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Chapter 3

Desciptive Statistics: Numerical Measures

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee
ahmadfadlynurullah@yahoo.com

December 17, 2015
www.unikl.edu.my

Chapter 3

small-corne

Contents

Contents
Measures of Location
Measures of Variability
Measures of Variability
Measures of Distribution
Shape, Relative Location,
and Detection of Outliers

â Measures of Location

Exploratory Data Analysis

â Measures of Variability

Measures of Association
Between Two Variables
The Weighted Mean and
Working with Grouped
Data

â Measures of Distribution Shape, Relative Location, and
Detection of Outliers
â Exploratory Data Analysis
â Measures of Association Between Two Variables
â The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee

Chapter 3

December 17, 2015

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Measures of Location

small-corne

Mean

Contents
Measures of Location
Measures of Variability
Measures of Variability
Measures of Distribution
Shape, Relative Location,
and Detection of Outliers
Exploratory Data Analysis

Mean or Average value is a measure of central location
computed by summing the data values and dividing by the
number of observations.

Measures of Association
Between Two Variables
The Weighted Mean and
Working with Grouped
Data

The mean is denoted by x; if the data are for a population,
the mean is denoted by the Greek letter µ

Sample mean
P
x=

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee

xi
n

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Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 4/64 .Measures of Location small-corne Mean Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. µ.Measures of Location small-corne Mean Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Population mean Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data P µ= xi N The sample mean x is a point estimator of the population mean. 2015 5/64 . Relative Location.

the median is the middle value. and Detection of Outliers The median is a measure of central location provided by the value in the middle when the data are arranged in ascending order. Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Median Arrange the data in ascending order (smallest value to largest value) Ô For an odd number of observations. 2015 6/64 . Ô For an even number of observations.Measures of Location small-corne Median Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. the median is the average of the two middle values. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

2015 7/64 .Measures of Location small-corne Median Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

Measures of Location

small-corne

Mode

Contents
Measures of Location
Measures of Variability
Measures of Variability
Measures of Distribution
Shape, Relative Location,
and Detection of Outliers
Exploratory Data Analysis
Measures of Association
Between Two Variables
The Weighted Mean and
Working with Grouped
Data

A third measure of location is the mode.

Mode
The mode is a measure of location, defined as the value
that occurs with greatest frequency.

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee

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December 17, 2015

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Measures of Location

small-corne

Percentile

Contents
Measures of Location
Measures of Variability
Measures of Variability
Measures of Distribution
Shape, Relative Location,
and Detection of Outliers
Exploratory Data Analysis
Measures of Association
Between Two Variables
The Weighted Mean and
Working with Grouped
Data

A percentile provides information about how the data are
spread over the interval from the smallest value to the
largest value.

Percentile
The pth percentile is a value such that at least p percent
of the observations are less than or equal to this value
and at least (100-p) percent of the observations are
greater than or equal to this value.

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee

Chapter 3

December 17, 2015

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Measures of Location

small-corne

Percentile

Contents
Measures of Location
Measures of Variability
Measures of Variability
Measures of Distribution
Shape, Relative Location,
and Detection of Outliers
Exploratory Data Analysis
Measures of Association
Between Two Variables
The Weighted Mean and
Working with Grouped
Data

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee

Chapter 3

December 17, 2015

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2015 11/64 . Relative Location.Measures of Location small-corne Percentile Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

Q2 = second quartile. with each part containing approximately one-fourth. 2015 12/64 . Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data It is often desirable to divide data into four parts. The division points are referred to as the quartiles and are defined as Q1 = first quartile. or 25% of the observations. or 75th percentile.Measures of Location small-corne Quartiles Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. or 25th percentile. Relative Location. or 50th percentile (aslo median). Q3 = third quartile.

2015 13/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.Measures of Variability small-corne Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.

Measures of Variability small-corne Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 14/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Methods in this section help measure and understand variability. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data ô In addition to measures of location.Measures of Variability small-corne Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. ô The variability in the delivery time creates uncertainty for production scheduling.or dispersion. it is often desirable to consider measures of variability. 2015 15/64 .

Range A measure of variability. Relative Location.Measures of Variability small-corne Range Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. defined to be the largest value minus the smallest value. 2015 16/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data The simplest measure of variability is the Range. Range Range = Largest value − Smallest Value Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Interquartile range (IQR) a measure of variability. defined to be the difference between the third and first quartiles. Relative Location. 2015 17/64 . Interquartile range (IQR) IQR = Q3 − Q1 Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Variability small-corne Interquartile range (IQR) Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.

xi ) about the mean. Relative Location.Measures of Variability small-corne Variance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. for a population. 2015 18/64 . it is written (xi − µ). and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data þ Variance a measure of variability based on the squared deviations of the data values (value of each observation. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. þ The difference between each xi and the mean ( for a sample. µ for a population) is called a deviation about the mean. A deviation about the mean is written (xi − x).

