna natunda na mayai. Niletee ndizi (basi). are eggs and bananas. There ndizi Kuna mayai na ndizi. Kuna natunda gani? Kuna naembe na ndizi.com . There are bananas and mangoes.

Thank you* Waiter - Anataka you (pi*) want Do you want food? Hnataka chakula? Aranian bring us tuletee Ndiyo. Aramian enters the dining room. please bring us some fruit* lotes A* Subject prefix A (a plu.com . Be careful not to pronounce a vowel between the m and the n in Anataka. Compare the forms ninatakm I want unat&ka you (sg*) want Anataka you (pi*) want The subject pronoun for second person plural is A-. Cone in* Iranian -starehe to be at rest asante thank you Starehe. starehe. asante* Don't trouble. in ccnpany of his friend Beltrano.UNIT 10 SWAHILI Unit 1 0 i« Basic dialogue. who speaks no Swahili* Waiter karibu near Karibu. tafadhali tuletee matunda* Yes.). Be careful also not to pronounce a vowel before the m* iU Hosted for free on livelingua.

A is joined by his friend C. Tuletee matunda. First YS. singular and plural. A. D. A goes into the dining room for breakfast. Niletee matunda. Ndiyo. Ndiyo. Unataka chakula gani? Mnataka chakula gani? Unataka matunda gani? % Mnataka matunda gard? 3* Free conversation. Unataka chakulat Mnataka chakula? B. Tunataka chakula. Compare the forms: niletee bring me tuletee bring us The object (and subject) pronoun for first person plural (we. Niletee matunda. Ndiyo. Ninataka chakula. Unataka matunda? Mnataka matunda? C.). second person. B is his waiter. Niletee ndizi. Subject and object prefix tu (i plu. 15 Hosted for free on livelingua. 2. us) is tu-.BASIC COURSE UNIT 10 B. Tuletee ndizi. Ndiyo. hatching parts of paired sentences. Tuletee matunda.com .

Tuna matunda na mkate. we have [some] fruit and [some bread. waletee mkate. Please bring them some bread. Aramian watoto children ratoto (WA) child ~angu ny wangu my wana they have njaa (N) hunger Watoto wangu wana njaa. mna you have flna chakula? Have you anything to eat? (*do you have food' ) Waiter tuna we have mkate (KI) bread Nciyo.UNIT 11 SWAHILI Unit 11 i. Aramian waletee bring them Tafadhali. Yes. Basic dialogue. 1« Hosted for free on livelingua.com . My children are hungry. Aramian brings his children into the dining roan between meals.

Waletee chakula. animate subjects and objects* 2* Matching parts of paired sentences* A* Watoto wana chakula gani? What kind of food do the children have? They have bread. Watoto wana njaa. and continue the 17 Hosted for free on livelingua. substitute nina. 3.BASIC COURSE UNIT 11 Notes A. Tuna mkate. Compare the forms: na and. Mna chakula gani? Nina mkate. Wana njaa. njaa.) NiDetee (etc. A. Una chakula gani? random order as long as needed. with tuna Ana we have you (pi. Subject and object prefix wa (3 plu*)• The prefixes tu. Wana Akate.) have wana kuna they (animate) have there is A more literal translation for tuna is we with* B.com .and A are familiar from Unit 1 0 * The prefix wa. Substitution in sequences of sentences. Wanataka chakula gani? Wanataka matunda* For the first word in this conversation. Tuna njaa.is used for third person plural. the above to be repeated in B* Nina chakula.. Subject prefixes with -na. Tuletee chakula.

com .BASIC COURSE UNIT 11 conversation accordingly* Do the same with tuna* Use other words in place of matunda. 18 Hosted for free on livelingua.

Mutisya vizuri good (things) Vizuri* Very well. basi* Just bring him some bread. Subject prefix a ( 3 sg. Basic dialogue. Yes. Mutis^a Hamisi given name (male) ana he/she has Je. One of the hungry children. Mutisya Anataka mkate na uji? Would he like [some] bread and porridge? Aramian tu only basi that is all (an interjection) %% Mletee mkate tu.). Compare the forms: una njaa you are hungry ana njaa he/she is hungry . Notes A. he is.Unit_i2 i. Hamisi ana njaa? Is Hamisi hungry? itramian Ndiyo.

filetee chakula. Ana njaa.)• Compare the The children chime in are bigger than their stomachs. Hamisi anataka mkate. Watoto wana machungwa B. Aramian brings his hungry children from the waiter. forms: bring us some bread bring him/her some bread tuletee mkate mletea singular of animate nouns Is A-. B. He orders food but Aramiar knows that 3. Object prefix m (3 sg. Tuna njaa. Hamisi wants some bread. Free conversation. The children want some bread. Niletee chakula.The subject prefix for third person singular of animate nouns is a-. Tuletee chakula. Nina njaa. Wana njaa. their eyes Unit 1 3 i« Basic dialogue* Luncheon or dinner at the New Africa* Waiter supu (N) Unataka supu? ('Do you want soup?') soup Are you having the soup? . Hamisi ana machungwa. C. Watoto wanataka mkate The children have some oranges. into the dining room. Waletee chakula. mkate The object prefix for third person 2 * Matching parts Hamisi has some oranges# of paired sentences# A.

Please bring me [it]* (after the soup) Waiter samaki (N or N-animate) fish Unataka samaki? ('Do you want fish?') Will you have the fish? Aramian -penda sipendi to like I do not like la no La.Araroian Ndiyo. sipendi. today What kind of meat is there today? . tafadhali niletee* Yes. I don't want [it]* nyama (N) meat sasa now Tafadhali niletee nyama sasa* leo Kuna nyama gani leo? Please bring me the meat now. No.

Affirmative Negative ana una hana huna . rami an there is not Pig Isn'tox there any pork? cow. before other kinds of prefixes like tu-# B. The affirmative forms all begin with consonants.Waiter ng'ombe hakuna (N-animate) Kuna nyama(N-anj. Negative prefix ha-. basi. Compare the forms: kuna there is hakuna there is not Most negative verb forms in Swahili begin with the negative prefix ha-.Hakuna nguruwe nyama ya nguruwe? Waiter A. There is beef. followed by the corresponding affirmative form. Hakuna. Tuna nyama ya Notes ng'ombe tu.and ni-. bwana. No. A. it always stands at the very beginning of the word. the negative is simply ha-. we have beef only. Combinations of ha with a-.mate) ya ng'ombe. Compare the forms: Affirmative Negative kuna tuna warn mna hakuna hatuna hawana hamna In these. Whenever this prefix is used. u.

the negative of a form that begins with ni begins with si* Note also that where the affirmative ends with -a. mkate samaki maembe B.followed by the affirmative forms. 2* Substitution in single sentences* A. the negative ends with -i. the affirmative forms begin with vowels* The negative forms consist of h. including change of final a of affirmative stem to i* Compare the forms: ninataka I want sitaki I don’t want Again. Watoto hawana supu. the form which actually occurs is si-* C. In the form nyama ya ng'anbe beef (lit* cow-meat) ' the word ya is used to link the main word nyama and its satellite ng^ombe* Note that the main word comes first. The linking word -a. where one might expect a negative hani-. supu Hakuna supu leo* There is no soup today. The children have no soup* . Hakuna leo.Here. The -a of the negative prefix is said to have been elided* Affirmative nine Negative sina Here. nyama Hakuna There is no meat today. Ya is sometimes translated by English of* D* Negative present forms. nyama leo. supu Watoto hawana _____________.

have any meat.UNIT SWAHILI 13 njaa Watoto hawana njaa. have no food. chakula uji mkate I don't have any bananas. maembe chakula Hatuna ndizi. Hatuna ndizi chakula njaa F. ndizi chakula nyama C. nikate D. Sina ________ ndizi Sina ndizi. nyama Sina nyama. chakula Sipendi_________. Sitaki uji. Hamisi hana machungwa. I don't Sipendi chakula. Hamisi has no oranges. Hamisi has no fruit. Hamisi hana • matunda machungwa Hamisi hana matunda. njaa ndizi Haiina____ _____? nyama Hamna nyama? Don't you have any meat? Don't mkate Hamna mkate? you have any bread? samaki E.com . Huna matunda uji ? njaa Huna njaa? Aren't you hungry? irkate Huna mkate? Have you no bread? machungwa chakula ndizi G. I don't want any food. samaki H. We have no bananas. The children are not hungry. We Hatuna chakula. 2k Hosted for free on livelingua.

2-1) Hawana machungwa. Wanataka samaki? La. machungwa? Hutaki machungwa? K.com . sipendi. Tunat-aka mkate. 3. hapendi. don't want any bread* ndizi machungwa J. We Hatupendi samaki. -taka. machungwa? Hamna Sitaki machungwa. L. Hatut. hatupendi. Huna Hataki machungwa. negative. -na vs. Unataka samaki? La. Affirmative Hamtaki machungwa? vs. Negative of Hatuna machungwa. sequences of sentences. Hatupendi uji. Hatutaki machungwa. Substitutions in parts* Mnataka samaki? La. Anataka samaki? La. -taka. hawapendi. Affirmative Hapendi uji.UNIT I don’t wart any porridge* SWAHILI 13 matunda nyama samak i I* Hatupendi * samaki mkate maembe We don't want any fish. Sipendi uji. no person change. Replace any of the underlined 2k Hosted for free on livelingua. Sina Hawataki machungwa* machungwa. negative of -taka. Hawapendi uji. Ninataka mkate.aki mkate. Hana machungwa. (1-2. ^nataka mkate. with person change. vs* negative. Wanataka mkate.

La. Hands! anataka ink ate 2 Y. Watoto_wana r^ama? I. Wana supu. X. Havana nyama. X. hataki Skate* Anataka n^ama. .B.

But I use only milk* basi. Independent subject pronoun mimi. please* My friend uses milk sukari na maziwa* and sugar* lakini but mimi I Lakini mimi. 87 Hosted for free on livelingua. Afternoon tea* Waiter chai (N) tea kahawa (N ) coffee au or % Hnataka chai. Notes A.BASIC COURSE UNIT 14 Unit 1 4 i. tuletee chai* Please bring us some tea* Waiter sukari (N ) sugar maziwa (plu. Rafiki yangu anatumia Yes.com . au kahawa? Aramian Do you want tea. ninatumia maziwa tu. HA) milk Hnataka sukari na maziwa? Aramian rafiki (N-personal) Do you want milk and sugar? friend yangu BQT -tumia to use anatumia he uses Ndiyo. or coffee? Tafadhali. Basic dialogue.

87 Hosted for free on livelingua.na . wewe ninyi 3# yeye wao B.BASIC COURSE UNIT 14 Compare the sentences: Ninatumia sukari.com . i# mimi sisi 2.a ha . the affirmative forms end with -a. Kind. More concerning negative counterparts of the na-tense. Mimi is one of them. But these pronouns are used as subjects of verbs for emphasis# They are also used when the verb form is in a tense that does not have subject prefixes# The complete set is as follows: sg# plu. I use sugar* Swahili has a set of subject pronouns which are separate words.tumi . ninatumia sukari# [as for me].tumi . In the negative forms. I use sugar. the root follows directly after the subject prefix: tu . while the corresponding negative forms end with -i.tu - .between the subject prefix and the root.with the subject prefixes are represented in exactly the same way as in the forms studied in Unit 13# The affirmative forms in this tense have the tense-sign -na. and not just prefixes. Compare the forms: tunatumia anatumia ninatumia hatutumii hatumii situmii The combinations of ha.i Again.

maziwa. maziwa Rafiki yangu anataka maziwa. 3 sg. Matching parts of paired sentences.com . A. use milk. UNIT 14 Substitution in single sentences.BASIC COURSE 2. My frjend doesn't want sugar. anatumia Rafiki yangu anatumia sukari. subject. anataka friend wants sugar. Hamisi uses sugar. Hamisi hatumii maziwa. in the order given. Rafiki yanguhapendi sukari. Na . Hawatumii Tunatumia sukari. rafiki Rafiki yangu anataka sukari. subject. My Hamisi anataka sukari. Hamisi anatumia sukari.present. Rafiki yanguhatumiimaziwa. A. Hatumii Ninatumia sukari. My friend wants sugar. sukari Rafiki yangu anataka sukari. Hamisi Hamisi harendi sukari.My friend doesn't use sugar. Substitute each item. Hatutumii ' 1 use sugar' maziwa. maziwa. watoto The children use sugar* Watoto wanatumia sukari. negative. Hamisi anatumia sukari. My friend uses sugar. Hamisi wants sugar. maziwa. 3. 87 Hosted for free on livelingua. Hamisi doesn't Hamisi hatumii sukari. Negative present. No change of person. B. affirmative 'I don't use milk' Situmii vs. 3 sg.My friend doesn't use milk. Hamisi doesn't want sugar. in the sentence that precedes. Rafiki yanguhatumiisukari. friend wants milk. hatumii maziwa rafiki sukari hataki doesn't use sugar.

B. Negative vs* affirmative. I don't use [it]*' Unatumia maziwa? La. hatumii* Watoto wanatumia maziwa? C. with change of person* ' 1 don't use milk' La.BASIC COURSE Watoto wanatumia sukari. Aramian brings his children down for their afternoon tea* Unit_i§ 1* Basic dialogue* Bread and butter with the tea* 87 Hosted for free on livelingua. hawatumii* 'Do you use sugar?' Situmii maziwa* Unatumia sukari? Hatutumii maziwa* Mnatumia sukari? Hamisi hatumii maziwa* Anatumia sukari? Watoto hawatumii maziwa. hatutumii* Hamisi anatumia maziwa? La.com . situmii* Anatumia maziwa? La. With change of person* 'Do you use milk?' UNIT 14 'No. Wanatumia sukari? It* Free conversation.

Waiter vema good Verna. [sir]. Akate unatosha Hamisi wants • • * the bread is sufficient nyama inatosha the meat is sufficient 87 Hosted for free on livelingua.BASIC COURSE UNIT 14 Waiter -tosha to be sufficient Mkate unatosha. or: Haya. yes. at But there's not enough butter for the bread* Tafadhali niletee siagi* Please bring me [some] butter* . Notes A. there's plenty* ('it suffices very much') siagi (N) butter kwa Lakini siagi haitoshi kwa mkate* by. with. Concord: Various classes of third person subjects* Cotrpare the phrases: Hamisi anataka . Oh. Very good. unatosha sana. bwanal Is there enough bread. • . sir? ('does the bread suffice!1) Arami&n sana very much Ndiyo.com .

with the subject pronouns that follow them.com .fruit maembe mangoes mayai eggs machungwa oranges maziwa milk Note that all words in this group begin with ma-. or 1 concord'« B. This obligatory relationship between subject and subject prefix is an example of 'concordial agreement'. The subject words. are: Hamisi a- mkate u- nyama i- and other combinations like nyama unatosha or Hamisi inataka are forbidden. together with the subject prefixes which agree with them: mkate u- bread uji u- thin porridge matunda ya. and that the first are plural or collective in four meaning.BASIC COURSE UNIT 14 The subjects of all three verbs are 'third person singular'. Here is a list of most of the nouns used so far. Concord: Various classes of third person subjects. chakula ki- food siagi i- butter nyama i- meat chai i- tea kahawa i- coffee 87 Hosted for free on livelingua. while the last is the name of a liquid. but the subject prefixes are all different.

machungwa hachungwa yanatosha sana. Nyama haitoshi. There is not enough milk* Thereis plenty of sugar. Thereis plenty of meat. Thereis plenty There of porridge is not enough butter. none is a plural.BASIC COURSE UNIT 14 Note that these words have no obvious prefix in common. In meaning. maziwa Maziwa hayatoshi. Free conversation. matunda naembe Mkate hautoshi. uji Uji hautoshi. Thereare plenty of bananas 3. Chai inatosha sana. Kahawa inatosha sana. Thereis plenty of tea. and enough milk and sugar for their tea or coffee. ndizi Ndizi zinatosha sana. maembe Maembe hayatoshi* Samaki inatosha sana.bananas This word is a plural. or: Embe hazitoshi. maziwa haziwa yanatosha sana. Aramian and his family are back again for tea. 2.. Thereis plenty fruit. (Concord of noun subject and subject prefix. Thereis plenty of food. % sana.com . Thereis plenty of coffee. ndizi Ndizi hazitoshi. ndizi zi. u*Uji unatosha Siagi haitoshi. There is not enough coffee. There is not enough food* Thereis plenty of soup. or: Embe zinatosha sana. Chai haitoshi. ritkate siagi sukari nyama kahawa samaki chai supu uji B. machungwa Machungwa hayatoshi. n sana. There is not enough gruel. chakula Chakula hakitoshi* Supu inatosha sana. 87 Hosted for free on livelingua. There is not enough fruit. There of is not enough tea. Sukari inatosha sana* matunda Matunda hayatoshi* Nyama inatosha sana. kahawa Kahawa haitoshi.) A. locate ’inatosha mkate Thereis plenty of bread. There are not enough mangoes* Thereis plenty of fish. siagi nyaroa chai There is not enough bread* Thereis plenty of butter. natosha sana. chakula Chakula kinatosha sana. Thereare plenty of mangoes Naembe yanatosha sana. Siagi inatosha sana. They have trouble getting enough butter for their bread. There are not enough oranges. Thereare plenty of oranges There are not enough bananas* Thereis plenty of milk. Substitutions in single sentences. There is not enough meat. Nattinda yanatosha sana.

Ahl Vizuri sanal Ahl Very goodl Hatuna mananasi leo. We don't have any pineapples today. Both are translated with English bring* . I don't (know it). he is bringing us coconuts and mananasi. The stems of the verbs in these sentences are respectively -leta and -letea. object prefix. Compare the forms: analeta matunda anatuletea matunda he is bringing fruit he is bringing us fruit In the second verb. anatuletea nazi na Yes.is of course the i plu. Basic dialogue. Preparing to buy food at the door. Mrtisya -leta bring Hamisi analeta matunda? Aramian . No.Unit_i6 i. siijui. Mutisya pineapples. the syllable -tu. Notes A. -jua or: -fahamu know bei (N) price Unaijua bei ya mananasi? pineapples? Do you know (it) the price of the Aramian la no La. Is Hamisi bringing fruit? nazi (N) c oc onut/coconuts nanasi (MA) pineapple mananasi pineapples Ndiyo. 'Applied’ or 'prepositional' stem.

The N class singular* The word bei is in the same concord class as n^ama. then that verb has the subject prefix i-* Likewise. negative present forms of a verb with vowel-final root* The forms unataka you want unajua you know are parallel to one another. as in the above example.is the object prefix used in agreement with a singular noun of the N-class (bei). A possible gloss would be 2E• The stem -letea is called the 'applied1. both words are followed by ^a: nyama ya ng'ombe meat of cow bei ya mananasi price of pineapples The word nazi 'coconut' is also in this class. The object prefix is used alone without the noun object in the reply siijui. or 'prepositional' form of the simple stem -leta* B. This class of nouns in Swahili (and in Bantu languages generally) is called 'the N . Concord shown in object prefix. N class. That is. Object prefix for singular of WA class.both object prefix and noun object in the same sentence. In the form unaijua? do you know it2 the syllable -i. or . Affirmative vs. It is possible to use either the object prefix without the noun object.as in the basic dialogue .The stem -letea is used to indicate that the action of bringing is performed with reference to someone or something. In the exercises we find the sentence Unamjua Hamisi? Do you know Hamisi? . or the noun object without the object prefix.class'. We indicate membership in this class by the symbol (N)* C. as are the forms sitaki I don't want sijui I don't know D. when it is used as the subject of a verb. E.

In the translations of the sentences in 16. Concords: N class singular vs. Unlike the other inanimate object prefixes.) and -wa(plu. plural. nazi coconut/coconuts ndizi banana/bananas bei price/prices and.Here. agreeing with the noun object Hamisi. animate object prefix. for some speakers: embe mango/mangoes All nouns of the N-class are identical in singular and plural. the animate object prefixes -m.2. . F. Most people prefer the verb -fahamu to tne verb -jua in this context. the N-class words were translated either as singular or as plural.) must normally be used even when there is a noun object. with no change in the form of the Swahili word.(sg.is the 3 sg. -m.cordial prefixes that agree with them differ. but the can.

' 'Hamisi is bringing us bananas. Hamisi anawaletea ndizi.p. Hamisi ananiletea ndizi. Subject in first sentence related to object prefix in second. 1. and The literal original meaning 2. o. Table of animate subject and object prefixes. niu- -ni-ku- 3. are: plural singular s.ndizi inatosha ndizi zinatosha the banana suffices the bananas suffice The noun habari is a noun of the N-class.) Hamisi anamletea ndizi.' however. Matching parts of paired sentences. often used as a reply equivalent to English ' n o * • Another equivalent for 'no' is la.p. Note the difference in concords with the linking -a: nyama ja ng'ombe habari za asubuhi 1. A. . Sina ndizi. used here in the plural. (Daudi is another proper name. a- H. tum- -tu-wa-(stem)-eni wa- -wa- of hagana is 'there is not. Huna ndizi? Hamisi anakuletea ndizi. Watoto hawana ndizi. 2.' Hatuna ndizi. Literal meaning of hagana. s.p. •We have no bananas. o. Daudi hana ndizi. in tabular form. The animate subject and object prefixes.p. Hamisi anatuletea ndizi.

hatuijui* Ndiyo. Ndiyo. Ndiyo. Hapana.' Hapana. Unit_i_7 Hapana. price of coffee2' F. How are the oranges? Hapana. Sina nazi. matunda D.' dialogue. wanawajua sana. hamjui. Anakuletea nazi. 'Hamisi is not bringing •He is not bringing us coconuts.' Hatuna nazi. Root of verb in first sentence vs. haijui. anawajua sana. Hapana. using various foodstuffs and modifying the dialogue appropriately. Huna nazi. ninawajua sana. I don't know it. 'He is bringing us coconuts.B. object prefix plus applied stem in second. Hapana.' Ndiyo. siijui. hatumjui. nyama supu Hatuletei nazi. Hana nazi. Run the entire 'Do you know 'No. 'No. through I don't know him. Varying subject prefixes before an object prefix. C. hawaijui. I know them very [well]. E. tunawajua sana. 3. Unamjua Hamisi? HnaAjua Hamisi? i« Basic dialogue. Anawaletea nazi. Havana nazi. 'Do you knew (it) the Watoto wanamjua Hamisi? Hapana. Substitution inHamisi?' sequences of sentences. Unaijua kahawa? 'Do bei youyaknow my children?' Hamisi anaijua bei ya Unawajua watoto wangu2 kahawa? % Mnawajua watoto wangu? Watoto wanaijua bei ya Daudi anawajua watoto wangu? kahawa? Daudi na Handsi warawajua Anaijua bei ya kahawa? watoto wangu? Hapana.' Anatuletea nazi. •We have no coconuts.' coconuts. 'Yes. . Ananiletea nazi. Hatuletei mkate. mkate Hamisi haleti mkate.' nazi Hamisi haleti nazi. hawamjui. simjui. Anamletea nazi.

Nadhani analeta machuhgwa.~ako Kutisya your What kind of fruit is your friend Rafiki yako analeta matunda gani? bringing? Aramian ~dhani to think nadhani Sijui. I think he's bringing oranges. wakati (U) time ~ingine some/other si is not/are not ~bivu ripe Lakini wakati mwingine si mabivu. .) Aramian kawaida (N) custom Kwa kawaida. They are usually very good. But sometimes they are not ripe. 4i . I think I don't know. ni mazuri sana. Nutisya ~ake his/her ~zuri good ni is/are Are his oranges good? Kachungwa yake ni mazuri? (Ni may be omitted here.

g. The verb form nadhani '1 think' is different in two respects from the verbs we have met previously. Like the verbs.' Other persons and numbers of the a-tense will be met in later units. tense_sign stem ni- -na- -taka n- -a- -dhani We will say that ninataka is an example of 'the na-tense of the verb -taka. B# Concord exemplified in possessives. we haves s. nadhani is an example of 'the a-tense of the verb -dhani. possessives also take concordial prefixes to agree with the nouns that they go with. Its final vowel is -i in both affirmative and negative forms: nadhani I think I don't sidhani think (2) An example of the a-tense• Breaking the form down alongside ninataka. Compare the phrases: maembe yake his/her mangoes or: embe zake ndizi zake hisbananas ndizi yake hisbanana kahawa yake hiscoffee chakula chake hisfood Akate wake hisbread uji wake his gruel The stem of the possessive pronoun that corresponds to English his/her is ~ake. Ua .' In the same way.Notes A. (i) A verb with stem final i in the affirmative.

most adjectives must agree with the nouns that they refer to. Concord exemplified with certain adjective stems. Compare the sentences: Maembe yake ni mazuri. Ndizi yake ni nzuri. require identical possessive concords. His gruel is good. The numbers are those used for these classes in many scientific discussions of Bantu languages. showing characteristic prefix (if any) of the noun itself. which are followed by identical subject prefixes. (They are assigned to different classes. His banana is good. Uji wake ni mzuri. . possessives. His bread is good. Here is a chart of the noun classes which have been met so far. corresponds to English good in these sentences is '“zuri. Like the verbs and the possessives.g. maembe) and the singular of the N class (e. The stem of the adjective that His mangoes are good. but the respective forms of the prefixes are different. Mkate wake ni Azuri. His food is good. C. also have identical concords with possessives. D. Table of concords encountered in preceding lessons. and verbs (subject and object prefixes).) Note also that the plural of the MA-class (e. however. Ndizi zake ni nzuri. and the prefixes required with adjectives. Chakula chake ni kizuri. His bananas are good. for reasons that go beyond the evidence so far presented. kahawa). which require different subject concords.Note that mkate and u^i.g.

(4)° machungwa mi-Nazi zangu mi-/mymachungwa Machungwa yangu hayatoshi.(l4) siagi mkate y- Maembe yangu hayatoshi# I don't have enough mangoes# ndizi Ndizi zako ni nzuriZ Are your bananas any goodZ kLki-/chki-/ch-kiMayai yangu hayatoshi# chI don't have enough eggs# nazi vi-/vyNazi zako ni nzuriZ Are your coconuts vyvi-/vyvi-vi. (5) (none) (none) 1li-limatunda Matunda yangu hayatoshi# I don't have enough fruit# mananasi Mananasi yako ni mazuriZ Are your pineapples goodZ -yapi. (8) c. His oranges are not ripe. Concord: Noun. Sukari yako inatosha? enough sugar? are not ripe. Do you have enough bananas? Do you have enough coconuts? Nazi zako zinatosha? Sitaki ndizi zake. uji grueloranges? is not good. uI don't have enough butter# My coffee is not good. My orange is not good. chako poss. possessive. sukari machungwa Mayai yako yanatosha? Do you have enough eggs? H.good. Do you have His mangoes are not ripe. (1) mmaB. (7) VImayai pi. Sitaki machungwaMananasi yake mananasi yake si mabivu. Nyama yangu si nzuri* y(none. Machungwa yake si mabivu. nanasi Nanasi lake si bivu.UNIT 17 SWAHILI nazi Sitaki nazi zake.com Hosted for free on livelingua.(to) chai U sg. (2) wawawaw-wandizi Ndizi zangu hazitoshi# I don't have enough bananas# ('my F. sg. (9) N kahawa pi. Ndizi zako zinatosha? Sitaki maembe yake. seeyangu Note 18C) Kahawa haitoshi. possessive. and adjective* bananas do not suffice' mwuMI sg. k5 46 44 Hosted for free on livelingua. iraziwa kahawa Is your tea sufficient? His bananas are not ripe. I don't have enough oranges# maembe Maembe yako ni mazuriZ Are your mangoes goodZ MA sg. I don'ti-have enough coffee# zi-ziI don't have enough tea.any goodZ Concord:n Noun. My tea is not-ugood. Do you have tty enough i I chakula n V• Uji yanatosha? wangu si mzuri.be ndizi nazi ndizi Sitaki mananasi yake. I don’t want his coconuts# chakulanoun Chakula kir. (6) mamayamaembe sg. TP mananasi £i« maeir.com Hosted for free on livelingua. chakula Chakula changu Chakula changu hakitoshi. Siagi yangu haitoshi# kahawa Kahawa yangu si nzuri* m-/niw-(with w_ l nonMkate wangu hautoshi# abstract ) nouns ) si kizuri. and subject prefix# uji Uji wako unatoshaZ Do you mw' have enough porridgeZ Pi. (3) m-/mw-unazi hazitoshi#yako yI don'ti-have enough coconuts Machungwa ni mazuriZ Are your oranges -i. (none. Maziwa yako yanatosha? Do you have enough milk? machungwa Kahawa yako inatosha? enough coffee? maembe Maembe yake si mabivu. Chungwa langu si zuri. see Note 18C) znyamaChai yangu haitoshi# chai u-/wChai yangu si nzuri. possessive. Concord: Noun.f abstract l ] u-/w-(with mkate Mkate wangu si mzuri.atoshaZ have enough foodZ adj. nouns) My meat is not -i. subject Do you object nanasi Sitaki nanasi lake# I don't want his pineapple# % mkate Do you have enough breadZ -m-/Mkate wako unatoshaZ VWA sg. I don't have enough food# tty bread is not good. ndizi Ndizi zake si mbivu. His pineapple is not ripe. and subject prefix# Vi.goodZ pi. Machungwa yako machungwa chungwa mayai I don’t have enough bread# tty food is not good. Do you have His pineapples chai matunda Chai yako inatosha? Sitaki matunda yake.com .

Unataka matunda? Y. X. A.UNIT 17 3. Use other words in place of those that are underlined.com . 48 Hosted for free on livelingua. Matunda jrangu ni mazuri sana. SWAHILI Substitutions in sequences of sentences. Ninataka matunda mazuri tu basi. X.

g. bananas) Tunacho. B. Tunazo. Tuna machungwa mengi. We have them. we have a lot of them.Unit i8 i• Basic dialogue• What do we need? Arandan -hitaji (to) need Tunahitaji ndizi? Do we need any bananas? Mutisya kwa for sababu (N) reason kwa sababu because tunazo we have them "chache few Ndiyo. Concord exemplified in 'objects' *»«■ Compare the following forms: Tunao. Aramian kiazi (VI) potato viazi Tuna viazi? potatoes Do we have potatoes? Mutisya "ingi Hdiyo. we have only a few of them. We have it. bread) Corresponding to the English object pronouns then and it is a suffix consisting of a concoraial element plus -o. (e. Details of concord with certain adjective stems. . kwa sababu tunazo chache tu. food) 48 We have it. Notes of n&a A. many Yes.g. tunavyo vingi. (e. We have many oranges.g. Yes. (e.

Here. We have many potatoes. We have much gruel. The adjective stem -chache 'few' is usually used with plurals.Tuna sukari nyingi. in the kA class. the forms of the adjective stem and of the prefixes themselves are less clear than they were in 17C. We have many bananas. the form is: The other forms are given in the exercises. Then. It will be simplest to regard the basic form of the adjective stem as "ingi. the stem -zuri takes a prefix n-. Tuna viazi vingi. Compare the forms: MA maembe mazuri maembe machache ndizi nzuri ndizi chache ndizi mbivu ndizi nyingi With the N class. while ~chache takes no prefix at all. which has no uniform shape for prefixes. . Tuna ndizi nyingi. C. N-concords with adjective stems beginning in a consonant. Tuna uji mwingi. We have much sugar. where one might expect ma | ingi the form that occurs is mengi In the N class.

in that they too have as prefix a syllabic nasal consonant. Tunanyama kidogo. We have a little meat. in that they have as their N class prefix a syllabic nasal hom. the singular of which is kiazi. Adjectives whose stems begin with v or b act like -bivu in this respect. We have a few potatoes. He's . vy- VI class plural (cf._gref. A new noun class. Analeta nyama nyama nyingi. vi-/vy. Substitution in single sentences. We have a little food. t act like -chache in this respect. He's bringing a lot of oranges. Tunandizi chache. homorganic with the initial consonant of the stem. m. Note 17D) are: subj. vi.organic with the initial consonant of the stem. f. in that they have no prefix at all for the N class.Adjectives whose stems begin with ch. z act like -zuri in this respect. He's bringing a lot of bananas. viazi Analeta viazi vingi. D. We have a few Tunachakula kidogo. viazi chakula ndizi nyama matunda Concord: Noun and adjective Tunaviazi vichache. obj. Adjectives whose steins begin with d. Analeta ndizi ndizi nyingi. B.-vi- 2. the VI class. n. These nasals are written with the letter n. He's bringing a lot of meat. Analeta machungwa machungwa mengi. s. and written m. The VI class.vi-/vy- jooss. bananas. is represented by viazi 'potatoes'. pref. We have a little fruit. A. bringing a lot of potatoes. Tunamatunda machache. g. The concords for the noun adj. k.

YJe need a lot of mangoes now. p W 3 * Matching parts of paired sentences. Una chakula? Kinacho kichache tu. tunayo. Ana machungwa? Ndiyo. Concord: Noun and object suffix. Mna chakula? Ndiyo.com . Una viazi? Ninavyo vichac’ne tu. B . We need a lot of tea now. % Mna mkate? Ndiyo. tunazo. object suffix and adjective. •do you have potatoes?' 'yes. sukari Tunahitaji sukari nyingi sasa. Ana ndizi? Ndiyo. We need a lot of pineapples now kahawa Tunahitaji kahawa nyingi sasa. tunao. Hosted for free on livelingua. maembe Tunahitaji maembe mengi sasa. We need a lot of coffee now. tunavyo.SWAHILI UNIT 19 chakula Analeta chakula kingi. Mna nyama? Ndiyo. We need a lot of milk now. Una nyama? Ninayo chache tu. 'do you have mangoes?' 1 1 have only a few of them. tunayo. mananasi Tunahitaji mananasi mengi sasa. We need a lot of sugar now. we have [them]' Ana viazi? Ndiyo. A. Unit_i_9 1« Basic Dialogue. • Una maembe? Ninayo machache tu. He's bringing a lot of food. maziwa Tunahitaji maziwa mengi sasa. tunacho. Concord: Noun. chai Tunahitaji chai nyingi sasa. Una nazi? Ninazo chache tu. Buying at the door.

. Aramian They're quite good.... whole kabisa quite Ni nzima kabisa.. spoiled) Njugu zako ni mbovu? Hawker Are your ground nuts bad? siyo (negative of ndiyo) Siyo. “zima good (i.e.SWAHILI UNIT 19 Aramian -uza (to) sell nini what? Unauza nini? Hawker What are you selling? njugu (N) karanga (N) mahindi muhindi(M) or: hindi (MA) nuts groundnuts maize (off cob) ear of maize Nina njugu na mahindi... Hawker how? -je ~moja Unauzaje (mu)hindi? one How much is the maize? centdo(E.. they're not bad... si mbovu. No... ~bovu bad (i...... In the reply Mmoja senti kumi.. not rotten)._____________ |__i i i „ f Mmoja senti kumi Ten cents apiece* ('one. Aramian I have peanuts and corn... ten cents' ) Notes A..com . Ten cents apiece. Hosted for free on livelingua. African) ('How you sell the maize?') senti kumi ten 5* .e.

SWAHILI UNIT 19 (One-ten cents. which in some respects may be regarded as belonging to the N-class. are found in the phrases ndizi moja one banana nazi moja one coconut The words ng'o mb g 'cow. nouns of any class.) the adjective mmoja agrees with muhindi. behave dilferently with adjectives: ng'ombe mmoja one ox nguruwe ftmoja one pig In this respect they are like the singular of the WA-class: mtoto mmoja one child Indeed. 'ear of maize* 1 B. require that the adjectives which accompany them have concords of the animate (WA) class* Hosted for free on livelingua. as N-class singulars.com . Use of WA class concords for all nouns denoting living beings* The words ndizi 'banana' and nazi 'coconut'. when they stand for animate beings. cattle' and ngu ruw e ' p i g ' .

use samaki always as a member of the WA class. chungwaChungwa moja ni bovu. never as a member of the N class*) C* Contrast between mb. One mango is spoiled. One spoiled. MI.UNIT 1 9 SWAHILI Thus samaki 'fish'. A. j Hindi langu ni bovu. when it stands for a live fish. w . One pineapple is spoiled. embe Embe moja ni bovu. U classes). chungwa Nina chungwa moja tu. Concord: Noun and adjective. Concord: Noun and two adjectives. 51* Hosted for free on livelingua. muhindi mkate rafiki B. the constitutes a separate syllable.com orange is . . the words spelled nibovu are not pronounced alike. In the latter. I have only one mango. In the phrases usually written in standard spelling: Nazi yangu ni mbovu. embe Nina embe moja tu. while in the * former it does not. mtoto ng1 Nina mtoto mmoja tu. Matching parts of single sentences.and mb-. 2. however. nazi kiazi samaki tunda nanasi yai ndizi B. (Muhmdi wangu ni mbovu. nanasi Nanasi moja ni bovu. I have only one ox. is w<»«n — samaki iJimoja but when the fish has been cooked ready to eat. embe nguruwe I have only one child. Nina ng'ombe mmoja tu. it may be called samaki moja (Most speakers. we shall write mbovu (N-class) IB and tfibovu (WA. I have only one orange. My coconut is bad* „ . Accordingly.

