PART I

URBAN AND RURAL LIFE
Did you live in a village, a town or a big city? Where would you prefer to live? Why?

 Reading
Read the text and find Ukrainian equivalents to words in bold type.
TOWN AND COUNTRY
Today people all over the world are moving out of small hamlets and villages in the
country to big, noisy cities. They are moving from the peaceful hills and mountains,
fields and plains, valleys, rivers and streams of the countryside to the busy world of
overcrowded streets, buildings and traffic. This movement from rural areas to urban
areas has been going on for over two hundred years.
In many countries, the main reason people come to live in towns and cities is work.
After one or two large factories have been built in or near a town, people come to find
work, and soon an industrial area begins to grow. There is usually a residential area
nearby, where the factory workers can live. The inhabitants need schools, hospitals and
shops, so more people come to live in the area to provide these services – and so the city
grows and develops.
Life in the city was never very easy, but the Industrial Revolution made 19thcentury cities almost uninhabitable. Most city dwellers were overworked, underfed, and
poorly housed. While in earlier times wealthy people usually lived in the centre of the
city, during the nineteenth century rich people began to move to the outer areas. The
poor people, who had no means of transportation, were forced in the highly polluted
central areas.
Most modern cities have paved roads, sidewalks, electric lights. Improvements are
still being made. The main problems are overpopulation, crime, poverty, and water
pollution.
In every major city in the world, there is a business district where the big
companies have their main offices. In the United States, their area is usually in the city
centre downtown. It is here that you can see the huge skyscraper office blocks
springing up. The people who work here often travel a long way to work each day. Many
of them live in the suburbs of the city, far away from the industrial area and the city
centre.
But what is the future of the big cities? Will they continue to get bigger and bigger?
Perhaps not. Some major cities have actually become smaller in the last ten years, as
people are also moving out of major cities back into provincial areas.
Exercise 1
Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the passage.
1. Many people from small villages go to live in big cities.
2. Urban areas contain mainly hills, mountains, rivers and streams.
3. Many people go to live in urban areas to find schools.
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4. Plants are built inside residential areas.
5. Business districts are usually in the city centres.
6. Workers in the city centres often live in the skyscrapers in suburbs.
7. The suburbs of a city usually contain more trees, parks and gardens than the city
centres.
8. The movement from country to city will definitely continue in the future.
Exercise 2
Look at these pairs of items. Decide which is larger in size and put a cross (x) next to it.
Explain your decision.
Example: hill – mountain x, as hill is usually just a rounded natural elevation of land
lower than a mountain.
1. settlement – town
6. river – stream
2. city – business district
7. park - garden
3. field – countryside
8. shop – department store
4. urban area – city centre
9. factory – industrial area
5. skyscraper – residential area
10.rural area – farm
Exercise 3
Look at the list of buildings below.
a.write (H) next to those buildings which can be people’s homes;
b.write (A) next to those buildings which are ancient and (N) next to those which are
new;
c.explain what these buildings are used for.
Example: Monastery (H) (A) - an establishment in which members of a religious
community (as of monks) live and carry on their work.
Castle
Farm
Mansion
Duplex house
Pyramid
Abbey
Greek theatre
Palace
Hotel
Cathedral
Casino
Church
Mosque
Bungalow
Garage
Triumphal Arch
Campanile
Tomb
Minaret
Colonnade
Gallery

 Reading
Read the text and say what are the advantages and disadvantages of living in cities.
BIG CITIES :
WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK
We hear a lot of these days about the problems of living in cities: crimes,
pollution, crowds, and so on. This article tells about one married couple who grew tired
of these problems and left the city, and another couple who grew tired of living in the
suburbs and moved back into the city.