2015 19/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data If the data are for a population. the average of the squared deviations is called the population variance. Relative Location. For a population of N observations and with µ denoting the population mean. the definition of the population variance is as follows.Measures of Variability small-corne Variance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Population variance σ2 = Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee P (xi − µ)2 N Chapter 3 December 17.

is defined as follows Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Sample variance 2 s = Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee P (xi − x)2 n−1 Chapter 3 December 17. and Detection of Outliers the sample variance.Measures of Variability small-corne Variance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. denoted by s2 . Relative Location. 2015 20/64 .

Measures of Variability small-corne Variance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. and Detection of Outliers The variance is useful in comparing the variability of two or more variables. 2015 21/64 . Relative Location.

and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Variability small-corne Variance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. 2015 22/64 .

2015 23/64 . Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.Measures of Variability small-corne Standard deviation Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Standard deviation a measure of variability computed by taking the positive square root of the variance. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Standard deviation Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data p s2 √ Population standard deviation = σ = σ 2 Sample standard deviation = s = The sample standard deviation s is the estimator of the population standard deviation σ. The standard deviation is easier to interpret than the variance because the standard deviation is measured in the same units as the data.

Measures of Variability small-corne Coefficient of variation Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Coefficient of variation   Standard deviation × 100 % Mean The coefficient of variation is a relative measure of variability. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 24/64 . Relative Location. it measures the standard deviation relative to the mean. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Coefficient of variation a measure of relative variability computed by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100.

2015 25/64 . Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. it measures the standard deviation relative to the mean. and Detection of Outliers small-corne Skewness Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. The formula for the skewness of sample data: Skewness = X n (n − 1)(n − 2)  xi − x s 3 % The coefficient of variation is a relative measure of variability. Data skewed to the left result in negative skewness. Relative Location. a symmetric data distribution results in zero skewness.Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Skewness a measure of the shape of a data distribution. Relative Location. and data skewed to the right result in positive skewness.

Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers small-corne Skewness Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 26/64 . Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Distribution Shape.

Relative Location. Relative Location. it measures the standard deviation relative to the mean. Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables z-Scores The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data zi = xi − x s where zi = the z-score for xi x =the sample mean s = the sample standard deviation The coefficient of variation is a relative measure of variability. and Detection of Outliers small-corne z-Scores Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 27/64 . and Detection of Outliers z-Score a value computed by dividing the deviation about the mean (xi − x) by the standard deviation s. A z-score is referred to as a standardized value and denotes the number of standard deviations xi is from the mean. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Distribution Shape.

Measures of Distribution Shape. é Can be interpreted as the number of standard deviations xi is from the mean x. observations in two different data sets with the same z-score can be said to have the same Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location. é The z-score for any observation can be interpreted as a measure of the relative location of the observation in a data set. Relative Location. 2015 28/64 . and Detection of Outliers small-corne z-Scores Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Thus. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data é The z-score is often called the standardized value.

2015 29/64 . Relative Location.Measures of Distribution Shape. where z is any value greater than 1. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Chebyshev’s theorem a theorem that can be used to make statements about the proportion of data values that must be within a specified number of standard deviations of the mean. Chebyshev’s theorem At least (1 − 1/z 2 ) of the data values must be within z standard deviations of the mean. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers small-corne Chebyshev’s theorem Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Some of the implications of this theorem.75. or 94%. but z need not be an integer. å At least . 2015 30/64 . of the data values must be within z = 3 standard deviations of the mean. and Detection of Outliers small-corne Chebyshev’s theorem Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. follow. Chebyshev’s theorem requires z > 1. with z = 2. å At least . å At least . or 89%.89. of the data values must be within z = 4 standard deviations of the mean. 3 and 4 standard deviations.94. Relative Location.Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. or 75%. of the data values must be within z = 2 standard deviations of the mean.

Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 31/64 . and Detection of Outliers small-corne Chebyshev’s theorem Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.

Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers small-corne Empirical rule Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. When the data are believed to approximate this distribution. 2015 32/64 . Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. and three standard deviations of the mean for data that exhibit a bell-shaped distribution. two. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Empirical rule rule that can be used to compute the percentage of data values that must be within one.Measures of Distribution Shape. the empirical rule can be used to determine the percentage of data values that must be within a specified number of standard deviations of the mean.

and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data For data having a bell-shaped distribution: ß Approximately 68% of the data values will be within one standard deviation of the mean. ß Almost all the data values will be within three standard deviations of the mean. The normal distribution is used extensively throughout the text. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Distribution Shape. The empirical rule is based on the normal probability distribution. ß Approximately 95% of the data values will be within two standard deviations of the mean. and Detection of Outliers small-corne Empirical rule Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Empirical rule Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. 2015 33/64 . Relative Location. which will be discussed in Chapter 6.

