Hydrogen vehicle

1 Vehicles

The 2015 Toyota Mirai is one of the first hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to be sold commercially. The Mirai is based on the Toyota
FCV concept car (shown).[1]

Honda FCX Clarity, a hydrogen fuel cell demonstration vehicle
introduced in 2008

Further information: Fuel cell vehicle
A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen
as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as
automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power
plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of
hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors.
Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is
a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.[2]

Buses, trains, PHB bicycles, canal boats, cargo bikes,
golf carts, motorcycles, wheelchairs, ships, airplanes,
submarines, and rockets can already run on hydrogen, in
various forms. NASA used hydrogen to launch Space
Shuttles into space. A working toy model car runs on
solar power, using a regenerative fuel cell to store energy
in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy.[8]
Since the advent of hydraulic fracturing the key concern
for environmentalists with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is
consumer and public policy confusion that could result
adoption of natural gas powered hydrogen vehicles with
heavy hidden emissions to the detriment of environmentally friendly transportation.[7]

Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus
is not an energy source; rather it is an energy carrier. As
of 2014, 95% of hydrogen is made from methane. It can
be produced using renewable sources, but that is an expensive process.[3] Integrated wind-to-hydrogen (power
to gas) plants, using electrolysis of water, are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with traditional energy
sources.[4]

The current land speed record for a hydrogen-powered
vehicle is 286.476 miles per hour (461.038 km/h) set
by Ohio State University's Buckeye Bullet 2, which
achieved a “flying-mile” speed of 280.007 miles per hour
(450.628 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in August
2008. For production-style vehicles, the current record
for a hydrogen-powered vehicle is 207.297 miles per hour
(333.612 km/h) set by a prototype Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 Fuel Cell Race Car at Bonneville Salt Flats in
Wendover, Utah in August 2007. It was accompanied by
a large compressed oxygen tank to increase power.[9]

Many companies are working to develop technologies
that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen
energy for use in motor vehicles. As of November 2013
there are demonstration fleets of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles undergoing field testing including the Chevrolet
Equinox Fuel Cell, Honda FCX Clarity, Hyundai ix35
FCEV and Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-Cell.[5] The drawbacks of hydrogen use are high carbon emissions intensity when produced from natural gas, capital cost burden,
low energy content per unit volume, low performance of 1.1 Automobiles
fuel cell vehicles compared with gasoline vehicles, production and compression of hydrogen, and the large in- Main articles: List of fuel cell vehicles and List of
vestment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles
vehicles.[5][6][7]
1