D. Jfy pineapples are not bad* nanasi Nanasi langu si bovu. One banana is spoiled. Only one mango is good. samaki Samaki moja ni mbovu. (live) Only one ear of muhindi Muhindi mmoja tu ni mzima maize is good. kiazi Kiazi kimoja tu ni kizirca Only one potato is good. One ear of maize is spoiled. One coconut is spoiled. E. Only one pineapple is good. chungwa Chungwa langu si bovu. machungwa Machungwa yangu si mabovu My oranges are not bad. nazi Nazi moja tu ni nzima. One piece of tunda Tunda moja ni bovu. mananasi Mananasi yangu si mabovu. Only one egg is yai Yai moja tu ni zima. My pineapple is not bad. One potato is spoiled. My eggs are not bad. Only one fish is good. fruit is spoiled. Only one banana is good.BASIC COURSE UNIT 19 yai Yai moja ni bovu. samaki Samaki moja tu ni nzima. One egg is spoiled.com . good. nanasi Nanasi moja tu ni zima. (dead) Only one samaki Samaki mmoja tu ni mzima. ndizi Ndizi moja ni mbovu. kiazi Kiazi kimoja ni kibovu. nazi Nazi moja ni mbovu. One fish is spoiled. 55 Hosted for free on livelingua. G. My orange is not bad. ndizi Ndizi moja tu ni nzima. muhindi Muhindi mmoja ni mbovu. fish is good. embe Embe moja tu ni zima. mayai Mayai yangu si mabovu. Only one coconut is good. F.

3. 'one is bad' yake ni nzima. nazi (pi. embe H. Hosted for free on % livelingua. machungwa Machungwa yako ni mazima. 'my potatoes are badj embc Embe lako ni zimaj Viazi vyangu ni vibovuj mayai Mayai yako ni mazimaj Kiazi changu ni kibovuj viazi kiazi yai langu ni bovu. maembe Maembe yangu si mabovu.bovu. lfy egg is not bad.com Mmoja ni mbovu. wake ni mzima. viazi Viazi ni vizima? Mihindi yangu ni mibovu. natunda Matunda ni mazirra? machungwa Machungva ni mazima? naembe Maembe ni mazima? nihindi Mihindi ni mizirna? Moja ni mbovu. Your bananas are spoiled. viazi Viazi vyako ni vibovu. My mango is not bad.) Nazi zako ni mbovu. chungwa Chungwaslots. yangu ni mabovu. his are good' langu ni bovu. langu ni bovu. ndizi C. 'are the potatoes good?' Nazi yangu ni ir.) Ndizi yako ni mbovu. lako ni zima. yake ni nzima. . ndizi nazi mihindi ftcamaki Samaki ni nzima? Kimoja ni kibovu Moja ni mbovu. ndizi (sg. ndizi (pi. yake ni mizima. chake ni kizima* Yai lako ni zimaj Ndizi zangu ni mbovu. yangu ni mabovu. D• nazi Nazi ni nzirna? 'your oranges are good. Correspending singular and plural Ndizi yangu ni mbovu.) Nazi yako ni mbovu.) Ndizi zako ni mbovu. vyake ni vizima. A. nuhindi ndizi Ndizininimbovu. Moja ni bovu. My mangoes are not bad. Your maize is spoiled. Concord in multiple maerr.BASIC COURSE UNIT 19 yai Yai langu si bovu. Your banana is spoiled. Your coconut is spoiled* muhindi Muhindi wako ni mbovu. mihindi Mihindi yako ni mibovu. concords. Matching parts of paired sentences. Your maize is spoiled. Your potatoes are spoiled kiazi Kiazi chako ni kibovu. D. nzima? Muhindi wangu Moja ni mbovu.be Maembe yako ni mazima. Your coconuts are spoiled nazl (sg. Embe langu si bovu. 56 Moja ni bovu. mine are bad' yangu ni mabovu. zake ni nzima. Moja ni bovu. Your potato is spoiled.

) Aramian -kaa (to) live (reside) wapi? where? Unakaa wapi? Where do you live? N Mchukuzi Ninakaa Morogoro. without antecedent. Here. The word inkubwa is used in two different ways in the dialogues fiji ni mkubwa.Unit 20 1. in a noun position. Notes A* Adjective used. Basic dialogue. Where do you live? (NB This dialogue is now obsolete from a political point of view. [He]'s Sultan Kunambi. inkubwa represents an adjective in agreement with a singular noun of the Mi-class . Aramian Akubwa (WA) It's large. au Adogo? small Is Morogoro a large town. the chief nani? who? huo that Mkubwa wa Aji huo ni nani? Who is the chief of that town? % Mchukuzi Ni Sultani Kunambi. The city is big. or a small one? % Mchukuzi Ni Akubwa. town ~kubwa large ~dogo Korogoro ni Aji inkubwa. Arabian Aji (MI) I live in Morogoro.

if one prefers.o h . 0 1 & Sg.o h .iy . All such demonstratives begin with h. pi. Fl.and end with -o. the second word is a 'demonstrative' which corresponds partially to English that.-o. it may be regarded as an adjective agreeing with an ’understood* antecedent in the singular of the WAclass.ay . The meaning is approximately 'that one that we were talking about' or 'that one near you'. rather than 'that one over there within view. 1 MI sg. Si WA h-a-o h-u-o h .o . the same written and spoken form represents a singular noun of the WA.il . what comes in between the h.' pi.riikubwa wa mji the big [man] of the city Here. B. Demonstratives in h. MA Sg.and the -o depends on concord class.class or. those potatoes that Compare the phrases: city that egg viazi hivyo mji huo yai hilo In each phrase.

Pl. I don't know the price of that tea. A.iy . 2. h .o h . pl. I don't know the price of those coconuts. Matching parts of single sentences. h-u-o Compare these forms with the final syllables of the forms discussed in Note 18A. nazi Sijui bei ya nazi hizo. chai Sijui bei ya chai hiyo.iz . mihindi Unajua bei ya mihindi hiyo? Do you know the price of that maize? matunda Unajua bei ya matunda hayo? Do you know the price of that fruit? machungwa Unajua bei ya machungwa hayo? Do you know the price of those oranges? chakula Unajua bei ya chakula hicho? Do you know the price of that food? .o N sg.ivy . h . I don't know the price of those potatoes. Concord: Noun and demonstrative.ich .o U Sg. ndizi Sijui bei ya ndizi hizo. kahawa Sijui bei ya kahawa hiyo. B.VI Sg. I don't know the price of those bananas.o h . I don't know the price of that coffee. . viazi Sijui bei ya viazi hivyo.

Nguruwe ni Akubwa? (sg. ni dogo. Machungwa hayo ni mabivu? La. That mango isn't very large.) err. mayai Mayai hayo si makubwa sana.toto n ng'ombe (sg. Those eggs aren't very large.) Nguruwe wake ni Azuri? 'are those potatoes large?' Viazi hivyo ni vikubwa? ng'anibe Ng'ombe|^^®^ni wazuri? (pl. simbivu. chungwa La. sana La. Chungwa hilo ni bivu? La. Chungwa hilo ni kubwa? sana. ni wadogo. ni madogo. 'no. La. simabivu. simabivu.c. and two adjectives. La.) D.) % mtoto Mtoto huyo ni mkubwa? ndizi Ndizi hizo ni mbivu? (pl. they are small' ng ombe Ng'ombe wake ni Azuri? machungwa Machungwa hayo ni makubwa? (sg. Atoto % Ndiyo.ni wazuri yai Yai hilo si kubwa sana.ni Azuri Mtoto wake ni Azuri? 3. niwadogo. That egg isn't very large. Ndiyo.ni wazuri sana. Matching parts of paired sentences.ni Azuri 'no. Those potatoes aren't very large La. La.ni Azuri La.) Ndizi hizo ni kubwa? 'is that mango ripe?' . c. niAdogo.) Ndizi hiyo ni kubwa? ndizi (sg embe Embe hilo ni bivu? B. nguruwe (sg. simbivu. sibivu. Concord: Noun. sana. ni rodogo.) kiazi maernbe nguruweMaembe hayo sihuyo makubwa sana. nguruwe Nguruwe |^^®|ni wazuri? Ndiyo. La. Those mangoes aren't very large. Ndiyo.be Is that child big? La.ni wazuri (pl.maembe Maembe hayo ni mabivu? watotondizi hiyo ni mbivu? WatotoNdizi hao ni wakubwa? (sg.) viazi Ng'ombe huyo ni Akubwa? Viazi hivyo si vikubwa sana. Ndiyo. La. La.) Kiazi hicho ni kikubwa? viazi kiazi 1 La. sibivu. ni ndogo. watoto Watoto wake ni wazuri? Ndiyo. ni vidogo. Concord: Noun. ndizi (pi . La. La. demonstrative and mjl adjective• Aji huo ni mkubwa? Is that city large? ng'ombe Ng'ombe huyo ni mkubwa? Is that ox big? nguruwe Nguruwe huyo ni mkubwa? Is that pig big? % ng'ombe Ng'ombe hao ni wakubwa? Mtoto huyo ni mkubwa? (pl.) A. ni ndogo. niAdogo. That potato isn't very large. ni kidogo. niwadogo. it is not ripe' La. . (pl. La.) chungwa machungwa sana sana. demonstrative.) ir. nguruwe Nguruwe hao ni wakubwa? Kiazi hicho si kikubwa sana. Embe hilo si kubwa sana.

I don't understand (sir). is there which side of D. bwana. Aramian upande (U) direction Fiji wa Morogoro uko upande gani wa What direction is Morogoro from Dar es Salaam? Dar es Salaam? ('city of M. Aramian kaskazini (N) north mashariki (N) east . Ahl It's west of Dar es Salaam. Where is Morogoro from here? Aramian uko it is there % Mji wa Morogoro uko wapi? Where is (town of) Morogoro? Kis friend -elewa understand Sielewi. mji wa Utete uko kusini ya Dar es Salaam? Is Utete south of Dar es Salaam? „ His friend Yes [it is] (sir). Ndiyo. bwana.Unit 21^ i« Basic Dialogue. Aramian kusini (N) south Je.?' ) His friend magharibi (N) west AhJ Uko magharibi ya Dar es Salaam.

Yes [it is] (sir). the shortest possible answer (respectively ndiyo and yes) would be abrupt in this context. The meanings of the four direction-words: Questions on the map. Note the lack of exact parallel between the Swahili and the English in Ndiyo. or east au mashariki ya hapa? of here? His friend Uko kaskazini.1i wa Bagamoyo. Notes A. Polite yes . In either language.is it north. 2.no replies in Swahili and English. uko kaskazini here And Bagamoyo . North.hapa (PA) Na m. It is softened in each language by the addition of something. bwana. In Swahili it is the honorific title bwana. . while in English it is the clause fragment it_is.

Bagamoyo. of Dar es Salaam? k Utete iko kaskazini ya Dar es Salaam? Morogoro Ilagh. Is Utete east of Dar es Salaam? Dar es Salaam iko kusini ya Bagamoyo? Dar es Salaam Ku. Place names are treated as being in the N class if they are not preceded by some expression such as mji wa. The four direction words: Completion. allowing the student to finish the sentence for him. ——. Utete iko kusini ya ------------. .Is Morogoro west of Dar es Salaam? Morogoro iko magharibi ya Dar es Salaam? Bagamoyo iko magharibi ya Dar es Salaam? Is Bagamoyo west of Dar es Salaam? Utete iko magharibi ya Dar es Salaam? Utete iko mashariki ya Dar es Salaam? Bagamoyo Utete iko kusini ya Dar es Salaam? Is Utete westKa. B. Utete iko kaskazini ya Bagamoyo? Dar es Salaam iko magharibi ya Morogoro? Utete Is Utete south of Dar es Salaam? Is Utete north of Dar es Salaam? Is Dar es Salaam south of Bagamoyo? Is Utete north of Bagamoyo? Is Dar es Salaam west of Morogoro? (N. Dar es Salaam iko kaskazini ya Utete. Bagamoyo iko kaskazini ya Dar es Salaam.) Dar es Salaam iko kusini ya ---------------. Morogoro iko magharibi ya Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam iko mashariki ya Morogoro.Dar es Salaam.Mash.) 3. (The tutor should pause at the point indicated.

V.' It may be called a 'proximal demonstrative*' The 'proximal demonstratives' agree with the nouns to which they refer* . (the houses of this village) they aren't udongo (U) (of stone)* soil Nyingi ni za udongo* Many are [made] of mud* Notes A* Demonstratives in hV.Unit 22 1. houses mawe stones jiwe (MA) stone Are the houses of this village [made] of stone? Nyumba za kijiji hiki ni za mawe? Hasani La* Nyumba za kijiji hiki si za mawe* No. In the phrase kijiji hiki 'this village' the word hiki is a demonstrative which corresponds very closely to English 'this/these. Mirambo nyuraba (N) house. Basic Dialogue* In a village* Mirambo kijiji (VI) village Kijiji hiki kiko upande gani wa Dar es What direction is this village from Dar es Salaam? Salaam? Hasani Kiko kusini* It's south. .

demonstrative and adjective* Daudi is here. If the answer contains the word haga 'here'. Note that the 1 sg. and may even be used alone: - Za mawe ziko wapi? Za uaongo zipo hapa. the houses) [made] of stone? [The ones made] of mud are here. -go. 2* Hatching parts of single sentences* A. Compare the phrases: Kijiji kiko wapi? Where is the village? Aji uko wapi? Where is the town? The locative stem -ko. D. etc. takes concordial prefixes ki-. animate subject prefix with the locative stems. . Special form of 3 sg. C. Concord: Noun.and not a-s Daudi yupo hapa. then -go must be instead of -ko. B. Phrases which consist of the linking -a +• noun need not follow immediately after the nouns to which they refer. see the exercises. Where are the ones (i. The locative stems -ko.Thus: kijiji hiki this village vijiji hivi these villages chungwa hili this orange The proximal forms for the noun classes that have been met so far are to be found in the exercises. nyumba za mawe Nyumba ni za mawe. animate subject prefix used with -ko and -go is jru. Phrases with linking -a used without antecedent. u-. houses of stone(s) The houses are of stone.e. For details.

) Nazi hizi ni ndogo. mayai Mayai haya ni makubwa. This orange is large. nazi (pi.) Ndizi hii ni ndogo. These pineapples are large* yai lai hili ni kubwa. These eggs are large. These potatoes are nice* chakula Chakula hiki ni kizuri. This food is nice* vyakula Vyakula hivi ni vizuri. These foods are nice* chungwa Chungwa hili ni kubwa. These villages are nice. These coconuts are small. This egg is large.) Ndizi hizi ni ndogo. ndizi (pl.com . These mangoes are large. This pineapple is large. This banana is small. maembe Maembe haya ni makubwa. kiazi Kiazi hiki ni kizuri. This potato is nice* viazi Viazi hivi ni vizuri. machungwa Machungwa haya ni makubwa. mananasi Mananasi haya ni makubwa. This mango is large. This village is nice* vijiji Vijiji hivi ni vizuri. r nazi (sg. ndizi (sg.) v# 68 Hosted for free on livelingua. These oranges are large* embe Embe hili ni kubwa. nanasi Nanasi hili ni kubwa.kijiji Kijiji hiki ni kizuri. This coconut is small. Nazi hii ni ndogo. These bananas are small. B.

D. .

mtoto
watoto
ng1ombe
(mmoja)
ng’ombe
(wengi)
nguruwe
(mmoja)
nguruwe
(wengi
)
samaki
(mmoja)
samaki
(wengi
)
samaki
(mmoja)
samaki

*
Mtoto huyu ni indogo.

This child is small.

Watoto hawa ni wadogo.

These children are small.

Ng'ombe huyu ni mdogo.

This ox is small.

Ng'ombe hawa ni wadogo.

These oxen are small.

Nguruwe huyu ni mdogo.

This pig is small.

Nguruwe havra ni wadogo.

These pigs are small.

Samaki huyu ni mdogo.

This (live) fish is small.

Samaki hawa ni wadogo.

These (live) fish are small.

Samaki hii ni ndogo.

This (cooked) fish is small.

Samaki hizi ni ndogo.

These (cooked) fish are small

C . Concord: Noun, possessive, location.
chai

Chai yako ipo hapa.

Your tea is here.

Kahawa yako ipo hapa.

Your coffee is here.

sukari

Sukari ipo hapa.

The sugar is here.

siagi

Siagi ipo hapa.

The butter is here.

nyama

Nyama ipo hapa.

The meat is here.

mkate

«
Mkate upo hapa.

The bread is here.

Daudi

Daudi yupo hapa.

Daudi is here.

watoto

Watoto wapo hapa.

The children are here.

kahawa

F.

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Ng'ombe yupo hapa.

The ox is here.

Ng'ombe wapo hapa.

The oxen are here.

Nguruwe yupo hapa.

The pig is here.

Nguruwe wapo hapa.

The pigs are here.

chakula

Chakula chako kipo hapa.

Your food is here.

vyakula

Vyakula vyako vipo hapa.

Your food is here.

kiazi

Kiazi chako kipo hapa.

Your potato is here.

viazi

Viazi vyako vipo hapa.

Your potatoes are here

ng' ooibe
(sg.)
ng'ombe
(pl.)
nguruwe
(sg.)
nguruwe
(pl.)
G.

3. Matching parts of paired sentences.
A.Concord-: Noun and -ko or -go.
chai

Chai yangu iko wapi?

Where is my tea?

Ipo hapa.
kahava

It's here.

Kahawa yangu iko wapi?

Where is rny coffee?

Ipo hapa.
sukari

It's here.

Sukari iko wapi?

Where is the sugar?

Ipo hapa.
siagi

It's here.

Siagi iko wapi?

Where is the butter.

Ipo hapa.
nyama

It's here.

Nyama iko wapi?

Where is the meat?

Ipo hapa.
Akate
Upo hapa.

It's here.

Mkate uko wapi?

Where is the bread?
It's here.

B.
Daudi

Daudi yuko wapi?
Yuko Morogoro.

watoto

Watoto wako wapi?
Wako Morogoro.

ng'ombe
(sg.)

Ng'ombe wako yuko wapi?

ng1ombe
(pl.)

Ng'ombe wako wako wapi?

nguruwe
(sg.)

Nguruwe wako yuko wapi?

nguruwe
(pl.)

Nguruwe wako wako wapi?

Yuko Morogoro.

Wako Morogoro.

Yuko Morogoro.

Wako Morogoro.

Where is Daudi?
He's at Morogoro.
Where are the children?
They are at Morogoro.
Where is your ox?
It's at Morogoro.
Where are your oxen?
They are at Morogoro.
Where is your pig?
It's at Morogoro.
Where are your pigs?
They are at Morogoro.

n
v*

chakula

Chakula changu kiko wapi?
Kipo hapa*

vyakula

Vyakula vyangu viko wapi?
Vipo hapa.

kiazi

Kiazi changu kiko wapi?
Kipo hapa.

viazi

Viazi vyangu viko wapi?
Vipo hapa.

Where is my food?
I t ' s here.
Where is my food?
I t ' s here*
’..here is my potato?
I t ' s here.
'..here are inv potatoes?
They are here.

Unlt_23
i• Basic Dialogue*

Where are you going?
Sangai
go

-enda

Where are you going?

Unakwenda wapi?
Hadija
soko (MA)

market in, at, on
I'm going to the market.

-ni
Sangai

Ninakwenda sokoni.

make, do to do To do what?
Hadija

-fanya
kufanya Kufanya

buy

nini?

thing
To buy some things.
Sangai

-nunua kitu
(VI) Kununua

What kind of things?

vitu*

Hadija
Groceries, ('to buy foodstuffs' )
Notes

Kununua vitu gani?

>1

A. The locative suffix -ni.
Kununua vyakula.

Ninakwenda Morogcro,

I'm going to Norogoro.

Norogoro uko wapi?

Where is Norogoro?

Nir.akwenda sokoni.

I’m going to the market.

Soko liko wapi?

Where is the market?

The 'locative suffix' -ni 'at, to, in' is added to many words, but not to the nan.es of cities.

As noted in Unit 2 1 , the form iko is sometimes used in place of uko in
sentences of this kind.
B. Ku- as 'sign of the infinitive.

9
*

Ninanunua vitu.

I'm buying things.

Ninataka kununua vitu.

I want to buy things*

The prefix ku- used alone before a verb stem corresponds partially to the Lnglish word 'to' used as 'sign of the
infinitive.' Forms like kununua, kufanjra are called 'infinitives.'

C. Use of kw in inflected forms with the stem -enda.
Ninataka kwenda.

I want to go.

Ninakwenda.

I'm going.

The stem, of this verb is -enda. It begins with a vowel. The infinitive
prefix is written kw- instead of ku-.
D.
Ninataka kwenda.

I want to go.

Ninakwenda.

I'm going.

Ninataka kununua . . .

I want to buy . . •

Ninanunua ...

I'm buying ...
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The ku-/kw- of the infinitive form is missing from the personal forms of most verbs, including -nunua. But for
-enda, kw- is retained in most forms. This is true for a few other verbs as well.
2.

Substitutions in single sentences.
A. Simple noun vs. noun with -ni.

soko

Ninakwenda sokoni.

I’m going to the market.

nyumba

Ninakwenda nyumbani.

I'm going home.

Aji

Ninakwenda Ajini.

I'm going to the town.

kijiji

Ninakwenda kijijini#

I'm going to the village.

Morogoro

Ninakwenda Morogoro.

I'm going to Morogoro.

Bagamoyo
B.

Ninakwenda Bagamoyo.

I'm going to Bagamoyo.

Infinitive after -taka.

vyakula

Juma anataka kununua vyakula.

Juma wants to buy food.

machungwa Juma anataka kununua machungwa.
muhindi
C.
kusini

nyama

sukari

Juma wants to buy oranges.
Akate

Direction words plus ^a.
Juma na Hasani wanakwenda
kusini ya Bagamoyo.

kaskazini

Juma and Hasani are going to
the south of Bagamoyo.

. Juma na Hasani wanakwenda
kaskazini ya Bagamoyo.

mashariki

Juma and Hasani are going to
the north of Bagamoyo.

magharibi

3.
A.
soko
masoko
kijiji

Concord: Noun and -ko.
Soko liko wapi?

Where is the market?

Masoko yako wapi?

Where are the markets?

Kijiji kiko
wapi?

mji wa
Utete

forms.

a

Mji wa
B. -ko:

Juma

Utete

He is not at the market.
He is at home.

uko

Are the children at the market? They are

wapi?

not at the market. They are at home.

affirmative vs. negative Juma
vatoto

Is Juma at the market?

yuko
sokoni?

Hayuko sokoni.
Njoroge

Is Njoroge at the market?
He is not at the market.
He is at heme.
Are Juma and Njoroge at the market?
They are not at the market. They are at
home.

Juma na
vituNjoroge
vyangu Vitu vyangu viko wapi?

Where are my things?

Unit 24 i• Basic Dialogue• Where has Juma gone? Abasi amekwenda Juma amekwenda wapi? Amekwenda sokoni. Wako nyumbani. Wako nyumbani. Watoto wako sokoni? Hawako Where is the town of Utete? sokoni. Juma na Njoroge wako sokoni? Hawako sokoni.ja He's gone to the market. . he is gone Where has Juma gone? Hadi. Yuko nyumbani. whether -patikana be available Kuona kama machungwa yanapatikana.Where is the village? Yuko nyumbani. To see whether there are any oranges to be had. Njoroge yuko sokoni? Hayuko sokoni. Abasi Kufanya nini? What for? Hadija -ona see kama if.

Compare this example from Ashton (p. The meat is good. 9h): Mkate huu u tamu. is one of a list of adjectives which never take concordial prefixes. The children are ready. Nimenunua matano. The food is ready. ~bichi I've already gone [there]. A more correct way of saying the same thing is as follows: Nyama i tayari. and not a-. But after subject prefixes. . The food is ready.-isha tayari(sometimes pronounced [teiyari] or [tiyari]) ready finish hind nimekwisha kwenda tayari. unripe Kuna rcachache tu mabichi. as illustrated in Note A. The children are ready. -go. Abasi Notes A. Watoto wa tayari. of which tavari 'ready' is one. in that the Class 1 (singular of WA class) prefix is ju. The meat is ready. Some adjectives. The list of 'subject prefixes' used in this construction is identical with the list used before -ko. Chakula ki tayari. Adjectives which do not take Nyama ni concordial prefixes* tayari. even those adjectives which do on occasion tale concordial prefixes. There are only a few green ones five ~tano I bought five. The adjective tayari. appear without those prefixes. The meat is ready. B. The food is good. do not take prefixes to show agreement with the nour. Watoto ni tayari. This loaf is sweet.s to which they refer. Nyama ni nzuri. Adjective stems preceded by subject prefixes. Chakula ni kizuri. Chakula ni tayari.

talari is 'used adverbially. M— Juma anakwenda wapi? Where is Juma going? Juma amekwenda wapi? Where has Juma gone? . The me-tense. It is used here as a counterpart of English 'already.Mkate huu ni mtamu. and does not occupy a slot usually filled by nouns. it does not modify any noun.' This usage of tayari after the me-tense is not fully accepted as standard. This loaf is (a) sweet (one).' That is. In the Dialogue. C.

I have finished.after certain tense prefixes including -me. keeps the kw.. concord of noun and ndizi Ndizi zinapatikana sokoni leo? chai Chai inapatikana sokoni subject prefix. Seme speakers use ikiwa ’it being* in place of kama where that word appears in the basic dialogue for this unit* 2« A. Numbers 1-5 with MA class* moja Nimenunua chungwa moja. I have bought a loaf of bread* miwili Nimenunua I have bought two loaves of bread* mikate miwili. D. leo? I have bought one orange* mawili Nimenunua machungwa mawili I have bought two oranges* matatu marine matano B* Numbers 1-5 with N-class* moja Nimenunua ndizi moja* I have bought one banana. Nimekwenda. .indicates completion of an action or process. Use of kw in inflected forms with the stem -isha. mitatu miAne mitano D.and -na-* E. The -meforms of some verbs are generallytranslated into English by using an English ’present perfect' tense.. -gatikana.The tense prefix -me. -mg. I have gone* Nimenunua* I have bought* The verb -isha.. .occurs in the same slot as -na-. like -enda.. Nimekwisha. Are bananas available in the market today? Is tea available in the market today? . mbili Nimenunua I have bought two bananas* ndizi mbili* tatu Ane tano C* Numbers 1-5 with MI class* ftmoja Nimenunua mkate mmoja.

Hatunazo nyumbani. nyama Juma amekwenda sokoni kununua nyama. We don't have any at home. Juma amekwenda sokoni kununua sukari. sukari Juma has gone to the market to buy Juma amekwenda sokoni kununua nazi. We don't have any at home. Juma has gone to the market to buy sugar. Hatunayo nyumbani. Hatunazo nyumbani. We don't have any at home. nazi oranges. Juma has gone to the market to buy meat. We don't have any at hone. Juma has gone to the market to buy bananas. . ndizi Juma amekwenda sokoni kununua ndizi.mkate Mkate unapatikana sokoni leo? maembe Maembe yanapatikana sokoni leo? nyama Is bread available in the market todays Are mangoes available in the market today? Is meat available in the market today? Nyama inapatikana sokoni leo? A. Hatunayo nyumbani. mayai We don't have any at home.ekwenda sokoni kununua machungwa. Juma has gone to the market to buy coconuts. We don't have any at home. Hatunayo nyumbani. Hatunayo nyumbani. Juma amekwenda sokoni Juma has gone to the market to buy eggs. Concord of noun in first sentence with 'object' of na. kununua mayai. machungwa Juma arr.

B. Do you have eggs? Yes. % Mnazo ndizi? Ndiyo. u* % Mnayo mayai? mayai Ndiyo. TT Jw# mayai % Mnayo mayai? ndizi Ndiyo. we have two of them. mi fine Tunahitaji mananasi? La. ndizi Mnazo ndizi? Ndiyo. % Mnao watoto? watoto n Do you have eggs? Yes. tunazo fine. tunayo matatu tayari. % Mnao watoto? watoto Do you have eggs? Yes. tunayo minne tayari. tunazo mbili. Ndiyo. we have four of them. we have five already. matano Tunahitaji mananasi? Do we need pineapples? No. we have three of them. Some speakers prefer tunataka to tunahitaji in this sentence [N. % Mnazo ndizi? Ndiyo. we have two already. tunayo matano tayari. Do you have children? Yes. we have four already. Do you have children? Yes. Do we need pineapples? No. Do we need pineapples? No. r UQ mayai Mnayo mayai? ndizi Ndiyo. Ndiyo. tunayo mawili. we have three already. we have three of them. . tunayo mawili tayari. matatu Tunahitaji mananasi? La. tunao wawili. mawili Tunahitaji mananasi? La. Do you have bananas? Yes. Do we need pineapples? La. B. Do you have bananas? Yes. tunazo tatu. tunayo marine. we have two of them. we have three of them. No. we have four of them. tunayo matatu. Do you have bananas? Yes. tunao watatu. we have two of them.

we we have have five fourof ofthem. B. we have five of them. Is DoHamisi you have bringing eggs? children? ripe oranges? Yes. ndizi. hnao watoto? Ndiyo. watoto Mnazo ndiz i? % G.* ndizi F. asks about the condition of one kind of fruit after another. tunao Ndiyo. Do you have children? Yes. maembe. . Ndiyo. matano. Do you have bananas? Yes. Yes. we have five of them. Ndiyo. a prospective customer. them. A is selling fruit. tunayowAnne. he has already brought ripe ones. 2. A asks B where C has gone. tunao watano. watoto Mnao watoto? Mnayo mayai? Hamisi analeta machungwa mabivu? Ndiyo. Conversation Starters 1. mayai amekwisha leta mabivu. Yes. In the above conversation substitute for machungwa: mananasi. turazo tano. and what he has gone there for. Analeta mabichi sasa. He is bringing unripe ones now.

I'm going there to pay [my] poll tax Hosted for free on livelingua.UNIT 25 SWAHILI Unit_25 1* Basic Dialogue. I'm going to the District Office. Nimekvisha lipa kodi ya No. Magese Unakvenda vapi? Abasi Where are you going? bona (MA ) District Office Ninakvenda bomani. kichwa (VI) head ada (N) fee shule (N) school (skull (N) is used in many parts of East Africa) Ninakvenda kulipa kodi ya kichwa.com . Gone to pay taxes. Magese kodi (N) tax -lipa pay kodi ya nyumba rent/house tax Kulipa kodi ya nyumba? Abasi To pay [your] house tax? La. nyumba. I've already paid [ny] house tax.

I've already paid. Umelipa kodi ya kichwa? Have you paid [your] poll tax? Magese bado not yet Hapana.forms contains ha plus subject prefix plus the prefix -ja-.negative counterpart of the metense. No. e t c . Note that the final a of the stem does not change in forms containing -^a-. 82 Notes A. I have paid I haven't nimelipa paid we haven't paid sijalipa we don't pay he hatujalipa hasn»t gone hatulipi hajaenda (or hajakwenda) One set of negative forms corresponding to the affirmative -me. A. Almost any verb stem can be placed after -mekwisha. UNIT 25 and [my] school fees. I've already gone. ) B. Nimekwisha lipa. -mekwisha plus verb stem. The -^a. sijalipa bado. • ? ada ya shule Umelipa ada ya shule? Have you paid the school fees? kodi ya kichwa Umelipa kodi ya kichwa? Have you paid the poll tax (head tax)? 83 Hosted for free on livelingua. Nimekwisha kwenda.BASIC COURSE na ada ya shule. one may often hear nimeshalip a. 2 .' (in speech. Umelipa • . The English translation of such constructions is usually ' has already finished ________ing. I haven't (paid yet).com .

kodi ya rent. nyumba Not yet. nyumba. -ja. ve have not paid the school kichwa.com . kichwa Bado hatujalipa kodi ya Not yet. we have not paid the house shule. shule Bado hatujalipa ada ya Bado hatujalipa fees.UNIT 25 SWAHILI kodi ya nyumba shule nyumba B. 84 Hosted for free on livelingua.negative kichwa of me-tense. Not yet. we have not paid the poll tax.

Hapana. he hasn’t gone yet. Daudi na Hamisi Daudi na Hamisi wamekwenda sokoni? La. No. Has he paid poll tax? HasNo.com No.sokoni? La. Has Juma gone to the market? (wewe) Juma Umelipa kodi ya kichwa? La. No. nyumba * Mmeuza nyumba? La. Daudi gone to theit. shule Wameuza nyumba? La.BASIC COURSE UNIT 25 C. -tense: affirmative vs. shule Abdallah has not yet paid the poll tax. Haven't youthe (pi. Bado hamjalipa kodi ya nyumba? Ameuza nyumba? La. kichwa Abdallah bado hajalipa kodi ya kichwa. it. nyumba (yeye) (wao) 3* kichwa p La. Have85 Daudi and Hamisi gone to for free on to Hosted the market? livelingua. I haven't sold it. A. hajaenda. hawajaenda. hawajauza. sijalipa. (yeye) Daudi La. hajalipa. Have they sold the house? No. kichwa Juma and Hamisi have not yet paid the house rent. . they haven't paid it. they haven't sold it.) paid the house rent Has he sold house? yet?he hasn't sold it. shule Bade hujalipa ada ya shule? Haven't you paid your school fees yet? (wao) kichwa Wamelipa kodi ya kichwa? nyumba B. shule D.• Me* Juma amekwenda sokoni? w Have they paid poll tax? No. Hapana. we haven't sold it.) paid polltotax? market? haven't paid it. (ninyi) vatoto Watoto wamekwenda sokoni? Kmeiipa kodi ya kichwa? Have gone the No. Have you paid the poll tax? No. Have you paid sold the the poll house? I haven't tax yet. we Havethe youchildren (pi. No. nyumba Juma na Hamisi bado hawajalipa kodi ya nyumba. hajauza. (-ja-) negative. they haven't gone yet. hawajaenda. hajaenda. Umeusa nyumba? shule (ninyi) F. F. hatujauza. he I have notgone paidyet. they haven't gone yet. hatujalipa. sijauza. (wewe) kichwa Bado sijalipa kodi ya kichwa. hasn't No.market? he hasn't paid No. Hapana. nyuniba E. hawajalipa. Have you sold the house? No. Amelipa kodi ya kichwa? Daudi amekwenda Hapana.

then the 'applied' suffix 86 Hosted for free on livelingua. No.(as in nunu-) or i or a. Regular formation of applied stems* Amenunua dawa* He has bought some medicine* Ametununulia dawa* He has bought us some medicine* Ameleta dawa* He has brought some medicine* •» Ametuletea dawa* He has brought us some medicine* In this discussion. then the 'applied' suffix is the vowel i.UNIT 26 SWAHILI Unit_26 1« Basic Dialogue.ja -tazama What for? ('To do what?') look at mzazi (WA) parent Kuwatazama wazazi wake* To see his parents* baba (N* pers. If the last vowel of the root is -e. the 'root' of the verb corresponding to English ’bring' is -let-. amekwenda Magomeni. If the last vowel of the verb root i3 -u.com . 1 or ’prepositional’ suffix. and the affirmative indicative 'stem' is -lata.(as in -let-).) father Agonjwa (WA) a sick person Baba yake ni mgonjva* His father is ill. Where has Hamisi gone? Ochieng Hamisi yuko nyumbani? Is Hamisi at home? Hadija La. -nunulia buy for dawa (N) medicine Amekwenda kumnunulia dawa* He's gone to buy him some medicine* Notes A. The verbs in the second and fourth sentences both contain instances of the ’applied. he's gone to Magomeni* Ochieng Kufanya nini? Hadi.

the applied stems of the Bantu verbs in Swahili may be predicted on the basis of the simple stems as follows: Simplestem: Applied stem: root ending in consonant vowel -kuta -kutia -nunua -lipa -nunulia -lipia -tia -pata -tilia -patia -zalia -zaa -soma -toa -lets ** -tolea -letea -pokes 2 — mm -somea -pokelea .and the final vowel is -a. wapi2 Hamisi yuko wapi? Where is Hamisi? 87 Hosted for free on livelingua. then the applied suffix consists of a vowel only. If the last sound of the root is a consonant (as in let-). [Note that in the stem -letea.] To put the same information in a different form. A. following £Uko.com .BASIC COURSE UNIT 26 has the vowel -e-. the applied suffix is -e. If the last sound of the root is a vowel (as in nunu-) then the vowel of the applied suffix is preceded by -1 -. Words with and without -ni. the root is -let-.