2015 34/64 . and Detection of Outliers small-corne Empirical rule Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.Measures of Distribution Shape.

and Detection of Outliers small-corne Detection of Outliers Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Errors are often made in recording data and entering data into the computer. Relative Location. An outlier may be a data value that has been incorrectly recorded. Standardized values (z-scores) can be used to identify outliers. Outliers should not necessarily be deleted. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Outlier extreme values unusually small or unusually large data value. It is a good idea to check for outliers before making decisions based on data analysis. 2015 35/64 . but their accuracy and appropriateness should be verified Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location.

First quartile. (Q1 ). 2. Median. 5. 2015 36/64 .Exploratory Data Analysis small-corne Five-Number Summary Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Five-number summary An exploratory data analysis technique that uses five numbers to summarize the data: 1. 4. Largest value Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Smallest value. 3. (Q3 ). (Q2 ). Third quartile. Relative Location.

Exploratory Data Analysis small-corne Five-Number Summary Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 37/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

Exploratory Data Analysis small-corne Box Plot Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. IQR = Q3 − Q1 . Either or both procedures may be used. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 38/64 . A key to the development of a box plot is the computation of the median and the quartiles. Box plots provide another way to identify outliers. Relative Location. is also used. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Box plot a graphical summary of data based on a five-number summary. But they do not necessarily identify the same values as those with a z-score less than −3 or greater than +3. The interquartile range.Q1 and Q3 .

Exploratory Data Analysis small-corne Box Plot Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 39/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

Relative Location. 2015 40/64 .Exploratory Data Analysis small-corne Box Plot Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

2015 41/64 . Relative Location.Exploratory Data Analysis small-corne Box Plot Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 42/64 . For a sample of size n with the observations (x1 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Covariance a measure of linear association between two variables. negative values indicate a negative relationship. (x2 . and so on. Positive values indicate a positive relationship. y2 ). the sample covariance is defined as follows: Sample Covariance sxy Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee P (xi − x)(yi − y ) = n−1 Chapter 3 December 17. y1 ). Relative Location.

Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 43/64 .

Relative Location.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 44/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

2015 45/64 .Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

2015 46/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data The formula for computing the covariance of a population of size N Population Covariance σxy Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee P (xi − µx )(yi − µy ) = N Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location.

Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Interpretation of the Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 47/64 . Relative Location.

Relative Location.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Interpretation of the Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 48/64 .

Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Interpretation of the Covariance Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 49/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

Relative Location. Values near +1 indicate a strong positive linear relationship. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Correlation Coefficient Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Correlation coefficient A measure of linear association between two variables that takes on values between −1 and +1. 2015 50/64 . values near −1 indicate a strong negative linear relationship. and values near zero indicate the lack of a linear relationship.

Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Correlation Coefficient Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Pearson product moment correlation coefficient: sample data Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data rxy = sxy sx sy where rxy =sample correlation coefficient sxy = sample covariance sx = sample standard deviation of x sy = sample standard deviation of y Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 51/64 . Relative Location.

Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Correlation Coefficient Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 52/64 . Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient for sample data (commonly referred to more simply as the sample correlation coefficient) is computed by dividing the sample covariance by the product of the sample standard deviation of x and the sample standard deviation of y .

and Detection of Outliers Pearson product moment correlation coefficient: population data Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables ρxy = The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data σxy σx σy where ρxy = sample correlation coefficient σxy = sample covariance σx = sample standard deviation of x σy = sample standard deviation of y The sample correlation coefficient rxy provides an estimate of the population correlation coefficient ρxy . 2015 53/64 . Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Correlation Coefficient Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.

Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 54/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

2015 55/64 . and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.Measures of Association Between Two Variables small-corne Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape.

Weighted mean Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data P wi xi x= P wi where xi = value of observation i wi = weight for observation i Computing a grade point average is a good example of the use of a weighted mean. 2015 56/64 .The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Weighted mean Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Weighted mean The mean obtained by assigning each observation a weight that reflects its importance. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Weighted mean Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location. 2015 57/64 .

and standard deviation for grouped data. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Grouped data Data available in class intervals as summarized by a frequency distribution. weighted mean formula can be used to obtain approximations of the mean.The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Grouped Data Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. variance. Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location. 2015 58/64 .

2015 59/64 . and Detection of Outliers x= Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data fi Mi n where Mi = the midpoint for class i fi = the frequency for class i n = the sample size Sample variance for grouped data 2 s = Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee P fi (Mi − x)2 n−1 Chapter 3 December 17.The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Grouped Data Contents Sample variance for grouped data Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability P Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location.

Relative Location. 2015 60/64 .The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Grouped Data Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17.

2015 61/64 .The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Grouped Data Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. Relative Location.

The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Grouped Data Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Population variance for grouped data Measures of Distribution Shape. 2015 62/64 . Relative Location. and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis P Measures of Association Between Two Variables µ= The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data fi Mi N Population variance for grouped data 2 σ = Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee P fi (Mi − µ)2 N Chapter 3 December 17.

and Detection of Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data Ahmad Fadly Nurullah bin Rasedee Chapter 3 December 17. 2015 63/64 .The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data small-corne Grouped Data Contents Measures of Location Measures of Variability Measures of Variability Measures of Distribution Shape. Relative Location.

Thank You .