3 Trams In March 2015. China. 1. will reach a total of $2 billion. Daimler AG.[11] Former European Parliament President Pat Cox estimates that Toyota will initially lose about $100. testing collaboration.[16] Charles Freese. Inc. including automobiles and forklifts. GM’s executive director of global powertrain engineering.4 Bicycles Main article: PHB (bicycle) Pearl Hydrogen Power Sources of Shanghai.5 Motorcycles and scooters ENV develops electric motorcycles powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. car companies have made numerous predictions about the commercialization of FC vehicles.[10][14][15] At the 2012 World Hydrogen Energy Conference. China plans to spend 200 billion yuan ($32 billion) over the next five years to increase tram tracks to more than 1.2 Buses . China South Rail Corporation (CSR) demonstrated the world’s first hydrogen fuel cell-powered tramcar at an assembly facility in Qingdao. issued a report that stated: “The dream of a hydrogen economy .[23] The Burgman cations. in Japan at the end of 2014 and plans to begin sales in California. The bus is expected to get on road in 2015. The Chevrolet Sequel hydrogen fuel cell-powered concept SUV vehicle Many automobile companies have been researching the feasibility of commercially producing hydrogen cars.[12] Toyota FCHV-BUS at the Expo 2005.[19] A total of 83 miles of tracks for the new vehicle have been built in seven Chinese cities. Hyundai and Toyota all confirmed plans to produce hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for sale by 2015. is no nearer.[17] In 2012. Hydrogen was first stored in roof mounted tanks.. the Toyota Mirai. The chief engineer of the CSR subsidiary CSR Sifang Co Ltd. not hydrogen supply. Honda. including the Crosscage and Biplane. The Fuel Cell Bus Club is a global fuel cell bus received “whole vehicle type” approval in the EU.[24] 1.. Some double deck models use between floor tanks. although models are now incorporating onboard tanks. mainly the Los Angeles area. Other manufacturers as Vectrix are working on hydroMain article: fuel cell bus gen scooters.[10] The car is expected to have a range of 300 mi (480 km) and to take about five minutes to refill its hydrogen tank. Lux’s analysis concluded that by 2030. the PEM stationary market will reach $1 billion.Fuel cell scooter. 1.000). Liang Jianying.2 1 VEHICLES Toyota launched its first production fuel cell vehicle. said that the company is studying how to reduce the running costs of the tram. providing “a nearly insurmountable barrier to adoption. unveiled a hydrogen bicycle at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology. while the vehicle market. The sale price in Japan is about 7 million yen ($69. will limit adoption to a mere 5.000 on each Mirai sold.[18] Tata Motors and ISRO have already developed a hydrogen bus which is being tested in India.[20] 1.” It concluded that “Capital cost..[22] and the FHybrid.200 miles. except in niche applications”.9 GW” by 2030.[13] Since 1980. stated that the company believes that both fuel-cell vehicles and battery electric vehicles are needed for reduction of greenhouse gases and reliance on oil. hydrogen fuel cell-electric hyFuel cell buses (as opposed to hydrogen fueled buses) brid scooters are being made such as the Suzuki Burgman are being trialed by several manufacturers in different lo. Lux Research. in 2015. Equipment and Applications in 2007.[21] Finally. and some have introduced demonstration models in limited numbers (see list of fuel cell vehicles).

An advantage of hydrogen rocket fuel is the high effective exhaust velocity compared to kerosene/LOX or UDMH/NTO engines. The Times reported that “Boeing said that hydrogen fuel cells were unlikely to power the engines of large passenger jet airplanes but could be used as backup or auxiliary power units onboard. truck.[37] A total of 30 fuel cell forklifts For more details on this topic. In 2013 there were over 4. see Hydrogen planes.l's H-Due[26] is a hydrogen-powered quad. and Whole Foods).[33] Only 500 of these hydrogen powered tractor has been proposed. FedEx Freight. 1. In February 2008 Boeing tested a manned flight of a small aircraft powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. including Sysco Foods.[38] With other projects in France[39][40] and Austria. the Reaction Engines A2 has been proposed to use the thermodynamic properties of liquid hydrogen to achieve very high speed.[25] drogen as a fuel with the use of a compressor and direct injection.[36] As of 2013.”[29] Most companies in Europe and the US do not use petroleum powered forklifts. Unmanned hydrogen planes have also been tested.8 Fork trucks 3 In July 2010 Boeing unveiled its hydrogen powered Phantom Eye UAV.[28] For large passenger airplanes however. 43 kW (58 hp) diesel internal combustion engine converted to use hyEnergy.7 Airplanes mans. fuel cell fleets are being operated by several of companies. with liquid oxygen as an oxidizer.[36][43] Fuel-cell-powered forklifts can provide benefits over battery powered forklifts as they can work for a full 8-hour shift on a single tank of hydrogen and can be refueled in 3 minutes.[34][35] The global market is 1 million fork lifts per year. Fuel cell-powered forklifts can be used in refrigerated warehouses. powered by two Ford internal combustion engines that have been converted to run on hydrogen.000 fuel cell forklifts capable of transporting 1-3 passengers. Kimberly Clark. Companies such as Boeing.1. Lange Aviation. Before combustion. GENCO (at Weg1.[41] Pike Research stated in 2011 that fuel-cell-powered forklifts will be the largest driver of hydrogen fuel demand by 2020. A concept for a used in material handling in the US.8 Fork trucks A HICE forklift or HICE lift truck is a hydrogen fueled. a rocket with higher exhaust velocity needs less propellant mass to achieve a given change of speed. It used a 2.[31][32] 1.r. The first production HICE forklift truck based on the Linde The Taiwanese company APFCT conducted a live street X39 Diesel was presented at an exposition in Hannover test with 80 fuel cell scooters for Taiwans Bureau of on May 27.[30] In Britain. 2008. the hydro- . internal combustion engine-powered industrial forklift Hydrogen bicycle truck used for lifting and transporting materials. and the with Hylift were demonstrated in Europe and extended it with HyLIFT-EUROPE to 200 units. long distance (antipodal) flight by burning it in a precooled jet engine. and H-E-B Grocers. as these vehicles work indoors where emissions must be controlled and instead use electric forklifts.6 Quads and tractors A fuel cell forklift (also called a fuel cell lift truck or a fuel cell forklift) is a fuel cell powered industrial forklift Autostudi S.9 Rockets Many large rockets use liquid hydrogen as fuel. as their performance is not degraded by lower temperatures.0 litre.[27] received funding from DOE in 2012. According to the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation. Coca-Cola. The FC units are often designed as drop-in replacements.[44][45] 1.[42] The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator powered by a hydrogen fuel cell German Aerospace Center pursue hydrogen as fuel for manned and unmanned airplanes.