Hamisi is at the market.BASIC COURSE E.e* two ears) Has father bought some pine Baba amenunua mananasi? wapi? Hamisi na JumaNdiyo. Daudi has gone to town his children. My parents have bought me many things# . Nimemnunulia baba yangu Kamisi yuko Ajini. He has bought us two of them. ametununulia miwili# Hamisi is at Utete. Daudi has gone to town his friends. Daudi has gone to town his parents.com vitu vingi Wazazi wangu wameninunulia vitu vingi. Yes. Hamisi A# Simpleyuko vs* sokoni. I have bought my father same Hamisi is in town. dawa. to see watoto wake Daudi amekwenda Ajini kuwatazama watoto wake. father bought seme maize? Hamisi is inHas Morogoro. My parents have bought me some medicine# chakula Wazazi wangu wameninunulia chakula# «9 My parents have bought me some food# Hosted for free on livelingua. Hamisi yuko Utete. to see rafiki zake Daudi amekwenda Ajini kuwatazama rafiki zake. to see Kamisi na Juma Daudi amekwenda Ajini kuwatazama Hamisi na Juma. applied stems# mihindi Hamisi yukoBaba amenunua mihindi? Morogoro Morogoro. ametununulia mbili. dawa Wazazi wangu wameninunulia baba yake Daudi dawa* Hasani has gone to the village to see his friend. shule Utate nazi Morogoro village? home? bought us two of them# Yes. Daudi has gone to town Hamisi and Juma. Utete B. wazazi wake Daudi amekwenda mjini kuwatazama wazazi wake. Ndiyo. medicine. He has bought us two Hamisi na Juma wako Morogoro? Are Hamisi and Juma in of them# Morogoro? n. He has bought us two of them# Hamisi na Juma wako shuleni? Are Hamisi and Juma at school? Baba amenunua nazi? Has father bought coconuts? Hamisi na Juma wako Utete? Are Hamisi and Juma at Utete? Ndiyo. yake kumtazama rafiki yake. UNIT 26 Hamisi is at home. Where are Hamisi and Juma? apples? Yes# He has nyumba Hamisi na Juma wako nyumbani? Are Hamisi and Juma at kijiji Hamisi na Juma kijijini? Babawako amenunua ndizi? the fatheratbought bananas? Are Hamisi Has and Juma ndizi Ndiyo. wako ametununulia wapi? mawili. amet'irunulia mbili# Yes. mananasi (i.nyumba baba yangu Aji 3* soko H&misi yuko nyumbani. to see n Dm mtoto wangu Daudi Hasani amekwenda kijijini rafiki F.

BASIC COURSE (wewe) Baba amekununulia nini? What has father bought you? Hajaninunulia kitu. are not buying us anything. Watoto wake UNIT 26 He has not bought us anything Baba amewanunulia watoto wake What has father bought his children? He nini? Ha jawanunulia kitu.com . Hamisi anamnunulia Daudi nini? Hamnunulii kitu* What has Hamisi bought Daudi? He has not bought him anything yet. D What is Hamisi buying Daudi? He is not buying him anything. Sikununulii kitu. Hamisi ameriinunulia Daudi nini? Hajaninunulia kitu. What are you buying me? Unaninunulia nini? I am not buying you anything. 1 things B. He-tense: affirmative vs* (-ja-) negative. What have they bought us? They Wametununulia nini? have not bought us anything Hawajatununulia kitu. yet. has not bought them anything. Sijakununulia kitu. change of person from question to answer* Conversation Starters A is looking for C. D Wanatununulia nini? What are they buying us? They Hawatununulii kitu. B explains that C has gone to town to get some «9 Hosted for free on livelingua. (sisi) He has not bought me anything Baba ametununulia nini? What has father bought us? Hajatununulia kitu. What have you bought ms? Umeninunulia nini? I have not bought you anything yet. C.

com . who is ill. «9 Hosted for free on livelingua.BASIC COURSE UNIT 26 for his child.

sent by the government. Aramian. Abasi That is Mr. Abasi From America. to explain matters of our country' ) «9 Hosted for free on livelingua. as an information officer. country Ametumwa na serikali. -toka cone from.com .BASIC COURSE UNIT 26 Unit_27 i« Basic Dialogue* Who is that? Abasi Nani yule? Butler Wno is that(over there)? Huyo ni Bwana Aramian. -ja come Amekuja kufanya nini? Butler (American) What has he come to do? -tumwa be sent serikali (N) government ~etu our -eleza explain mambo (pi. kueleza He has been sent by his government. go from Anatoka wapi? Butler Where does he come from? Anatoka Amerlka. mambo ya nchi yetu. ('he has beer. MA) matters nchi (N) land.

comes from Nairobi. Use of ku in certain inflected forms of verbs with monosyllabic stems* amekuja he has come The verb -^a 'come' is like -enda and -igha in that ku is used between the tense prefix -me. kusini Bwana Hasani anatoka kusini. Hasani comes Bwana Hasani anatoka mashariki from the East. mambo Ametueleza mambo bay a.UNIT 27 SWAHILI Notes A. Concords with some new nouns. He has explained this news to us. I don't know how to explain these affairs to you. Hasani came from? Mr. Hasani Bwana Hasani anatoka Nairobi. Nairobi mashariki B. This is. C. Hasani comes from the South. vitu Sijui kukueleza habari za vitu hivi. habari Sijui kukueleza habari hizi.com . A* 9* Hosted for free on livelingua. -jua plus infinitive. I don't know how to explain this news to you. wapi? Bwana Hasani anatoka wapi? Where does Hr. habari Ametueleza habari hizi.and the root. and whose stems are thus monosyllabic# 2* -toka with place expressions. mambo Sijui kukueleza I don't know how to explain to you the details of these things. Mr. He has explained these affairs to us. vitu He has explained to us the details of these things. mambo haya. Ametueleza habari za vitu hivi. Mr. true of all verbs whose root consists of a consonant only. in fact.

B. me-tense• (yeye) Amekuja kufanya nini? What has he come to do? Ametumwa na serikali yake« He has been sent by his government. Person agreement between subject prefix and possessive stem# yangu Nimetumwa na serikali kueleza mambo I have been sent by the governya richi yangu. yake He has been sent by the govern- Ametumwa na serikali to explain the affairs of his country# kueleza mambo ya Achi yake# yako You have been sent by the government to explain the affairs of your country# Umetumwa na serikali kueleza to explain the affaire of my country# mambo We have been sent by the government to ya ftchi ya ftchi explain the affairs of our country# yako# yetu Tumetumwa na serikali kueleza mambo yetu# N # B. (ninyi ) Mmekuja kufanya nini? What have you (pi#) come to do? We have been sent by our government# Tumetumwa na serikali yetu. The second verb in each of these sentences is in the infinitive form# An alternative and possibly more correct way of saying the same thing would use subjunctive forms instead (See Units U2-U5)# 93 Hosted for free on livelingua.BASIC COURSE UNIT 3* A. Person change from question to answer. What have you come to do? (wewe) Umekuja kufanya nini? I have been sent by my government# Nimetumwa na serikali yangu.com 27 .

Hosted for free on livelingua. Watoto nao hawajambo? Unit 2 8 introduction. pia Na mimi pia.com . nimefurahi Nyumbani hawajambo? Hawajambo. Abdallah This is Hassan.) -furahi Nimefurahi kukuona.UNIT *8 SWAHILI i* Basic Dialogue* An Huyu ni Bvana Hasani* siku (N) Habari za siku nyingi? Njema. (ors Nzuri.

they have no trouble?' ) 9U Hosted for free on livelingua. Aramian And your children? ('children and they.UNIT *8 SWAHILI Aramian day What news of many days? Hasani Fine* Aramian be happy I’m happy to know ('see') you.com ■ . Hasani also. they're fine. too kukuona. Aramian Is everyone all right at your house? ('At home they have no trouble?') Abdallah [Yes]. And I'm happy to know you too.

D has gone to his home town to take care of official business and to visit friends and relatives.com . The set of forms which includes nao ’and they’/’with them’ is: sg. B. Huyu ni Bw.) C. They're fine.BASIC COURSE 4bdaUafc salaaa UNIT 28 with peace Salama. 3. plu. Hasani.tense here: nafurahi. Na with personal pronoun stems. Nimefurahi kulcuona. 95 Hosted for free on livelingua. 3. Bwana used with given names. Me-forms of certain verbs translated into English with present tense. D. They then proceed to order lunch. (One-may also use the a. This dialogue is a concatenation of social formulae. A and C discuss the whereabouts of an absent friend. I’m glad to see you# The -me. Unlike English. Notes A. C joins them and is introduced by A to B. A and B have just sat down to order lunch. nawe nanyi naye nao 2. 1. Practice it until you can go through it without mistakes in 13 seconds or less. Swahili uses the title Bwana before given names as well as before surnames.forms of the verb -furahi ’be happy’ are translated into English with the present tense. and not the present perfect. This is Hassan. nami nasi 2.

bwana. akaa katika No. naftjua sana. to visit their families* Notes . I know him very well* humu in here Akaa wapi? Akaa ftj ini humu? (or: Anakaa***) Where does he live? Does he live in this city? Abdallah katika jimbo (MA) mkoa (Ml) in province region La. (or: tangu siku nyingi) Abdallah yeye he ftke wife ftkewe his wife m their ao jamaa family. Basic Dialogue. Aramian Province* tangu since I haven’t seen him for several days Sijamwona kwa siku nyingi. associate 96 Yeye na Akewe wamekwenda Tanga Hosted for free on livelingua. ? Aramian Waftjua Bwana Hasani? Abdallah Do you know Hasani? Ndiyo. he doesn’t* He lives in Tanga jimbo la Tanga. Yes.UNIT 29 SWAHILI Unit 29 1.com He and his wife have gone to Tanga kuwatazama jamaa zao. Aramian . Hapana. Do you know Mr.

(raw. But when the same noun mji appears with the locative suffix -ni. . He lives in this city. They require the prefix • • They require the prefix jr. Ordinary nouns of the WA-class singular have the class prefix A. * *) mjini humu. «) kataka Aji huu* The words humu 'in here' and huu are both 'proximal demonstratives'. They stand for inanimate objects. Akaa (or:Anakaa. for. Huu agrees with the Mi-class noun m^i. with’ are prepositions. Some prepositions.with possessive stems.with possessive stems.with -ko. C. katika Aji huu in this city kwa siku chache for a few days The words katika 'in' tangu 'since' and kwa 'by.UNIT 29 SWAHILI A.before vowels). They require the prefix w. B. Difference between concords used with A^i and m^ini. and the prefix ju. ordinary N-class N-personal N-animate ordinary WA-class nyumba £ake iko wapij rafiki jrake ^uko wapi? ng'ombe wake yuko wapi? Atoto wake yuko wapi? Ordinary nouns of the N-class singular have no class prefix syllable (although from a historical point of view the nasal consonant with which many of them begin is a relic of a prefix which existed in an earlier stage of the language). Akaa (or:Anakaa. it is for concordial purposes transferred out of the Mi-class. They stand for animals or people. and the prefix i.with -ko. . 'Animate' and 'personal' subdivisions of the N class of nouns.

ng^onbe 1 ox. Aji and kijiji* One of the readers of the original version of this course has pointed out that 'The distinction between m^i and ki^iji is not so clear cut as between 'town' and 'village'. Kiji^ji is not much used except in a comparative sense. They have gone to Tanga to see their friends* They have gone to Tanga to see their children. They are like the N-class only in the form of the nouns themselves* The above treatment of 'N-personal' and 'N-animate' nouns covers the principal facts. which stand for animals. We shall call them 'N-personal' nouns(e. They are like the ordinary WA-class nouns in all their other concords* 'N-animate' nouns.g. Kiambaa.' 2* A* Concords with N-personal vs* WA nouns* jamaa Wamekwenda Tanga kuwatazama jamaa zao.country types of Swahili show a certain amount of latitude in use of concords with these hybrid noun classes* D* Difference between Aji and kiji^i. cow').UNIT 29 SWAHILI In addition. XV of Ashton's Swahili Qrammar* As pointed out there. but further details may be found in Ch. would certainly be called aji except when it is being compared directly or indirectly with a much larger collection of dwellings such as Nairobi. % rafiki Mkewe amekwenda Malindi kuAtazama rafiki yake* His wife has gone to Malindi to see her friend. rafiki 'friend') and 1N-animate' nouns (e. 'N-personal' nouns are like the ordinary N-class nouns in that they themselves contain no prefix syllable and in the possessive concords which they require. there are a number of nouns that display some of the characteristics of each of these classes. are like WA-nouns in this respect. speakers of coastal as well as up. . for example. They have gone to Tanga to see their relatives* rafiki Wamekwenda Tanga kuwatazama rafiki zao. As indicated in the diagram. and also with respect to the possessive concords. watoto Wamekwenda Tanga kuwatazama watoto wao* B.g.

UNIT 29 SWAHILI .

(wave) Mwakaa wapi? Twakaa hapa. So-and-so lives in Tanganyika. Where do your friends live? They live here* Does your father live in Morogoro? No. Mr. Where do you (pi. kumtazama jamaa yake* relative* Bwana Fulani akaa katika jimbo la Tanga. Aji Bwana Fulani akaa katika mji wa Nairobi. He lives in Utete. Wakaa wapi? Nakaa hapa. Mr. (ninyi) Rafiki yako akaa wapi? Rafiki yako Rafiki zako Akaa hapa* Rafiki zako wakaa wapi? Wakaa hapa* Baba yako akaa Morogoro? Hapana. So-and-so Bwana Fulani akaa katika ftchi ya Mr. .UNIT 29 SWAHILI ft baba His wife has gone to Malindi to see her Mkewe amekwenda Malindi father* kumtazama baba yake* jamaa His wife has gone to Malindi to see her ft Mkewe amekwenda Malindi C. 3* Change of persons from question to A. Where does your friend live? He lives here. So-and-so lives in Tanga district. hakai Affirmative vs. answer: a tense* Where do you live? I live here* Tanganyika. negative. nchi lives in Kiambaa township. categories* Concords with names of place jirnbo Mr. B. he doesn't live in Morogoro.) live? We live here. baba Morogoro. with person change. akaa Utete. kijiji Bwana Fulani akaa katika kijiji cha Kiambaa. So-and-so lives in Nairobi.

Mwakaa Morogoro? Hapana. HaAjui. Do you live in Morogoro? sikai Morogoro. They live in Utete.UNIT 29 (wewe) (ninyi) Rafiki zako SWAHILI Wakaa Morogoro? Hapana. Abdallah? Hapana. SiAjui. Do your friends live in Morogoro? No. Rafiki zako wakaa Morogoro? Hapana. wakaa Utete. we don't live in Morogoro. HawaAjui. Some speakers prefer anakaa or anaishi to akaa in these sentences. B. Utete.] too Hosted for free on livelingua. he doesn't know him. twakaa No. rafiki Do you know Abdallah? No. Utete. B.) live in Morogoro? Morogoro. Sene speakers prefer unam^ua or uxiaAfahamu to waj&jua In these sentences. Abdallah? Do you (pi. Abdallah? Hapana. Hatumjui. we don't know him. I Rafiki zako wamjua Bw.) know Abdallah? Hapana. (ninyi) MwaAjua Bw. We live in Utete. baba don't know kin. nakaa No. they don't live in Morogoro hawakai Morogoro. Does your father know Abdallah? No. Do your friends know Abdallah? No. No. hatukai Do you (pi. I don't live in Morogoro. Baba yako a&jua Bw.com . they don't know him. I live in Utete.] [N. n 0« (wewe) WaAjua Bw. [N. Abdallah? Hapana.

(a town in a Kikuyu area) Hadija lugha (N) language -sema speak. Some speakers prefer anasema to asema in these sentences. make progress Asema kidogo. good progress. [N. object prefix before a verb stem that begins with a vowel* 101 Hosted for free on livelingua. Hamisi Ochieng (a Luo surname) Wamjua Bwana Ochieng? Do you know Mr.] Notes A* Special form (mw) of 3 sg. B.') kazi (N) work Afanya kazi wapi? Hamisi Where does he work? Kiambti* In KiambiS. say Asema lugha ya Kikuyu? Hamisi Does he speak Kikuyu? -endelea to continue. simjui. Ochieng? Hadija La. but he is making vizuri. Ochieng. kwanza* ('I didn't see him formerly. No.com . lakini aendelea He speaks a little. I don’t know him* mara (N) time zamani formerly -anza begin Sikumwona zamanij leo ndiyo mara ya I've seen him for the first time today.BASIC COURSE UNIT 30 Unit_30 1« Basic Dialogue* Mr. today is the first time.

haendelei vizuri* A. but he is progressing well. etc* 128 Hosted for free on livelingua. where he works. * Nchiniinasagreement an equivalent Noun with for twokatika subject prefixes. hawaendelei vizuri* of the verb in these sentences. Describe a real or imaginary person.forms Kiganda vizuri sana* B.com . Kiingereza vizuri sana* lakini aendelea vizuri. Kiambu is a large Kikuyubut he isCountry* making good progress. Rafiki Miml zangu C. Achi* Our friend speaks verytown little in Swahili. Swahili versions of names of languages* U. Kamau speaks Masai very well* Kinyamwezi vizuri sana* Rafiki yangu UNIT 30 Hawasemi Klswahili. lakini waendelea vizuri* Bwana Kamau asema Daudi aseraa Klswahili kidogo tu.BASIC COURSE Swahili Rafiki zetu siAjui I don't know him* simwoni I don't see him* Bwana Kamau asema Rafiki zetu wasema Klswahili kidogo •Kiswahili vizuri sana. I sun not progressing well. lakini aendelea vizuri* Theyvery don't speak Swahili. affirmative verbs* he is not progressing well. I speak little Swahili. Mr. well.well* Mr. Rafiki Kiambii yetu Mr. Kamau speaksvery Nyamwezi very well* Daudi speaks little Swahili. lakini mwa Wakikuyu. tu. Kamau speaks Luganda very Mr. Same. well* but they areEnglish progressing Mr. siendelei vizuri* Mind Kimasai vizuri sana* Hasemi Klswahili. Tanga is a large province in Tanganyika* Tanga lot Before a verb stem beginning with a vowel. butthey aren't I amprogressing progressingwell. with negative verbs* Masai Bwana Kamau asema Sisemi Klswahili. Kiambil ninasema mji mkubwa MLmi Kiswahili Achini (or: katika Achi) kidogo tu. Kamau speaks Swahili very well* Our friends speak very little Swahili. Some speakers prefer the -na. Bwana Kamau asema English Daudi Nyamwezi Luganda Bwana Kamau asema [N. B. He doesn't speak Swahili. the 3 sg. object prefix has the form nr-* A. Kamau speaks very well.] I don't speak Swahili. naendelea vizuri* Tanga cd mkoa mkubwa katika Achi Rafiki yetu asema Kiswahili kidogo ya Tanganyika* tu. Tell where he is from.

Pnit 31 1« Basic Dialogue* What kind of vork do you dot Mutisya Wafanya kazi ganit What kind of vork do you dot Sangai ukarani (U) the vork or status of being a clerk Nafanya kazi ya ukarani* (I do) clerical (vork)* Mutisya Wapit Wheret Sangai idara (N) department eliinu (N ) education .

**) -saidia help mahitaji (pi. • •) Katika Idara ya ELiimi. (or: Vivi hivi. love Sangai Hivyo hivyo. . but it helps toward my everyday needs* yangu* Mutisjra -penda Waipenda kazi yako? (or: Do you like your work? Uraipenda. or: Hivi So-so.) needs Hapana. lakini hunisaidia kva mahitaji No. hivi•} Notes A. Noun plus -a plus infinitive. In the Department of Education* like. MA. mshahara wa kutosha adequate pay Note that the word-for-word equivalent would be 'pay of to suffice'.Mutisya -pata get Ashahara (KI) Wapata Ashahara va kutoshat (or: pay Do you get adequate payt Unapata.

2 . Concord: Fossessives with N-personal nouns. rafiki yako Rafiki yako ni mbaya sana.i) I help my children in their work. katika kazi yao. Namsaidia rafiki yangu rafiki (nuno ja) I help my friend in his work. Your friend is very bad. rafiki (pl. B.) Nawasaidia rafiki zangu katika watoto Nawasaidia watoto wangu I help my friends in their work. Namsaidia baba yangu baba I help my father in his work. A. katika kazi yake. Atoto wako Atoto wako ni Abaya sana. Your friends are very bad. (wenf-. rafiki Rafiki zako ni wabaya sana. Your child is very bad. Concord: Fossessives and adjectives with N-personal nouns. z&ko . katika kazi yake. kazi yao.

Concord: N-animate nouns* ng'ceibe Ng'cmbe huyu ni Abaya sana* This cow is very bad* nguruwe Nguruwe huyu ni Abaya sana* This pig is very bad* kitu Kitu hiki ni kibaya sana* chungwa Akate Chungwa hili ni baya sana* Mkate huu ni Abaya sana* ng'ambe (wengi) samaki (wengi) vitu vlaxi maembe mikate This thing is very bad* This orange is very bad* This bread is very bad* Ng'caibe hawa ni wabaya sana* These cows are very bad* Samaki hawa ni wabaya sana* These fish are very bad* Vitu hivi ni Vibaya sana* These things are very bad* Vlazi hivi ni vibaya sana* These potatoes are very bad* Maembe haya ni nabaya sana* These mangoes are very bad* Mikate hii ni aibaya sana* These loaves of bread are very bad* Repeat the above exercise using si in place of ni* B. Concord: vyakula riad viazi Subject in negative statenent correlated with object in inperative Siijui kazi hii* Tafadhali nisaidie* yeye siagi Haijui kazi hii* Tafadhali Asaidie* sisi chai Hatxiijui kazi hii* Tafadhali tusaidie* watoto inikate matunda mayai A. Tour children are very bad* C. Vatoto hawaijui kazi hii* Tafadhali wasaidie. Please help them* . Please help us* The children do not know this work.3*Noun.w&toto wako Watoto wako ni wabaya sana. possessive and adjective. I don't know this work* Please help me* He doesn't know this work* Please help him* We don't know this work.

we only have a little. Do we have enough foodstuffs? No. Tuna mayai ya kutosha? La. Tuna matunda ya kutosha? La. Tuna vichache tu* Tuna siagi ya kutosha? La. we only have a few pieces. Tuna mikate ya kutosha? La. Tuna machache tu. we only have a little* Do we have enough tea? No. we only have a few.Tuna vyakula vya kutosha? La* Tuna vichache tu« Tuna viazi vya kutosha? La. we only have a few. Tuna kidogo tu. Tuna michache tu. we only have a few. Do we have enough fruit? No. Do we have enough loaves? No. Do we have enough potatoes? No. Tuna kidogo tu. Tuna machache tu* Do we have enough eggs? No. we only have a few. . Do we have enough butter? No. Tuna chai ya kutosha? La.

for growing rice* 106 Hosted for free on livelingua. I'm a farmer* Sangai -panda raise -otesha raise mmea (MI) plant Waotesha mimea gani? Mirambo muhogo (MI) What kind of crops do you raise? cassava maharagwe (pi* MA) beans kitunguu (VI) onion Apunga (MI) rice (growing in field) Kwa kawaida. aren't you? Mirambo Ndiyo. Yes. na panda muhogo na I generally grow cassava. kuotesha maharagwe. sivyo? You're a farmer. vitunguu na onions and rice* rcpunga* mwaka (MI) year mvua (N) rain Lakini mwaka huu hakuna mvua ya But this year there isn't enough rain kutosha kuotesha mpunga. beans. mimi Akulima.SWAHILI UNIT 32 Unit_32 i« Basic Dialogue* You're a farmer aren't you? Sangai wewe you mkulima (WA) farmer Wewe mkulima.com kwa hiyo therefore .

maharagwe Wakulima wa nchi hii waotesha maharagwe mengi. hatupandi muhogo we don't grow cassava hatuoteshi mpunga we don't grow rice Different verbs are used for 'growing* cassava and 'growing' rice. The fanners of this country grow a lot of rice.. mimea Wakulima wa nchi hii waotesha (or: vanaotesha) mimea mingi. A. 2 . Notes A. Complete sentence consisting of absolute personal pronoun plus noun. Concord: Nouns with ~ingi. Contrast in meaning between -ganda and -otesha.g. The farmers of this country grow a lot of beans. for beermaking. e.SWAHILI UNIT 32 Kwa hiyo ninapanda muhogo. -otesha (lit* 'cause to sprout') is used particularly of the sprouting of grain in a seed-bed (for transplanting) or on. maharagwe For that reason. -panda is the word commonly used for the planting and raising of all crops. I'm growing cassava. a sack. mpunga Wakulima wa Achi hii waotesha mpunga mwingi. The farmers of this country grow many plants. The farmers of this country grow a lot of onions. vitunguu Wakulima wa nchi hii waotesha vitunguu vingi. . mlmi mkulima I'm a farmer wewe Akulima you are a farmer Note that this complete sentence in Swahili is literally ' 1 farmer'« B. na vitunguu. It is also used for the effect of rain or other form of moisture on seed already planted. beans and onions.

huu ninapanda muhogo tu. one already mentioned) muhogo na vltunguu lakini plants cassava and onions. % muhogo Mkulima huyu apanda muhogo Azuri sana. muhogo Mwaka huu. Usually. 3* A.B« Mwaka huu. I plant cassava and beans. we aren't planting cassava* This year. This farmer plants very good rice* % mimea Mkulima huyu apanda This farmer plants very good onions. lakini mwaka Usually. vltunguu Mkulina huyu apanda vltunguu vizurl sana. napanda (or: hupanda) muhogo na maharagwe. mimea mizuri sana. anapanda.. hatupandi maharagwe. we aren't planting beans* maharagwe Mwaka huu. •) This farmer plants very good plants. Comparison of a-tense with na-tense. Apunga Mkulina huyu apanda. Apunga vltunguu C. Apunga Azuri sana. Concord: Nouns with "zuri. mimi Kwa kawaida. but this year he is mwaka huu anapanda muhogo only planting cassava. Kwa kawaida. mkulima huyo apanda mkulima huyo tu. but this year I am only planting cassava.e. This farmer plants very good cassava. This year. hatupandi muhogo.. (or: . . . that farmer (i.

and the others mengine kwa kuuza. wakulima hao wapanda muhogo na Usually. . other Seme I use as food. those farmers (i. huu wanapanda muhogo but this year they are only planting tu* cassava* UNIT 33 Unit_ 33 i* Basic Dialogue. for selling. What do you do with your crops? Sangai mazao (pi. MA) crops What do you do with your crops? Wafanya nini na mazao yako? (or: Unafanya.) Mirambo “ingine Mengine natumia kwa chakula. Sangai Wauza mazao yako wapi? (or: Unauza. na some. .vakulima hao Kwa kawaida. • .) Mirambo Where do you sell them? .e* ones already maharagwe lakini mwaka mentioned) plant cassava and beans.

mke wife -peleka take. •• • so m e as fo od . At the market.Sokoni. The adjective “ingine as an equivalent for both 'some' and 'other*• mengine • • • kwa chakula. hodari active. send Mke wangu huyapeleka kuuza. My wife takes them to sell. energetic. brave Yu hodari sana kwa kuuza. an d ot he r fo . Notes A. na mengine kwa kuuza. She's very clever in selling.

r se lli ng . The adjective "ingine corresponds equally to English 'some* and ’other(s)' .

Simple noun vs. possessive. They sell their crops in town* They sell their crops at the market* They sell their crops in the village. my crops yangu for mengine food* natumia mazao I use some ofMazao kwa chakula. . vyangu for vingine my potatoes food*natumia miazi I use seme ofViazi chakula. . and adjective* . I use some of mykwa bananas for food* ndizi Ndizi zangu nyingine natumia kwa chakula. selling* mji Wauza mazao yao mjini.Hands iA# My Baba wife is vary active in selling* Mke wangu yu hodari Baba yangu Hands! yangu yu yuhodari hodari sana sana kwa kwa sana kwa kuuza. (or: Wanauza. Watoto Watoto wetu ni hodari sana Our children kwa kuuza. kwa kuuza* Hamisiare andactive Jumainare very active in selling. noun with locative -ni. kuuza. Concord: Noun. kuuza. Mke wangu My father is very active in selling* Hamisi na na Juma ni hodari sana JunaHamisi isHamisi very active in selling. They sell their crops in Morogoro. *UiJi Wauza mazao yaokijijini Morogoro Wauza mazao yaoMorogoro B. C.) soko Wauza mazao yaosokoni.

Some of the farmers haven't enough food this year.I use some of my maize for foods mahlndl Mahindi yangu mengine Some of the children haven’t enough naturaia food this year* kva Some of the cows haven't enough food chakula. ng'cmbe Kg'ombe wengine hawana chakula cha kutosha mwaka huu* wakulina Wakulima wengine hawana chakula cha kutosha mwaka huu* 3* Aramian interviews a farmer about his crops and about the part that his wife and . D« Animate plural nouns with “ingine. this year. watoto Watoto wengine havana chakula cha kutosha mwaka huu.

.children play in growing and marketing them.

. Mutisya Ndiyo bwana.com ni mkulima I am a fanner tu wapishi we are cooks .) wewe ni mpishi.Unit 34 i« Basic Dialogue# I'm a cook nowadays# Hamisi Unafanya kazi gani? What kind of work are you doing? Mutisya upishi (U) work or status of a cook Ninafanya kazi ya upishi# I'm working as a cook. jina lake Bwana For a European named Aramian. Aramian# Notes A. Hands i kumbel (expression of surprise) Apishi (WA) a cook So you're a cook these daysj Kumbe u Apishi siku hizij (or* • • • . Hands! Unafanya kazi kwa nani? Who are you working for? Mutisya mzungu (WA) a European jina (MA) name Kwa nizungu ifanoja. Complete sentences consisting of first or second person subject prefix plus noun# you are a cook u mpishi 115 Hosted for free on livelingua. Mind ni mpishi# That's right.

He is a farmer* He does fanning.Hapana. B* Yeye ni mpishi. mkulima He is a cook. Yeye ni karani.Hapana. I am a farmer. Afanya kazi ya ukuliroa. mkulima U mkulima? -------. Wafanya kazi ya Daudi and Juma are cooks* They do karani C. mkulima Daudi na Juma ni makarani* Wafanya kazi ya ukarani* karani cooking* Daudi and Juma are fanners They do farming. bwana.Hapana. U karani? --------. Are you a farmer? No. Derivation: Abstract vs.-----------Afanya mpishi kazi ya upishi.m wakulima you are farmers In these sentences. Afanya kazi ya ukarani. He is a clerk* He does clerical work* Daudi na Juma ni wapishi. karani Mimi ni mpishi. Apishi Mimi ni Akulima. animate nouns with the same stem. bwana* Are you a cook? No. the first and second person subject prefixes are used before nouns denoting occupations. bwana. mpishi upishi. . and the combination is treated as a complete sentence* A. I am a cook* Mimi ni karani. I am a clerk* Are you a clerk? No. Daudi na Juma ni wakulima* Wafanya kazi ya ukulima. He does cooking* Yeye ni mkulima. Daudi and Juma are clerks* They do clerical work. Subject prefix plus noun* U mpishi? --------.

.

.

.

.

wao ni wakulima. Wao si wapishi. Hafanyi Abdallah karar. Mind si Apishi. we are not cooks. Hamisi is a very good farmer. Hafanyi kazi ya ukulima. they are farmers. B. we are farmers* . Is he a cook? No. Sisi si wapishi. Ninyi m wapishi? Hapana. yeye Yeye ni mpishi? Hapana. Abdallah is a very good clerk. I am a farmer. he is not a cook. they are not cooks. Hafanyi mkulima kazi ya upishi. Are you (pi. he is a farmer. Wewe u mpishi? Hapana. wewe Daudi is a very good cook.) cooks? No. He doesn't do Hand si Hands! ni mkulima mzuri sana. Yeye si ifrpishi. mind ni Akulima. Abdallah ni karani mzuri sana.i kazi ya upishi. ninyi He doesn’t do farming. cooking. I am not a cook. He doesn't do cooking. wao Wao ni wapishi? Hapana. Are you a cook? No. Daudi ihpishi Daudi ni mpishi mzuri sana. yeye ni mkulima.A. Subject prefixes with nouns. sisi tu wakulima. Are they cooks^ No.

Hu-tense. he's a porter.T Jnlt_35 1* Basic Dialogue. thenl muda (N) Amefanya kazi hii kwa muda gani? period of time How long has he done this kind of work? Abdallah Kwa miaka mlnne* For four years. Hasani Does he like his work? Yeye apenda kazi yake? Abdallah -nung 'unika juu (N ) Hanung'uniki juu ya kazi yake. .) Yule kijara hufanya kazi gani? a youth What kind of work does that young fellow do? ' Abdallah kazi ya kibarua casual labor Yeye hufanya kazi ya kibarua* He is a day laborer* Hasani mchukuzi (WA) Kurnbe yu mchukuzi porter Oh. He's a day laborer* Hasani kijana (Vl-anim. to complain on. concerning He doesn't complain about it. A.

Notea

MM

mimi huuza mazao yangu sisi
huuza mazao yetu yeye huuza
mazao yake wao huuza

I sell my crops we Sell our
crops he sells his crops they
sell their crops

mazao yao
The hu-tense of a verb has no subject prefix to indicate the class of the subject. The subject is therefore made
explicit, either as a noun or as a pronoun, unless the identity of the subject is clear from what precedes the sentence.
The hu-tense is used where habitual or recurrent action is implied.
yeye huenda sokoni

he (regularly) goes to the
market

wao huja asubuhi

they (regularly) come in
the morning

In the hu-tense, the verbs -enda and -isha, and verbs with monosyllabic stems like -£a, do not have -ku- or -kw- as
they do in the other tenses that have been studied.
B.

'Vi-animate' nouns.
Kijana wao amekwenda.

Their young fellow has gone.

Vijana wao wamekwenda.

Their young fellows have gone.

Compare Note 29.C concerning the 'N-animate' nouns. 'N-animate' nouns acted like ordinary N-class nouns only
with respect to the shape of the singular and plural forms of the noun itself. The word kijana, which we may call a 'VIanimate' noun, is like an ordinary Vl-class noun with respect to the singular and plural forms of the noun only. Otherwise, it
is like a WA-class noun, even in the possessive concords which it requires.
C.

The word Juu.
Hanung'uniki juu ya kazi yake. He doesn't complain about his work.

The word £uu is a noun, the approximate translation of which is 'the top'. This noun, however, has two
characteristics which set it apart from other nouns: (1 ) it is seldom used without being followed by jra plus another noun, or
by a possessive (^ake, ^ako, etc.),

(2) it is seldom used as the subject or object of a verb* It may be used ('adverbially') without a possessive or another noun.
(3) it does not occur in the plural.
For these reasons, £uu is most commonly translated into English by a preposition, such as 'on, over, above,
concerning'.
D.

Special Note on the 'present tenses* of Swahili.

Swahili possesses three sets of affirmative indicative verb forms which in some sense may be called 'present.' These
are typified by tuNAsema, twAsema, and (sisi)HUsema. In the preparation of the original draft of this course, and in
comparison of the changes suggested in draft by various authorities, the choice among the three 'present tenses' displayed a
greater degree of uncertainty than did any other point of grammar.
Accordingly, alternative tense forms have been indicated in many, though not all of the sentences concerning which
Swahili speakers disagree among themselves.
A. Hu-tense.
wewe

Wewe hufanya kazi gani?

What kind of work do you do?

Juma

Juma hufanya kazi gani?

What kind of work does Juma do?

yeye

Yeye hufanya kazi gani?

What kind of work does he do?

Juma na
Daudi
wao

What kind of work do Juma and Daudi do?
Juma na Daudi hufanya kazi gani?
Wao hufanya kazi gani?
Do you like your work?

B.
wewe

Wewe hupenda kazi yako?

Does Juma like his work?

Juma

Juma hupenda kazi yake?

Does he like his work?

yeye

Yeye hupenda kazi yake?

Do Juma and Daudi like their work?

Juma na
Daudi

2

What kind of work do they do?

.

Juma na Daudi hupenda kazi
yao?

wao

Wao hupenda kazi yao?
c. Juu ^a

kazi

Hanung'uniki juu ya kazi
yake.

ryuirba

Hanung'uniki juu ya nyumba
yake*

Apishi

Hanung*uniki juu ya mpishi
wake*

chakula

Hanung*uniki juu ya chakula
chake.

Ake

Hanung'uniki juu ya mke
wake*

watoto

Do they like their work?

Hanung’uniki juu ya watoto
wake*

He doesn't complain about his
work.
He doesn't complain about his
house.
He doesn't complain about his
cook.
He doesn't complain about his
food*
He doesn’t complain about his
wife.
He doesn’t complain about his
children.

D. Concord: Noun plus demonstrative*

kazi

Sitaki kunung'unika juu ya
kazi hii.

chakula

Sitaki kunung'unika juu ya
chakula hiki.

vyakula

Sitaki kunung*unika juu ya
vyakula hivi.

nyumba

Sitaki kunung*unika juu ya
nyumba hii.

ichi

Sitaki kunung'unika juu ya
flchi hii.

vitu

Sitaki kunung'unika juu ya
vitu hivi*


A. Me~tense with a characteristic time expression*

I do not want to complain about
this work.
I do not want to complain about
this food.
I do not want to complain about
these foods.
I do not want to complain about
this house.
I do not want to complain about this
country.
I do not want to complain about
these things.

kibarua

Amefanya kazi ya kibarua
kwa nruda gani?

