Sustainable development is defined as ‘development that meets the

needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs’ ( Brundtland Report (World
Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

The three components of sustainability

Environm
ent

Society

Economy

How transportation affects the components of sustainability
Economic
Traffic congestion
Mobility barriers
Accident damages
Facility costs

Social
Inequity of impacts
Mobility disadvantaged
Human health impacts
Community interaction

Environmental
Air and water pollution
Habitat loss
Hydrologic impacts
Depletion
of
nonrenewable resources

Consumer costs
Community liveability
Depletion
of
non- Aesthetics
renewable resources

Sustainable transportation
In a society in which transportation is sustainable, people have at least as
much access to goods, services, and social opportunities as they have
today, particularly people who are economically disadvantaged or who
face unusual physical challenges. But the ways in which this access is
achieved may be quite different.
1. Non-motorized transportation:
Much more of the access
depends on widespread use of non-motorized means such as
Walking, bicycling, roller-blading.

intelligent transportation systems. Together they provide cleaner. Motorized transportation by current means: Some access depends on motorized transportation systems but use very much less energy and pollute much less. and living styles Support vibrant. automated highways. Less need for movement of people and goods: Whatever the mode. Economic Social Provide cost-effective Meet basic human service and capacity needs for health.2. 4. for the movement of both people and goods in part because urban areas are more compact and have a good mix of uses. and airship technologies. and safer movement of people and goods. 3. comfort. More access is achieved through telecommunications. 5. types of housing and community. because it is encouraged by the layout and design of urban regions and because owning and using a car costs much more. 6. and convenience in ways that do not stress the social fabric Be financially Provide for a affordable in each reasonable choice of generation transport modes. with less movement of people or goods. maglev rail services. Produce no more noise sustainable economic than is acceptable by Environmental Make use of land in a way that has little or no impact on the integrity of ecosystems. Little or no impact on the environment and on human health: The net result is dramatically lower local and global impacts of transportation on the environment. Motorized transportation by potential means: Some access depends on the use of quite different technologies like fuel cells using renewable resources such as hydrogen produced with solar energy. journeys made by motorized transport are shorter. Movement of goods: The movement of goods utilizes modes of transport appropriate to the size and distance of shipment and to the minimization of resulting emissions. more conserving. There is more public transport. Use sparingly energy sources that are essentially not renewable or inexhaustible Use other resources that are renewable or .

which assumes that each mode can be useful. more support for public transit. Walk →Bicycle →Train →Bus →Automobile →Improved automobiles This series model assumes that the older modes are unimportant. there is no harm if increasing automobile traffic causes congestion delay to public transit or creates a barrier to pedestrian travel. and so.activity communities inexhaustible. in many cities. and strives to create balanced transport systems that use each mode for what it does best. not just the newest mode. For example. This does not assume that improved transport necessarily means faster travel or more mileage. slower modes as illustrated below. or even reduce the total need for travel. Sustainable reflects a parallel model. Walk →Improved walking conditions Bicycle →Improved cycling conditions Train/Bus →Improved public transit service Automobile →Improved automobile travel conditions . Transport progress therefore involves improving all useful modes. achieved in part through the reuse of items and the recycling of materials used in vehicles and infrastructure Be safe for people and Produce no more their property emissions and waste than can be accommodated by the planet's restorative ability Achieving sustainability Conventional planning tends to assume that transport progress is linear. and restricting automobile travel in congested urban areas. the most beneficial strategies may involve improving walking and cycling. consisting of newer. for example. provide cost savings. as illustrated below. improvements may increase comfort and safety. faster modes that displace older.

energy-efficient cars may help control environmental problems. For example. per se. such as to make it compatible with sustainability. Also. Technological solutions are aimed at reducing the negative impact per car and per kilometre. but will hardly solve accessibility problems. is not a solution. Whereas new technologies are capable of substantially reducing various emissions.. Drivers might even be tempted to use their energy efficient car more often because it is cheaper and more environmentally friendly. changing destination choices. . or travelling less.Technological and Behavioural changes Sustainability in transportation can be achieved by bringing out technological as well as behavioural changes among people. e. Such solutions do not appear to sufficiently reduce the problems of car use. by shifting to less polluting modes of transport. 1996).g. combining trips. Examples include increasing the energy efficiency of cars and developing new forms of road surface to reduce the level of traffic noise. other sustain-ability problems such as urban sprawl and accessibility are rooted in a wider complex of causes for which new technology. 2000) or the Jevons principle (OECD. Behavioural changes are aimed to reduce the level of car use. urban quality of life. Such strategies may improve environmental quality. and destination accessibility. behavioural changes are more difficult to be implemented compared to technological changes. This phenomenon is referred to as the rebound effect (Berkhout et al.