However. For first stages.as a catalyst. Another disadvantage is the poor storability of LH2/LOX-powered rockets: Due to the constant hydrogen boil-off. was estimated by the DOE to be $47/kW for an 80 kW PEM water in space. which The projected cost. due cle costing an estimated 100.[53] Shuttle to run the fuel cells that power the electrical systems.[60] .000 dollars.4 3 FUEL CELL gen runs through cooling pipes around the exhaust noz. Existing-technology ICE 3. HICE forklift trucks have been demonstrated[50] based on conditions. in part because of the proMain articles: Hydrogen internal combustion engine hibitive price tag.[58] The advantage of using ICE (internal combustion engine) like Wankel and piston engines is the cost of retooling for production is much lower. DOE estimated the cost had fallen 80% and that auto the smaller vehicle size and lower air drag. assuming a manufacturing volume is used for drinking and other applications that require of 500. which makes cryogenic en. But the DOE estimates that the cost of vehicle and List of hydrogen internal combustion engine producing fuel cells is falling fast”. which means 3 Fuel cell bigger and insulated and thus heavier fuel tanks are needed. while the only exhaust product of hydrogen com. the cost was projected to be $84/kW using 2012 technology.000 units/year.[32] gases. see Fuel cell. however.[46] A disadvantage of LH2/LOX engines are the low density and low temperature of liquid hydrogen. The hydrogen internal com. Department of Energy (DOE) ever.2 Freezing conditions bustion is water vapour. which translated into each vehi[52] elled rockets in studies may show a small advantage. The U.[56] Forbustion car is a slightly modified version of the traditional mer European Parliament President Pat Cox estimates gasoline internal combustion engine car. Overall. the rocket can only be fueled shortly before launch. since they mobile (assuming high-volume manufacturing) was apare carried by the lower stages.that Toyota will initially lose about $100. without significantly Mazda has developed Wankel engines burning hydrogen. reduces its delta-v significantly. using 2012 technology.The service life of fuel cells is comparable to that of other weather applications. for example in cold. Gasoline combustion results in carbon dioxide and water vapour. Hydrogen fuel cells are relatively expensive to produce. reducing range.3 Service life can still be applied for solving those problems where fuel cells are not a viable solution insofar.proximately $275/kW.000 units/year.[59] PEM service life is 7. dense fu.S.000 by April 2015[11] and that it Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different has brought the cost of the fuel cell system down to 5 perfrom hydrogen fuel cell cars.1 Fuel cell cost gines unsuitable for ICBMs and other rocket applications with the need for short launch preparations.[48] The byproduct of the fuel cell is water. how.[54] The Department of Energy 2 Internal combustion vehicle wrote: “Hydrogen fuel cells for cars have never been manufactured at large scale. the weight of a hydrogen stage is much less.000 on each Migen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline rai sold.3. the delta-v of a hydrogen stage is typically not as their designs require rare substances such as platinum [51] much different from that of a dense fuelled stage.[55] vehicles In 2014. Assuming a manufacturing volume of 10.[49] In 1970 Paul Dieges patented a modification to internal combustion engines which allowed a gasoline-powered engine to run on hydrogen US 3844262. This increases the rocket’s structural mass which For more details on this topic.[57] Users in 2014 said that their fuel cell vehicles perform flawlessly in temperatures below zero.converted diesel internal combustion engines with direct zle to protect the nozzle from damage by the hot exhaust injection. by [47] 2010. These hydro. Toyota said it would sell its Toyota Mirai in Japan for less than $70. tomobile fuel cells might be manufactured for $51/kW.300 hours under cycling In 1807 Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed the first hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine.cent of the fuel cell prototypes of the last decade.[12] engines do. vehicles.3. even with the heaters blasting. the main difference is the exhaust product. which estimated in 2002 that the cost of a fuel cell for an automakes it particularly effective for upper stages. Liquid hydrogen and oxygen were also used in the Space assuming high-volume manufacturing cost savings. The problems in early fuel cell designs at low temperatures concerning range and cold start capabilities have been addressed so that they “cannot be seen as showstoppers anymore”. fuel cell.