How long has he worked as a
laborer^

ukarani

Amefanya kazi ya ukarani
kwa muda gani?

How long has he worked as a
clerk?

ukulima

Amefanya kazi ya ukulima
kwa muda gani?

How long has he worked as a
fanner?

Amefanya kazi ya upishi
kwa muda gani?

How long has he worked as a
cook?

upishi

B.Cumulative,
Teye hufanya kazi ya upishi*
Kumbe yeye ni Apishi?I

He works as a cook.
So he is a cook?I

Teye hufanya kazi ya ukulima*
Kumbe yeye ni dkulima?!

He works as a farmer*
So he is a farmer?!

Teye hufanya kazi ya ukarani*
Kumbe yeye ni karani?!

He works as a clerk*
So he is a clerk?I

Teye hufanya kazi ya kibarua*

He works as a laborer*

Kumbe yeye ni mchukuzi?!
So he is a porter?!
U* A and B discuss the occupations of their friends C, D and E,

Unit 36
1• Basic Dialogue. Where were you yesterday?
Harrdsi
-va

be

jana

yesterday

Jana ulikuwa wapi?

Where were you yesterday?
Hadija

Nilikuwa sokoni.
Harris i

At the market.

saa (N)

hour

“ngapi?

how many?

Ulikwenda saa ngapi?
Hadija
-ondoka

What time did you go?
to leave

sita
six
Niliondoka nyumbani saa sita mchana. I left home at noon.

UNIT 36

SWAHILI
Hamisi

Ulinunua.nini?

What did you buy?
Hadija

mboga (N )

(any food eaten together with a main
starchy dish)

chumvi (N)

salt

pilipili (N)
pepper
Kilinunua mboga, chumvi na pilipili. Green vegetables, salt and pepper.
Notes

mm

A* Li-tense.
ulinunua nini?

what did you buy?

ulikwenda wapi?

where did you go?

The li-forms of a Swahili verb are formed in a manner exactly parallel to the na-forms and the meforms. As with the latter, monosyllabic stems and -enda and -isha are proceded by ku-/kw-•
The meaning of the li-tense is similar to that of the English 'simple past 1 tense*
B, Locatives with -ni corresponding to 'at' 'to' 'from' depending on the context*
nilikwenda sokoni

I went to the market

niliondoka sokoni

I left the market

Note that noun plus locative -ni (e.g* sokoni) is translated either 'to' or 'frcai' depending on the
identity of the verb*
C* Literal translation of saa ngagi?
The literal translation of saa ngajoi? 'at
what time?' is 'hours how many?'

A.
ngapi

Hours of

What time did Hamisi go to the market?

the day*

Hamisi alikwenda

sokoni

7

saa ngapi?
moja

Hamisi alikwenda

sokoni

Hamisi alikwenda

sokoni

tatu

Hamisi alikwenda

o'clock?

Did Hamisi go to the market at

9

saa mbili?

o'clock?

Did Hamisi go to the market at

8

saa moja?
mbili

Did Hamisi go to the market at

o'clock?

sokoni
12il

Hosted for free on
livelingua.com

Mliondoka nyumbani saa ngapi jara? ryumba Mliondoka sokoni saa ngapi iana? % Mliondoka shuleni saa ngapi Jana? soko % Mliondoka bcmani saa ngapi jana? p shule oncord: Noun.UNIT 36 SWAHILI Ane Hamisi alikwenda sokoni saa 10 Ane? tano Hamisi alikwenda sokoni saa 11 tano? sita Hamisi alikwenda sokoni saa 12 sita? B. 'whose?' Whose salt is this? D. wapi Ulikuwa wapi saa sita Where were you at 12 noon? iftchana? soko Ulikuwa sokoni saa sita Were you at the market at noon? mchana? boma Ulikuwa bomani saa sita mchana? shule Ulikuwa shuleni saa sita mchana? Were you at the District Office at noon? Were you at school at noon? -ondoka plus locative expression C. demonstrative bona What time did you leave home yesterday? What time did you leave the market yesterday? What time did you leave school yesterday? What time did you leave the District Office Chumvi hii ni ya nani? yesterday? Mboga hizi ri za nani? possessive.com . saa tatu? Did Hamisi go to the market at o'clock? Did Hamisi go to the market at o'clock? Did Hamisi go to the market at o'clock? -wa plus locative expression. chumvi Whose vegetables are these? mboga 12il Hosted for free on livelingua.

possessive. Concord: Noun.com - . verb. Their school was very nice* Their mangoes were very nice* Maembe yao y alikuwa mazurl sana* Mpishi wao alikuwa Azuri Their cook was very nice* sana* wapishl Wapishi wao walikuwa wazuri Their cooks were very nice* sana* hodari Wapishi wao walikuwa hodari Their cooks were very energetic sana* watoto Watoto wao walikuwa hodari sana* "baya Watoto wao walikuwa wabaya Their children were very energetic* Their children were very bad* sana* metunda sana* Matunda yao yalikuwa mabaya Their fruit was very bad* 12il Hosted for free on livelingua.UNIT 36 SWAHILI UNIT 36 pilipili Pilipili hizi ni za nard? Whose pepper is this? vitu Vitu hivi ni vya nani? Whose things are these? kiazi Kiazi hlki ni cha nani? Whose potato is this? ng1 cnibe Ng'ctnbe huyu ni wa nani? Whose cow is this? £. adjective* Apishi % Mpishi wao alikuwa Azuri sana* Their cook was very nice* nyumba Nyumba yao ilikuwa nzuri sana* Their house was very nice* kijiji Kijiji chao kilikuwa kizuri Their village was very nice* sana* vyakula Vyakula vyao vilikuwa vizurl Their food was very nice* sana* 3 hula Shule y 0 ilikuwa nzuri sana* maembe F.

tatu Did morning. Uliinunua nyama hii wapi? Niliinunua Where did you buy this meat? sokoni. bought it in the market. I went at 7 o'clock in the Ulikwenda sokoni saa tatu usiku? Hapana. noun. I went at 9 o'clock in the morning. moja Did Ulikwenda sokoni saa moja usiku? you go to the market at 7 Hapana. you go to the market at 9 Ulikwenda sokoni saa tano usiku? o'clock at night? No. Nilivinunua sokoni.no Did you go to the market at II o'clock at night? 12il Hosted for free on livelingua. sana. bought them in the market Uliinunua chumvi hii wapi? Niliinunua Where did you buy this salt? I nyama I chakula sokoni. ~bivu Matunda yao yalikuwa rcabivu Their fruit was very ripe. bought it in the market. ta. demon s mboga Concord: Object prefix. Ullvinunua viazi hivi wapi? Where did you buy these potatoes? B. Ulizinunua mboga hizi wapi? Where did you buy these vegetables? I chvanvi Nilizinunua sokoni. bought-it in the market. 3« A. trative. Ulikinunua chakula hiki wapi? I viazi Where did you buy this food? Nilikinunua sokoni. I bought them in the market Times of day. Nilikwenda saa moja asubuhi. o'clock in the evening? No.UNIT 36 "bichi SWAHILI Matunda yao yalikuwa mabichi Their fruit was very green. sana.com . Nilikwenda saa tatu asubuhi.

Nilikwenda saa saba ifcchana# No* I went at 11 o'clock in the morning* Did you go to the market at i o'clock in the morning? No.UNIT 36 SWAHILI Hapana. saba Ulikwenda sokoni saa saba usiku? Hapana. I went at i o'clock in the afternoon. 126 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . Nilikwenda saa tano asubuhi.

.What is your tribal background? Butler .Unit_37 1 . Basic Dialogue.

) Salaam. Articulation of gh.) Abasi Nimesema 'Kizaramo.. sema tena..) Sikusikia vizuri.com . I didn't hear well. 130 Hosted for free on livelingua. 129 Hosted for free on livelingua.rudia tena.' Butler Watu hawa wanakaa katika ftchi gani? What territory do these people live in? Abasi -ishi (or: -kaa) dwell sehemu (N) section Waishi katika sehemu ya Dar es They live in the vicinity of Dar es Salaam. .com Notes A. Would you repeat it please? (or:.UNIT 37 SWAHILI kabila (MA) tribe Kabila lako husema lugna gani? What language does your tribe speak? Abasi Kizaramo (language of the WaZaramo) Kizaramol Kizaramot Butler — ■Lena again -sikia hear Tafadhali. . (A better expression for eliciting a repetition of what has been said is naam?.1 I said 'Kizaramo. (or: Wanaishi.

Wachukuzi hawakufanya Juma uakuondoka nyumbani jana. -elewa -eleza habari -fanya kazi Juma hakutaka chakula jana. They are constructed as follows: subj. past affirmative and negative . Wachukuzi bawakutumwa nyumbani. prefix | ku/kw ha- -tu- -ku- ha- -tu- -kw- ha- -tu- -ku- Jr stem -sikia -enda -ja These negative forms are sometimes used as negative counterparts of the affirmative li-tense. -sikia Sikusikia vizuri. Juma hakufurahi I did not hear well. Wachukuzi havakwenda kazini Sikufanya kazijana. almost in the position which it occupies for the g in English gone. Juma hakuja jana. I did not speak well. kazi. and sometimes as counterparts of the me-tense. Wachukuzi hawakuja hapa. The back of the tongue is near the soft palate. Vizuri as a modifier of verbs. Wachukuzi hawakufurahi. 131 Hosted for free on livelingua. B. Past negative forms with -ku-. nilisikia vizuri I heard well sikusikia vizuri I didn't hear well hatukusikia vizuri we didn’t hear well The second and third examples above contain verb forms with past negative meaning. Sikueleza habari vizuri. while in lugha this stoppage doesn't quite get made. But the g in gone requires momentary complete stoppage of the air stream. Juma hakwenda jana. I did not understand well. -ona Sikuona vizuri. Sikuelewa vizuri. a. -sema Sikusema vizuri.BASIC COURSE UNIT 37 The middle consonant in lugha 'language* is not like anything which is used in standard pronunciation of English.com Present affirmative and negative vs. I did not see well. A. I did not explain the matters I did not work well. vizuri. Juma hakutumwa jana.

E. The porters were not sent home. I didn’t need any. The porters were not happy. Juma did not leave home yesterday Juma did not want food yesterday. sina. Are you going to the mar lest? No. C.com . F. Unakwenda sokoni? La. Tuna sukari ya kutosha? Hatuna* Tullkuwa na sukari ya kutosha? La. halipi. 1 am not going. -furahi -tumwa -ondoka nyumbani Juma was not sent yesterday. sikuwa na njaa. hatukuua na ya Kutosha. sikuenda. Sihitaji. Do you need food? No. Una njaa? La. -enda kazini The porters did not go to work. hakukuwa na nyama. -fanya kazi -tumwa nyumbani -furahi -ja hapa 3. B. Juma was not happy yesterday. Ulihitaji chakula? La. Analipa kodi ya kichwa? La. A Unahitaji chakula? La. Kulikuwa na nyama? La. -ja -enda SWAHILI Juma did not come yesterday. 132 Hosted for free on livelingua. Past negatives with -ku-. Kuna nyaraa? La. Did you need food? No. Ulikwenda sokoni? La. D. -taka chakula C. hakuna. The porters did not work. Sikuhitaji. Ulikuwa na njaa? La. The porters did not come here.UNIT 37 B. siendi. I don’t need any. Juma did not go yesterday.

he didn't. hakuuza. there is not any* Was there any meat? No. I am not* Aliuza nyvunba yake? Were you hungry? La. he doesn't* Did he pay poll tax? No. we did not* Does he pay poll tax? No. Unit 38 •»# Basic Dialogue* Where have you been? 133 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . I was not* Is there any meat? No. No. go* G. I did not La. there was not any* Do we have enough sugar? We don't* Did we have enough sugar? No.BASIC COURSE Alilipa kodi ya kichwa? UNIT 37 Did you go to the market? No. he isn't* Did he sell his house? No. hakulipa. hauzi. he didn't* Is he selling his house? No. No. Anauza nyumba yake? Are you hungry? La.

com . '3wana Fulani. watu wengi wame aza Yes.UNIT 37 SWAHILI Magase Bvana Dodge. Hr. Basic Dialogue. ' ) Notes This unit contains no new grammar. unatoka vapi? Where are you coming from. Try to write down the few unfamiliar words that they contain. the place is crowded. Unit_39 1. Do you speak Luo? 134 Hosted for free on livelingua. bwana. The students should experiment to see what variety they can give to conversations that begin with the line. huko* ('Yes. Dodge? Dodge pwani (N) beach Ninatoka pwani* Fran the beach* Magese -ogelea to swim \ Ulikwenda pwani kuogelea? Dodge -tembea Did you go there to swim? -punga hewa to change air to go for a walk Hapana. Many people have filled that place u p . there are. Nilikwenda kutenibea na Mo* I went to walk and get a change kupunga hewa. unatoka wapi?' Listen to the conversations given on the tape. sir. of air. Magese nitu (WA) person Kuna watu wengi pwani? Are there many people at the beach? Dodge -jaza -jaa huko to fill up to get full there Ndiyo.

you-doing What wore you doing there at Kisumu? Abasi mwandishi (WA) good writer -kuu big. club mfanyakazi ( WA) worker Nilikuwa mwandisni mkuu katika Chama I was General Secretary in the cha Wafanyakazi.Kijaluo?) Abasi barAbara Ndiyo. . . Sangai ukifanya Ulikuwa ukifanya nini huko Kisumu? When did you learn to speak Luo? I lived in Kisumu for a period of five years. association. principa] chama ( V I ) union. Nasema Kiluo barAbara. Sangai -jifunza to study lini? when? Ulijifunza lini kusema Kiluo? Abasi Nilikaa katika mji wa Kisumu kwa muda wa miaka mitano.com . thoroughly.BASIC COURSE UNIT 37 Sangai Jel Wajua kusema Kiluo? Say. Labor Union. I spesk Luo fluently. do you know how to speak Luo? (or: . 135 Hosted for free on livelingua. very well Yes.

Nilikaa huko Dar es Salaam kwa I lived there in Dar es Salaam muda wa miaka miwill. Kwa muda va * Nilikaa huko Dar es Salaam kwa I lived there in Dar es Salaam muda wa mwaka nbnoja. but in Swahili it is called Kigandaj the Mashona call their language Chishona. and the people are called Luo.is applied to the (Swahili) name for any people in order to indicate the style of life or speech of that people. So the Baganda call their language Luganda. for a period of two years* 136 Hosted for free on livelingua. the prefix ki. for a period of one year. but in Swahili it is called Kishona* 2* A.in the names of languages* Wasema Kiluo? Do you speak Luo? The name of the Luo language.com . But in Swahili. is Dholuo. Concord: Noun and demonstrative* Ulikaa katika mji huo kwa Aji muda gani? How long did you live in that country? Ulikaa katika Achi hiyo kwa Achi muda gani? gani? kijiji How long did you live in that province? How long did you live in that village? Ulikaa katika jimbo hilo kwa muda jimbo How long did you live in that city? How long did you live in that section? Ulikaa katika kijiji hicho kwa muda gani? sehemu Ulikaa katika sehemu hiyo kwa muda gani? B. in that language.UNIT 37 SWAHILI Notes A* The prefix ki.

Hapana. you aren't. Tunajifunza kazi ya ukarani sasa? Hapana. question to answer. Present affirmative and negative Hamisi anajifunza Kiluo sasa? Hapana. B. Wasema Kiswahili vizuri? Ndiyo. Twasema Kiswahili vizuri? Ndiyo. Do you speak Swahili well? Nasema bar£bara. I'm not.com . hatujifunzi. Mwasetna bar£bara Watu hawa wasema Kiswahili vizuri? Ndiyo. A-tense. £tu huyu asema Kiswahili? Ndiyo. 3. Asema bar^bara. Wewe unajifunza lugha ya Kikuyu sasa? mbili Hapana. Luo Juma anajifunza Kiluo? Is Juma learning Luo? Swahili Juroa anajifunza Kiswahili? Is Juma learning Swahili? kazi ya ukarani Juma anajifunza kazi ya lugha Juma anajifunza lugha mbili? IsJuma learning clerical work? ukarani? Is Juma learning two languages? A. Am I learning Zaramo now? No. Ninajifunza Kizaramo sasa? Is Hamisi learning Luo now? No. Are we learning clerical work now? No.BASIC COURSE UNIT 37 c . Wasema baribara. we aren't. Are you learning Kikuyu language now? No. hajifunzi. he isn't. sijifunzi. hujifunzi. ■ -jifunza. with person change. 137 Hosted for free on livelingua.

Twasema bar^bara. Watu hao wajua kusema Kinyamvezi? Wasexna kidogo tu* Atoto huyo ajua kusema Kinyaniwezi? Asema kidogo tu* Do you know how to speak Nyamwezi? I speak just a little# Do those people know how to speak Nyamwezi? They speak just a little.) speak Swahili well? Yes. you speak it fluently.UNIT 37 SWAHILI Yes. they speak it fluently. Do these people speak Swahili well? Yes. Does that child know how to speak Nyamwezi? He speaks just a little* Do those children know how to speak Vatoto hao wajua kusema Kinyamwezi? Wasema kidogo tu* Nyamwezi? They speak just a little# 138 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . Do you (pi. Does this man speak Swahili well? Mwasema Kiswahili vizuri? Ndiyo. we speak it fluently* C. I speak it fluently. Do we speak Swahili well? Yes. Wajua kusema Kinyamwezi? Nasema kidogo tu.

Basic Dialogue. Tomorrow is the New Years holiday. Ake wangu na watoto tutakwenda My wife and children and I are going Voi kwa matembezi.) ! car moshi (KI) smoke % Mtakwenda kwa motokaa. MA) outing Kami. au kwa gari Are you going by car. Voi for an outing. Planning a holiday trip. climb -kusudia plan Tunakusudia kupanda gari la moshi.BASIC COURSE UNIT 4o Unit_4o 1. Mutisja kesho tomorrow ~pya new % Kesho ni Sikukuu ya Mwaka Mpya. Na wewe je? And what about you? Mutisya Achezo (MI) mashindano (MA) game race 139 Hosted for free on livelingua.com to . or by train? la moshi? Njoroge -panda mount. Mutisjra motokaa (N) (or:motakaa) automobile gard (MA. We are planning to take the train. -shinda spend the Wewe uta shinda wapi? day Where are jou going to spend the day? Njoroge matembezi (pi.

Ta-tense. il+o Hosted for free on livelingua. We will go to Voi. Pengine nitakaa nyumbani I don't know* Maybe I'll Just stay tuj au nitakwenda kuona mashindano at home. The future tense is formed with the tense prefix -ta-. Utashinda wapi? Where will you spend the day? Tutakwenda Voi.) horse Sijui. the horse races. five tense prefixes. the ku/kw before -enda. of course.ta . then. -ona (ku/kw) . the subject prefixes have special forms.obj.. -isha and monosyllabic stems is not used in the a-tense.tense . any one of which may fill the slot immediately after the subject prefix: subj.UNIT 1+0 SWAHILI farasi (N-anim. Notes A.na -- me -.li stem -zietc. . Or maybe I'll go to watch ya farasi.-a With the last of these tense prefixes. Also.com . ni -. There are.

My vdfe and I will go to Voi tomorrow. wewe Utakwenda wapi kwa matembezi? karani Karani atakwenda wapi kwa matembezi? wachukuzi Wachukuzi watakwenda wapi kwa matembezi? yeye Yeye atakwenda wapi kwa matembezi? wao Wao watakwenda wapi kwa matembezi? C.vs.vs. My wife and I will go to the south of the city tomorrow. kazini Mimi na Ake wangu tutakwenda kazini kesho. My wife and I wil] go tc the market tomorrow.UNIT 1+0 A. me-tenses with Wewe utashinda wapi kesho? yeye Yeye atashinda wapi kesho? 2 . 1 Ta. Hosted for free on livelingua. Voi SWAHILI Mind.com . The ta-tense. kusini ya Aji pwani Mimi na Ake wangu tutakwenda kusini ya Aji kesho. B. Ta-tense. na Ake wangu tutakwenda Voi kesho. li. sokoni Mimi na Ake wangu tutakwenda sokoni kesho. Mimi na Ake wangu tutakwenda pwani kesho.

My wife and I will go to work tomorrow.com .UNIT 1+0 SWAHILI My wife and I will go to the beach tomorrow. Where will you spend the day tomorrow? Where will he spend the day tomorrow? Hosted for free on livelingua. Where will you go for a walk? Where will the clerk go for a walk? Where will the porters go for a walk? Where will he go for a walk? Where will they go for a walk? shinda.

kuaza Jana aliuza ng1 anbe. na I paid house rent yesterday. — and na kesho atauza wengine. tax.na kesho and tomorrow we'll see him tutamwana tena.------------- He sold cows yesterday. -------------- We bought bananas yesterday. Jana tulinunua ndizi. — na kesho kuona tomorrow he'll sell some more. —- Hasani. — and na kesho nitakwenda tena. Hosted for free on livelingua. again. I'll pay poll nitalipa kodi ya kichwa. Jana tulimwona Bwana We took a train yesterday. ta-tense. kulipa kupanda Jana nililipa kodi ya nyumba. kvenda Jana nilikwenda Morogoro. Jana tulipanda gari la moshi. ------. kununua tomorrow I'll go again.com . —. ----------------and tomorrow we'll take it again.--- I went to Morogoro yesterday. — na kesho tutanunua nyingine• and tomorrow we'll buy sane more.UNIT 1+0 SWAHILI jana Yeye alishinda wapi Jana? vao Wao walishinda wapi jana? Where did he spend the day yesterday? Where did they spend the day yesterday? kesho Wao vatashinda wapi kesho? Where will they spend the day tan or row? leo Wao wameshinda wapi leo? Where did they spend the day today? y»y» Yeye ameshinda wapi leo? kesho Yeye atashinda wapi kesho? Where did he spend the day today? Where will he spend the day tcm orrow? mini Mini nitashinda wapi kesho? Where shall I spend the day tomorrow? 3* Li-tense vs. We saw Hasani yesterday. tutapanda tena.and kesho tomorrow.

Begin a number of conversations with the opening line. kesho?' .•Utafanya nini K.

Sitaki kukaa hapa kwa muda wa siku nyingi.UNIT 4© SWAHILI Review Sentences. 2* Kesho asubuhi.) will sell bananas. Nitakwenda sokoni kununua nyama na machungwa. utakaa nyumbani au utakwenda kazini? 9* Mananasi na machungwa yalikuwa mazuri* io* Tuliyala* Let's take a walk to the east of the city* Milk is a very good food for children I don't want to stay here for many days* Are you going to stay at home. 13* Wachukuzi vananung'unika juu ya The porters are complaining about their wages* i4. lakini mtoto wangu ni mgonjva. What direction is Nairobi from Mombasa? Mji wa Nairobi uko upande gani wa mji wa Mombasa? Watu wengi hupenda sana kutembelea pwani. or are you going to go to work? The pineapples and oranges were good. I'm fine (qir). Mtauza ndizi. but my child is ill. 3* Watu wa kabila la WakLkuyu wanakaa katika jimbo la Kiambu* 4* Mwandishi huyo allkuja kutoka nchi ya Amerika* I'm going to the market to buy meat and oranges* Tomorrow morning we will bring you a headache remedy* People of the Kikuyu tribe live in the province of Kiambu. tutakuletea dawa ya kichwa. And you? I'm all right. 144 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . 15 * 16 . machungwa na mananasi matano. Units 1 . 6« Maziwa ni chakula kizuri sana kwa watoto. Many people are very fond of walking along the sea shore. nawe hujambo? 12 * Sijambo. You (pi. That secretary came from America* 5* Tukapunge hewa huko upande wa mashariki ya mji. oranges and pineapples.4o. 7. Sijambo bwana. Ve ate them (i*e* the pineapples and oranges)* 11 . 1« mishahara yao. 8« Je.

a8. 25. 27. 19. 171 Hosted for free on livelingua. Utumie dawa hii mara tatu kwa siku. Usually fanners get large crops. 24. 23. 1 . Bwana Juna aliondoka leo asubuhi Juma left this morning for Voi. SWAHILI Mwaka huu baba yangu atanilipia This year. Watu wengi hufanya kazi ya Many people work as clerks and cooks. sitaki kula maembe. 2 22 . The porters didn't work well.] Kwa kawaida wakulima hupata mazao mengi. 29. Maembe hayo yalikuwa mabivu au mabicbi? ’Were those mangoes ripe or green? Nadhani maziwa ya shilingi moja I think a shilling’s worth of miIk yatatosha. bar^bara » 19. They wil] spend today at home.com . Pepper is not available in our market. Wachukuzi havakufanya kazi vizuri. my father is going to pay ada ya shule. I don't want to eat mangoes. 26 .UNIT 4© 17. Pilipili haipatikani sokoni mwetu. Hapana. will be enough. Unataka samaki wangapi? How many fish do you want? Watashinda r. No. 30. This food has a lot of pepper [in it. Bibi Mariamu husema Kizaramo Miriamu speaks Kizaramo fluently. my school fees for me. ukarani na ya upishi. Please take this medicine three times a day. 18. kwenda Voi. Chakula hiki kina pilipili nyingi sana.yumbani siku ya leo.

His food was very good. 33« TJmelipa kodi ya kichwa? 34« Wazazi wetu hawakuondoka nyunbani jana. fruit and milk. day laborers get only very low pay. matunda na maziwa. 32 « Kwa kawalda vibarua hupata mshahara mdogo tu. wanafanya kazi ya ukarani. This morning we will have eggs. 39« Wao si wapishi. 38« Chakula chake kilikuwa kizuri Sana. Have yea paid your pell tax? Our parents didn't leave home yesterday.com . 37« Siku hizi ninaotesha muhogo.UNIT 4© SWAHILI 31 . Whose things are these? I want to buy my child some bananas. Many people of East Africa speak the Swahili language. I'm raising cassava. Asubuhi ya leo tutakula mayai. These days. 35* Vitu hivi ni vya nani? 36 « Hataka kunmunulia mtoto wangu ndizi. 172 Hosted for free on livelingua. Ordinarily. ¥atu wengi wa Afrika ya Mashariki husema lugha ya Kisvahili. Uo. They are not cooksj they are clerks.

Nitakwenda kesho peke yangu.) T-alH TH mama Yohana yako anakwenda pia. kwa nini unavaa nguo safi? church Because I’m going to church. twende Daudi solitude Daudi.Unit_M 1* to put on clothes Basic Dialogue. mother But your mother is going too. cloth. I'll go by myself tomorrow. Getting ready for church. Sitaki leo. why are you putting on clean -vaa clothes? nguo (N) lohana safi reason Baba. clothes clean Daudi ■BM Father. mama (N-pers. unataka twende kanisani? No. I don't want to today. Daudi? kanisa (N) Kwa sababu ninakwenda kanisani. baba. Daudi . peke (N) Hapana. that we should go sababu (N ) Do you want to go to church with me. father.

'even if mother is going I shall stay at hone. is seldom used as subject or object of a verb. Use of ijapokuwa.' . I'm leo.ijapokuwa raahali (PA) o “ote even if. The word ijapokuwa is used in this dialogue. It is actually a rather complicated form of the verb -wa 'be'. home by myself. although place Ijapokuwa nitakaa nyumbani peke Even if I'm going to stay (*be*) at any at all yangu. like £uu (Note 35. with an English translation of 'even so'. B. Notes A. It is sometimes used to introduce a clause: ijapokuwa mama atakwenda nitakaa nyumbani. geke jnitakwenda peke yangu I’ll go by myself The noun peke.C). sitakwenda mahali popote siku ya not going any place at all today. and it is used only with a possessive following it. but its internal structure need not concern us here.

mahali anywhere at all po pote . The mahali class.before the affirmative. D.C. Negative of ta-tense. sitakwenda hawataondoka I won't go they won't leave The negative counterparts of the affirmative taforms discussed in Unit 4o are formed simply by placing the negative prefix ha.

This phrase introduces two new features of
Swahili grammar. One is the mahali concord class,
which contains only this one word. The adjectival concord and the subject prefix which are associated with it
are both joa-, and the possessive concord is £-,
E.

~o ~ote.
mahali

po

pote

anywhere at all
kitu

cho

chote

ye

yote

anything at all
mtu
anyone at all
The form ~o ~ote contains a double occurrence
of soma one concord. Such a form is pronounced as one
word, but written as two, Noto in the last example that
the special form of the concord for singular animate
nouns is 2 ®,

a.

A. Concords with ~o ~ote.
ndizi

I do notzowant
Sitakindizi
zote. any bananas at all I do not

maziwa

want any mjlk
at all,
Sitakimaziwa
yo yote

kahawa

I do not want
any coffee at all* I do not
Sitakikahawa
yo yote

nyama

want anyyo
meat
at all,
Sitakinyama
yote.

samaki

I do not want
any fish at all,
Sitakisamaki
zo zote
(or: .• , wo wote,)

chai

I do notyowant
Sitakichai
yote.any tea at all,

uji

I do not
Sitakiuji
wo want
wote.any gruel at all,

mkate

I do not want
any bread at all,
Sitakimkate
wo wote.

watu

I do notwo
want
anybody at all,
Sitakiwatu
wote.

mtu
B.

I do not
Sitakimtu
yewant
yote.anyone at all.

michezo

Hatukuona michezo yo yote. We did not

see a single game,
mikate

Hatukuona mikate yo yote. We did not

see a single loaf.
U»t

chungwa

Hatukuoma chungwa lo lote.

sbko

Hatukuona soko lo lote.

kijiji

Hatukuona kijiji cho chote.

kitu

Ilatukuona kitu cho chote.

viazi

Hatukuona viazi vyo vyote.

watoto

Hatukuona watoto wo vote.

Atu

Hatukuona Atu ye yote.

W
e
W
e
W
e
W
e
W
e
W
e
W
e

did not

see any orange at all.

did not

see any market at all.

did not

see any village at all.

did not

see anything at all.

did not

see any potatoes at all.

did not

see any children at all.

did not

see anybody at all.

n

v,
jamaa

Yeye hana jamaa ye yote.

Hedoes not
st all•

have any relatives

nyumba

Yeye hana nyumba yo yote.

Hedoes not

have any house.

kazi

Yeye hana kazi yo yote.

Hedoes not

have any job.

rafiki

Yeye hana rafiki ye yote.

Hedoes not

have any friend.

watoto

Yeye hana watoto wo wote.

Hedoes not

have any children.

3,
A. Future affirmative vs. negative.
Nitakwenda sokoni
mchana. Na wewe
j«3

La, mimi
sitakwenda.
Nitanunua nyumba
mpya. Na wewe je?

La, mimi sitanunua,

Juma atalipa ada ya
shule, Na Hamisi
je?
La, yeye hatalipa.

I shall go to the market
this afternoon. How
about you?
No, I will not go.
I shall buy a new house.
How about you?

No, I will not buy
one,
Juma will pay school
fees. How about
Hamisi?
No, he will not
pay them.

BASIC COURSE

Juma atawasaidia rafiki zake. Na Hamisi Je?

samaki

UNIT Ui

Wataka samaki hii?

Hapana,

sitaki samaki yo yote.

La, yeye hatawasaidia.

Juma will help his friends. Hew about Hamisi?

Rafiki zangu watajifunza Kinyamwezi.

No, he will not help them.

Na wako Je?

My friends will learn Nyamwezi.

La, wao hawatajifunza,

How about yours?

B. Peke £___________•

No, they will not learn it.

Utakwenda sokoni na Juma?
La. Nitakwenda peke yangu.

Will you go to the market with Juma? No, I shall go

Juma atakwenda sokoni na Hasani?

alone.
Will Juma go to the market with Hasani?

La. Atakwenda peke yake.

No, he will go alone*

Watoto watakaa nyumbani na mama yao?

Will the children stay at hone with their mother?
No, they will stay alone*

La. Watakaa peke yao.

Will the porters come with their master?

Wachukuzi watakuja na bv/ana wao?

No, they will come alone.

La* Watakuja peke yao,
Do you want this orange? No, I don*t want any

C. ~o ~ote in reply to a question.
chungwa

orange at all.

Wataka chungwa hill?
Hapana, sitaki chungwa lo

Do you want this mango? No, I don*t want any

lote.
embe

Wataka embe hili?

mango at all.
Hapana,

sitaki embe lo lote.
nyaraa

Wataka nyama hii?

Do you want this meat? No, I don*t want any meat
at all.

Hapana,

sitaki nyama yo yote.
Hos
ted
for
free
on
livel
ing
ua.
co
m

180

Do you want this fish? No, I don't want any fish at
all*

UNIT Ul

mkate

SWAHILI

Wataka mkate huu? Hapana,
sitaki mkate wo vote*

uji

Wataka uji huu? Hapana,
sitaki uji wo wote,

maziwa

Wataka maziwa haya? Hapana
sitaki maziwa yo yote.

Do you want this loaf of bread? No, I don't want any
bread at all.
Do you want this gruel? No, I don't want any gruel
at all.
Do you want this milk? No, I don't want any milk at
all.

181
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Hamisi -jaribu to try -toa to take away jiko (plu. Subjunctive forms. They are formed as follows: .: mekc) stove. unataka waende ni l^zima twende tufanyejel do you want them to go? it's necessary that we go what shall we do2 (’that we should do how?') In each of the above sentences. kitchen. The meat is burning. ’We'll have to eat it. the last word is a ’subjunctive’ form. Notes A. Hacij a maskini (she takes it out) a poor man Ohi NaskiniJ Ohl Too badl Tufanyeje sasa? What shall we do now? Hamisi l^ziroa necessity tuile that we should eat it -la to eat Ni lAzima tuile. oven. Basic Dialogue. hearth Jaribu kuitoa jikoni. Trouble in the kitcheni Hamisi Vfhat1 s the matter? Kura nini? Hadija -ungua to burn Nyama yaungua.Unit 1+2 i. Try to take it out of the oven.

pref. from stove.plU3 subjunctive. C. ni lizim tuile we'll have to eat it ('it is necessity that we should eat it’) . You have lizLma uutoe sasa. Toa chai jikoni. stove. to Remove the Youfrom have tofood remove themthe now. We haveto remove meat from the Mama na Asha wanafanva kazi jikoni• Mother and Asha are working in the kitchen. the final vowel is the same as in the indicative. Remove the tea from the stove. Ni nyuinbani. |p~~7~~(. Stay the kitchen. then the subjunctive stem ends in -e.• Jaribu kuwasaidia. negative forms of a verbYou Subjunctive. kula Ni l^zima tule nyama. Jaribu Mother is working in thebuy kitchen. Ni ldzima lizima uvitoe ukitoe sasa. watu- a- -end-semmw etc. We haveto bring meat. Jaribu kunisaidia. kuleta Ni l^ziina tulete nyama. Kwa nini hujaribu kumsaidia? Why do you not try to help her? kutoa Ni l£zima tutoe nyama jikoni. Lizima with subjunctive. In any given context. |lazima\ The word<^“"7">'necessity' is commonjy followed by a subjunctive verb. kununua Ni l^zima tununue nyama. You have remove it now. it now. Ni lizima uutoe sasa. Ni l^zima uitoe sasa. however. Nenda jikoni. 2« mikate A. kukaa ryumba mama na kutoka Asha mind Why do you not try to help them? I am working in the kitchen. B. objj. Stay at hone. and present withhave finalremove -u. Kaa nyumbani. KaaNijikoni. this translation seldom sounds like idiomatic English. l£zima uitoe sasa. Come hone. ToaKwa mikate ninijikoni. Try to help kumsaidia. . B. i c 0 1 nia- root -a*-e -e -e -e -ish-jarib- -i -u If the indicative stem of the verb ends in -a. Go to the kitchen. mama * We haveto eat meat. Remove the loaves of bread from the stove. sasa. Try to help me. uji chai chakula Kwa nini hujaribu kuwasaidia? Ninafanya kazi jikoni. pref. You have to remove it now. Try to help them. A generally workable first approximation to an English translation of waende is ’that they should go’. Remove the gruel from the stove. toin remove it now. See the examples at the head of this Note. hujaribu kunisaidia? viazi Imperatives and locatives. her. Toa viazi jikoni. Toka Toa chakula jikoni. Mama anafanya kazi jikoni. We haveto meat. Otherwise.Subj. Why do you not try to help me? You have to remove them now. Toa uji jikoni. to Remove the potatoes from the stove.

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. Conversation Starters 1. he says that he didn't see any at all in the market. Come from school. B replies. A asks B whether certain articles are available in the market. Go to school. and whether they are of good quality. kwenda Nenda shuleni. For some articles.shule Toka shuleni.

Father Wapi? Where? Mother kiti (VI) chair Juu ya kiti.UNIT 43 SWAHILI Unlt_43 i. MA) water -mwaglka to become spilled iaji yamemwagika. bibi? What’s the matter. Some water has got spilled. On the chair* Father -mwaga to spill Nani ameyamwaga? YJho spilled it? Mother Juma. dear? ('What is there. lady?') Mother inaji (pi. Juma* Father afadhali it is better -angalia to pay attention -pangusa (or -futa) to wipe up Si afadhali ayapanguse basi? [Then] hadn't he better wipe it up? Angalia. Jumal Usimwage tenai Careful Jumal Don't spill [it] again. 158 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . Basic Dialogue* More trouble in the kitchen* Father Kuna nini.

