Methane – hydrate

As a source of energy
Shamaya Murray
28120661
General chemistry 2
Mr. Foster
August 3, 2015

Foster who gave me this topic methane hydrate as a source of energy. Secondly I want to thank the Lord for allow me healthy to be able to finish this research on time. Thanks again to all who helped.Acknowledgement I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mr. . which also help me in doing a lot of research I also want to thank other research who made the information more readily for me.

where it is found. Methane hydrate molecules of natural gas trapped in an ice-like cage of water molecules represents a potentially vast methane resource for the world. This research aims to provide a simple but comprehensive explanation of what methane hydrate is. it’s potential as a fuel source. Recent discoveries of methane hydrate in arctic and deep-water marine environments have highlighted the need for a better understanding of this substance as a natural storehouse of carbon and a potential energy resource. and commercial-scale production of natural gas from methane hydrate deposits is growing more viable at each step. which is predominantly methane (CH4) is recognized as clean burning and an important bridge fuel to a future where renewable energy sources are more common. . and field-based studies are underway to advance our understanding of this fascinating resource. Methane hydrate science has advanced steadily over the past decade.Introduction Natural gas. modelling. Experimental.

so that little biomass is produced to sink to the sea floor. In addition. however. In sediment depths greater than about 1 kilometre the temperatures rise to over 30 degrees Celsius. with temperatures from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius. on the other hand. so that no methane hydrates can be deposited. sank to the ocean floor. Methane gas is primarily formed by microorganisms that live in the deep sediment layers and slowly convert organic substances to methane (Ruppel 2007) . Methane hydrates are only stable under pressures in excess of 35 bar and at low temperatures. ice-like solids that consist of methane and water. small methane gas bubbles are produced deep within the sediment. and were finally incorporated into the sediments. At the bottom of the expansive ocean basins. the pressure is sufficient to stabilize the hydrates. This. The reason for this is that in the open sea the water is comparatively nutrient poor. scarcely any hydrates are found because there is insufficient organic matter embedded in the deep-sea sediments. First. Methane hydrates . These organic materials are the remains of plankton that lived in the ocean long ago. So the methane is formed in the deep warm sediment horizons and is converted and consolidated as methane hydrate in the cold upper sediment layers. The methane molecules are enclosed in microscopic cages composed of water molecules. But with increasing depth into the thick sediment layers on the sea floor the temperatures begin to rise again because of the proximity to the Earth’s interior. No methane hydrates are found in marginal seas and shelf areas because the pressure at the sea floor is not sufficient to stabilize the hydrates. is where the methane formation is especially vigorous. below a water depth of about 350 metres. The sea floor is thus an ideal location for their formation: the bottom waters of the oceans and the deep seabed are almost uniformly cold. These then rise and are transformed to methane hydrates in the cooler pore waters near the sea floor.Methane hydrates are white. where the pressure is great enough.

There is believed to be significantly more methane in oceanic gas hydrates than in arctic ones. The hot fluids would be pumped down into the hydrate layers. enough organic material is deposited in the sediments there. the temperature and pressure conditions are favourable for methane to be converted to methane hydrates. the major disadvantage is that heating the . have been made by other scientists. For one reason.therefore occur mainly near the continental margins at water depths between 350 and 5000 meters.400 billion tons of methane gas hydrates. and for another. The quantity of methane stored in the ocean seabed has been estimated to 10. However. How can methane hydrate be extracted? Before anyone can cash in on the untapped potential of methane hydrates. and the liberated gas would flow to the bore hole where they ascend through the pipe up to the surface. both larger and smaller from the consensus estimate.000 Gt.000-11. It is estimated that in Siberia alone there are 1. These lie between 1 x 1015 m3 (RaynerCanham 2006) and 139 x 1015 m3 (Gary 2008). Although there are methane deposits in Antarctica. An advantage of this method is that it is simple and would be conceivably easy to do. Harvey and Huang (1995) proposed a few estimates but chose 46 x 1015 m3 as their best one. It is likely that the global amount of methane in gas hydrates exceeds 1015 m3 but that it is less than 1017 m3 “with the actual value in the lower or intermediate part of the range”. An influx of hot water or steam partially melts the hydrate beds in ocean sediments or in permafrost regions. they will have to figure out how to extract and transport the gas affordable. estimation about their quantity has not been proposed yet. This estimate has been made independently by (Dillion 1992) and. Other estimates. Methane hydrate can be collected by: thermal stimulator. How much methane hydrate is there? Scientific consensus currently holds that the global quantity of methane hydrate amounts to 21 x 1015 m3.

clog. and malfunction (Ruppel 2007). A depressurization so rapid could cool sediments and machinery to the point they might freeze. This would be done by drilling deep into hydrate beds where methane can exist in the free gas stage before being converted to hydrates.landslides and climate changes. has about 80% the heat content of crude oil and reserves widely distributions across the globe. This strategy could be the easiest way to collect hydrate gases as the process would be self-driving. but it has the disadvantage of being more unpredictable than any other methods. although the extraction of methane hydrate will be costly it has the same economic uses of natural gas such as coal crude oil etc. it is widely considered that developing methane hydrates could have a significantly detrimental effect on the climate if it results in the escape of methane into the atmosphere. Another option is depressurization of hydrates in sediment beds. Thses disadvantages included: destabilize the hydrate and release gas to the atmosphere. destabilization of ocean floor. . Critique While methane hydrate resources may appear to be an enormous boom to energy-hungry nations like Japan. Also. There is more disadvantage of methane hydrate becoming a energy sources than benefits. The idea here is that a change in the local pressure gradient within the sediment beds will cause the gases to flow freely to a well head. Advantages included: 160 times more methane. Over time the development of methane hydrate can play an important role in the economic ensuring adequate future supplies of natural gas.fluids to pump underground would be cost prohibitive and might not reach deeper hydrate sediments (Ruppel 2007). technology to extract underdeveloped. combustion reaction is much cleaner. the dissociation of hydrate crystals is very endothermic having an enthalpy of dissociation value of +55KJ/mol at 273K.

For example. Liquid petroleum gas is already establish and even thou recourse might be getting limited it will be more cost effective than methane hydrate sine the cost to extract methane hydrate is expensive. the role that methane hydrates play in stabilizing the seafloor should not be underestimated. drilling deep into oceanic deposits could impact both marine life and the seabed. . Some evidence suggests that such underwater landslides have already occurred.Additionally. Geologists consider that the movement of so much sediment could also trigger tsunamis. potentially causing sediment to slide down the continental slope.

Overton. 2006. Fujii. June 2007.usgs. Katoh. John W. Pritchett. Sabodh K. Arata. Tapping Methane Hydrates for Unconventional Natural Gas. William.H. United States Geological Survey. Journal of Geophysical Research. Elements.gov/fact-sheets/gas-hydrates/title. Carolyn. Baba. . v.A New Frontier. no. Geoff. Tina. 113. Kei. 3. 2008. Dillon. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry. Garg.html Rayner-Canham. Freeman and Company. September 1992.References Ruppel. VOL. Gas (Methane) Hydrates -. A Mathmatical model for the Formation and Dissociation of Methane Hydrates in the Marine Evnironment. New York: W. Tetsuya. 4th Ed. http://marine.