”[64] While methods of hydrogen production that do not use fossil fuel would be more sustainable. to compete with traditional energy sources. In either case. For more details on this topic. by a process called thermolysis. and quantities great enough.[51] Hydrogen has a three times higher specific energy by mass compared to gasoline (143 MJ/kg versus 46. compress or liquefy.[3][62] Integrated wind-to-hydrogen (power to gas) plants. the volumetric energy density (megajoules per liter) is small relative to that of gasoline. 95% of hydrogen is made from methane. in the case of biomass. Environmental consequences of the production of hy.S. renewable sources are being used more widely to produce energy and hydrogen. coal (by a process known as coal gasification). but is first produced and then stored as a carrier. are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough. The molecular hydrogen needed as an on-board fuel for hydrogen vehicles can be obtained through many thermochemical methods utilizing natural gas.[7][61] Hydrogen production using renewable energy resources would not create such emissions or. as of 2014. not including dams. or as a microbial waste product called biohydrogen or Biological hydrogen production.[71] and 85% of hydrogen produced is used to remove sulfur from gasoline.[77] 4. used to produce. electricity was produced from renewable sources. see Hydrogen storage. and transmit the hydrogen by pipeline or truck. equal to about one-third that of methane. Hydrogen can also be produced from water by electrolysis or by chemical reduction using chemical hydrides or aluminum. Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and at lower pressures. 95% of hydrogen is produced using natural gas. usable with (at most) minor alterations to existing well developed and relatively efficient diesel engines.2 Storage The challenges facing the use of hydrogen in vehicles include production.S.[72] Current technologies for manufacturing hydrogen use energy in various forms.2 Storage 4 Hydrogen Hydrogen does not come as a pre-existing source of energy like fossil fuels. less than 3 percent of U.[73] Compressed hydrogen storage mark at ambient conditions. “when FCVs are run on hydrogen reformed from natural gas using this process.[76] and Denmark is using wind. For example. would create near-zero net emissions assuming new biomass is grown in place of that converted to hydrogen. Even when the fuel is stored as liquid hydrogen in a cryogenic tank or in a compressed hydrogen storage tank. A suggested benefit of large-scale deployment of hydrogen vehicles is that it could lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. However the same land could be used to create Biodiesel.[67] Analyses comparing the environmental consequences of hydrogen production and use in fuelcell vehicles to the refining of petroleum and combustion in conventional automobile engines do not agree on whether a net reduction of ozone and greenhouse gases would result. they do not provide significant environmental benefits on a well-to-wheels basis (due to GHG emissions from the natural gas reformation process). A study sponsored by the U. totaling between 25 and 50 percent of the higher heating value of the hydrogen fuel. using electrolysis of water. Department of Energy said in 2004 that the well-to-wheel efficiency of gasoline or diesel powered vehicles is even less. Iceland is using geothermal power to produce hydrogen.[63] According to Ford Motor Company. storage.[61] However. and power produced from renewable sources can be used in electric vehicles and for non-vehicle applications.9 MJ/kg).[70] 4.[74] As of December 2008.A recent study by Dutch researcher Robin Gremaud has drogen from fossil energy resources include the emis.[66] 5 also result from the on-board reforming of methanol into hydrogen. the scale of renewable energy production today is small and would need to be greatly expanded to be used in producing hydrogen for a significant part of transportation needs. much like a battery.shown that metal hydride hydrogen tanks are actually 40 sion of greenhouse gases. a consequence that would to 60-percent lighter than an equivalent energy battery .[65] currently renewable energy represents only a small percentage of energy generated.[75] In a few countries.1 Production For more details on this topic. see Hydrogen production. but that is an expensive process. transport and distribution.4. The well-to-wheel efficiency for hydrogen is less than Hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density [7][67][68][69] 25%. liquefied petroleum gas. biomass (biomass gasification). It can be produced using renewable sources.