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THE LEMONSES
It was a difficult decision for Stieve and Joyce Lemons to move away from the
neighbourhood where they both were raised in Chicago. About six years ago, the
Lemonses began to have doubts about the quality of life in their old neighbourhood.
Families who had been there for a long time began moving away. Many homes were
changed into appartments. Property values decreased as welfare families and illegal
immigrants moved into the neighbourhood. Crime increased.
The Lemonses made their decision. They bought a home twenty-five miles outside
the city. It is located on several acres of land, which Joyce calls ”Our own small corner
of the world where no one bothers us.” The house payments are three times more than
the city rent but Steve says it’s well worth it. Also, he can’t help admiring the quietness
of country lanes, walks and paths, and isn’t even upset when his car gets into a road
pothole. He adds, “Never under any circumstances would I move back into the city. I
would change jobs and leave the state first.”
THE COXES
When Mr and Mrs Cox decided to move into a condominium on the lake in
Chicago, they wondered if this would make life more difficult for their sons. The boys
were used to a large house, a yard, a good public school, and friends who all lived
nearby in South Holland, Illinois. The Coxes do not regret their decision to leave their
hometown. The boys swim in an outdoor pool at their building. They take art classes
given at a huge park next to the lake. The public school they attend is considered one of
Chicago’s best.
Mrs Cox says she actually feels safer in her new home than in South Holland,
where she was afraid to go out for a walk alone after dark. “Here, streets, alleys and
avenues are well lighted, and there are always policemen around,” she says. “The fact
that people are out at all hours in this area makes you safe.” Mr Cox works at the real
estate company that owns the condominium that the family lives in. He hated
commuting from South Holland, a ninety-minute drive to his city office.
Grocery shopping is easier now for Mrs Cox. A store in the appartment building
fills immediate. Costs are more reasonable at a supermarket that is within walking
distance. “We sold our second car,” says Mrs Cox. “I walk everywhere. I think it’s
healthy. In the suburbs I was always driving them somewhere. There wasn’t much time
to develop my own interests.” And both parents have more time to spend with their
children. “We feel more like a family now,” says Mrs Cox.
Exercise 1
Choose right answers to the following questions or find the right end of the statements.
1. What is the main idea of the article?
a. Big cities are bad places to live.
b. Some people are happy living in cities and some are not.
c. There is a lot of crime in cities.
2. The Lemonses want to stay in their neighbourhood because
a. families began to move away.
b. property values decreased.
c. they were raised in that neighbourhood.
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3. They decided to leave because
a. they didn’t feel safe in the city.
b. the city rent was very expensive.
c. Steve wanted to change jobs.
4. The Coxes were worried about their sons because
a. the boys swim in an outdoor pool.
b. the boys play in the park.
c. the boys were used to a large house.
5. Mr Cox is happy because
a. he doesn’t have to commute any more.
b. he has a better job.
c. the food prices are cheaper in the city.
Exercise 2
Answer the following questions, then discuss your answers with your classmates.
1. What is the worst thing about living in cities?
a) heavy traffic b) broken street lamps c) street clocks which are always slow
d)
other
2. What is the best thing about living in cities?
a) You can find a new job from an advertising pillar b) There are interesting
activities (movies, restaurants, and so on) c) Nobody cares what you do d) other
3. What is the best thing about living in the suburbs?
a) You have more room (a big house or a yard, for example) b) The smell of trees and
flowers c) Few pedestrians d) other
4. What is the worst thing about living in the suburbs?
a) You have to commute to work b) Pavements and kerbstone roads are quite rare c)
You have to go everywhere by car d) other
5. Are cities good places for children?
a) yes b) no c) sometimes d) other
6. What would you look for first in deciding to move to a new area?
a) an appartment with a low rent b) a neighbourhood with pretty house c) good
schools d) other
7. Most people live in cities because
a) their jobs are there b) they like interesting activities c) they find the people who
live there interesting d) other
Exercise 3
Choose one of the following situations to act out.
1. The Lemonses are explaining to their two daughters why they have to move out of
the city.
2. Mr and Mrs Cox’s two boys are telling their parents how they feel about living in the
city.
3. A real estate agent is trying to rent the Lemons’s old appartment to a young married
couple. The couple are asking questions about the neighbourhood.
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. . in education in the past few years. 2. . 2. 3. New York. . . . 3. If stone-covered streets cause . 4. . . the old one. City Life cosmopolitan metropolis stimulation pollution urban commuter congestion cost of living city-dwellers to breed crime anonymity irresistible lure Most people in developed countries are (a) _______. . 3. . their building and . . . dark. the neighbourhood. . A. The gas main in the . that all gutters have gutter covers. his city office. . . . . the quality . rundown neighborhood) about why they dislike living there. the torn electricity cables. 5.Alec doesn’t feel safer . . 7. life . neighbourly 1. .It was difficult for my family to move . . many drawn by the (b) _____ of the (c) _____.The boys swim . . neighbourhood.Mr Cox works a ninety-minute drive . where he is afraid to go . . located here. to me. C. conveniently 1. the (e) _________ of 102 .4. . . bad weather. . the lake . . methods are improving skills. The attractions of the city are many: the (d) _________ atmosphere (foreign restaurants. . .I don’t want to work hard every day only to come home and lock myself . . Exercise 4 Fill in the correct preposition for each blank space 1. The . a condominium. . . different languages. . There have been many . . . . . .People who make their decisions to move . cities have two main reasons: inner-city crime and bad schools. . . . It is difficult to . they thought this would make life easier. international companies). Washington. . 4. . 2. . their old settlement. The litterbins are very . . . . B. 2. 6. . He has always been very . should be carefully checked.Five years later.When all the family moved . A reporter is talking to a group of people who live in a city “slum” (poor. . an outdoor pool . . 3. . the Smiths began to have doubts . It is very . . my family’s safety”. .“I never knew what to expect . to change. . his new home than . convenience. . . . . . changing 1. . . . for us if we don’t repair the drain pipe in our house. 8. I hope it will be . . . and I was always worried . . 5. . Exercise 5 Use the correct word in the sentences below. Exercise 6 Put each of the following words or phrases in the passage. . 9. we can make bituminous surface. . of shopping is a good thing about city living. . inconvenient. change. the neighbourhood where my parents were raised . . . inconvenience. . . neighbour. a nearby indoor pool . . George is a good . convenient. . .