The first contains.UNIT 43 SWAHILI Notes A* Neuter steins • yamemwagika ^he water is spilled maji < the water has been spilled miird nimeyamwaga I spilled it This dialogue contains two related verb stems: -rrwagika 'to become spilled' and -mwaga ’to spill'* Both steins contain the root -mwag-. without saying anything at all about the means or the agent responsible* The 'stative' suffix has a number of slightly different forms. afadhali ayafute he'd better wipe it up ( ' i t is better that he should wipe it u p ' ) The uninflectable word afadhali is commonly followed by a subjunctive verb. . a non-final suffix -ik. -vunja -rarua -pita -vunjika -raruka -pitika -sikla -sikika -mwaga -mwagika -ona -oneka -lata -leteka W& B. between the root and the final vowel.A). largely parallel to those of the 'applied' suffix (Note 26.This is the 'neuter' or 'stative' suffix. It indicates that the subject has gotten into seme state. afadhali plus subjunctive.

which in its form and its concords is exactly like a plural noun of the Afadhali better go. has notwende# singular counterpart. kulipa better help the child# We'd better pay our taxes# . kusaidia Afadhali tumsaidie Afadhali tulipe kodi zetu# mtoto. usiendei don't gol Asiya fute don't wipe it up Negative subjunctive forms consist of: 2# i •HI an ■ Subject prefix A# Negative subjunctive# waji < u si Usimwage majil (obj.UNIT 43 SWAHILI C. Compare also We'd the noun mafuta kufuta We'd better wipe up the water# We'd Afadhali tufute maji.) root mwag Do not spill waterl Do maziwa A Usimwage maziwal ya not pour milkl Dofut not kahawa tu Usimwage kahawal pour coffee1 Do not pour chai etc# Usiawage chaii teaj B. M class. ' o i l ' . The mass noun ma.ji. joref. Afadhali plus subjunctive# kwenda D. Negative subjunctive with -si-# usimwage tenal don't spill[it] again.

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juu ya Maji yainemwagika juu ya kiti. Nani ameimwaga? viazi Sukari imemwagika. Who has spilled it? Salt has gotten spilled. Nani ameimwaga? kahawa of noun. Nani ameyamwaga? Kahawa imemwagika. object chumvi Chumvi imemwagika. simple stems. ta•tense: object prefixes. Ms naji kahawa Maziwa yamemwagika. Nani ameyamwaga? maziwa C. Some milk has been spilled on the chair. Some tea has been spilled on the tablecloth. Some salt has been spilled on the stove. Who has spilled it? Viazi vimemwagika. Who has spilled it? Coffee has gotten spilled* Who has spilled it? Tea has gotten spilled. sukari chai Chai imemwagika juu ya kitambaa. maziwa kahawa 3» Neuter vs. Nani ameimwaga? maharagwe tense vs. M»maji • Some food has been spilled on the chair. B. maziwa Maziwa yainemwagika juu ya kiti.UNIT 43 SWAHILI c. concord A. kitambaa Maziwa yamemwagika juu ya kitambaa. Who has spilled it? Milk has gotten spilled. Nani ameimwaga? naziva chai Chai imemwagika. Some tea has been spilled on the stove* chumvi Chxunvi imemwagika juu ya jiko. vyakula Vyakula vimemwagika juu ya kiti. subject prefix. Some milk has been spilled on the tablecloth. prefix. viazi j3-ko Chai imemwagika juu ya jiko. Same water has been spilled on the chair. i A 'neuter' stem. ma ji chai Maji yamemwagika. Nani amevimwaga? . Water has gotten spilled.

) Do not spill them again! Unit J+U 1* Basic Dialogue. You have spilled some water. Bicycle trouble. Nani atayafuta? Who has spilled it? Maziwa yarnsmwagika. Who will wipe it up? Uroerawaga maziwa. Sangai -sukuma to push along baiskeli (N) bicycle . Nani atayafuta? Potatoes have gotten spilled Who has spilled Kahawa imemwagika. up? Umemwaga maji. Do not spill them again! You have spilled the beans. Do not spill it againl You have spilled some milk. Usiyamwage tenal Some coffee has been spilled. Nani ataifuta? Some water has been spilled. Usivirawage tenal Some tea has been spilled. Maji yaraerawagika. Who will wipe it ■tense vs. Usiyamwage tenal Some milk has been spilled. Do not spill it againl You have spilled some coffee. Usiyamwage tenal Who will wipe it up? object prefixes. Umemwaga maharagwe. negative subjunctive.UNIT 43 SWAHILI Sugar has gotten spilled. Usiimwage tenal up? Umemwaga viazi. Who will wipe it Umemwaga kahawa. Nani ataifuta? them? Chai imemwagika. Do not spill it again! You have spilled some potatoes. (lit.

then? Wouldn't it be a good thing if you Mutisya -weza to be able Siwezi kuitengeneza. fundi (MA. good-bye. I'm taking it to the repairman. Sangai Asante. with good fortune Kwa heri. kwa heri to happiness. my friend. siyo? fixed it. imeharibika. bwana. It's broken.UNIT 43 SWAHILI Kwa nini wasukuma oaiskeli yako? Why are you pushing your bicycle? Mutisya -haribika to get broken Jamaa. I can't fix it. animate) skilled worker of any kind Naipeleka kwa fundi. Thanks. . Well. Sangai -tangeneza to repair siyo equivalent of English 'wouldn't it is not it (used here as an it?') Afadhali uitengeneze basi.

uitengeneze Please repair my house.com Tafadhali. mboga baiskeli bicycle. take out. The stative verb stem -haribika is related to the simple stem -haribu 'to damage. Tafadhali. “etu baiskeli Motokaa imeharibika? Is the motor car damaged? pilipili nguo k. a big bicycle. -lata big bicycle* Watoto wadogo hawawezi kuleta mayai Small children cannot bring a big baiskeli kubwa* B. Tafadhali. take away'. -sukuma Watoto wadogo hawawezi kusukuma Small children cannot push a baiskeli kubwa* vitu big bicycle. nyumba yangu. offer'* kiti 3« viti A* -veza plus infinitive. ukitengeneze kiti changu. and -toka 'to come from' is related to -toa 'to supply. uitengeneze baiskeli yangu. A. jiko second. -tengeneza Watoto wadogo hawawezi Small children cannot repair kutengeneza baiskeli kubwa* motokaa -nunua Watoto wadogo hawawezi 3. 164 “ao Tafadhali. destroy'* The verb -ondoka 'to depart' is related to -andoa 'to start off. uvitengeneze viti vyangu. Hosted for free on livelingua. Please repair my bicycle. C.iti “angu nyumba ~ake Is the stove damaged? Jiko 1imeharibika? Concord: object prefix and object.Notes A* Some additional pairs of simple and neuter stems. . Meaning of me-tense with a neuter i stem* Baiskeli imeharibika? Is the bicycle damaged? Nguo imeharibika? Is the cloth damaged? Kiti kimeharibika? Is the chair damaged? muhogochakula Chakula kimeharibika? Is the food damaged? motokaa B. Small children cannot buy a kununua baiskeli kubwa.

Pilipili ziko wapi? Nimezipeleka sokoni. uitengeneze motokaa yangu. subject prefix in kulitengeneza. Tafadhali. ■st sentence. Siwezi kulitengeneza. We can't repair it. Their stove is damaged They can't repair it . He can't repair it. His stove is damaged. Hawawezi kulitengeneza Our stove is damaged. Concord: Noun. Jiko lao limeharibika. Jiko letu limeharibika. Where are the vegetables? I took them to the market. Where are the eggs? I took them to the market. I can't repair it. Please repair my chair.Tafadhali. My stove is damaged. Agreement of possessive stem in locative stem object prefix. Muhogo uko wapi? Nimeupeleka sokoni. Please repair ny chairs. subject prefix w Please repair ny things. Hawezi Where is the pepper? I took it to the market. Please repair my motor car Mboga ziko wapi? Nimezipeleka sokoni. uvitengeneze vitu vyangu. Hatuwezi kulitengeneza Jiko langu limeharibika. Where is the cassava? I took it to the market. Mayai yako wapi? Nimeyapeleka sokoni. Jiko lake limeharibika.

Usiiuze* No. don't buy it* Niiuze baiskeli? Should I sell the bicycle? Hapana. simple stems* baiskeli Baiskeli yangu imeharibika* Hy bicycle is in bad working condition.C. Usiinunue* kuuza No. Affirmative vs* negative subjunctive* kusukuma Niisukume baiskeli? Who damaged it? Should I push the bicycle? No. don't sell it. Usiisukume* kutengeneza Niitengeneze baiskeli? Should I fix the bicycle? Hapana. But do you have ink? . Usiitengeneze* kununua No. wino (U) Sangai Lakini una wino? Abasi pen Please lend me a pen. Jfy food is spoiled* Nani amekiharibu? motokaa Who spoiled it? Motokaa yangu imeharibika* tty motor car is in bad working condition. Hapana. Nani ameiharibu? kiti Who damaged it? Kiti changu kimeharibika* tty chair is damaged. Nani amekiharibu? D. A offers to help him* Unit_U5 1* Basic Dialogue. Abasi kalamu (N) Tafadhali nisaidie kalamu. -andika Yangu haiandiki. A asks B whether he can accompany him to town. Trouble with a pen. don’t push it. don't fix it* Niinunue baiskeli? Should I buy the bicycle? Hapana. Conversation Starters 1 . B replies with a list of things that he must do first. Nani ameiharibu? chakula Who damaged it? Chakula changu kimeharibika. to write Mine doesn't ink write. Neuter vs.

The nib itself. . -lazijnu to be necessary Yanilazimu ninunue nibu mpya kesho. Sangai Yes.-vunjika to become broken Ndiyo. Wapi? Abasi What part? nibu (N) nib ~enyewe -self Nibu yenyewe. I must buy a new nib tomorrow. but my pen is broken. lakini kalamu imevunjika.

-peleka kwa fundi* Yanilazimu kupeleka kalamu hii . used here with no antecedent. -uza Yanilazimu kuuza kalamu hii* I must take this pen to the repairman.Notes A. -tengeneza Yanilazimu kutengeneza kalamu hii.tense of the verb* The subject prefix is that of the singular of the N.class. kiti Nilinunua kiti kipya jana. This subject prefix used in this way is sometimes called 'impersonal. I must sell this pen. An additional pair of simple and neuter stems* The stative verb stem -vunjika 'to get broken' is related to the simple stem -vunja 'to break'* B* -lazimu plus subjunctive or infinitive. •-lazimu plus infinitive* I must repair this pen. I bought some new chairs yesterday* viti Nilinunua viti vipya jana* I bought a new bicycle yesterday* Nilinunua baiskeli mpya jana* I bought some new clothes yesterday* I bought nguo Nilinunua nguo Apya jana* a new stove yesterday* Jiko Nilinunua jiko jipya jana* baiskeli B. I must buy this pen. kalamu Nilinunua kalamu Apya jana* I bought a new chair yesterday. The verb -lazimu 'to be a necessity [to]' may be followed either by an infinitive or by a subjunctive form: yanilazimu kununua Apya / I've got to buy a new one yanilazimu ninunue Apya) The subjunctive is considered better* In these examples. we have the a.' 2* A. -nunua Yanilazimu kununua kalamu hii. Concords with “gra* I bought a new pen yesterday.

Yake haiandiki. mimi Mimi mwenyewe nilikwenda. yeye Yeye mwenyewe alikwenda. ninyi Yawalazimuni ifcLipe kalamu. Tafadhall msaddie. ninyi Ninyi wenyewe mlikwenda. Agreement in successive sentences possessive stem. mimi Nahitajl kalamu. A. D. wao Wao wenyewe walikwenda. 179 Hosted for free on livelingua. mimi Yanilazimu nilipe kalamu. wewe Wewe mwenyewe ulikwenda. Tafadhall nisaidie Yangu haiandiki.BASIC COURSE UNIT U 5 C. wewe Yakulazimu ulipe kalamu. -lazimu plus subjunctive. Juma Juma ahitaji kalamu. wao Yawalazimu walipe kalamu. sisi Twahitaji kalamu. sisi Sisi wenyewe tulikwenda.com . Tafadhall tusaidie Zetu haziardiki. sisi Yatulazimu tulipe kalamu. 3. yeye Yamlazimu alipe kalamu. "en^ewe.

You must pay for the pen.) must pay for the pen I need a pen. and We must pay for the pen.I must pay for the pen. You yourselves went. We need pens. Ours don't write. I myself went. among subject. You (pi. . Juma needs a pen. Please lend him one. His can't write. They must pay for the pen. We ourselves went. He must pay for the pen. object. They themselves went. He himself went. Mine doesn't write. Please lend me one. Please lend us some. You yourself went.

maji Una maji ya kutosha? Hapana. B. Do you have enough milk? No. sukari imekwisha. water is all gone. 181 Hosted for free on livelingua. -mekwisha. UNIT U 5 The children need pens. chai Una chai ya kutosha? all gone. maziva Una maziva ya kutosha? Hapana. tea is Hapana. wino Una vino va kutosha? Do you have enough ink? No. gruel is all gone. sugar is all gone. sukari Una sukari 7a kutosha? Hapana. Theirs don’t write. Please lend them some. Zao haziandiki.com . Do you have enough gruel? No. chai imekwisha. Tafadhali wasaidie. Do you have enough sugar? No. all gone. Do you have enough tea? No. maziva yamekwisha. ink is Hapana. milk is all gone. uji umekwisha. Do you have enough water? No. maji yamekwisha. ujl Una uji va kutosha? Hapana.BASIC COURSE vatoto Watoto vahitaji kalamu. wino umekwisha.

Unique i* Basic Dialogue* I've lost a letter. Hairisi barua (N) letter meza (N) table Umeiona barua juu ya meza? Did you see the letter on the table? Hadija Kutoka wapi? Hamisi muhuri (MI) Where from? postmark (or: chapa ya posta. alama ya posta) Ilikuwa na muhuri wa Afrika It had a West African postmark* Magharibi. to lose Maybe I've lost it. . iaciija I haven't seen it* Is it lost? to remember to put I can't remember where I put it. Hadija Sijaiona* Imepotea? Hamisi -kumbuka -veka Sivezi kukumbuka niliiweka wapi* -pcteza Pengine nimeipoteza.

after u. and -e~ after e or o. regardless of the final vowel of the simple stem# 17* Hosted for free on livelingua. i or a. For this verb and sane others.com .•Usikate tamaa. the consonant is -z-.' UNIT 46 •tafuta Don't despair# SWAHILI to look for Nitakusaidia kuitafuta# -kata A# Causative stems# tamaa (N) I'll help you lode for it# to cut imepotea desire is it lost? nimeipoteza I've lost it I have returned nimerudi I have returned it nimeirudisha Notes The stem -goteaa 'to lose' is a 'causative' stem which is related to the applied stem -gotea 'to get lost'# The vowel of the causative suffix follows the same rule as the vowels of the applied and stative suffixes: it is -i. The final vowel of causative infinitives is -a.

) -ja-andik- -ja-z’to write' -andik-ish'to become full' (Simple root no 'to put' -wek-eshlonger in use in this -temb-ezsense. see Chapter XXXIV of Ashton's Swahili Grammar* While the above generalizations will be of great help in organizing and remembering the facts.* 'to like' 'to fall' (Simple root no longer in use in this •to remember' sense. etc#' -um- 'to bite. take' -pelek-ez- 'to cause to send. throw away' 'to remind' 'to fill' 'to dictate 'to cause to put' 'to cause to walk about' -pelek- 'to go. the consonant is -sh-: -end** 'to go' -end-esh- 'to cause to go' -sem- 'to speak' -sem-esh- 'to cause to speak' -ottables)' 'to grow.com .) -wek-terab- -wash—pend-ez— -angush—pot—ez— -kumbush- 'to ignite' 'to please' 'to drop' 'to lose. sprout' -ct-esh- 'to raise (vege- For more details.-rud- 'to return' -furah- 'to rejoice' Many verbs -rud-ish- 'to cause to return' -furah-ish'to cause to rejoice BASIC COURSE UNIT 46 have -sh-. without a suffixial vowel. it is safest in the beginning to learn each causative form separately* 173 Hosted for free on livelingua. send. where a related stem has -k-: but -wak-pend-anguk-pot-kumbuk- 'to burr. hurt' -um-iz- 'to cause to hurt' many other verbs.

) kalamu nguo (sg. A. Nani -ku. I put a letter on the table* .as object prefix* alikuletea barua hii? Who brought you this letter? Who Nani alikuletea barua hizi? brought you these letters? Nani alikuletea kalamu hii? Who brought you this pen? Nani alikuletea nguo hii? Who brought you this cloth? Nani alikuletea nguo hizi? Who brought you these clothes? Nani alikuletea kitu hiki? Who brought you this thing? Nani alikuletea vitu hivi? Who brought you these things? -veka.com . ^uu ^a-____________^_* Niliweka kiti Juu ya meza. ) nguo (pl*) kitu vitu B.UNIT 46 BASIC COURSE Concord: Noun and demonstrative. barua barua (pl. i barua 174 Hosted for free on livelingua. Niliweka barua juu ya meza* 2 I put a chair on the table.

nguo juu ya meza* Niliweka nguo juu ya I put some clothes on the table* I put some kiti* Niliweka matunda juu ya kiti* clothes on the chair* I put some fruit on the Niliweka nyajna juu ya kiti* Niliweka chair.UNIT 46 SWAHILI kalamu Niliweka kalamu juu ya meza* Niliweka I put a pen on the table* nguo kiti iratunda nyama jiko maji C. concord including object prefix. Nimepoteza kalamu* prefix* Agreement of subject and object prefixes. nyama juu ya jiko* Niliweka maji juu ya I put some meat on the chair* jiko* •weka plus locatives* I put some meat on the stove* Weka nguo nezani* I put sane water on the stove* nguo Weka kalamu mezani* kalamu Weka ndizi mezani* Put the clothes on the table* ndizi Weka viazi mezani* Put the pen on the table* Put the bananas on the table* viazi 3* Put the potatoes on the table* A. kalajnu Kalamu yangu imepotea* Nani ameipoteza? My pen is lost* Who lost it? 175 Hosted for free on livelingua. I'll help you to look for it* I lost a loaf of bread* I'll help you to look for it* Causative stem. concord of noun and object Nitakusaidia kuitafuta* I lost a pen* kalamu Nimepoteza mayai* I'll help you to look for it* Nitakusaidia kuyatafuta mayai Nimepoteza chungwa* chungwa Nitakusaidia kulitafuta Nimepoteza mkate* Nitakusaidia kuutafuta* mkate 1 lost some eggs* I'll help you to look for them I lost an orange. B.com .

Who lost them? Nani amezipoteza? nguo Nguo yangu imepotea. Unit_U7 . Where are you all from? Siyakumbuki majina yenu. and answers B's questions about details of his duties. Silikumbuki Jina lako. wewe Unatoka wapi? Where are you from? I don't remember your name. Agreement of subject prefix and possessive stem. When did you lose them? lini? rguo Nguo zetu zimepotea. Who lost it? Nani ameipoteza? barua Barua zangu zimepotea. letters are lost. ninyi Mnatoka wapi? I don't remember his name. Nani ameipoteza? Who lost it? r u• kalamu Kalamu zetu zimepotea. Amezipoteza Our letters are lost. My letter is lost. I don't remember their Conversation Starters i. Amezipoteza Our pens are lost. When did you lose them? lini? D. lini? barua When did you lose them? Barua zetu zimepotea. A (an employer) gives directions to B (a domestic servant). Amezipoteza Our clothes are lost. yeye Anatoka wapi? Where is he from? Silikumbuki jina lake.barua Barua yangu imepotea. wao Wanatoka wapi? I don't remember your names Where are they from? Siyakumbuki majina yao. My cloth is lost. names.

com x . and all the glassesJ Mother Bilauri zilikuva ngapi? How many glasses were there? ('Glasses they-were how-many?') 177 Hosted for free on livelingua. three cups. Broken dishes. Basic Dialogue. one saucer.UNIT 46 SWAHILI 1. (Loud crash off stage. vikombe vitatu.) Mother VJhat's that that broke? Nini hicho kilichovunjika? (or: Kitu kimevunjika nini?) Daughter -angusha to cause to fall choinbo (VI) vessel -pakua to divide Mariamu ameangusha vyombo vya Mary dropped the dishes. kupakulia chakula.') Mother “pi? which? Vipi vijoevunjika? Which ones are broken? Daughter sahani (N) plate kikombe (VI) cup kisahani ( V I ) saucer bilauri (N) or: glasi (ft) glass “ote all Sahani mbili. ('••• the vessels for dividing out the food. na bilauri zotei Two plates. kisahani kimoja.

All the plates are clean now* All the cups are clean now* All the saucers are clean now* All the glasses are clean now* All the clothes are clean new* C. Bilauri hizi si safi sana* bilauri bilauri (pl. vikombe Which cups are not clean? kikombe Which cup is not clean? . Mother* 2* A. vikombe visahani safi sasa Bilauri zote ni safi sasa.) Sahani hizi si safi sana* These plates are not very clean kikombe vikombe Kikombe hiki si safi sana* Vikcmbe hivi si safi sana* Bilauri hii si safi sana. Nguo zote ni safi sasa* Concord with ~gi. This glass is not very clean* These glasses are not very clean This cloth is not very clean. Vikcmbe vipi si safi? Kikcmbe kipi bilauri si safi? nguo These cups are not very clean. Visahani vyote ni sahani This cup is not very clean.Daughter -fikiri to think Mama.) Nguo hii si safi sana* Concord with "ote* nguo B. the invariable adjective safi* sahani Sahani hii si safi sana* This plate is not very clean* sahani (pl. I think. Sahani zote ni safi sasa* Vikombe vyote ni safi sasa. Si as negative copula. Four. nafikiri zilikuva Ane.

Who made it fall? Two cups have fallen. vikombe sahani Nani ameiangusha? 3« Sahani mbili zimeanguka. Mariamu amevunja vikombe vyote. Mariamu has broken all tne cups. Which Chako. sahani ■ moja Concords in successive short sentences Zako.com . Mariamu has broken all the dishes.UNIT 46 SWAHILI Sahani zip! si safi? Which plates are not clean? sahani Sahani ipi si safi? Which plate is not clean? Which nguo Nguo ipi si safi? cloth is not clean? sahani (pl. Sahani moja imeanguka* Ipi? Yako* Mariamu has broken all the plates. Who made them fall? kikombe kimoja One cup has fallen* Which one? Yours. Zipi? A. visahani Mariamu amevunja visahani vyote* Mariamu has oroken all the saucers. bilauri Mariamu amevunja bilauri zote. Concord with ~ote. Which vikombe ones? viwili 179 Hosted for free on livelingua. one? Nani ameziangusha? Tours. Mariamu has broken all the glasses. Nani amekiangusha? Vikombe viwili vimeanguka Vipi? Who made it fall? Two plates have fallen Which ones? Yours. Mariamu amevunja sahani zote. vyombo Mariamu amevunja vyombo vyote. Kikombe kimoja kimeanguka Kipi? sahani mbili One plate has fallen.) D.

Nani ameivunja? or: Nani aliyeivunja? bilauri Bilauri yangu imevunjika# kisahani Nani ameivunja? Kisahani changu kimevunjika# Nani kikcanbe amekivunja? Kikombe changu kimevunjika# C. My pen is broken. concord including object prefix# Kalamu yangu imevunjika. kalarau Vyako# Yours# Nani ameviangusha? Who made them fall? Neuter vs# simple stems. concord with ~ngagi Vikombe safi vilikuwa vingapi? vlsahani Vilikuwa vifine# Visahani safi vilikuwa vingapi? Vilikuwa vifine. vikombe Nani amekivunja? -kuwa "ngagi?. vikombe fine# Concord: Noun and two adjectives# Kuna vikombe vipya vingapi? visahani Kuna vitano# Kuna visahani vipya vingapi? Kuna vitano# . sahani Sahani safi zilikuwa ngapi? Zilikuwa fine# bilauri Bilauri safi zilikuwa ngapi? Zilikuwa D.B.

How many new cloths are there? There are five.cup is broken# How many clean saucers were there? There were four# How many clean plates were there? There were four# How many clean glasses were there? There were four. 181 Hosted for free on livelingua.UNIT 46 SWAHILI Who broke it? My glass is broken# Who broke it? My saucer is broken# Who broke it? tty. nyumba Kuna nyumba mpya ngapi? Kuna tano. nguo Kuna nguo mpya ngapi? Kuna tano. How many new pens are there? There are five. Who broke it? How many new cups are there? There are How many clean cups were there? There were four# five# How many new saucers are there? There are five# kalarni Kuna kalamu mpya ngapi? Kuna tano. How many new houses are there? There are five.com .

Hadija light [it]. ' ) to take. Hamisi giza (MA) darkness -ingia to enter Giza laingia. cany Here it is. Nimeileta. It's getting dark* taa (N) a lighting device (lamp. Lighting the lamp. nipatie taa ya mafuta. light bulb. I've brought i t . MA) oil. tulitia chupa ubili jana jioni.ja Does it have enough oil? -tia put. Imperative of one verb. pour chupa (N) bottle jioni evening Ndiyo. followed by subjunctive of a second. to cause to light up Please get me the lamp so I [can] niwashe. ('Take it. etc. we put in two bottles yesterday evening. Notes A. nipatie taa niwashe so that I [may] light [it] get me the lamp . Hamisi Inayo mafuta ya kutosha? Hadi.Unit 49 i * Basic Dialogue. Yes.) mafuta (pi. -chukua Chukua taa. grease -washa Tafadhali.

After an imperative form of one verb. . 2 . the subjunctive of a second verb is used to show the purpose of the action of the first.

vino Lete wino nitie katika chupa hii. Go into the church. kutosha usiku huu? maziwa Lete maziwa nitie katika Do we have enough oil for tonight? Bring oil for me to put into Do the porters have enough oil this bottle. We will put milk Into the glass. ninyi Ninyi mnacho chakula cha Do you have enough food for kanisa Ingieni kanisani.Imperative plus ya subjunctive. Bring him the pen so that he can . % KLetee kalamu aitengeneze. Mama aliwasha taa jana usiku? Mama Did Mother light the lamp last night maji Tutatia maji katika chupa.Wachukuzi wanacirio cfiaKula A. 3. 1 Tutatia mafuta katika taa. maji Lete maji nitie katika chupa hii. Subject and object prefixes with -na-. for tonight? Bring milk for me to put into chupa hii. maziwa Tutatia maziwa katika bilauri. Office.-ingia plus locative. A. Bring ink for me to put into this bottle. C. night? We will put water into the cup. Nani aliyewasha taa jana usiku? Who lit the lamp last night? D. We will put oil into the lamp.Adverbial use of usiku. Imperative plus subjunctive. We will put oil into the bottle. Juma aliwasha taa jana usiku? Juma Did Juma light the lamp last night? chupa Tutatia mafuta katika chupa. Watoto wanacho chakula Go into the District Do the children have enough boma watoto Ingieni bomani. Juma kikombe bilauri Tutatia maji katika bilauri. this bottle. kutosha usiku huu? mafuta Lete mafuta nitie katika wachukuzi Wachukuzi wanayo mafuta ya chupa hii. Go into the school. for tonight?We will put milk into the bottle. kalainu fix it. nani cha kutosha usiku huu? food for tonight? B. kutosha usiku huu? tonight? shule Ingieni shuleni. Bring water for me to put into this bottle. We will put water into the bottle Baba na Juma waliwasha taa usiku? Did Father and Juma light the lamp lamp last Baba na Tutatia maji katika kikombe. tonight? nyumba Ingieni nyumbani. sisi Sisi tunayo mafuta E. 1 We will put water into the glass. Taa inayo mafuta ya kutosha Does the lamp have enough oil for usiku huu? chupa Tutatia maziwa katika chupa. Do the porters have enough food for cha kutosha usiku huu? Go into the house.-tia.

vikoKibe Juma aliwapatienl vikonibe vingapi He didn't bring us any cup at alll How many potatoes did Juma get you jana jioni? Hakutupatia vikombe vyo yesterday evening? vyote J He didn't bring us any at alll Junta aliwapatienl viazi vingapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia viazi vyo vyoteI viazi Junta aliwapatienl mayai mangapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia mayai yo yotel How many eggs did Junta get you yesterday evening? He didn't bring us any egg at alll How many mangoes did Juma get you mayai Junta aliwapatienl maembe mangapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia maembe yo yotel yesterday evening? He didn't bring us any mango at alll How many loaves of bread did Juma bring you yesterday evening? maembe Junta aliwapatienl ndkate mingapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia miicate yo yote! Juma aliwapatieni chupa ngapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia chupa zo zotel taa mikate Juma aliwapatieni taa ngapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia taa zo zotel Juma aliwapatieni ng'onbe wangapi jana jioni? Hakutupatia ng'ombe wo wotel chupa 185 ng1omba Hosted for free on livelingua.com .UNIT 48 kalamu (pi.) balskeli viti SWAHILI Mletee kalamu azitengeneze* Bring him the pens so that he can fix them* Bring him the bicycle so that he can fix it* % Mletee balskeli altengeneze* Mletee viti avitengeneze* Bring him the chairs so that he can fix them* Bring him the car so that he can fix it* Bring him the lamp so that he can fix it* motoka* Mletee motokaa altengeneze* Mletee taa altengeneze* taa How many cups did Junta get you yesterday evening? Second person plural object prefix. B.

etc* in his absence.He didn't bring us any loaf of bread at alll How many lamps did Juma bring you yesterday evening? He didn't bring us any bottle at alii How many cattle did Juma bring you He didn't bring us any lamp at yesterday evening? alll He didn't bring us any cattle at How many bottles did Juma bring you alii yesterday evening? Conversation Starters ia A (an employer) returns from a trip. A then questions B about the state of the house. the dishes. and discusses the trip with B (a domestic servant)* 2. and about the adequacy of supplies for the immediate future* .

mama* Yes. nipatie kiberiti Please get me a new match* kipya. nipatie kiberiti* box or book of matches a single match Please get me a match* Mother Viberiti vyote viraekwisha# Son pesa (N) Unazo pesa za kunurrua vingine? They're all gone* coins Do you have money to buy some more? Mother senti (N) (or: pesa (N)) small change sanduku (N) box Ndiyo* Chukua senti kutoka sandukuni* haraka (N) Na ufanye haraka* Giza laingia* Yes.UNIT 48 SWAHILI Unit_49 i* Basic Dialogue* Lighting the lamp* Son kiberiti (VI) (or: kibiriti) kijiti cha kiberiti (VI) Tafadhali. Mother* 2* A* Concords with ~£ja* kiberiti Tafadhali. it's getting dark* (1 Darkness enters*') Son Ndiyo.com . take some change out of the box* haste And hurry. 187 Hosted for free on livelingua.

Tafadhali. rjugu “a plus infinitive. nipatie viberiti vipya. Meaning of chupa Please get me a new bottle.viberiti Tafadhali. mama. mother. ' mother. msji The ground nuts are all gone. mother. The butter is all gone. Maji yamekwisha. C. Please get me a new lamp. The plates are all gone. The matches are all used up. ire-tense of -(kw)isha. Sahani zimekwisha. mother. mother. Please get me a new box. The money is all gone. Viberiti vimekwisha. mama. -runua -lipa Anazo pesa za kununua mafuta? Do you have money to buy oil? Mnazo pesa za kulipa kodi? Mnazo pesa Do you have money to pay taxes? Do you za kutosha? have money enough? % -chukua• -tosha Nani alichukua senti kutoka sandukuni? D. mother. mother. Who took the change from the box? . sanduku Tafadhali. mama. The oil is all gone. nipatie sanduku jipya* Tafadhali. mama. Please get me some new clothes. mama. nipatie taa mpya. The water is all gone. Njugu zimekwisha. nipatie nguo mpya. B. Siagi imekvisha. mama. Pesa zimekvisha. The cup8 are all gone. Mafuta yamekvisha. nipatie chupa mpya. Tafadhali. nguo Please get me some new matches. viberiti vikombe siagi sahani pesa mafuta Vikombe vimekwisha. mama. taa mama. mother.

i 189 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . I don’t have any bread at all. Unayo maji ya kutosha? Do you have enough water? Sina maji yo yote* mikate Unayo mikate ya kutosha? I don't have any water at all. Do you have enough change? Sina senti zo zote* mafuta maji Unayo mafuta ya kutosha? I don't have any change at all Do you have enough oil? Sina mafuta yo yote* I don't have any oil at all.UNIT U9 BASIC COURSE kalarnu Nani alichukua kalarnu krutoka Who took the pen from the boot? sandukuni? meza Nani alichukua kalarnu kutoka mezani? viberiti Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka Who took the pen from the table (drawer)? Who took the matches from the mezani? ryumba Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka table (drawer)? Who took the matches from the nyumbani? irotakaa Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka hOU86? Who took the matches from the motokaani? bilauri Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka carl Who took the matches from the bilaurini? mafuta Nani alichukua mafuta kutoka glass? Who took the oil from the glass? bilaurini? taa Nani alichukua mafuta kutoka Who took the oil from the lamp? taanil 3* A. Do you have enough bread? Sina mikate yo yote. pesa Multiple concords* Unazo pesa za kutosha? Do you have enough money? Sina pesa zo zote* senti Unazo senti za kutosha? I don’t have any money at all.

Li-tense vs. kuweka * Mliweka viberiti vingapi nyumbani? kuona Hatukuweka vingi. -ku-» . Do you have enough gruel? I don't have any gruel at all. nyama Ur. past negative with kuchukua Ulichukua senti ngapi kutoka sandukuni? Sikuchukua nyingi. Do you have enough meat? I don't have any meat at all. kuweka Uliveka senti ngapi sandukuni? Sikuweka nyingi. Mliona viberiti vingapi nyumbani? Fatukuona vingi.uji Unao uji wa kutosha? Sina uji wo wote. kuchukua KLichukua viberiti vingapi nyumbani? Hatukuchukua vingi. kuona Uliona senti ngapi sandukuni? Sikuona nyingi. B. C.ayo nyama ya kutosha? Sira nyama yo yote.

Hew many matches did you (pi.) take out of the house? We didn't take many. thank you* Mother wa nini? Why [not]? Son -icaliza to finish Kwa sababu sina njaa. sikitaki asante* No.UNIT U9 BASIC COURSE How many cents did you take out of the bofx? .) put in the house? We didn't put many. I didn't take many. Unit_50 i* Basic Dialogue* I'm not hungry* Mother Unakitaka chakula hiki? Do you want this food? Son Kapana. How many matches did you (pi. How many matches did you (pi. Because I’m not hungry* I’ve just Nimemaliza kula sasa hivl* now finished eating* Mother i 191 Hosted for free on livelingua.) see in the house? We didn't see many. How many cents did you see in the box? I didn't see many.com . How many cents did you put into the box? I didn't put many.

. Son Ndiyo. Tafadhali nipatie bilauri Yes. ('Then. a glass of orange juice would moja ya maji ya roachungwa* be fine* Mother -nywa to drink Basi chukua. Maybe you'd like a drink. The phrase sasa hivi* Note the use of hivi.kinyvaji (VI) a drink Pengine wataka kinywaji. take') I’ll have sane soda* Notes A. which has the form of the proximal demonstrative. Mini nitakunywa soda* Here you are.

soda Watu wote wa nchi hii hunywa i 193 Hosted for free on livelingua.' The phrase hivi sasa is also used in this sense• soda nyingi. chakula Unataka chakula hicho? karanga Unataka karanga hizo? mkate Unataka mkate huo? kinywaji Unataka kinywaji hicho? siagi Unataka siagi hiyo? nyama Unataka nyama hiyo? B. as modifier of sasa 'now' to produce sasa hivi 'just new. 2* A. -me-raaliza plus infinitive* •la Juma amemaliza kula sasa hivi. •tuletea Juma amemaliza kutuletea vinywaji sasa hivi. hu-tensej concord with ~ingi. maziwa Watu wote wa nchi hii hunywa maziwa mengi. kahawa Watu wote wa Achi hii hunywa kahawa nyingi. -lata Juma amemaliza kuleta kinywaji sasa hivi. Concord: Noun and demonstrative. -fanya Juma amemaliza kufanya kazi sasa hivi.com .UNIT U9 BASIC COURSE plural VI class. chai Watu wote wa nchi hii hunywa chai nyingi. C.