.[79][80] 5 OFFICIAL SUPPORT For more details on this topic. eight of which were in Southern California.6 pack on an electric vehicle permitting greater range for H2 cars. be found in hydrides. have been identified as an institutional barrier to deploying hydrogen technologies and developing a hydrogen economy. Transportation and The Environment. state and local governments. Big companies like The Center for ture. As of 2013. found a new single-stage method for recharging ammonia borane.S. and one in South Carolina.drogen pipeline can obtain supply via hydrogen tanks. the Obama administration thinks that it can create success stories and help speed up the process”. as well as codes and technical standards for hydrogen safety and the storage of hydrogen.[87] 5 Official support In January 2003. materials that can absorb.cess to hydrogen.[7][86] means of transportation.port power systems.lives near a hydrogen-generating facility but has little acable for hydrogen fuel cells storage include: High pres. Pennsylvania. To enable the commercialization of hydrogen in consumer products. “Alternatives to large storage tanks may trucks or dedicated onsite production.[81][82] The California Hydrogen Highway is an initiative to build a series of hydrogen refueling stations along California 4. The hydrogen infrastructure consists mainly of industrial hydrogen pipeline transport and hydrogen-equipped filling stations like those found on a hydrogen highway. 70% of the U.[78] In 2011. George W. drogen and fuel cell power. and Hydrogen use would require the alteration of industry and release large quantities of hydrogen gas. population fore they are of practical use”. see Hydrogen highway. scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and University of Alabama.S. Fed Ex Express. and cost of throughout the U.3 Infrastructure state highways. Hydrogen stations which are not situated near a hyHydrogen storage is a key area for the advancement of hy.6 billion in the EU. conformability. Department of Energy. despite its wide availability for commersure tanks and cryogenic tanks.2 million investHydrogen fueling ment to the states of Georgia.S. according to GM. The Department of Energy is spreading a $7. store.. More work and transport on a scale never seen before in history. Bush announced an initiative to promote hydrogen powered vehicles.[85] Other estiallow for a driving range of 300+ miles while meeting mates place the cost as high as half trillion dollars in the all requirements in order to stay competitive with current United States alone. An article discussing the issue compressed hydrogen tube trailers. one in the San Francisco bay area. see Hydrogen infrastruc.[5] 4. Kansas.4 Codes and standards Hydrogen car fueling Hydrogen codes and standards.S. “by partnering with a private sector. Some other options avail.[88] President Obama has shown much support for the progression of fuel cell energy. would require new hydrogen stations storage.[83] The distribution of hydrogen fuel for vehicles improve volumetric capacity. 10 publicly accessible hydrogen filling stations were in operation in the U. new codes and standards must be developed and adopted by federal. The DOE’s efforts on this matter have focused that would cost. For development needs to be performed with hydrides be.example. In January 2014 the Obama administration announced they want to speed up production and development of hydrogen powered vehicles. liquid hydrogen tank of storage states. working with the U. The press release states that. by some estimates approximately 20 bilon on-board vehicular hydrogen storage systems that will lion dollars[84] and 4. and Tennessee to support projects that fuel vehicles and supFor more details on this topic. a hydrogen storage compound. Both of which strive to cial use.

