Structural dynamics

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Structural dynamics is a subset of structural analysis which covers the behaviour of
structures subjected to dynamic loading. Dynamic loads include people, wind, waves,
traffic, earthquakes, and blasts. Any structure can be subject to dynamic loading.
Dynamic analysis can be used to find dynamic displacements, time history, and modal
A static load is one which does not vary. A dynamic load is one which changes with time.
If it changes slowly, the structure's response may be determined with static analysis, but if
it varies quickly (relative to the structure's ability to respond), the response must be
determined with a dynamic analysis.
Dynamic analysis for simple structures can be carried out manually, but for complex
structures finite element analysis can be used to calculate the mode shapes and
frequencies. An open-source, lightweight, free software DYSSOLVE can be used to solve
basic structural dynamics problems.Contents [hide]
1 Displacements
2 Time history analysis
2.1 Example
3 Damping
4 Modal analysis
4.1 Energy method
4.2 Modal response
5 Modal participation factor
6 External links
A dynamic load can have a significantly larger effect than a static load of the same
magnitude due to the structure's inability to respond quickly to the loading (by
deflecting). The increase in the effect of a dynamic load is given by the dynamic
amplification factor (DAF):
where u is the deflection of the structure due to the applied load.
Graphs of dynamic amplification factors vs non-dimensional rise time (tr/T) exist for
standard loading functions (for an explanation of rise time, see time history analysis
below). Hence the DAF for a given loading can be read from the graph, the static
deflection can be easily calculated for simple structures and the dynamic deflection
Time history analysis

This can be modelled by modifying the DAF: DAF = 1 + e − cπ . [edit] Damping Any real structure will dissipate energy (mainly through friction). To find the full time history of a structure's response you must solve the structure's equation of motion. where the false assumption is made that there is no damping. the solution to the equation of motion is: where and the fundamental natural frequency. such as the sudden addition of a piece of furniture. However. M. or the removal of a prop to a newly cast concrete floor. This time is called the rise time. As the number of degrees of freedom of a structure increases it very quickly becomes too difficult to calculate the time history manually . The static deflection of a single degree of freedom system is: so you can write. the Heaviside Step Function is a reasonable model for the application of many real loads.they build up over a period of time (this may be very short indeed).real structures are analysed using nonlinear finite element analysis software. in reality loads are never applied instantaneously . If the loading F(t) is a Heaviside step function (the sudden application of a constant load). . on a spring of stiffness.A full time history will give the response of a structure over time during and after the application of a load. [edit] Example A simple single degree of freedom system (a mass. Although this is too simplistic to apply to a real structure. k for example) has the following equation of motion: where is the acceleration (the double derivative of the displacement) and x is the displacement. by combining the above formulae: x = xstatic[1 − cos(ωt)] This gives the (theoretical) time history of the structure due to a load F(t).

stiffness and applied force for a single degree of freedom system. but not necessarily its full time history response to a given input.or equal to .where and is typically 2%-10% depending on the type of construction: Bolted steel ~6% Reinforced concrete ~ 5% Welded steel ~ 2% Generally damping would be ignored for non-transient events (such as wind loading or crowd loading). as above: . an impulse load such as a bomb blast). but would be important for transient events (for example. Rayleigh's principle states: "The frequency ω of an arbitrary mode of vibration. but it is not a conservative method. of a structural system with mass. F(x): then. [edit] Modal analysis A modal analysis calculates the frequency modes or natural frequencies of a given system. and applied force. which leads to large oscillations. It is not dependent on the load function." For an assumed mode shape . The method is: Find the natural modes (the shape adopted by a structure) and natural frequencies Calculate the response of each mode Optionally superpose the response of each mode to find the full modal response to a given loading [edit] Energy method It is possible to calculate the frequency of different mode shapes of system manually by the energy method. EI (Young's modulus. stiffness. multiplied by the second moment of area. For simple structures the basic mode shapes can be found by inspection. It is useful to know the modal frequencies of a structure as it allows you to ensure that the frequency of any applied periodic loading will not coincide with a modal frequency and hence cause resonance. E. I). calculated by the energy method. is always greater than . For a given mode shape of a multiple degree of freedom system you can find an "equivalent" mass. The natural frequency of a system is dependent only on the stiffness of the structure and the mass which participates with the structure (including self-weight). M.the fundamental frequency ωn.

but exact) Superpose the maximum amplitudes of each mode (quick but conservative) Superpose the square root of the sum of squares (good estimate for well-separated frequencies.t) is . The modal participation factor Γ is a comparison of these two masses. it is possible to read the DAF from a standard graph. The static displacement can be calculated with . The dynamic displacement for the chosen mode and applied force can then be found from: umax = ustaticDAF [edit] Modal participation factor For real systems there is often mass participating in the forcing function (such as the mass of ground in an earthquake) and mass participating in inertia effects (the mass of the structure itself. Meq). For a single degree of freedom system Γ = 1. having calculated them by the energy method: Assuming that the rise time tr is known (T = 2π/ω). Γ [edit] External links Structural Dynamics Testing/Modal Analysis DYSSOLVE: Dynamic System Solver Structural Dynamics and Vibration Laboratory of McGill University Frame3DD open source 3D structural dynamics analysis program Frequency response function from modal parameters Categories: Structural analysis | Dynamics Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia . but unsafe for closely spaced frequencies) To superpose the individual modal responses manually.[edit] Modal response The complete modal response to a given load F(x. The summation can be carried out by one of three common methods: Superpose complete time histories of each mode (time consuming.

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