Do you want those ground nuts? Do you want that bread? Do you want that drink? Do you want that butter? Do you want that meat? Everyone in this country drinks a lot of tea. milk. . Everyone in this country drinks a lot of Juma has just now finished bringing a drink. Everyone in this country drinks. soda.Do ycu. want that food? Juma has just new finished working. Everyone in this country drinks a lot of coffee. Juma has just now finished bringing us drinks. a lot of Juma has just now finished eating.

thank you* Do you want these loaves? No. asante* Akate Unautaka Akate huu? Hapana. chakula Unakitaka chakula hiki? Hapana. machungwa mengi. we haven't finished yet* Has everyone finished eating new? No. hawajamaliza bado* B* Present affirmative vs* negative. nyama Watu vengi wa Achi hii hula nyama nyingi* karanga Watu wengi wa nchi hii hula karanga nyingi. hatujamaliza bado* watu vote Watu vote wamemaliza kula sasa? Hapana. thank you* . asante* mikate Have you finished eating now? Unaitaka mikate hii? Hapana. I don’t want them. thank you* Do you want this bread? No. siitaki. sijamaliza bado* No. asante* Have you all finished eating now? No. sikitaki. I haven't finished yet* % ninyi Mmemaliza kula sasa? Hapana. I don't want it. they haven't finished yet# with object prefix* Do you want this food? No. Me-tense vs* negative with -£a-* wewe Umemaliza kula sasa? Hapana.maji ya Watu vote wa Achi hli hunyva machungwa ya. Everyone in this country drinks a lot of orange Juice* D. siutaki. nuhogo Watu wengi wa Achi hii hula muhogo rawing!• mahiodi Watu wengi wa Achi hii hula raahindi mengi* Many people in this country eat a lot of meat* Many people in this country eat a lot of ground nuts* Many people in this country eat a lot of cassava* Many people in this country eat a lot of maize* 3« A. I don't want it.

thank you* m&embe Unayataka maembe haya? want these mangoes? ndizi Hapana. I . I Do you No. asante. tunakula mkate* ninyi D. sikitaki. I Do you No. thank you* kiazi Unazitaka ndizi hizi? want these bananas? viazi C. hawali viazi. Daudi Unakitaka kiazi hiki? want this potato? Hapana. ninakula mkate* * Mnakula viazi? La. asante. hali viazi. hatuli viazi.embe Unalitaka embe hill? want this mango? Hapana.) Hapana. sili viazi. don't want them. thank you* Do you No. I Mariamu Mariamu anakula viazi? La. wanakula mkate* Unakula viazi? wewe La. I Do you No. don't want it. silitaki. siyataki. siitaki. asante* don't want it. Hapana. anakula mkate* Watoto wanakula viazi? watoto La. don't want it. asante* don't want them. thank you* Do you No. asante. sizitaki. thank you* ndizi Unaitaka ndizi hii? want this banana? (pi.

thank you* you No. they aren't eating potatoes They are eating bread* Are you eating potatoes? No. He's drinking tea. she isn't eating potatoes. Wote wanakunywa kahawa? La. don't want them. . hanywi kahawa. we aren't eating potatoes* We' re eating bread. hawanywi kahawa. She's eating bread* Are the children eating potatoes? No. I'm net eating potatoes* I'm eating bread* Are you all eating potatoes? No. I Negative present of monosyllabic verb stem. he isn't drinking coffee* anakunywa chai. sivitaki. asante.Unavitaka viazi hivi? want these potatoes? Do Hapana. Daudi anakunywa kahawa? Is Daudi drinking coffee? La. vote wanakunywa chai. No. with loss of kuIs Mariamu eating potatoes? No.

% ninyi Mnakunywa kahawa? La. . they aren’t drinking coffee. nin aku ny wa cha i. sin ywi kah aw a.Are they all drinking They’re drinking coffee? tea. tun aku cha i. No. wewe wewe ny wa Unakunyva kahawa? La. hat uny wi kah aw a.

drinking tea. 2 . and asks similar questions about the people of A's country. we I'm not aren't drinking drinking coffee. B replies. . We're I'm drinking tea.) drinking coffee? No. give an account of a typical day in your own life.Are you drinking coffee? No. coffee. Conversation Starters i• A inquires of B about what the people of his country customarily eat and how they spend their leisure time. Do the same for a day in the life of a domestic servant. Are you (pi. Within the limits of the vocabulary that has been met up to this point.

mpaka chuo Magese -endelea (VI) -tumaini Mungu akinijalia nitaendelea and history. to continue to hope katika masomo mpaka chuo cha juu masomo? Watumaini kuendelea katika Do you hope to continue in your studies? mwishowe Mwishowe utafanya kazi gani? Juma God siasa (N) (or: utetezi (U)) Nitafanya kazi ya siasa. [child]? Junta Niko katika darasa la tano. What grade are you in? Magese •sona to read. religion na historia. English. . a lesson Wapenda masomo gani shuleni? What subjects do you like in school? Juma hesabu (N) arithmetic Mungu (MI) dini (N) religion -Jalia Napenda hesabu. I'm in Standard 5 . Eiingereza.Unit_5 ^ 1* Basic Dialogue. Magese sonK) (MA) an academic subject. study darasa (MA) class Unasoma darasa gani mtoto? What class are you in. dini I like arithmetic.

college If God helps me. B. Juu with no possessive following it. cf. studies to college. First and second person subject prefixes used with locative stems. until school. I will go on in my .person pronouns may be used before the stem -ko. The first-person and second-person subject pronouns as well as the third. Notes A.C.to assist (ordinarily in the sense of God's help) to. Juu is used without a possessive or a linking -a following it. chuo cha juu higher school Here. niko katika darasa la tano I'm in Standard 5 . Mageso finally What kind of work will you do after that? Juma politics I'm going into politics. Note 35. and before -go and -mo: .

His father is a farmer* He does farming. mkuliroa Baba yake ni mkulima. He does cooking. His father is a politician He does political work. . Yeye afanya kazi ya His father is a cook. -^ua plus infinitive. -mo implies location of something within something else* a. Yeye afanya kazi ya utetezi. mpaka. Yeye afanya kazi ya upishi.yuko nyumbani he's at home yupo nyumbani he's at the house yumo nyumbani he's in the house The difference in meaning between -go and -ko is not sharply defined. while -ko has to do more with the mere existence of scxnething regardless of place. ukulima. -ogelea Watoto wote wanajua Do all the children know how to swim? kuogelea? -soma -andika -seroa 3. A. mpishi Baba yake ni mpishi. Generally speaking. -soma Utaendelea kusoma mpaka How late are you going to read? saa ngapi? -fanya Utaendelea kufanya kazi How late are you going to work? mpaka saa ngapi? -tembea -ogelea B. Nouns with the same stein but different prefixes. -go implies a more definite idea of the location. -endelea plus infinitive. mtetezi Baba yake ni mtetezi. A.

rawandishi Baba yaks ni mwandishi. Yeye afanya kazi ya kibarua. a child. His father is a secretary. stems. If you drink too much. 4 « A asks B. ninyi Mko wapi? Tumo nyumbani.Apagazi Baba yake ni mchukuzi His father is a porter. ) 2 We are in the house. Where is he? He is in the house. vao Wako wapi? Wamo nyumbani. about his school work and about his chores at hone. • . Where are they? They are in the house. Unit 52 i* Basic Dialogue. He does secretarial work B. He does casual labor. Yeye afanya kazi ya uandishi. yeye Yuko wapi? Yumo nyumbani. Where are you? I am in the house. Where are you (pi. .Personal subject prefixes with locative wewe Uko wapi? Nino nyumbani.

Mirambo Mwone.be? Do you like to drink it? Sangai wakati (U) (pi. The three series of demonstratives may be compared in the following table* . Mtu akinywa pylngi atalewa. The distal demonstratives (-le)* yule Atu that man over there A third series of demonstratives are formed an the stem -le* The general meaning is 'that/those over there'• These may be called 'distal' demonstratives. tu. nyakati) time Nyakati nyingine mimi hunyva kidogo Sometimes I drink just a little. yule mtu hawezi kutembea Look at himi That man can't walk vyema. He's been drinking beer. drunk. anyone who drinks much will get N0tQ8 A. Sangai beer pombe (N) Yeye amekwisha kurrywa pombe. ('he has finished drinking beer' ) Mirambo Wswe unapenda kunywa p orr. Sangai % Ndiyo. properly. Yes. Mirambo -leva to become drunk Pomba ni rcbaya kwa sababu inamfanya Beer is bad because it makes a person mtu alewe. (that he should become) drunk.

'neutral' 'proximal' 'distal' huyu huyo WA MI y u 1 ______e sg. huyo huyu yule pi* hao hawa wale sg* huo huu pi* hiyo hii m ule ile mmm sg* hilo hili lile pi* hayo haya yale sg* hicho hiki kile pi* hivyo hivi vile sg* hiyo hii pi* hi20 nizi zile huu ule PA ('mahali')hapo hapa pale KU huko huku kule MU humu humu Ale MA VI N U huo m MB M ile .

etc* Forms with -ki. -3ema -andika B. chai kidogo* maji Nyakati nyingine mimi hunywa Sometimes I drink a little water* maji kidogo.B. pombe kidogo* kahawa Nyakati nyingine mimi hunywa Sometimes I drink a little coffee.form is 'he drinking'. This prefix stands between the subject and object prefixes. etc. A crude but serviceable kind of translation equivalent for the ki. 'he helping'. and in this respect resembles the tense prefixes -na-. he learns how to read* ukifanya Ukifanya kazi yizurl sana utapata mshahara wa kutosha. pombe Kidogo after mass nouns* Nyakati nyingine mimi hunywa Sometimes I drink a little beer. The kl-tense* mm mtu akinywa nyingi atalewa if a person drinks much he will get drunk Mungu akinijalia * * * if God helps roe * * * These sentences contain verb forms with the prefix -ki-.in this slot do not ordinarily serve as the main verb in a complete sentence* 2* A. -tembea -weza plus infinitive. C. Wale watu hawawezi kutembea Those people cannot walk well* vyema. -le. kahawa kidogo* chai Nyakati nyingine mimi hunywa Sometimes I drink a little tea. -soma Wale watu hawawezi kusoma Those people cannot read well* vyema. . Two examples of the ki-tense* akienda Mtoto akienda shuleni hujifunza kusoma* If a child goes to school. ' 1 being'. -li-.

Is the beer good? No. Concords: Noun and adjectives. they are bad. Coffee does not make one drunk. » pambe Pombe ni nzuri? Rapana. they are bad. . Mara mbllia £• -fanja plus subjunctive. ni mabaya. nyama Nyama ni nzuri? Hapana. maembe Maembe ni mazuri? Hapana. Are the mangoes good? No. A. kutazama How many times did you look at him? Ulimtazama mara ngapi? Twice. Is the meat good? No. Uli&saidia mara ngapi? Mara mbilla kusikia How many times did you help him? Twice. ni rcbaya• Are the foods good? No. chai Chai haimfanyi Atu alewe. Kchungu ku almla.If you work very well you will get Ds Mara# kuona enough pay. ndizi Ndizi ni nzuri? Hapana. Maji ya machungwa hayaafanyi Tea does not make one drunk. mbill. Ulimsikia mara ngapi? Mara How many times did you hear him? Twice. ni vibaya. machungwa Machungwa ni mazuri? Hapana ni mabaya. 3* Orange juice does not make one drunk. Ulimwona mara ngapi? Mara mbllia kusaidia How many times did you see him? Twice. ni mbaya* vyakula Vyakula ni vizurl? Hapana. it is bad. ni mbaya. Water does not make one drunk. kahawa Kahawa haimfanyi Atu alewe* maji maji ya Maji haya&fanyi mtu alewe. it is bad.

.Are tha oranges good? No they are bad. Are the bananas good? No they are bad.

ndugu yangu Juma yuko wapi? kinsman of same generation Father.Unit_ 5 3 i» Basic Dialogue. Asha ndugu (N-pers.) Baba. where is ray ndugu Juma? . Juma hurt his leg.

. Asha How did he get hurt? Aliumiaje? Hamisi knife He hurt himself with a knife. foot Because he hurt [his] arm and [his] foot. hand Aguu (MI) leg. Asha a sick person Is he very ill? mgonjwa (WA) Teye mgonjwa sana? Hamisi Hainlsi Hapana.. (ors. Asha Why? Kwa nini? Hamisi -umia be hurt dkono (ME) arm. No. but he was in pain. Kwa sababu aliumia aikono na mguu. kisu (VI) Alijiumiza mwenyewe kwa kisu... lakini alikuwa akiumwa.hospitali.Alipelekwa hospitalini na mama.) He was taken to the hospital by [his] mother. .

Wachukuzi walikula nyama. Niliumwa (na) kichwa. but is omitted by others• D. Niliumla kichwa. Passive stems derived from monosyllabic verbs do not have ku-. was bitter. Maziwa yamenywewa na watoto. Note the difference in meaning between the derived verb stems in the above examples. C. I hurt my head. The meat was eaten by the porters. the word for the agent or means by which the action is performed follows the word na. Passive stems. bite'. and the passive suffix itself is -iw-or -ew-. Passive stems formed on roots which contain vowels. by use of a suffix whose most common form is -w-. When the passive suffix is used in the same word with another derivational suffix. B. I was hurt by my brother. The porters ate the meat.Notes A. injure. tfy brother hurt me. Ndugu yangu aliniuma. Difference in meaning between -umwa and -umia. For details see the exercises. Passive stems may be derived from simple stems. Nyama ililiva na wapagazi. The word na is used by some speakers after -umwa. The milk has been drunk by the children. . The reflexive prefix -^i-. In sentences containing passive verbs. or from other derived stems. by my brother. Ndugu yangu % brother bit me. The underlying simple stem -uma means ’to cause pain. I had a headache. Niliumwa na ndugu yangu. it follows that suffix. I aliniumiza* Niliumizwa na ndugu yangu.

Nilijiumiza* I hurt myself* Walijiumiza.Ninajifunza Kiswahili. They hurt themselves* The prefix -ji. bilauri baiskeli kalamu I hurt myself with a knife* I hurt myself with a chair. learn' is literally 'to teach oneself'* 2* A# -umia. It is a 'reflexive' prefix. Juma's feet hurt* mkono Juma anaumwa mkono. class or number of the subject* The stem -funza means 'to teach'• -^ifunza 'to study.regardless of the person.occupies the same slot as the other object prefixes. -jiumiza. . Aguu Juma aliumia mguu* Juma hurt his leg* miguu Juma aliumia miguu* Juma hurt his legs* mkono Juma aliumia mkono* Juma hurt his hand* mikcno Juma aliumia mikono* Juma hurt his hands* kichwa Juma aliumia kichwa* Juma hurt his head* B. which indicates that the object of the verb is the same as its subject* It has the invariable shape -^i. I'm studying Swahili* I hurt Nilimwumiza Daudl* Daudi. Juma has a headache* mguu Juma anaumwa mguu. kisu Nilijiumiza kwa kisu. -umwa* kichwa Juma anaumwa kichua. Juma has a sore arm* c . kiti Nilijiumiza kwa kiti. Juma has a sore foot* miguu Juma anaumwa miguu.

D. *»«••«««• * wagonjwa wengi hospitalini? Kuna i Are there many patients in the hospital? mtu Kuna watu wengi hospitalini? mji Kuna watu wengi nijini? mgonjwa Are there many people in the hospital? Are there many people in town? Kuna wagonjwa wengi mjini? Are there many sick peopTe in town? Are there many children in town? mtoto Kuna watoto wengi Ajinj? shule Kuna wengi shuleni? Are watoto there mary children in the school? What were you doing at twelve noon? Were you eating at twelve noon? Were you reading at twelve noon? Were you walking at twelve noon? Were you writing a letter at twelve noon? E. kufanya -wa plus ki-tense* Ulikuwa ukifapya nini saa sita mchana? kula Ulikuwa ukila chakula saa sita mchana? frusoma Ulikuwa ukisoma saa sita mchana? kutembea Ulikuwa ukitembea saa sita .Kuna plus locative.

them? Who has eaten mkateVitu hivi vyote % vimeletwa Mkate vote umeliwa. Nani ameyanywa? mama ndugu Who has drunk it? The tax was paid yesterday by ny All the water has been drunk. father. to the iruhogo market. njugu Nani amelia? A. maembe Maembe yote yameliwa. Who has drunk it? Chai yote imenywewa. viazi Nani amevila?kichwa. Nani ameinywa? chai kahawa New clothes werel ^ e nt ^ 1 ndizi Who has eaten them? nyama siagi All the meat has been eaten. yangu.Soda vote imenywewa. I hadWho a headache. Muhogo vote ulipelekwa market. Jana nilikuwa ninaumwa mkono. I* -wa plus na-tense. Eggs were taken to the hospital. na ndugu yangu. Akono Yesterday.mchana? kvandika Ulikuwa ukiandika barua saa sita mchana? F. Who has drunk it? B. baba All the soda has been drunk. All the mangoes have been eaten. Mayai yalipelekwa hospitali. Who has eaten it? All the fish has been eaten. mayai • mayai njugu nguruwe maziwa ndizi vyakula vvcrte maembe mazima H. Nani ameyala? vitu Yesterday. Who has eaten it? Nani ameula? mikateVisu hivi Mikate yote imeliwa. Nani ameila? machungwa mayai viti 3« nyama mikate Nyama yote imeliwa. Viazi vyote vimeliwa. Nani ameinywa? All the coffee has been drunk. Who has drunk it? . vyote vimeletwa visu the been loaves of bread have All these knivesAll have brought by my brother. hospital. Who has eaten it? All the beer has been drunk. I had a sore arm. All these thingsAll have the been breadbrought has been eaten. Nani ameila? pcmbe Pombe yote imenywewa. All the tea has been drunk. Jana nilikuwa ninaumwa mguu. nguo mpya Nguo mpya zilipelekwa Mahindi yote valipelekwa All the maize was taken to the sokoni. kichwa Jana nilikuwa ninaumwa mguu All the potatoes have been eaten has eaten them? Yesterday. mahindi Concord: Norm. been eaten. All the cassava was taken to the hospitali. Passive plus na. sokoni. na ndugu yangu. samaki Samaki yote imeliwa. adjective. Passive of verbs whose roots contain no vowel. subject prefix. Nani ameinywa? Kodi ililipwa jana na baba maji Maji yote yamenyvewa. I had a sore foot. by my brother. Nani aroeinyva? Who has drunk it? Kahawa yote imenywewa.

education. who are parents. S09 Unit_5U 1« Basic Dialogue* Where have you been recently? Sangai Habari za siku nyingi? How have you been all this time? ('News of many days?') Mirambo Njema* Fine] Sangai Ulikuva wapi siku hizi zote? Where have you been all these days? Nilikuva huko Mbeya* Mirambo I was at Mbeya* Sangai Ulikuwa ukifanya nini? What were you doing? Mirambo Nilikuwa nikifanya kazi ya ukarani* I was doing clerical work* . A and his friend B.Conversation Starters i. related to their needs for food. discuss the things that they do for their children. clothing.

Notes A* Huko with names of places* Tulikuwa nyumbani* We were at home. With names of cities the word huko 'there' or hapa 'here' may be used. 210 \ . We were at Mbeya. The locative suffix -ni is used with such words as n^umba 'house' and soko 'market'. Tulikuwa huko Mbeya. The literal translation of the second sentence is thus 'we were there [at] Jbeya'.

3. I was learning Swahili Nilikuwa nikiwasaidia kuondoka Aendelee kutusaidia mpaka saa saba* Nilikuwa nikiondoka yeye wazazi wangu* Alianza lini kutusaidia? shuleni• wao kuogelea -wa plus Ici-tense: negative vs Nilikuwa nikiogelea. Alikuva amelewa. the action as a whole is located in past or future time by the use of -li. Ulikuwa ukisoma? Hapana. We were at the market. Waendelee kuogelea mpaka saa saba* B. . -ki-. He is drunk.B.or -ta. A. Basically. Atakuwa I was working. Nilikuva nikienda nyumbani. tulikuwa tukiandika* •11 Let them go on reading till one o'clock* When did they begin reading? . Hatukuwa tukisoma. wao Aendelee kusoma mpaka saa saba* kanisa Tulikuwa kanisani. parents* I was leaving I was swimming. is indicated by the use of -na-. W9W8 ninyi Hapana. Utete Waendelee kusoraa Tulikuwa hukonipaka Utete. Verb phrases of this kind lend great flexibility to the expression of time and aspect with Swahili verbs. Walianza lini kuogelea? kwenda We were at Moeya. kula Alianza lini nikila kuogelea? Nilikuwa chungwa. Huko with names of cities. He got drunk. He will be working. . nilikuwa 2 yeye nikiandika. or of -me- kusaidia as prefix for the second verb. Sikuwa nikisoma. The shape of the action. I was eating an orange. He was drunk. wao kujifunzaWaendelee kutusaidia mpaka saa saba* Nilikuwa nikijifunza Walianza lini kutusaidia? Kiswahili. Nilikuwa nikifanya kazi. whether continuing or completed at that time. akifanya kazi. Aendelee kuogelea Apaka saa saba* I was going hone. We were at Utet9. I was helping ray school. Verb phrases in which the first verb is -wa. Mlikuwa mkisoma? B. Walianza lini kusama? soko Tulikuwa sokoni. Alianza lini kusoma? Nairobi Tulikuwa huko Nairobi. Ilikuwa imevunjika. Alilewa. We were in Nairobi. Amelewa. • yeye -wa plus ki-tense.as prefix with -wa. saa saba* A. We were at the church. It was broken [when I saw it]. Mbeya Lini? Tulikuwa huko Moeya.

I was writing. When did he/she begin helping us? affirmative* Were you (sg.) reading? No.) reading? No. When did he/she begin swimming? Let them go on helping us till one o'clock* When did they begin helping us? Let him/her go on helping us till one o'clock. we were writing* . we were not reading. I was not reading.Let him/her go on reading till one o' clock* When did he/she begin reading? Let them go on swimming till one o' clock* When did they begin swimming? Let him/her go on swimming till one o'clock. Were you (pi.

Mzungu huyo alikuwa akinywa Was that European drinking tea? chai? Hakuwa akinywa chai. . we were drinking beer. he akinywa pombe. alikuwa akiandika. ninyi Mlikuwa mkinywa chai? Hatukuwa tukinywa They were not drinking tea. Alikuwa He was not drinking tea. he was writing. he was not reading. No. they Walikuwa wakinywa pcmbe. C. they were drinking beer. They were not drinking tea. was drinking beer. We were not drinking tea. wakulima Wakulima hao walikuwa wakinywa Were those farmers drinking tea? chai? Hawakuwa wakinywa chai. were drinking beer. wazungu Wazungu hao walikuwa Were those Europeans drinking tea? wakinywa chai? mzungu Hawakuwa wakinywa chai. Tulikuwa tukinywa pombe. Hakuwa akisoma. Were you drinking tea? chai.Was the clerk reading? karani Karani alikuwa akisoma? Hapana. Walikuwa wakinywa pombe.

Hasani They're all right* kweli true Kweli. Hosted for free on livelingua. how many children do you have now? Hadi. una watoto wangapi sasa? Really. Notes A. wanawake ) woman mwanamume (pi* wanaume) man One is a girl and two are boys* Mmoja ni mwanaAka na wawili ni wanaume• Hasani umri (U) age Atoto wako Akubwa ana umri gani? What is the age of your eldest? (‘•••your big [one]') 214 Hadija Ana miaka kumi na mitatu sasa.com .ja Hawajarabo. Thirteen.UNIT 55 SWAHILI Unit gg i* Basic Dialogue* How's the family? Hasani Habari gani za watoto wako? How are your children? Hadi. Numerals which take concordial prefixes.ja Nina watoto watatu* I have three* Hasani kiume (VI) the male sort kike (VI) Watoto hao ni wa kiume au wa kike? Are they boys or girls? Hadija the female sort mwanantka (pi.

and also 8.UNIT 55 SWAHILI Ana miaka mitano.5. is literally 'he has (five) years'. My eldest child is eleven years old now. as in the above examples. The numerals from 1 . He is five years old. B. sasa. 10 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka kumi sasa. take concordial prefixes. 5 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka mitano sasa. 7 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka saba 9 %% Mtoto wangu mkubwa My eldest child is seven years old now. Stating the ages of persons. « 11 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka kumi na mmoja sasa. A.com . Numbers and ages. Hosted for free on livelingua. He is six years old. Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka tisa eldest child is ten years old new. My eldest child is eight years old now. Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka sita sasa. None of the other numerals do so. 6 My eldest child is six years old now. Note that the way of stating ages. Ify eldest child is nine years old now. Ana miaka sita. ana miaka minane sasa. 8 My eldest child is five years old now. a. sasa.

Kuna wanaume wengi shuleni. the old women eldest twelve years now*are to 12 Mtoto mkubwa ana mi aka kur.wangu Double Wanaume ih singular A. the women are to go to school* There is one clerk at home. The men a ire to stay at the market. The 15 wakae vs.ii waende kanisani* SWAHILI UNIT 55mwanamke home* miwili sasa. Kuna karani mmoja nyumbani. Office. j There is to one at home.kanisa 13 B. Kuna karani makarani wengi shuleni. There is onestay woman at home. The men are to stay at church.double double sokoni. 18 19 boma Wanaume wakae kanisani. the women are to go to the District Office. The men are to stay at the District There are many children at school. wanawake mwanamke | Kuna Wanaurae waende mmoja shulenij nyumbani. men are There to stayare home. areistoone go farmer to church. There is one child at home.na subjunctive* 17 The men arechild to goisto school. Hosted for free on livelingua. There are many clerks at school. The shuleni. wanawake wakae nyumbani* Kuna wanawake wengi many school. mkulima shule wanawake waende sokoni* Kuna mkulima nraoja nyumbani. There are many men at school.com . plurals. Kuna Wanaume wakae bomani j wakulima wengiwaende shuleni• wanawake shuleni* Kuna mtoto ftmoja nyumbani. mwanamume soko Wanaume Kuna mwanamume wakae nyumbani mmoja nyumbani. thewomen womenatare to go wanawake waende bomani* theman market. There are many farmers at school. plural. the women There at home. Kuna mtoto watoto wengi shuleni.

the grades that the children are in at school. exchange information about the ages of their respective children. visit Hosted for free on livelingua. Basic Dialogue. who are parents. and their favorite subjects# Unit_56 1.UNIT 55 SWAHILI Conversation Starters 1 .com . A and his friend B. When are you coining to see us? Mirambo -ainkia to greet.

leave is over? Hosted for free on livelingua. but I'm not sure. I'll come on Wednesday pamoja na mke wangu na watoto. lakini sina hakika. along with my wife and children* Mirambo baada (N) after livu (N) leave time Baada ya livu yako. certainty I may go back to Mbeya again.com . nitakuja siku ya Jumatano If I get a chance.UNIT 55 Utakuja lini kutuamkia? SWAHILI When are you coming to visit us? nafasi (N ) opportunity Jumatano Wednesday pamoja na together with mka (WA) wife Nikipata nafasi. utakvenda wapi? Where are you going when your Magese ] abda -rudi perhaps to hakika (N) return Labda nitarudi tena Kbeya.

-amkia. The noun baada. Jumamosi Saturday Jumapili Jumatatu Sunday Monday Juinanne Tuesday Jumatano Wednesday Alhamisi Ijumaa Thursday Friday Given above are the days of the week in Swahili. are related to forms meaning respectively ‘one* and 'two. does not serve as subject or object of a verb. like £uu. -gili.UNIT 55 SWAHILI Notes A. The terminations -mcsi. Saturday is thus 'day-one*. The noun baada. B. The days of the week. etc. 2• A. nor occur in the plural. wazazi Umekuja hapa kuwaamkia wazazi wako? rafiki Umekuja hapa kumwamkia rafjki yako? jaman Umekuja hapa kumwamkia jamaa yako? baba Umekuja hapa kumwamkia Have you come here to visit your parents? Have you ccsne here to visit your friend? Have you come here to visit your companion? Have you come here to visit your father? Have you come here to visit your brother? baba yako? ndvgu Umekuja hapa kumwamkia ndugu yako? Hosted for free on livelingua. and Tuesday is 'day-four'.com . When naming them in series it is customary to begin with Jumamosi.

After this year I shall be living in Kenya.' -ta. I did not have the opportunity of studying the kuscma Sikupata nafasi ya kusoma darasa la seventh grade* UNIT 56 SWAHILI saba. na Mwandishi Mkuu.mimi Baada ya mwaka huu.B. [ray] studies* I went to Mbeya together with my wife* I did not have the opportunity of learning I went to Mbeya together with my eldest child. Mwandishi Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja ^cuu I went to Mbeya together with the General I did not have the opportunity of watching the Secretary.plus -ki. mashindano ya farasi. I did not have the opportunity of speaking to the kusema Sikupata nafasi ya kusema General Secretary* na Mwandishi Mkuu. Baada ya mwaka huu. 280 Hosted for free on livelingua.com . C* pamoja na D. kujifunza Sikupata nafasi ya kujifunza hesabu. arithmetic* rake wangu. -gata nafasi. Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja na £toto kuona Sikupata nafasi ya kuona ratoto wangu mkubwa. yeye After this year we will be living in Kenya. atakuwa akiishi Kenya. I went to Mbeya together with some porters• rafiki Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja na rafiki yangu* uachui:uzi Nilikwenda Mbeya parnoja na wachuKuzi wengine. nitakuwa nikiishi Kenya. I did not have the opportunity of continuing with kuendelea Sikupata nafasi ya mke Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja na kuendelea na mascctio. After this year he will be living in Kenya. I went to Mbeya together with my friend. 'Future progressive. sisi Baada ya mwaka huu. tutakuwa tukiishi Kenya. horse races.

Hapana. Has Daudi eaten beans? No. he hasn't eaten yet* kwisha Chumvi imekvisha? Hapana. it isn't all gone yet. Sitaendelea. utakuwa ukiishi Kenya? After this year will you (sg.) be living in Kenya? 3c A.O Baada ya mwaka huu. Will you continue with your 280 studies? Hosted for free on livelingua. wewe? Baada ya mwaka huu. Me-tense. hajaanza bado. he hasn't gone back yet* kvanza Daudi ameanza kusoma? Hapana. he hasn't begun yet* kumaliza Daudi amemaliza kusoma? Hapana.com No. hajarudi bado. wewe Utaendelea katika masomo? Hap>ana. affirmative vs. we will not have a chance. negative* kurudi Daudi amerudi nyumbani? Hapana. Has Daudi finished reading? No. ninyi Mtapata nafasi ya kutuamkia? Will you (pi. Sitapata nafasi. Hatutapata nafasi. negative* Utapata nafasi ya kutuamkia? Will you have a chance to come to see us? No. haijaisha bado* Is the salt all gone? No.) be living in Kenya? nj ryi? Baada ya mwaka huu. he hasn't finished yet* kul a Daudi amekula maharagwe? Hapana. affirmative vs.) have a chance to come to see us? No.UNIT 56 SWAHILI BASIC COURSE UNIT 56 WP. watakuwa wakiishi Kenya. I will not have a chance. Has Daudi begun reading? No. After this year they will be living in Kenya. hajamaliza bado. I will not continue* . Hapana. hajala bado. Has Daudi gone back heme? No. B» wewe Ta-tense. mtakuwa mkiishi Kenya? After this year will you (pi.

sitalipa. wewe Utalipa vitu hivyo? Will you (pi. (or: Sitavilipa) ninyi Utalipa vitu hivyo? Hapana. hatutaendelea. we will not pay for them. 280 Hosted for free on livelingua. No. Will you (pi. hatutalipa.) continue with your studies? No. we will not continue.com .) pay for those things? No. I will not pay for them. Will you pay for those things? Hapana.UNIT 56 ninyi SWAHILI Mtaendelea katika masomo? Hapana.

Yes. significance. Ningefurahi sana.0 return here? Magese Ndiyo. because I've already been promised that I'll be moved. maana nimekwisha ahidiwa kwamba nitahamishwa. because -ahidi to promise kwamba that ('saying') -hama to move from one place to another Sidhani. .Unit_57 Basic Dialogue. Mirambo -kosa Asante sana. Arid please don't fail to come on [that] Wednesday [that we talked about]. I don't think so. I would be very happy. Mirambo ungependa Unadhani ungependa kurudi hapa? you would like Do you think yon would like ". Where will you go after your leave? Mirambo -rudishwa to be caused to return Unadhani utarudishva tena hapa? Do you think you will be sent back here? Napese maana meaning. Na tafadhali usikose kuja siku hiyo ya Jumatanol to lack. err Thanks very much.

Notes A. mashariki Mwaka We moved from the east last year. Statements in indirect discourse* Unadhani kvamba utarudishwa? j Unadhani kuwa utarudishwa? \ Do you think you will be returned? Unadhani utarudishwa? | These three sentences are freely interchangeable with one another* That is. Serikali ilituhamisha Apaka Tanga. kaskazini Mwaka jana kaskazini* kusini Mwaka jana We moved from the south last year. kijiji kidogo Serikali ilituhamisha mpaka kijiji kidogo. We moved from the west last year* jana tulihama (kutoka) tulihama (kutoka) mashariki* magharibi Mwaka jana magharibi. The government moved us to Tanga. tulihama (kutoka) kusini. a statement in indirect discourse may follow the preceding verb directly. B. Tanga -hamisha. or it may be introduced by kuwa or kwamba. A* -hama. Mbeya Mwaka jana tulihama (kutoka) We moved from Mbeya last year* tulihama (kutoka) We moved from the north last year* Mbeya. mji mpya Serikali ilituhamisha Apaka Aji Apya. The government moved us to a new town* The government moved us to a small village* .

kuja Msikose kuja siku ya Jamatano* Don't fail to come on Wednesday* kua&kia Msikose kuwaamkia wazazi Don't fail to welcome your parents. Nitaitayarisha sasa hivi. Mwaka huu tumekosa nazi*. •-kosa plus noun* Mwaka huu tumekosa mvua. Nitakitayarisha sasa hivi. UNIT 57 The government moved us to a different district. Nguo tayari? nguo Hapana. kuendelea % Msikose kuendelea katika kazi yenu* mvua Don't fail to read this letter* Don't fail to return all the saucers* Don't fail to continue with your work. kurudisha % Msikose kurudisha visahani vyote. C0 --kosa plus infinitive. We have been short of rain this year. mboga Is the dress ready? No. matunda We have been short of coconuts this year. We have been short of fruit this year* D. wenu* kuscma Msikose kusoma barua hii. Mwaka huu tumekosa matunda* We have be9n short of vegetables this year.com . ta5 Hosted for free on livelingua. I will prepare it right away. Adjective vs* related causative chakula Chakula tayari? ' Hapana. A. stem* nazi Is the food ready? Mwaka huu tumekosa mboga* No. I will get it ready right away.BASIC COURSE jimbo jingine Serikali ilituhamisha mpaka jimbo jingine.

sasa. I will clean them now. No. I will get it ready right sasa hivi. vikombe Vikombe vyote ni safi? Hapana. causative plus passive. They have been returned already. Causative vs. vyombo Rudisha vyonibo nyumbani Return the utensils to the house sasa. Nitaitayarisha sasa hivi. I will clean them now. 6. I will get it ready right sasa hivi. Ng'onbe tayari? Hapana* Nita&tayarisha Is the cow ready? No. Nani amevimdisha? njugu maharagwe Who has returned them? muhogo Unit_58 ta5 Hosted for free on livelingua. Nitavisafisha Are all the cups clean? No. Vimekwisha rudishwa tayari.BASIC COURSE k&hawa Kahawa tayari? uji Is the coffee ready? Hapana.com . away. Vimekwisha rudishwa tayari. sasa. Nani amevirudisha? vitunguu Who returned them? Return the onions to the house now Rudisha vitunguu nyumbani sasa. Uji tayari? Hapana. ng'onbe UNIT 57 away. vyorabo Vyonibo vyote ni safi? Hapana. They have been returned already. Nitavisafisha Are all the dishes clean? No. Nitautayarisha Is the gruel ready? No. now. sahani bilauri taa C. I will get it ready right away.

fever. Alipata dawa ya vidonge. ta5 Hosted for free on livelingua. Why didn't you come to see us? Mirambo mbona? why? Mbona hukuja siku ile ya Jumatano? Why didn't you come that Wednesday? Magese -sikitika to be sorry heme (N) fever Ah I Nasikitika sana. Mke wangu Oh. she got some pills and also was na pia alipigwa sindano.BASIC COURSE UNIT 57 1« Basic Dialogue. Yes. I'm very sorry.com . given a shot. pills “pig* to hit sindano (N) needle -pigwa sindano to get an injection Ndiyo. but I think it is malaria. malaria. tty wife got a alipata homa. Mirambo Hama gani? What kind of fever? Magese Sijui kwa hakika. Mirambo Ulimpeleka hospital!? Did you take her to the hospital? Magese kidonge (VI) tablet. lakini nadhani ni I'm not sure.