” Asked when hydrogen cars will be broadly available. which creates at least as much lion as well.. hydrogen is a lousy way to move cars. found that. quoted vestments in our nation’s efforts to develop safe. in September 2008. “But why gram as “congress recognized and embraced the role hy. The revised mandate allows the DOE gave 9 million dollars in grants to speed up the manufacturers to comply with the rules by building more technology and another 4.”[95] Critiques of hydrogen vehicles are presented in the 2006 documentary. hydrogen vehicles will emit more carbon than gasoline vehicles. but it takes energy. “A hydrogen car is one of the least efficient. He stated.would you want to store energy in the form of hydrodrogen fuel cells and their fuels play in the portfolio of gen and then use that hydrogen to produce electricity energy technologies for the 21st centuries”. when electrical energy is already waiting to and Security program was passed to boost hydrogen enbe sucked out of sockets all over America and stored in vironmental cleanup programs and fossil fuel programs. “The Energy and Water Appropriations bill makes in. If that energy does not come from renewable sources.[71] A December 2009 study at UC Davis. and lower costs of fuel cells. The overall goals of these efforts are to improve efficiency published in the Journal of Power Sources. in February 2009. “it would surely be easier formance. Department of Energy supports America.. . and very possibly never.[90][91] over their lifetimes.[66][92] They claim that the focus on the way to convert energy to mobility is electricity.S. because ongoing research and devel.” Water Appropriations bill earlier this year.through steam reformation. [99] Critics claim the time frame for overcoming the techni. this bill also restores funding for Hydrogen energy Air Resources Board. Any way [96] it. Fuel cells could also be used in handling equipment such as forklifts as well as telecommunications infrastructure.5 million for advanced fuel cell battery-electric cars instead of fuel-cell vehicles. and. changed its requirement for the number of zeronext generation fuel cell systems and they are the nations emission vehicles (ZEVs) to be built and sold in Califorlead innovative clean energy technologies.emission of carbon per mile as some of today’s gasoline ward these developments..5 mil. or global warming. And.. According to former U.. The most efficient broadly available.cars.fuel'". “Hydrogen fuel-cell you look at Senator Byron L. and hydrogen vehicles may never become physics hinder their overall efficiency. auto batteries"?. you need to convert it first into hyfuels in vehicles. G.7 Air Products and Chemicals.nia from earlier goals: “In March [2008] the California gies. Romm replied: “Not in our lifetime.percent of the initial energy”. the author of Energy Victory. “And then you have to convert In the meantime. most importantly. Wired News reported drogen “with low efficiencies” where “you lose about 40 that “experts say it will be 40 years or more before hydro.The Washington Post asked in November 2009.” He elabuse of the hydrogen car is a dangerous detour from more orated: “Hydrogen mobility only makes sense if you use readily available solutions to reducing the use of fossil green energy”.”[94] efficiency loss”.”[97] The membranes. Duleep commented that “a strong case exists for original 100 percent [100] The Business Insider commented: 30 to 40 percent. You then must compress gen has any meaningful impact on gasoline consumption the hydrogen and store it under high pressure in tanks. home. you end up with K. the laws of eral decades. but . most expensive Pure hydrogen can be industrially derived. Dorgan spoke out about The Energy and technology won't work in cars.[97] The magazine noted the withdrawal of Califoropment is necessary to develop game-changing technolo. Another . Much work has been done in developing these ernment and a bellwether for state governments across fuel cell cars.[89] ways to reduce greenhouse gases. which uses more energy. if the hydrogen could be pronovative membranes with improved durability and per.”[97] million was given by the government to the SECA Pro.” continuing fuel-efficiency improvements from conventional technology at relatively low cost. as saygrown energy sources that will reduce our reliance on ing: “Hydrogen is 'just about the worst possible vehicle foreign oil.[93] In May 2008.duced using renewable energy. In June 2013 nia between 2012 and 2014. then fuel-cell cars are not as clean as they seem. and we can't afford to wait that long. simply to use this energy to charge the batteries of allmaking them simpler and more affordable. On the other hand. Krebs continued: “in the end.Robert Zubrin.[98] This agrees with a 2014 analysis. . and Sprint are invested in the development of these fuel cells. Minnesota is focusing on in.how excellent you make the cars themselves. fuel cells are diverting resources from the hydrogen back to electricity in a fuel cell with another more immediate solutions. The Energy for a motor.. an agency of California’s state govresearch”. Last year $54 electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles. Who Killed the Electric Car?.S. The U. storage.The Economist magazine. Colorado is focusing on fuel cell membranes. Department of Energy official Joseph Romm.” cal and economic challenges to implementing wide-scale Volkswagen’s Rudolf Krebs said in 2013 that “no matter use of hydrogen cars is likely to last for at least sev. Minnesota based 3M will receive 3 million magazine also noted that most hydrogen is produced and the Colorado School of Mines will receive 1.[7] The Motley Fool stated in 2013 that “there 6 Criticism are still cost-prohibitive obstacles [for hydrogen cars] relating to transportation.”[95] The Los Angeles Times wrote.production. from your of electric energy. Minnesota and Colorado are working to.