Sangai has twelve coconuts. mananasi kumi na mawili twelve pineapples watoto kumi na vawili twelve children In numeral phrases which end with the numbers 1 .wanne. ^ Mkewe ana nguo kumi na nne nguo samaki Mkewe ana samaki kumi na facie. Bwana Sangai ana watoto watoto Mr.. Sangai has twelve cows. B. the word for 1 .5> or 8. wawili.com .5 or 8 must agree concordially with the noun to which the whole phrase refers. Concord: Nouns with number over Bwana Sangai ana ng'ombe kumi na Mr. Bwana Sangai ana mikate raikate Mr. ta5 Hosted for free on livelingua. % sahani Mkewe ana sahani kumi na fine. mananasi Bwana Sangai ana mananasi kumi na Mr. mbili. kumi na wawili. vikombe Mkewe ana vikombe kumi na His wife has fourteen cups. (or:.) His wife has fourteen dresses His wife has fourteen fish. kumi na miwili. mawili. ng'ombe ten. The first numeral in the phrase (kumi 'ten' in these examples) takes no concordial prefixes. Sangai has twelve children.BASIC COURSE UNIT 57 Notes A• Concordial agreement involving numeral phrases. vinne.. Sangai has twelve loaves. % His wife has fourteen plates. Bwana Sangai ana nazi kumi na nazi Mr. Sangai has twelve pineapples. A.

BASIC COURSE sindano Mkewe ana sindano kumi na UNIT 58 His wife has fourteen needles* nne* rafiki Mkewe ana rafiki kumi na His wife has fourteen friends* wanne. vidonge % vidonge kumi na Mkewe ana His wife has fourteen pills* vinne.com . 3. Devise short conversations giving ten different reasons why Mirambo didn't go to see Sangai on Wednesday* 889 Hosted for free on livelingua.

become visible Today she seems to be a little better. narana (N) When you left today.) I think it was here.com . kwa sababu hakuna Abu many mosquitoes there in Mbeya. hali yaka ilikuwa naAna Magese gani? to seem.1 ) Mirambo -ambukiza ugonjwa (U) to infect illness ' Do you think that she caught the disease there in Unadhani ameanbukizwa ugonjwa huo Mbeya. what was her condition like? Ulipoondoka leo. sort naAna. (•Today she -onekana Leo anaonekana hajambo kidogo.UNIT 59 SWAHILI Unit_59 i« Basic Dialogue* Is your wife feeling better? Mirambo ulipoondoka hali (N) when you left condition kind. seems she has no trouble a little. or here? huko Mbeya au hapa? Magese mosquitoes Abu (N-anim. because there aren't Nadhani ni hapa. appear. wengi huko Mbeya* 230 Hosted for free on livelingua.

-onekana* machungwa Hali ya machungwa haya ni What is the condition of these na&na gani? “bichi oranges? Yanaonekana mabichi sana.is considered more standard than the form with -tago-. uliondoka ulipoondoka you left utarawona utapomwona when you left see utakaponwona you will him when you see him The relative prefix -go. *31 Hosted for free on livelingua.BASIC COURSE UNIT 59 Notes A* -go. They look very unripe. There are no beans in the market* pilipili samaki nasi B* One use of namna. It stands between the tense prefix and the object prefix.is commonly used as an equivalent for the ‘when’ of an English adverbial clause.com . but both are widely used* 2* A* Huko with locative* vitunguu Hakuna vitunguu huko sokcni* There are no onions in the market* raaharagwe Hakuna maharagwe huko sokoni. ugonjwa What was the condition of his sickness? Hali ya ugonjwa wake What was the condition of his fever? ilikuwa namna gani? homa Hali ya horoa yake ilikuwa naAna gani? mguu watoto motokaa kazi jamaa 3* A* Concord. The form with -takago.as 81X1 ®<3hivalent for 'when.

Nilisikia gari la moshi. I finished working. What is the condition of these onions? They look very spoiled. nyumbani. When I saw the motor car. I left the house. What is the condition of this food? It looks very delicious. . niliondoka ~baya They look very bad. I heard a train. What is the condition of these nuts? They look very spoiled. mahindi Hali ya chakula hiki ni namna gani? Kinaonekana kizuri sana. Nilipomaliza kazi. Hali ya nguruwe hawa ni namna nguniwe gani? What is the condition of these cows? They look very good. Verb forms with -go-. ~zurl vitunguu Nilimaliza kazi. What is the condition of these pigs? Wanaonekana wabaya sana* "baya Hali ya njugu hizi ni namna gani? njugu Zinaonekana mbovu sana. B. When I heard the train. kumaliza Niliona motakaa. I saw a motor car. I left the house. ~bichi chakula Hali ya vitunguu hivi ni namna gani? Vinaonekana vibaya sana. Hali ya mahindi haya ni na&na gani? "bovu Yanaonekana mabichi sana. niliondoka nyumbani. It looks very unripe.ng' omb« “zuri Hali ya ng'ombe hawa ni naAna gani? Wanaonekana wazurl sana. Niliposikia kuona kusikia gari la moshi. niliondoka nyumbani. What is the condition of this maize. I left the house. When I finished work. Nilipoona motakaa.

Nilipopata taa na niliondoka nyumbani. kupata Nilipata taa na mafuta. I left the house. . mafuta. When I got the lamp and oil.I got a lamp and oil.

Mutisya Umevapeleka hospital!? Have you taken them to the hospital? Hamisi -shughulika to be busy Bado sijawapeleka. Mutisjra Watoto wako hawajambo? Are your children all right? Hamisi -kohoa Hawajambo. to cough They're all right.Unit_6o 1. Basic Dialogue. but they have light coughs. kva sababu I haven't taken them yet because ninashughulika na ugonjwa wa I'm kept buy ('I'm busied') with mama yao. huoni ingefaa kuwapeleka hospital! pamoja na mama yao? hospital along with their mother? to be suitable But don't you think it would be a good idea to take them to the . Mutisya -faa Je. the illness of their mother. lakini wanakohoakohoa. The children have coughs.

com . 2 235 Hosted for free on livelingua. pole. The verb -faa with subject prefix i.. -salimia to convey regards to *3i» Notes A. kuelewa Itafaa kuelewa mambo haya yote. The phrase -pa pole. A. ) Ingefaa kuwapeleka nyumbani.is followed by an infinitive. wape Hamisi "pole Ndiyo. It will be a good thing to explain about all these affairs. There is no noun subject 'implied' for the verbs in these sentences] the N-class prefix with -faa is said to be used Condole with them* 'impersonally.' or 'it is a good idea to. kueleza Itafaa kueleza mambo haya yote. -faa with 'impersonal prefix. na unisalimie na kuwapa (or t. B..-pa BASIC COURSE to give give to UNIT 60 them kind. and Mutisya my condolences. The translation is usually 'it is/will be/would be suitable to. Wamekuja kutupa pole. Wape pole. (fail) I think Don't toI'll do do it. nadhani nitafanya hivyo.. It will be a good thing to take all this medicine. so.*'.. -faa plus infinitive.' Itafaa kuwasaidia* | Itafaa tuwasaidie.. and convey my regards. gentle Yes. kula Itafaa kula dawa hii yote.' They have ccane to condole with us. It will be a good idea to help them. Usikose kufanya hayo. wape). It will be a good thing to understand all these affairs. . It would be a good idea to take them home. or by the subjunctive..

UNIT 60 SWAHILI kusafisha Itafaa kusafisha vyombo hivi vyote.com . It will be a good thing to clean all these utensils* 83* Hosted for free on livelingua.

kupeleka Umewapeleka watoto hospitalini? Bado sijawapeleka. mengine? He hasn't lit itgotten yet# you any yet# kutia kuuza kupatia B. Me-tense: affirmative vs. hasn't given them any yet# our na baba yetu. nouns vs. Tulikwenda pwani pamoja na wazazi We went to the beach together with our brother. negative. Tulikwenda pwani pamoja Tulikwenda pwani pamoja Tulikwenda pwani pamoja na rafiki yetu* Apishi We went to the beach together with our cook* Apishi wetu* Tulikvrenda pwani pamoja na wazazi wetu. He hasn't prepared any cleaned itput yet# % mchana? yet* you gotten me seme matches? UNIT Mpishi mafuta amenunua mafuta Umetia katika taa? BASIC COURSE Has Have the cook lit the lamp? Bado hajatayarisha. We went to the beach together with our friend. Give our regards to your brother* watoto Tusaliirde watoto wako. Bado hajawapa. c. kufuta TSaepangusa maji? (or: Umefuta maji?) Have you taken the children to the hospital? I haven't taken them yet* Have you wiped up the water? Conversation Starters 237 Hosted for free on livelingua. baba Itafaa mboga hizi Badokuuza hajanunua. WA. Give our regards to your friend* 3* A. Umenipatia viberiti? zote • Mpishi watoto Badoamewapa sijakupatia* ItHas willthe becook a good thingany to sell alloil? these bought more vegetables* % Akate? Pamoja na. ndugu He hasn't bought any yet# We went to the beach together with our parents* -sal ini a. or: amesafisha jiko? Bado Mpishi taa? Bado Apishi ametayarisha chakula cha Sijafuta.com 60 . hajawasha. hajasafisha. Have I the haven't you put wiped oil initthe yet# lamp? prepared food for theHe day? (or: Has cook cleaned the kitchen? hasn't I haven't it in yet# the midday meal?). I haven't Bado sijayatia. na ndugu yetu* rafiki We to thegiven beachthetogether Haswent the cook childrenwith acme bread? He father. kutayarisha Badoamewasha sijapangusa.kusafisha kununua kuwasha kupa B. Give our regards to your children* rafiki Tusalimie rafiki yako. N-pers onal nouns* wazazi Tusalimie wazazi wako* Give our regards to your parents* baba Tusalimie baba yako* Give our regards to your father* ndugu T’jsalimie ndugu yako.

Lugha ya Kiawahili inasemwa na kila Atu hata Wazungu. nguo. pilipili na muhogo wa Bagamoyo* Unajua vakullma va Bagamoyo hupanda sana muhogo. Jumba lake zuri liko karibu na pwani. lakini vote husema Kisw&hili. machungwa ya Utete na Morogoro. pia ni mji Akuu wa serlkali* Kuna watu wa makabila mbalimbali.BASIC COURSE 1 # A went UNIT to see C on Thursday. kuna bahari. kwa hivyo hupenda kuuza mazao yao katika soko hill maarufu* kuliko mbalimbali 'than' 'various' kama vile gavana (N-pers*) 'for example' ’governor' kila •each' kama 'as* bahari (N) 'sea. vycnbo vya nyumbani. na roengineyo. Bahari hii huitya Bahari ya Hindi* Katika sehemu ya magharibi ya Aji kuna niajumba maarufu ya shughuli mbalimbali. Pia ofisi za idara za serikali ziko karibu na pwani* Wakati va Achana vatu huva vengi katika hotel!* Wengine huenda kula chakula.com 60 . pia vingine vinauzva rahisi* Soko liko katikati ya Aji vile vile* Huko kunapatikana samaki va baharini. shule. easy' vile vile 'also' 238 Hosted for free on livelingua. bcma. vitunguu. na wengine hupenda kunyva kinywaji tu kama soda au maji ya machungwa* Katika hotel! vyakula vingi huuzva* Katikati ya Aji kuna maduka makubwa na madogo* Maduka haya yanauza vyakula. hospital!. He seeks advice from B# READING SELECTION I Dar as Salaam Dar as Salaam ni mji Akubwa kuliko yote Achini Tanganyika. Wahindi na Waarabu* Upande va mashariki ya Dar. He tells B what C and the various members of C's household were doing when he got there# a# A is debating whether to take his child to the hospital. kama vile. ocean' katikati (N) 'in the midst' hata jumba (MA) 'even' 'building' duka (MA) aina (N) 'shop' 'kind' maarufu 'famous' ghali 'expensive' shughuli (N) 'business' rahisi 'cheap. na vingine vya aina mbali mbali* Vingine vinauzva ghali kuliko vingine. Bwana Gavana ni Atu Akubva na maarufu sana Ajini.

venglne huenda kunyva kinyvaji tu. 8« Kuna nini katika sehemu ya magharibl ya Aji? 9» Jumba la Bwana Gavana llko wapi? Llko karibu ya pwani. Lugha hli lnasemwa na klla Atu. huwa wengi. Hapana. ya pwani? 12» Watu huwa wachache katika hoteli? 13* Watu vote huenda hoteli kula chakula? 1 U* Vyakula huuzva katika hoteli? Ndiyo. Katika Aji wa Dar es Salaam. io. Bwana Gavana. ni Akubwa kuliko ndji yote richini. kuna makabila mengi mbalimbali. Hapana. Ndlyo. bwana. moja tu? U. 263 Hosted for free on livelingua.BASIC COURSE UNIT *3« Questions and Answers over Reading Selection Questions Sample Answers 1• Car es Salaam ni Aji Akubwa? Hapana. 5« Kiswahili kinasemwa na watu wengi wa Dar es Salaam? Kuna bahari. 6. Vyakula vingi huuzwa katika hoteli• Ni Dar es Salaam. Kuna majumba mbalimbali. 2■ Mji Akuu wa serikali ya Tanganyika ni Aji gani? 3.com 60 . 11 « tttu ganl ni Akubwa Ajini? Kuna ma jumba ganl inengine karibu Kuna ofisi za idara za serikali. Kuna nini upande wa masharikl wa Dar? 7» Bah&ri hli huitwaje? Baharl hli hultva Bahari ya Hindi. kuna kabila Husema zaidi Kiswahili. Watu vote wa Dar es Salaam husema lugha gani? Ndlyo.

Soko liko karibu na pwanil Ndiyo. La. Hosted for free on livelingua. Aji? 16« Maduka haya yanauza nlni? Mengine yanauza nguo na vyombo vya nyumbani.com . liko katikati ya Aji. na mengine yanauza vyakula 17« Vingine vlnauzwa ghali? 18. Kuna wakubva na madogo pia.UNIT 264 SWAHILI 15» Kuna maduka makubwa katikati ya Ndiyo. lakini pia vingine ni rahisi.

money.i tutakwenda kuwatazama jamaa zetu# 6.UNIT 265 SWAHILI 2U0 Review Sentences. brother. Afadhali uondoke sasa usilikose You'd better leave now so as not to miss the train. but I think he will come this evening. usikate tamaa. we will go visit our Una nguo za aina ngapi? 5. iwashe taa sasa* Don't give up.60 1. I would be very glad if you would come here* 13* Sijui kwa hakika. 11.com al*i . Ukija leo jior. will they come tomorrow? Mungu atakusaidia. I will visit my brother. Hew many kinds of clothes do you have? Una taka kupuntzika sasa? If you come this evening. Although I didn't come yesterdayj I got the news. If they get a chance. Unaweza kusoma na kuardika? 7. gari la moshi• 2. 16* Itafaa sana uiftpe pesa zake* Hosted for free on livelingua. Watapewa chakula na mama yao. Nina tamaa ya kunywa pcmbe kidogo. watakuja kesho? 15. Nikipata pesa za kutosha relatives* Can you read and write? If I get enough money. lakini nadhani atakuja leo It would be a very good idea for you to give him his jioni. 8. Juma. They will be given food by their mother Don't hurt yourself with that knife* nitamtembelea ndugu yangu. Ijapokuwa sikuja jana nilizipata Do you went to rest now? habari. Ningefurahi sana karoa ungekuja hapa. God will help you. 12. Usijiumize kwa kisu hicho. U. Ndugu yangu. I feel like drinking a little beer. Units i . io» Juma. 9. 3. I don't know for sure. light the lamp new. iU« Wakipata nafasi.

Jfy two children have light coughs. Itanilazimu kvenda Dodoma kumwona rafiki yangu. He has dropped the cups.UNIT 266 SWAHILI 17. Those cooks were eating meat. 20. The child doesn't want any milk at all. I'll go see the doctor. Miguu yangu yauma aana. 34. they read some books. sahani pia zimevunjika? Were the plates broken too? 23. His clothes were very dirty. Get me the dishes. . The city of Nairobi is between Moshi and Kisumu. Baada ya kufika walisoma vitabu. Please lend me your bicycle. Nguo zake zilikuwa chafu sana. All the cups are broken. Vimevunjva na mtoto. 24» Mtoto hataki maziwa hata kidogo. Nisaidie kwa baiskeli yako. 19* Vikombe vyote vimevunjika. They were broken by a child. 27. 29. Ikl Hosted for free on livelingua. 30. I'll be back in a few days. 33. chache. Ify. 26.com . 25» After arriving. Watoto wangu wawili wanakohoakohoa 35. 32. tafadhali. nitarudi baada ya siku Good bye. 21« Ameangusha vikombe chini. Please give ray regards to Hasani if you see him. Tafadhali unisalimie Hasani ukimwona. Nitakwenda kumwona bwana daktari.feet hurt very much. Akirudisha vitabu mpe barua hii. I am sorry because of what has happened. When he returns the books. Kwa heri. 16« Mji wa Nairobi uko kati ya Moshi na Kisumu. Nipatie vyombo vya kupakulia. 31. I will have to go to Dodoma to see my friend. 22* Je. Wapishi hao walikuwa vakila nyama. 28» Nasikitika kwa sababu ya hayo yaliyotokea. give him this letter.

UNIT 267

SWAHILI

Maybe they (N plu.) will be returned to the house

36* Pengine zitarudishwa nyumbani kesho,

tomorrow*

37* Leo asubuhi nitatengeneza motakaa yangu*
38*

This morning I will repair my car.

Habari za nyumbani, wots hawajambo?

39* Hawajambo, asante.

How’s everything at home? Is everyone all right?

4o. Mume vangu ameambukizwa ugonjwa va

They’re fine, thank you.

malaria.

husband has contracted malaria.

•to
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UNIT 268

SWAHILI

Unit 61
1» Basic Dialogue* I don't feel too well*
Ahamed
teacher

mwalimu (WA)

Please, teacher, I'm ill*

Tafadhali, irwalimu, naurawa. (or:...,
oimi ni mgonjwa.)

Magese
Wewe mgonjwa? Waumwa nini?

Are you ill? What are you suffering from?
shingo (HA) jino (MAJneck
plu. meno)

tooth

Kichwa, shingo na meno*
[My] head, neck and teeth*

mafua (or: karnasi)
Pengine una mafua?

cold in the head Maybe you

have a cold?
Ahamed

pua (N) sawa
nose
Hapana, kwa sababu
sawa. I'm
like,ninapumua
equal, levelsawa
No, because
breathing all right*

Ahamed

Magese
tabibu (MA-pers)

doctor

(or: daktari, mganga)
Jitayarishe, tutakwenda kwa tabibu* Get yourself readyj we will go to the
doctor#

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UNIT 269

2

SWAHILI

.
A. WA nouns vs. N-personal nouns.
Many of our children have toothaches.

watoto Watoto wetu wengi waumwa meno.

Many of our teachers have toothaches.

walimu Walimu wetu wengi waumwa meno.
ndugu

Many of our brothers have toothaches.

Ndugu zetu wengi waumwa

Many of our friends have toothaches.

meno.
rafiki

Rafiki zetu wengi waumwa
meno.

3.
A. -a plus infinitive; personal object
watoto

mtoto

Hakura mtu wa kuwafunza

There is no one to teach the children

watoto hesabu.

arithmetic.

Wafunze hesabu.

Teach them arithmetic.

Hakuna mtu wa kumfunza

There is no one to teach the child arithmetic.

mtoto hesabu.

Teach him arithmetic.

Afunze hesabu.
mimi

Hakuna mtu wa

There is no one to teach me arithmetic.
kunifunza

hesabu.

Teach me arithmetic.

*

Nifunze hesabu.
prefixes.
B. Concord: Noun in first sentence, object prefix in second; adjective
vs. related causative verb.
mmmt

nguo

Nguo si tayari.
Nitazitayarisha

raimea

Mimea si tayari.
Nitaitayarisha.

mayai
Mayai si tayari.
Nitayatayarl sha•
The dresses aren't ready.
I will get them ready.

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UNIT 270

SWAHILI

The plants aren't ready.
I will get them ready.
The eggs aren't ready.
I will get them ready.

*k5
uji

Uji si tayari.
Nitautayarisha,

miai

Miad si tayari,
Nitajitayarisha•

C. Object prefixes, including the

The porridge isn't ready,
I will get it ready,
I am not ready,
I will get ready,
reflexiye -£i-.

watoto

Watoto ni wagonJwa,
Baba hawezi kuwasaidia,

The children are sick.
Father can't help them,

Hamisi

Hamisi ni Agonjwa,

Hamisi is sick.

Baba hawezi kumsaidia,
ng'onbe

Ng'oobe ni Agon jwa.
Baba hawezi ku&saidia,

baba

Baba ni Agonjwa,
Hawezi kujisaidia,

Father can't help him.
The cow is sick.
Father can't help it.
Father is sick.
He can't help himself.

D, Verb phrases with -wa,
ninyi

Mlikuwa AkLumwa shingo?
Hapana, hatukuwa tuklumwa

Did you hare stiff necks?
No, we didn't have stiff necks.

shingo,
Tulikuwa tukiumwa kichwa,
wewe

Ulikuwa ukiumwa shingo?
Hapana, sikuwa nikiumwa shingo,

We had headaches.
Did you have a stiff neck?
No, I didn't have a stiff neck,

Nilikuwa nikiumwa kichwa, rafiki
yako rafiki zako

I had a headache.

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UNIT 271

SWAHILI

2fc6

UNIT 6 z

BASIC COURSE

Unit 6 a

Basic Dialogue# You've hurt your fingeri
Sangai
kidole (VI)

finger

damu (N)

blood

Kidole chako chatoka daimil

There is blood coining from your
fingerl ('your finger is comingfrom blood')

Je uliumia?

Are you hurt?
Mutisym

-jeruhi

to bruise, wound

mlango (MI)

door

Ndiyo, bwana, nilijeruhiwa na mlango. Yes, I was bruised by a door#
Sangai Yes, yesterday a little pus came out
Ndiyo, jane kilitoka usaha kidogo.
[of it] ('out of it a little')•
swell

-vimba
Hata kimevimba sana#
mshipa (MI)
usaha (U)

Natumaini mlshipa salaraa#

Sangai
Mutisya

It is even swollen quite a bit#
vein, artery (or any thin,
elongated tissue, such as a
pus
nerve or tendon)
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on
I hopeforthe
blood
livelingua.com

vessels are all right#

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Mutisja
-pona

to recover from illness or injury

Kitapona tu, asante•

Oh, it will get better, thanks*

Notes
A* Grammatical subject ys. logical subject*
Kidole chake kilitoka damu. Damu

Some blood came out of his finger*

ilitoka kidoleni mwake*

These two sentences are synonymous* Note that the verb stem remains the same. The subject prefix
agrees with whichever noun precedes it*
2*

A* MI-class with numbers 2 -1 2 *

a

Jumba hilo lina milango miwili*

That large building has two doors* That large

3

Jumba hilo lina milango ndtatu*

building has three doors* 1 0

k5
6
7
8
11 Jumba hilo lina milango kumi

9

That large building has eleven doors*
That large building has twelve doors*

na moja*
12

Jumba hilo lina milango kumi

I am hurt on one finger*

na miwili,

I am hurt on two fingers*

B* Vl-class with numbers 1 - io*
1

Nimejeruhiwa kidole

kimoja.

2

Nimejeruhiwa vidole

viwili,

U

Nimejeruhiwa vidole

vinrie.

5

Nimejeruhiwa vidole

vitano*

7

Nimejeruhiwa vidole

saba,

I am hurt on four fingers*
I am hurt on five fingers*
I am hurt on seven fingers*

2k8

% Mguu wake ulitoka damu. His finger is discharging a little pus. His nose is bleeding a little. pua 3. Pua yake ilitoka damu. kidole Interchange of grammatical and logical subjects with -toka.damu kidogo. from logical subject. Damu ilitoka kidoleni mwake. Damu ilitoka puani mwake. Kidole chake kinatoka damu kidogo. U. I am hurt on nine fingers. C. Shingo lake lilitoka damu. Pua yake inatoka damu kidogo. Kidole chake kinatoka usaha kidogo. Grammatical subject which is 9 I different. tells B about them. The ly. His Damu ilitoka shingoni mwake. His Damu ilitoka mguuni mwake. Unit_63 . nose bled. yake inatoka damu His blood vessels are bleeding a little. B inquires about details and expresses sympathy. pua His foot bled.Nimejeruhiwa vidole tisa. Kichwa chake kilitoka damu. kichwa His nose bled. mishipa Kiship?. finger bled. A. His Damu ilitoka kichwani mwake. members of A's family have been having all He kinds of misfortunes recent- His neck bled. His neck bled. Kidole chake kilitoka damu. head bled. mguu His finger bled. shingo His head bled. mguu His foot is bleeding a little. kidogo. Mguu wake unatoka. I am hurt on ten fingers. damu His finger is bleeding a little. His foot bled. 10 Nimejeruhiwa vidole kumi.

and we will converse* Notes A* Plural imperative* Zitayarishe sasa hivil Zitayariahaai sasa hivil Get then ready right now. (more than one) Njoo nyvunbaniJ NJooni nyumbanij . down Please go sit down* in N class) page Tazameni ukurasa wa kuni na mbili* Look at page 12* -ongea to converse to -funga kitabu (VI) close book Sasa fungeni vitabu vyenu tuongee Now close your books. nimechelewa. (said to more than one person) Come to the house.i « Basic Dialogue* Late to class* Ahamed -chelewa to be late. delay. (one person) Come to the house. I'm sorry* I'm late* Magese neno word Si neno* Tumeanza sasa hivi* No natter* We've Just now begun* -kaa kitako to sit Tafadhali nenda ukakae kitako* ukurasa (U) (plu. (said to one person) G3t them ready right now. be too long NasikLtika.

C. Kitabu hiki kina kurasa book you late to come to church? Don't delay in returning home. eleven pages. Kitabu hiki kina ukurasa mmoja tu. kuwasha kuletea Usichelewe kuwasha taa. Don't delay in welcoming the elders. but kitako is regarded as redundant and somewhat vulgar on the Kenya coast. N-class with numbers. -chelewa plus infinitive. from the verb -£h]j£]i 'to cause loss or damage'. C. Other expressions for Si neno. tatu. kutayarisha Usichelewe kutayarisha chakula. This book has two pages. darasa Kwa nini ulichelewa kuja Why were you late to [come] to class? Why were darasani? kanisa Kwa nini ulichelewa kuja kanisani? shule chakula B. This has three pages. ’Sitting down. B. we found that Swahili speakers who worked on or criticized the manuscript displayed an unusual lack of unanimity with regard to ’sitting down'. 'It is nothing. 2 . In that edition. Negative imperative. kurudi Usichelewe kurudi nyumbani! kufanya Usichelewe kufanya kazi yako. one more frequently hears Si kitu (lit. Don't delay in bringing us coffee. In place of Si neno. This book has only one page.') or haidhuru. 1 2 3 11 Usichelewe kutuletea kahawa. A. Kitabu hiki kina kurasa kurni This book has na moja. we said that *-kaa kitako is commonly used in Zanzibar and Tanganyika. Kitabu hiki kina kurasa mbili. Don't delay in preparing food. and that 'sit (on the ground)' is either -kaa kitako or -kaa chini. . Don't delay in doing your work.’ Later critics have suggested that 'sit (on a chair)' is -kaa kiti. kuamkia Usichelewe kuwaamkia wazee. Don't delay in lignting the lamp.' In preparing the original edition of this course.The plural imperative in Swahili ends with The preceding vowel is -e for those verbs whose singular imperative ends in -a.

Negative -£a-. Haven't you come here yeti Come right away. ishirini na mbili. plural kutayarisha Bado hamjawatayarisha watotoi VJatajiarisheni sasa hivij kumaliza Bado hamjamaliza kufanya kazi yenui Malizeni sasa hivii kuenda Bado haiujaenda ryumhanii Nendeni sasa hivii kula hivii kupa Finish it ^ight away. Haven't you started learning yeti Star! right away. imperative. 23 Kitabu kurasa ishirini na tatu. kina This book has twelve pages. 22 Kitabu kurasa twenty-three pages.s book has ishirini na moja. This book has twenty-two pages. 21 Kitabu kurasa hiki kina hiki kina hiki kina pages.UNIT 63 12 Kitabu kurasa hiki kumi na mbili. . This book has twenty-one na tatu. 3« A. Haven't you got the children ready yeti Get them ready right now. Bado hamjaja hapai Njooni sasa Bado hamjawapa watoto vitabui Waperi sasa hivii kvar. Haven't you gone hone yeti Go right away.tense vs. i 13 Kitabu kurasa hiki kumi kina This book has thirteen pages. Thi.za Haven't you finished doing your work yeti Bado hamjaanza kujifunzai Anzeni sasa hivii Haven't you given the children books yeti Give [them to] them right away.

Make some coffee. negative. Read some of the books. 254 Hosted for free on livelingua.'t clean them all. Lete maji. kula Ner. usivilete Bring soma of the books. Clean some of the books. Leteni rnaji. Soma vitabu vtr. Imperatives: singular vs. Sell seme books. Bring some water. kutengeneza Tengeneza kahawa.gine j usivisome kusafisha Bon't buy them.) kupata Get the lamp* (you pi. chai hii. Eat these bananas. Nendeni Go to school.BASIC COURSE UNIT 63 Haven't you learned ho** to read yet? Learn right Kula ndizi hizi. Kuryveni Brink this tea. Tengenezeni kahawa. usivisaf i she v y c t e . away. (jrou sing. Kunyva chai hii. Nunua vitabu vingire . Bon't ku son's read them all. Oneni farasi. Bon't vyote. kuenda Go to school. shuleni. kujifunza Bado hamjajifunza kuscana? Jif’irzeni sasa hivil B. kvor. plural. Make some coffee. vyote.da shuleni. Bor. ueivinunue kuuza > bring them all. kuleta Imieratives: affirmative vs.com . Get the lamp. kunyva Brink this tea. Eat these bananas. Bon't sell them all. Look at the horse. Uza vitabu vingire j uaiviuze vyote. Ora far?si. vyote. Pateni taa. C. Lete vitabu vingine. kuleta Bring seme water.a Look at the horse. Safishe vitabu vingine5 kununua Buy some books. all.) Fata taa. Kuleni ndizi hizi.

Butler.with subjunctives* Funua kit-abu uscme Soir. please go to the blackboard and write these words. Mr. Nenda ubaoni ukaandike maneno haya.o la Nane* Open [your] book and read Lesson Eight. Aramian. The prefix -ka. nenda ubaoni ukaandike maneno haya. Lessor Nine* kosa (KA) Msifanye makosa mkisoma.Unit_64 i« Basic Dialogue* Classroom Routine* ubao (U) blackboard Tafadhali. Magese Magese Bwana Butler. a mistake Don't make mistakes as you readl ( ' d o n ' t make mistakes you-reading') Notes A. please begin to read* Basil maana (MA) Unajua maana ya neno 'alasiri'? That's enough* meaning Do you know the meaning of the word 'alasiri'? Magese -funua to open Sasa tufunue vitabu tusome Somo la Now let's open [our] books and read Tisa. Bwana Aramian. tafadhali anza kusoma* Mr. Go to the board and write these words# .

If the first verb involves going somewhere. kuandika Njoo ubaoni uandike maneno Come and help the teacher. the second is in the subjunctive. Nenda ubaoni ukaandike Go to the board and write these maneno haya. nazi. c. infinitive# senti zako zote. Go to the board and explair the meaning of these words. Go and help the teacher. change. words. Subjunctive without -ka. vitabu vitu •l Nenda nyumbani ukalete A. ukaseme kusema Go to the market and buy coconuts. Go to the market and bring coconuts Go to the board and speak (•pronounce*) these words# maneno haya# kutafuta Nendeni sokoni mkatafute nazi. kusaidia Njoo umsaidie vitu vyako vyote# Nenda ukamsaidie mwalinru. Go to the board read these words. machungwa When did Juma begin eating? kula Juma alianza lini kula? rnasomo Nenda nyumbani ukalete Go home and bring all your lessons.is used after the subject prefix of the second verb# nguo Nenda nyumbani ukalete Go home and bring all your clothes. persons. Come to the board and write these haya. at and the coconuts. -anza pi . > . C-o home and bring all your books. vitabu vyako vyote. 2# senti Nenda nyumbani ukalete Go home and bring all your small A. Go hone and bring all your things# Nenda nyumbani 'lkalete mwalimu.after -anda. Go to the market and look for coconuts. Word order with lini. the prefix -ka. nguo zako zote. sokoni mkalete Nenda ubaoni nazi. Juma alianza lini kufanya watotokazi? Nenda nyumbani ukawalete watoto wako wote. kutazama kusoma Nenda ubaoni ukasome kununua Nendeni sokoni mkanunue maneno haya# nazi. When did Juma begin reading? kusoma Juma alianza lini kusoma? machungwa Nenda nyumbani ukalete Go home and bring all your oranges. Nenda ubaoni ukaeleze maana kueleza kuleta ya maneno Nendeni haya. Juma alianza lini kupanda kupanda - . Ka-tense with the second of ' Go to the board and write these words# n kuandika Nenda ukaandike y* ubaoni Nendeni sokoni mkatazame Go to the market and have a look maneno haya. words. subjunctive with -ka.In a command or request involving two verbs.vs. Go home and bring all your children When did Juma begin raising com? wagonjwa Go home and bring all your sick mahindi?Nenda nyumbani ukawalete verbs# wagonjwa wako wote. B. When did Juma begin working? kufanya masomo yako yote. When did Juma begin speaking? kusema Juma aljanza lini kusema? yako yote.

and eat# They haven't gone home yet# Hawajaenda nyumbani# Sasa Now let them close the books. Kenda jikori Come into the kitchen and make ukatergeneze Go into the kitchen and make coffee# kahawa. and go# waende• Conversation Starters i # Describe a typical class hour# 2# Fran this point on. kuoorioka Hawajaondoka shuleni# Sasa wafunge vitabu them close the books. Come to the beach and swim# kuogelea Njoo pwani uogelee. them close the books. school.64 whatever words and phrases are necessary to make this possible. kusaidia Hawajatusaidia# Sasa wafunge They haven't yet helped us# vitabu. Unit_65 . Nenda pwani ukaogelee# Go to the beach and swim# B# Negative -tense vs# subjunctive.UNIT 61* BASIC COURSE kahawa Njoo jikoni utenger/sae coffee# kahawa. watusaidie# kula They haven't eaten food yet. Add to the content of Units 1 . all class sessions should be conducted entirely in Swahili. wale. and leave the waondoke shuleni. Now let them close the books. kuenda They haven't yet left the school Now let wafunge vitabu. and help us# Hawajala chakula. Now let Sasa wafunge vitabu.

airplane ('European bird') She flew by Maina -ruka ndege (N). ndege Ulaya Aliruka kwa ndege Ulaya* Ju*i peleka ya kvamba chuo (VI) plane* day before yesterday to send • that •»• school .1* Basic Dialogue* A letter from a student abroad* Asha wmmu+tm sister dada (N-pers) What work is your sister doing? Dada yako anafanya kazi gani? Maina -shinda Atihani to be first. win a school (MI) examination Europe Last year she passed the Higher Examination and Ulaya went to Europe to study* >Waka jana allshinda Atihani wa juu akaenda Ulaya kusoma* to travel Asha How did she travel? -safiri to fly Alisafirlje? bird.

. Therefore its time implication is consecutive to the time expressed in the preceding verb.may occur in the Indicative Mood. also in the Subjunctive. motokaa miguu A. My sister went to Dar es Salaam by plane. Kwa heri* Thanks very much. applies only to persons. Ashton states (p. . 133) 'The prefix -ka. A more standard word in this context is -geleka. “tuma and -peleka. Kwa plus modes of transportation. ndege Dada yangu alikwenda Dar es Salaam kwa ndege.' B. strictly speaking. -tuma is often used in this way nowadays but is by some speakers considered incorrect. Ity sister went to Dar es Salaam by train. Juma sent a letter. Notes A. The prefix -ka. -tuma. Alituletea barua akasema.Juzi alipeleka barua kwa mama akasema Recently she sent a letter to Mother ya kwamba yuko katika Chuo cha and said that she is in the London* University of London. . He sent vis a letter and said. Wherever it occurs. Juma alituma barua. it expresses an action or state which follows another action. gari la moshi Dada yangu alikwerda Dar es Salaam kwa gari la moshi. Asha Asante sana.which was discussed in Unit 64 is used also with indicative verb forms. The prefix with indicatives. . . Good bye.

nikarudi nyumbani. halafu Examination. or by train? Ninapenda kusafiri kwa ndege kuliko kwa gari la moshi. kvamba ar.a vitabu vingi. mimi Natunaini kushinda mtihani I hope to pass the Higher Examination. ndege Unapenda kusafiri kwa ndege au kwa gari la moshi? Do you like to travel by plane. She sent us a letter saying that she has many UNIT 65 SWAHILI kuva na Alituletea barua akasema ya books. kusotna kununua kupoteza C. kurudi Mwaka jana nilishinda Last year I passed the Higher mtihani wa juu. halafu Examination. I prefer traveling by plane to traveling by train. A-tensej -tumaini plus infinitive. halafu then I continued studying. Mariamu ndugu yangu ndugu zangu E. nik. then I returned home. mtihani wa juu. kuerdelea Kwaka jana nilishinda mtihani wa juu. She sent us a letter saying that she needs kuhitaji Alituletea barua akasema ya many books. kupata Mwaka jana nilishinda Last year I passed the Higher Examination. kwamba anahitaji vitabu vingi. sisi Europe. then I went to Europe. nikapata kazi. and go mtihani wa juu na kwenda to Europe. 260 Hosted for free on livelingua. halafu then I got a job.B* Indirect statements.com . and go to wa juu na kwenda Ulaya. Twatumaini kushinda We hope to pass the Higher Examination. Last year I passed the Higher Examination.aendelea kusorna. nikaenda Ulaya. Ulaya. halafu plus ka-tense* kwenda Jiwaka jana nilishinda Last year I passed the Higher mtihani wa juu.

mananasi.A. No. kunu. naruka mara chache tu. I do not read often. A-tense: affirmative vs. I grumble mara nyingi. Waruka kwa ndege mara nyingi? kuruka kwa ndege Hapana. I do not grumble often. I fly only a little. mara chache tu. I do not travel often. Unapenda ndizi mbichi au mbivu? ndizi Ninapenda mbivu Do you like green bananas. kusafiri Do you travel often? Wasafiri raara nyingi? Hapana. or ripe ones? kuliko I prefer ripe to green ones. mbichi. Kuliko UNIT 65 SWAHILI michezo Ninapenda raasomo I prefer studying to playing. nasoma mara chache tu. naming'unika mara only a little.com . Unapenda michezo au masomo? Do you like playing. chache tu. au mananasi? Do you like coconuts. sisafiri mara nyingi. negative. nasafiri I travel only a little. No. B. kuliko michezo. No. or pineapples? Ninapenda nazi kuliko I prefer coconuts to pineapples. Unit_66 ia Basic Dialogue. or studying? nazi Unapenda nazi. sisoml Do you read often? mara nyingi. I read only a little. I do not fly often.Warning' unika mara nyingi? ng unika sinung' uniki Do you grumble often? No. 286 Hosted for free on livelingua. kusoma Wasoma mara nyingi? Hapana. My parents are going to night school. siruki kwa ndege mara Do you fly often? nyingi.

They’ve begun to attend night school. Maina aina Hesabu za aina gani? kind. na They told me they are learning kuandika Kiswahili na Kiingereza. sort What kind of arithmetic? 264 Hosted for free on livelingua. Maina Na kuandika je? And what about writing? Juma -hudhuria to attend Wameanza kuhudhuria masomo ya jioni. arithmetic. and to write Swahili and English.UNIT 65 SWAHILI Maina Wazazi wako wanajua kusoma na Do your parents know how to read and kuandika? write? Juma Ndiyo.com . Yes. they know how to read just a little. Maina Wanafunzwa masomo gani? What subjects are they being taught? Juma -ambia to tell Waliniambia wanajifunza hesabu. wanajua kusoma kidogo tu.

kuhitimu Bwana Sangai alihitimu lini masomo ya When did Mr. We like to attend the school. We like to attend the church.UNIT 65 SWAHILI -jumlisha to add to take away -toa Addition and subtraction• Za kujumlisha na kutoa.com . a What sort of fruit have you brought? matunda Mmeleta matunda ya aina gani? a vitabu Mmeleta vitabu vya aina gani? What sort of books have you brought? vyakula nguo nyama B. 265 Hosted for free on livelingua. -ambia plus indirect statement kuanza Bwana Sangai alianza lini masomo ya jioni? When did Mr. 3. masomo Twapenda kuhudhuria masomo We ya jioni. Sangai start the evening classes? He told me that he began recently. ndchezo Twapenda kuhudhuria mashindano We like to attend the horse races. Sangai complete the evening jioni? classes? Aliniambia ya kwamba alihitimu He told me that he completed them recently. ya farasi. *• Juma A. kanisa Twapenda kuhudhuria kanisani. Aina. like to attend the evening classes. Aliniambia ya kwamba alianza juzi. juzi. A. shule Twapenda kuhudhuria shuleni. -hudhuria.

Wabondei. coffee.kuchelewa Bwana Sangai alichalewa lini masano ya jioni? Aliniambia ya kwamba alichalewa Juzi. kama vile chai. so forth* pombe. kama vile mchicha. kama vile mashati. beer and so forth* Madukanl kuna nguo mbalimbali. kaoeji. na kadhalika* nguo such as tea. kanzu. Where was it located? How did you get to it? What did you study? Use the dictionaiy to add specialized vocabulary for the names of the various academic disciplines* 26S a.com . Zaramo and vinywaji Hotellni kunauzwa vinywaji mbalimbali. Tell about a letter which you have sent or received recently* Hosted for free on livelingua. na kadhalika* mboga Sokoni kuna mboga mbalimbali. Sokoni kuna matunda mbalimbali. mangoes and so forth* BASIC COURSE He told me that he came late UNIT 66 recently* At the shops there are various kinds of clothing such as shirts. na kadhalika* In Tanganyika there are people of different tribes such as the Nyamwezi. Bondei. na kadhalika* Conversation Starters i * Describe your cwn high school or college. kama vile such as Achicha. kama vile machungwa. na kadhalika* a At the market there are various vegetables makabila Nchini Tanganyika mna watu va makabila mbalimbali. 4. kanzus. suruali. kahava. Wazaramo. trousers and so forth. Extra vocabulary* matunda When At the did market Mr. At the hotel there are sold various beverages maembe. there Sangai arecane various late for fruits thesuch evening as classes? oranges. cabbages and so forth* Wanyamwezi.

drive [a car] Nani anayeendesha shule hizi za Who [is it] that is running these jioni? night schools? Juma msaada (HI) assistance -tolewa to be put forward.com . be produced. inform. be taken away Nafikiri seherau ya msaada hutolewa I think a part of the support is na Serikali* supplied by the government* Maina -kubali to accept Ni watu wa umri gani wanaokubaliva? What age people are accepted? ('It is people of what age who are accepted?*) Juma hoja (N) necessity. what is urgent Sidhani umr'i ni hoja* I don't think the age is important* Maina -julisha to make known. cause to go. cause to know Basi. I'm going to tell a lot of people* 867 Hosted for free on livelingua.Unit_67 i# Basic Dialogue* What is it like at night school? -endesha Hhina to run. nitawajulisha wengi* 0*K*.

') x Junta Hata ada yenyewe ni ndogo sana. the fees themselves are very low. Maina Kweli? Asantel Kwa heril Really? Thanks1 Good-byel .('I'm going to cause many people to know. And besides.

•• home* he who runs the school. li-tense* aliyekuja Jana ataanza kesho* % % Mtu aliyelipa adaJana Janaataanza ataanza kukubaliwa Mtu aliyekubaliwa kulipa kesho* kesho* Mtu aliyetumwa Jana kutumwa B. Relative counterparts of the Anaendesha shule. . The relative affixes are identical in form with the set of suffixes found in Unit 18.. stative verb stem.. In general. kikombe A.. Notes C. . Relatives..kuja A* Mtu Relatives.anayeendesha shule. kutumwa Wapagazi waliotumwa asubuhi wamekwenda nyumbani* The porters who were accepted in the morning have gone home* The porters who were sent in the morning have gone heme. These are generally translated into English by relative clauses beginning with who or which.who are accepted. The verbs in the second and fourth examples are 'relative' counterparts of the indicative forms. The verbs in the two complete sentences above are 'indicative' forms..•• home* kukubaliwa Wapagazi waliokubaliwa asubuhi wamekwenda nyumbani. ataanza kesho* Relatives. The broken cups are on the table* The broken cup is on the table. li-tense. The porters who came in the morning have gone kuja wamekwenda nyumbani. li-tense. wamekwenda nyumbani..wanaokubaliwa. vikombe Vikombe vilivyovunjika viko mezani.. kuanza The porters who began in the morning have gone .who runs the school. The person who was accepted yesterday will begin tomorrow* The person who came yesterday will begin The person who was sent yesterday will tomorrow* begin tomorrow..•• They are Wapagazi walioanza asubuhi accepted. monosyllabic stem* na. An 'indicative' form is one that can serve as the only verb in a complete statement.. Note C. the relative forms are like the indicative forms except for the presence of a relative affix.and li-tenses.. there is a relative counterpart for any indicative verb form in Swahili. The person who paid fees yesterday will begin tomorrow* Wapagazi waliokuja asubuhi He runs the school. . Kikombe kilichovunjika kiko Wanakubaliwa• mezani* . which occupies a slot between the tense prefix and the object prefix.. For the na and li tenses..

Kalamu iliyovunjika iko mezani. The broken knives are on the table. Watu vanaofanya kazi ya ukulima waitwa wakulima. A. visu Visu vilivyovunjika viko mezani. relative.) The broken plate is on the table. Sahani zote zilizovunjika zlko sahani (sg. kisahani The broken saucer is on the table. kufunza 3. Visahani vilivyovunjika yiko mazanl. upishi People who do cooking are called cooks. Kalamu zote zilizovunjika ziko mezani. mezani. People who do teaching are called teachers. All the broken plates are on the table. vikceibe Vikombe vipi vilivunjika? Which cups got broken? Vilivyovunjika viko jikoni. The broken ones are in the kitchen. kalamu (sg. sahani zote The broken knife is on the table. kisu Sahani iliyovunjika iko mezani. na-tefise. Klsahanl kilichovunjika kiko mezani. D.vitahani The broken saucers are on the table. . clerks. The broken pen is on the table. Li-tense: indicative vs. People who do fanning are called farmers. Watu vanaofanya kazi ya ukarani ukulima waitwa makarani. Relatives. Kisu kilichovunjika kiko mezani. People who do clerical work are called Watu vanaofanya kazi ya kufunza ukarani waitwa waalimu.) All the broken pens are on the table. kalamu zote Watu vanaofanya kazi ya upishi waitwa vapishi.

UNIT 67 Which cup got broken? The broken one is in the kitchen.com . Which plate got broken? The broken one is in the kitchen. eahani Sahani ipi ilivunjika? (sg.BASIC COURSE kikotnbe Kikcmbe kipi kilivunjika? Kilichovunjika kiko jikoni. Which knives got broken? The broken ones are in the kitchen. visu Visu vipi vilivunjika? Vilivyovunjika viko jikoni. kisu Kisu kipi kilivunjika? Kilichovunjika kiko jikoni. Which knife got broken? The broken one is in the kitchen. 871 Hosted for free on livelingua.) Iliyovunjika iko jikoni.

the kitchen. Abdallah. Juma. Relative. in question and answer.BASIC COURSE sahani (pi. Bw. Hasani.mu? Who teaches arithmetic in this school? Mwalimu anayefunza hesabu shuleni humu anaitwa Bw. na-tense. kalaimi yangu? Fundi anayeweza kutengeneza Who can repair my pen? kalamu yako anaitwa Bw. B. The repairman who can repair your pen is called Mr. kuendesha Nani anayeendesha shule hii? Who runs this 3chool? Unit_66 i« Basic Dialogue* What about the fees? 871 Hosted for free on livelingua. Abdallah. Juma.) UNIT 67 Which plates got broken? The broken ones are in Sahani zipi zilivunjika? Zilizcvunjika ziko jikoni. Mtu anayeendesha shule hii anaitwa The person who runs this school is Mr.com .Nani anayeweza kutengeneza neza The teacher who teaches arithmetic in this school is called Mr. Hasani. kufunza Nani anayefunza hesabu shuleni hu. kutenge.

ni kiasi gani kva mwezi? How much is it a month. It's only about 5 shillings# Maina haki (N) Justice Haki? (or: Kweli?) Is that right? Juma Ndiyol Yesl Maina Wanahitaji vitabu vipi? Which books do they need? Juma bure for nothing 871 Hosted for free on livelingua. by the way? Juma shilingi (N) shilling Ni kama shilingi tano tu.BASIC COURSE UNIT 67 Maina mwezi (MI) month Je.com .

Walio na hamu ya elimu. now [they] have the opportunity* 871 Hosted for free on livelingua. sasa wanayo nafasi* desire. you get bure* the books free* Maina hamu (N) Jamaa.BASIC COURSE UNIT 67 Ukiisha lipa ada.com . vitabu utavipata Once you have paid the fee. longing Brotherl Those who have a desire for education.

. ('[you can say that] againl') Tenal Notes A. waliokuwa are formed on a special stem -li-.com . The children who are hungry should go home. 2 . Note that this stem is identical in sound with the prefix for the li-tense. '. r.walio na vitabu..... A.. The children who have food should go home.. waende nyumbani.jaa Watoto walio na njaa 871 Hosted for free on livelingua. not before it. . The relative affix is placed after this stem. kalamu Watoto walio na kalamu waende nyumbani. Relative counterparts of forms with the stem «na* vitabu Watoto walio na vitabu The children who have pens should go home.. The present relative affirmative forms corresponding to past alijrekuwa.. \ .who is hungry.aliye na njaa.... to which we may assign the English translation 'be*. but for practical purposes the two elements should be regarded as distinct.•• ■'they who have books. Watoto walio na chakula waende nyumbani. (he who is hungry.. have books.. They have books. Relative counterparts of forms Wana with the stem -na.. chakula The children who have books should go home...BASIC COURSE UNIT 67 Jiuna Right. ...who vitabu.

Relative counterparts of indicatives in -wa na (past tense). B. 871 Hosted for free on livelingua. vitabu Watoto waliokuwa na vitabu The children who had books went home.BASIC COURSE UNIT 67 waende nyumbani.com . walikwenda nyumbani.

kalamu Watoto waliokuwa na kalastu The children who had pens went hone* walikwenda nyumbani* chakula UNIT 68 Watoto waliokuwa na chakulaSWAHILI The children who had food vent home* walikwenda nyumbani* njaa Watoto waliokuwa na njaa The children who were hungry went heme* walikwenda nyumbani* c. Mgonjwa aliye na mafua akae hospitali. Ha-tense. indicative vs. dawa The patient who had medicine stayed in the a hospital. Mgonjwa aliye na malaria akae hospitali* D. malaria Have the patient who has malaria stay in the * hospital. Have those who have headaches come in* 27U Hosted for free on livelingua. kichwa Wagonjwa wengine wanaumwa Seme patients have headaches* kichwa* Wanaourawa kichwa waje humu. malaria a hospital* Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na malar! alikaa hospitali* 3* A. Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na dawa alikaa hospitali* hema The patient who had a fever stayed in the hospital* Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na homa alikaa hospitali* mafua The patient who had a chest complaint stayed in a the hospital.com . Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na mafua The patient who had malaria stayed in the alikaa hospitali. hospitali* homa Have the patient who has a fever stay in the hospital* Mgonjwa aliye na homa akae hospitali. dawa Have the patient who has medicine stay in the % Mgonjwa aliye na dawa akae hospital. Have the patient who has a chest complaint stay in 4 mafua the hospital. relative.

relative. kichwa. Waliokuwa wanaumwa miguu Those who had sore feet got pills. Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa wanaumwa meno. 275 Hosted for free on livelingua. shingo Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa wanaumwa Some patients had stiff necks. Conversation Starters i. meno miguu B. Waliokuwa wanaumwa shingo Those with stiff necks got pills.BASIC COURSE shingo Wagonjwa wengine wanaumwa U N I T 66 Some patients have stiff necks. kichwa Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa wanaumwa Seme patients had headaches. walipata dawa ya vidonge. Discuss adult education as it is carried on in the part of Africa in which you are most interested. Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa wanaumwa miguu. miguu Some patients had sore feet. shingo.com . Waliokuva wanaumwa kichwa Those who had headaches got pills* walipata dawa ya vidonge. walipata dawa ya vidonge. shingo* Wanaoumwa shingo waje humu. Li-tenses indicative vs. walipata dawa ya vidonge. meno Some patients had toothaches. Have those who nave stiff necks cone in here. Waliokuwa wanaumwa meno Those who had toothaches got pills.

excess Natumaini mwaka ujao wataruka I hope next year ['the year which zaidi ya hao. Basic Dialogue* A shortage of professional people* Magese haba few % Nchi yetu ina walimu haba sana* Hata matabibu wachache pia* Our country has very few teachers* ('Even doctors [are] few like- wise•') tangu since -zidi to increase mwanafunzi (WA) student Lakini tangu juzi Juzi But (since) recently students have wanafunzi wamezidi* increased [in number]* Butler mia hundred [Haikuwa] Si mwaka Jana mia tatu Wasn't it last year that 300 went to walipokwenda Amerika? America? Sangai zaidi (N) more. comes'] more will fly than that.UNIT 300 SWAHILI Unit.69 1. Sangai ~gumu hard. outlay . difficult gharama (N) expense.

I want to read many books in the months I want to read many books in the years to come. niaka Ninataka kusoma vitabu vingi miaka ijayo. The first two examples illustrate relative counterparts of the a-tense. mwaka Ninataka kusoma vitabu vingi 92 102 I want to read many books next year. co m 277 I want to read many books next month. Relative counterpart of the a-tense.UNIT 69 BASIC COURSE Kumbuka ni vigumu sana kupata pesa za kulipa gharama* Remember it is very hard to get the money to pay the expenses* 276 Hosted for free on livelingua. Multiples of ten* 10 Wanafunzi kumi walikwenda Ulaya Ten students went to Europe last year. The head teacher has bought twelve cups. mwaka ujao. 60 80 70 90 100 B. mwaka ujao miezi ijayo the year which comes months which come mtu aliye na njaa a person who is hungry These relative forms (cf« Unit 68) are all formed with subject prefix. .com Notes A.o Wanafunzi ishirini walikwenda Twenty students went to Europe last Ulaya mwaka jana. Relative counterparts of the a-tense. Mwalimu mkuu wa shule amenunua vlkombe ishirini na viwili. A. plus stem (-Ja or -li). mwaka jana* ?. a. 22 The head teacher has bought twentytwo cups. plus relative affix. 32 U2 52 62 72 82 C. mwezi Ninataka kusoma vitabu vingi mwezi ujao. 30 Uo 5o year. 12 Mwalimu mkuu wa shule amenunua vlkombe kumi na viwili. Hos ted for free to come* on livel ing ua.

Ninataka kusoraa vitabu vingi miezi BASIC COURSE ijayo. Kila mwanafunzi atapata zaidi Every student will get more than a ya. visu vitabu Hos Leo tumeuza visu ishirini na ted for vitano. A. miezi siku Ninataka kusoma vitabu vingi siku UNIT 69 I want to read many books in the days to zijazo* come* D. Yesterday we sold more than that. mikate Leo tumeuza mikate ishirini na mitano* Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hiyo). Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hayo). including the last word in a numeral phrase* za soda* Today we have sold twenty-five Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hizo)* bottles of soda* Yesterday we sold more than that. vitabu mia (moja) na 125 hundred and twenty-five books* ishirini na vitano* 3. Li-tense: affirmative vs. taa Leo turnsuza taa ishirini na Today we have sold twenty-five lamps* tano. co Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hivyo). Yesterday we Leo turnsuza mananasi ishirini na matano. mananasi Yesterday we sold more than that. mayai Leo turnsuza mayai ishirini na Today we have sold twenty-five eggs* matano. negative* 278 Today we have sold twenty-five loaves of bread* Yesterday we sold more than that* Today we have sold twenty-five knives sold more Today wethan havethat* sold twenty-five books* Yesterday we sold more than that* . sold moire than that. Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hizo). 15 Kila mwanafunzi atapata zaidi Every student will get more than fifteen ya vitabu kumi na vitano. *5 books* Kila mwanafunzi atapata zaidi ya vitabu Every student will get more than twenty-five books* ishirini na vitano* 45 35 55 65 75 85 95 Kila mwanafunzi atapata zaidi Every student will get more than a ya vitabu mia (moja) na 105 hundred and five books* vitano. Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hayo). Leo turnsuza chupa ishirini na tano chupa Concord. free onwe Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hivyo)* Yesterday Leo tumeuza vitabu ishirini livel ing na vitano* ua. Today we have sold twenty-five pineapples. m B.

kuamkia Hasani alituamkia. co m 279 UNIT 69 . Hasani despaired* tamaa Daudi hakukata tamaa* Daudi didn't despair.BASIC COURSE kuingia Hasani aliingia nyumbani* Daudi hakuingia. Hos ted for free on livel ing ua. kuendeleaHasani aliendelea na masomo* IlA Daudi hakuendelea* masomo Hasani continued with school. Hasani entered the house* Daudi didn't enter* kukata Hasani alikata tamaa. Daudi hakutuamkia* Hasani welcomed us. Daudi didn't continue* kuhamishwa Hasani alihamishwa na Hasani was moved by the government• serikali* Daudi hakuhamishwa* Daudi wasn't moved. Daudi didn't welcome us.

I like the dances very much* Abasi -cheza to play dansi (N) dance Mimi pia.1# Basic Dialogue# A day off# Unit 70 Sangai furaha (N) rejoicing Leo ni Jumamosi.. Halafu tutakwenda ngomani* O. method Tenal Una mipango yo yote? Rightl Do you have any plans? Sangai sineraa (N) (or: senema ( N ) ) cinema Twende sinena leo jioni# Abasi Let's go to the movies this evening# ngcxna (N) drum Haya. a day of rejoicing# Abasi Apango (MI) plan. Ms too.K. Yes. siku ya furahal Today is Saturday. and then we'll go to watch the dances# Sangai Ndiyo. mimi napenda ngoma sana. ijapokuwa siwezi kucheza vizuri. manner. even though I can't dance well# .

sitakwenda. You will spill the oil. I won't go. You will spoil my pen. Sunday Monday Tuesday 3. hayatamwagika Utaharibu kalamu yangul Hapana. It won't be spilled. Days of the week. . Mafuta yatamwagikal Hapana. sitaziangusha Utamwaga mafutai Hapana. I won't spill it. sitayamwaga. sitaiharibu. Tutajaribu kukutembelea Wedne sday-Jumatano Jumamosi ijayo. Hamisi amekuwa (po) hapa tangu Jumamosi. A. No. negative. A. Sat. You will drop all the plates No. Fri. Wednesday Thursday tangu Ijumaa. I won't drop them. The oil will be spilled. UtakwendaAre sinema Jumamosi you going to the cinema next Saturday? ijayo? No. We'll try to visit you next Sunday. I won't spoil it. No. Hapana. Sat. Hamisi amekuwa (po) hapa Hamisi has been here since Saturday.2 . Sun. Utaangusha sahani zotel Hapana. We'll try to visit you next Saturday. No. Ta-tense: affirmative vs. with person change. Tutajaribu kukutembelea Jumapili ijayo# Monday-Jumatatu Hamisi has been here since Friday Tuesday-Juroanne Thursday-Alhamisi Friday-Ijumaa B.

Kalamu itaharibikaj Hapana. A is a student in night school. and asks A about it. haitaharibika• The pen will be spoiled* No. D has five. U. C is the father of three children who are of school age. They discuss the problems involved in the elemsntary education of their children. . It won't be spoiled. B is thinking about attending.

Mchele ukiwa na maganda huitwa mpunga. Wajaluo ndio walioanza kugika ugali. (plu unga (U) flour. Ugali. lakini ukisha kuwa tayari kwa kula ni wali. soup. vivyo ndivyo watu wa pwani wanavyosifu wall. ni unga wa mahindi au wa ratama unaochanganywa na maji yanayochemka. Unga hupatikana kutoka wapil retains (Ml) millet -pika to cook U* Matoke hupatikana wapi? . Kama vile wenyeji wa bara wanavyosifu ugali. Vyakula hivyo ni vipi? P« Ugali hufanana na uji? ugali (U) stiff porridge ndio it is they.Reading Selection II V^akula v^a Afrika ya Mashariki Katika Afrika ya Mashariki vyakula vitatu hutumiwa eana zaidi ya vingine na wenye^i. sweet. Waarabu wanajulikana sana kwa kula wali. to praise inhabitant -fanana -julikana to be known name of a type of food ~kavu that is it. (sg* VI class) -saga walito(U) mix maganda (MA ) to resemble another kabla (N) cooked rice husks one before dry to pulverize ili in order that Reading Selection -chemshaQuestions and Answers to cause over to boil “tamu pleasant Questions 5. MA) ndicho the hinterland -changanya -sifu the regular possessor. ugali huliwa na kitcweo cha nyama au mboga na mchuzi.dwa ^cwa kupika ugalil kitoweo (VI) 6« Ni unga a relish mwiko (MI) a large wooden ya Mashariki? na maji yanayochemka hufanyvaje? mchuzi (KI) 7« Ungagravy. mwenyeji (WA) matoke (pi. 'roatoke1 ndicho chakula kikuu. Huu hufanana na uji lakini ugali ni mkavu zaidi kuliko uji. meal WA class) 3« Nani wanaotumia vyakula hivi zaidi? 9. spoon sauce 2. mchele. Ndizi huchemshwa halafu hugondwa kwa mwiko mpaka ziwe kama viazi vilivyopondwa. Upande wa Uganda. Utatumia nirii kuponda ndizi? -ponda to crush by delicious pounding i• Vyakula vingapi hutundwa sana katika Afrika gani unaotu:. na bila maganda kabla haujapikwa. Unga hupatikana kutoka katika mahindi Si chaku la chenyewe kiwe kitamu.

ugali na wali. Vyakula hivyo ni matoke. au wa mtama. Ndiyo. Wenyeji hutumia vyakula hivi zaidi* Unga na maji yanayochemka huchanganywa. Nitatumia mwiko* Unga wa mahindi. lakini ugali ni ftkavu zaidi kuliko uji* Matoke hupatikana katika richi ya Uganda* Unga hupatikana kutoka katika mahindi* 28U .Vyakula vitatu.

Jali ni mchele uliopikwa. Wali ni mchele wa namna gani? Mchele ukiv/a shambani huitvra ihpunga. Ugalf huchanganywa na nini. Ni watu pani wanaoju-ikana sana UNIT 70 Mahindi husagwa. Wanasifu wali. ?icbeie uxiwa shambani huitwafeV 16.BASIC COURSE 10. Upali ni chakula kitamu': 12.com . Wenyeji wa pwani wanasifu niniV 14. Namna pani? 11. Hdiyo. Ugali huciianganywa na kitcueo na mchuzi. . 285 Hosted for free on livelingua. ugali ni chanula kit&inu. ^aarabu.. 13. kwa kula waliV 15.

let's go. Nitakufuata. Tutakvenda baada ya saa moja Pine* We'll go in about an hour* hivi. I'm ready. Are you ready? Saa moja imepita. Hasani to lead path njia (N) to follow -fuata Tangulia. I'll follow you. Mirambo shamba (MA. Unaijua njia kuliko mini* [You] lead [the way]. Hasanl to pass -pita An hour has passed. .Ndiyo. (or: niko tayari.Unit_7i i« Basic Dialogue* Let's visit the farm. ni tayari. the farm* Hasani baada (N) after .) farm Tafadhali twende tukatembee Please let's go take a walk around shambani.) Yes. You know the way better than I do. U tayari? (or: Uko tayari?) Mirambo Ndiyo. Twende basi* -tangulia Well.

The above examples provide another instance of the meaning of the prefix -ka-..Mlrambo O. twende basi. is in thjs sentence a modifier of saa mcja. Tutembee shambani. Sun. Where were you last Sunday? . A.K. B. let's go then. 'last' with days of the Ulikuwa wapi Jumapili week. hivi 'about' baada ya saa moja after an hour baada ya saa moja hivi after about an hour The word hivi. which in its shape is identical with the proximal demonstrative of the plural of the VI class. Tukatembee shambani. 2 . Let's take a walk on the farm [beginning right where we are now]. Further example of the meaning of -ka-. Let's [go] take a walk on the farm [beginning from some point away from here]. Haya. Notes A. with the translation 'about'.

show me the way to the church # Ulikuwa ukifanya kazi gani Please. show me the way (to go) to the Where were you market. Sangai Bw. nionyeshe njia ya kwenda sokoni# hospital! Tafadhali.) doing last mwaka uliopita? year? Bw. show me the way to the Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday B* Verb phrase with -waj ’last year?' wewe administrative office# Please. What type of work were you doing last mwaka uliopitaj Please. show me the way to the hotel. Sangai doing last year? What type of work were these students doing last year? iliyopita? Mon. Ulikuwa wapi Jumatatu Please. last Monday? Please. nionyeshe njia . nionyeshe njia ya kwenda bomani# kanisa Tafadhali. Sangai alikuwa akifanya kazi gani mwaka uliopita? Wanafunzi hawa walikuwa wakifanya wanafunzi hawa kazi gani mwaka uliopita? What type of work was Mr. nionyeshe njia ya kwenda hospitalini# botna Tafadhali. n^ia jra plus infinitive# soko Tafadhali. hotel! Tafadhali. nionyeshe njia ya kwenda kanisani. show me the way to the hospital# iliyopitaj Please.ninyi Mlikuwa mkifanya kazi gani What type of work were you (pi. show me the way to the house# year? C.

but they didn't. Juma and last Hasani promised go to the kwenda hawakunisalimia. Wednesday Thursday Friday I wrote them last Monday. masomo ya jioni evening classes last month. . Jumamosi iliyopita. but they lakini B. wao kwenda Sat. 3* kuja kuletea Juma na Hasani waliahidi Juma and Hasani promised to send barua mwezi A# Infinitivekuriletea vs. past negative# uliopita.uliopita.ya kwenda hotelini. Niliwaandikia barua Jumatatu iliyopita. 'every' hawakvenda # Naandika barua kwa wazazi wangu kila Jumamosi. applied stem. but they didn't. Niliwaandikia barua didn't. I wrote them last Saturday. I write to my parents every Saturday. my best regards to their teacher Juma na Hasani mwezi waliahidi uliopita. lakini Juma na Hasani waliahidi hawakuniletea. Naandika barua kwa wazazi I write to my parents every Monday. ryumba Tafadhali. kusalimia kuja mvezi uliopita.ple vs. but theyto didn't. vs. to convey Juma and Hasani promised hawakuja. Juma and Hasani promised to come last month. lakini month. kunisalimia mwalimi. Mon. wangu kila Jumatatu. nionyeshe njia ya kwenda nyumbani. Juma nalakini Hasani waliahidi me a letter last month. 'last' Saturday.mwezi Sim.

Mirambo robo (N) 1/4 Lisima ulipe robo ya gharama kwanza. ('European potatoes') if I were fertilizer ningalikuwa mbolea If I had had fertilizer. Agriculture. I would have planted onions. what will . It's necessary that you pay a quarter of the amount at the beginning. (N) -agiza Kama ningalikuwa na mbolea to order Unaweza kuiagiza You kutoka canIdara orderya it from the jepartment of ningalipanda vitunguu. Hasani Kama huna pesa.Unit_72 1« Basic Dialogue. I'll get a large harvest. Ukulima. Hasani . Hasani Umepanda mimea gani shambani ravakol What kind of plants have you planted on your farm? Mirambo riazi ulaya. The farm needs rain and fertilizer. Irish potatoes. Mirambo -nyesha to rain mavuno (KA) harvest Mvua ikinyesha nitapata mavuno If it rains. utapanda ninil If you don’t have money. mengi.

Unit 29. A general first-approximation translation equivalent for this class is 'in'. kumaliza Lizima umalize kazi yako kesho. B» Relative of the na-tense# kutumia Wakulima wanaotumia mbolea watapata vitunguu . I will plant groundnuts# Notes A. You must pay a quarter of the expenses at first# You must finish your work tomorrow# Idara ya Ukulima. £a-/£. The MJ. whose first-approximation equivalent is ’to’.locatives. Lizima plus subjunctive# kutumia Lizima uturaie mbolea kwa vitunguu. kulipa Lizima ulipe robo ya gharama The farmers who use fertilizer will get onions# kwanza.you plants Mirambo Nitapanda njugu karanga. For the ku. KU and PA locative concords# shambani mwako on (’in') your farm The mw. it is £-. You must use fertilizer for onions# 2# A. kuagiza Lizima uagize mbolea kutoka You must order fertilizer from the Agriculture Department.prefix belongs to the mu. ku-/kw~. Note A). the prefix used with possessive stems is kw-.class of locatives (cf. and for the ga.class of locatives. The corresponding subject prefixes used with verbs are m-/mw-.

D. There atthe market. MU locative concord with a possessive stem. There is salt in the box. mpunga Walileta mpunga mwingi shambani kwetu. Sokoni kuna visu. There are knives Sandukuni mna visu. There are knives at the market. We plant a lot of rice in our garden. C. Sandukuni mna chumtvi. muhogo We plant a lot of cassava in our Twapanda muhogo mwingi Walileta muhogo mwingi They brought a lot of rice to our garden. They brought a lot of cassava to our garden. The farmers who want fertilizer will pay a quarter of Wakulima wanaotaka mbolea kutaka the expense. mimea garden. I soko visu sanduku KU locative concords as subject prefixes. Walileta mimea mingi MU and shambani kwetu. mimea Twapanda mimea mingi shambani mwetu. They brought a lot of crops to our garden. in the box. vitunguu Twapanda vitunguu vingi shambani mwetu. We plant a lot of onions in our garden. vitu Walileta vitu vingi shambani kwetu.kuagiza Wakulima wanaoagiza mbolea The farmers who order fertilizer will get it* wataipata. watalipa robo ya gharama. They brought a lot of things to our garden. shambani kwetu. E. is salt . KU locative concord with a possessive stem. We plant a lot of crops in our garden. muhogo shambani mwetu. mpunga Twapanda mpunga mwingi shambani mwetu. Sokoni kuna chumvi.

MJ locative concord with possessive stem and subject prefix. mna mbili* Yes. Is there a clock in your house? Yes. there are two* meza Nyumbani mwako mna meza? Is there a table in your house? Ndiyo. kuna mmoja. Is there a car at your house? Yes. there are two bottles of ink* B.3. there is one* Conversation Starters 1. Is there a bicycle at your house? motokaa Nyumbani kwako kuna motakaa? Ndiyo. kuna moja. A. Is there a patient at your house? Yes. Yes. mna chupa mbili. baiskeli Nyumbani kwako kuna baiskeli? Ndiyo. A asks B about what things are like where he is from (kwako). KU locative concord with possessive stem and subject prefix. there are two. there is one. there is one. kuna moja. Is there a lamp in your house? mna mbili. mgonjwa Nyumbani kwako kuna Yes. Yes. . taa Nyumbani mwako mna taa? Ndiyo. mgonjwa? Ndiyo. there are two* saa Nyumbani mwako mna saa? Ndiyo. A and B are from different parts of Africa (or the United States). mna mbili* Is there ink in your house? wino Nyumbani mwako mna wino? Ndiyo.

reply (MA) Sina wasiwasi. [back] the end of the year* Mirambo Unajuaje kama utapata mavuno mazuri? How do you know whether you will get good crops? Hasani wasiwasi (U) doubt look at -angalia jibu answer. and I will pay it nami) nitazilipa rawisho wa mwaka. I don't have any doubts. 29U Hosted for free on livelingua. If you look utapata raajibu. at the farm.UNIT 73 SWAHILI Unit_73 1* Basic Dialogue* Should I get a crop loan? Hasani -kopa to borrow mahali (PA) place Ukitaka.com . I'll show you a place to kukopa pesa* borrow money* Mirambo moyo (MI) heart Sina moyo wa kukopa pesa* I've no liking for borrowing money* a custom. nitakuonyesha mahali pa If you like. you will get the answer. na (or: That's how I did. desturi (N) practice It's a bad practice* Hii ni desturi mbaya* Hasani \ mwisho (MI) end Hivyo ndivyo nilivyofanya. Ukiangalia shambani.

.. Relative affixes in agreement with the objects of verbs..g. That is the one (e.. Ndicho ninachotumia. 29U Hosted for free on livelingua. kisu) Ndiyo. Combination of the constructions described in Notes A and B.and -zo.. B.) I am using.g. motokaa..ninachokitumia. vitu) A combination of ndi. kitu.g. it must be of the same class as the subject prefix.UNIT 73 SWAHILI Notes A. C.plus the relative affix is translated approximately as in these examples. (motokaa) aliyosikia (the car) which he heard.com . That is the one (e. Where it stands for the object. That is the one (e. nchi. nyumba) Ndivyo. Ndicho. the thing) that (or: .g.• The relative affix may then be followed by the object prefix. instead of for its subject. Those are the ones (e... Ndi. it is in the class of the object: (kitu) alichorrunua (the thing) which he bought. kiti ulicholeta (or:. though many speakers omit the latter. ndizi) Ndizo.g. Where it stands for the subject. Ndiye niliyemwona.plus relative affix.. vitunguu.in these examples) may stand for the object of a verb. ndizi.ulichokileta) the chair that you brought karanga tutakazopanda the groundnuts that we will plant (or: tutakazozipanda) The relative affix (-cho. (mtu) ali^esikia a person who heard . kiti. He is the one I saw. Those are the ones (e. The constructions of Notes A and B are combined as shown above.

Hivyo ndivyo nilivyofanya.com .UNIT 73 D. . 2 A. Compare the use of these same concords in the 'adverbial1 forms vizuri. MO£0 wa plus infinitive. v^ema. 29U Hosted for free on livelingua. The concords of the plural VI class are used without antecedent to refer to manner. That is how I did. SWAHILI Concords of VI (plu*) class in expression of manner.