[108] The battery then must be charged.2 Natural gas Main article: Natural gas vehicle ICE-based CNG.8 7 COMPARISON WITH OTHER TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE challenge is the lack of infrastructure. over their lifetimes..[105] 7 Comparison with other types of alternative fuel vehicle As of 2009. NGVs using biogas are nearly carbon neutral. he says. the Lithium iron phosphate battery was between 80-90% efficient in charging/discharging.”[103] GreenTech Media's analyst reached similar conclusions in 2014.[113] Unlike hydrogen vehicles. The infrastructure required to charge PHEVs is already in place. and it’s unlikely many will do that while there are so few customers on the road today. the GM Volt’s battery has 4 coolers and two radiators. from generating the hydrogen with that electricity to transporting this diffuse gas long distances. The PHEV concept augments standard hybrid electric vehicles with the ability to recharge their batteries from an external source. “the total well-to-wheels efficiency with which a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle might utilize renewable electricity is roughly 20% (although that number could rise to 25% or a little higher with the kind of multiple technology breakthroughs required to enable a hydrogen economy). each additional step in the conversion process decreases the overall efficiency of the process. Compounding the lack of infrastructure is the high cost of the technology. everyone’s house- . Fuel cells are “still very. Clean Technica listed some of the disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. is 80% (and could be higher in the future)—four times more efficient than current hydrogen fuel cell vehicle pathways. and a lack of fueldelivery infrastructure. “Electric cars— and plug-in hybrid cars—have an enormous advantage over hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles in utilizing low-carbon electricity.[98] 7.[114] Hydrogen vehicles compete with various proposed alternatives to the modern fossil fuel powered vehicle infrastructure.8 million natural gas vehicles by the end of 2011. AC/DC conversion must take place from the grids AC supply to the PHEV’s DC.. Natural gas has a higher energy density than hydrogen gas. however. there were 14.”[69] A 2006 article in Scientific American argued that PHEVs. is not the only energy loss in transferring power from grid to wheels. are hybrid vehicles that can be plugged into the electric grid and contain an electric motor and also an internal combustion engine.1 Plug-in hybrids Main article: Plug-in hybrid Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.[111][112] A December 2009 study at UC Davis found that. store and deliver hydrogen to vehicles and would cost billions of dollars to put into place. very expensive”. and there is sufficient infrastructure to provide both commercial and home refueling stations. Gas stations need to invest in the ability to refuel hydrogen tanks before FCEVs become practical.[51] 7. would become standard in the automobile industry.[104] In 2015. Joseph Romm devoted three articles to updating his critiques of hydrogen vehicles. rather than hydrogen vehicles. and then running it through a fuel cell—all for the purpose of converting the hydrogen back into electricity to drive the same exact electric motor you'll find in an electric car. however. That is because of the inherent inefficiency of the entire hydrogen fueling process. using the steam reforming process. HCNG or LNG vehicles (Natural gas vehicles or NGVs) use methane (Natural gas or Biogas) directly as a fuel source. enabling increased use of the vehicle’s electric motors while reducing their reliance on internal combustion engines. and the gap will widen further”. As of 2007. getting the hydrogen in the car. He concludes that renewable energy cannot economically be used to make hydrogen for an FCV fleet “either now or in the future.3 7.[116][117] A 2013 comparison of hydrogen and battery electric vehicles agreed with the 25% figure from Ulf Bossel in 2006 and stated that the cost of an electric vehicle battery “is rapidly coming down. “FCVs aren't green” because of escaping methane during natural gas extraction and when hydrogen is produced. CNG vehicles have been available for many years.”[115] Thermodynamically. while there is little “existing infrastructure to transport.[107] This. The well-to-wheels efficiency of charging an onboard battery and then discharging it to run an electric motor in a PHEV or EV. . “It would take several miracles to overcome all of those problems simultaneously in the coming decades. high fueling cost.[109] The battery needs to be cooled. This is roughly 98% efficient.[101] In 2014. Worldwide.[106] and transmission of power from grid to car is about 93% efficient.”[102] Most importantly. PHEVs will emit less carbon than current vehicles. He states that FCVs still have not overcome the following issues: high cost of the vehicles.[110] All-electric vehicles Main article: electric car A 2008 Technology Review article stated. as 95% of it is. or PHEVs. while hydrogen cars will emit more carbon than gasoline vehicles.

com.000 On Every Hydrogen FCV Sold?". Where’s My Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Car?'". Retrieved 2013-11-26. “GM to Maintain Hydrogen Push as PlugIn Volt Readied for Sale”.[124] the 2014 Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive has an estimated range of 115 mi (185 km)[125] and the Tesla Model S has a range of up to 265 mi (426 km). the 2013 Nissan Leaf has a range of 75 mi (121 km). .”[122] In 2013 Takeshi Uchiyamada. most US commutes are 30–40 miles (48–64 km) miles per day round trip[127] and in Europe most commutes are around 20 kilometres (12 mi) round-trip[128] In 2013. Julian. September 2009. 2010 .000 euros per hydrogen FCV sedan”. November 19. [12] Ayre. The New York Times stated that there are only 10 publicly accessible hydrogen filling stations in the U. [4] “Wind-to-Hydrogen Project”. Alex (2013-11-22).”[5] In 2013 John Swanton of the California Air Resources Board. March 17. Will Retail in Japan For Around ¥7 Million”.[121] Navigant Research. “Fuel Cells at Center Stage”. Sebastian. when comparing electricity from the grid and hydrogen at a filling station.[129] The Business Insider. Retrieved 2013-11-26. Yahoo. (formerly Pike research). For example.[101] 8 See also 9 References [1] “Toyota Unveils 2015 Fuel Cell Sedan. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 2014 [13] Whoriskey. Fuel cells are “still very. March 31. EVs are for real consumers. then fuel-cell cars are not as clean as they seem. no strings attached. transportevolved. [2] A portfolio of power-trains for Europe: a fact-based analysis [3] Romm.com.. “Toyota To Lose $100. October 17. 2014-06-25. [16] “Hydrogen fuel cells to hit showrooms by 2013”. 7 June 2012 [17] Alan Ohnsman.. “The Hydrogen Car Gets Its Fuel Back”. Joseph. which are tipping the scales at about $500 per kilowatt hour now.com. GreenAutoblog. and it’s unlikely many will do that while there are so few customers on the road today. The Business Insider. [7] Cox.com. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research.S. of Energy. 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The Times commented: “By the time Toyota sells its first fuel-cell sedan.9 hold power sockets are “electric vehicle refueling” station and the “cost of electricity (depending on the source) is at least 75% cheaper than hydrogen. Compounding the lack of infrastructure is the high cost of the technology. Department of Energy. [9] “New Hydrogen-Powered Land Speed Record from Ford”. we are going to be waiting for a long time”.000 Car After Musk Pans ‘Fool Cells’".com.000 ($200– $250/kWh) on 300 miles of range. Motorsportsjournal. from the University of Tennessee stated “If we are sitting around waiting for a battery breakthrough that will give us four times the range than we have now. James. Hyundai Australia. [10] Voelcker. charging stations. “Bibendum 2014: Former EU President says Toyota could lose 100. The New York Times. “Decades Of Promises: 'Dude.. 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