etc. etc. traffic jams. unfriendly people. both compared to. city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored. also. There is a lot to do but everything is expensive. too. poor public transport system. noise. there are a lot of interesting things to do and places to see. it is the daily stresses and strains of the city which make life there a matter of survival rather than of enjoyment. City life high pollution levels. All too many find. hectic lifestyle. it is often easier to find work. on the contrary. Country life healthy. poor entertainment. however. low crime rate.  Reading a.cultural events or the simple hope of finding work. 103 . Useful expressions: although. There is (h) _____ not only of the physical but also of the moral environment and the various pressures of (i) _______ life cause cities (g) _______ Above all. lots of entertainment facilities. E. picturesque surroundings. larger houses. All in all. What is the purpose of each one? b Replace the words underlined with one of the following. friendly people. visit museums. whereas it is. Life in the city is more stressful in comparison to life in the country. Read the text on the next page about the advantages and disadvantages of living in a city. open-minded people. etc. relaxing. Also. then compare and contrast life in the city and life in the country. when you want to relax. and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more. good public transport system. monotonous. many schools. however. you can eat in good restaurants. low pollution levels. intruding people.g. One can be very lonely in the city and the (f) ______ which at first seems to give freedom and protection later leaves just loneliness. The (g) _____ is high. unfortunately. high crime rate. ‘Is it worth it?’  Speaking Look at the notes and the useful expressions. in comparison to. different to. perhaps. few schools/hospitals. isolated. small houses. For example. that the glamorous façade is false. and there is usually a choice of public transport. There are three paragraphs. easy to find a job. no variety of jobs. etc. in spite of pros and cons another point is that one advantage is that all things considered for instance to sum up in my pinion one disadvantage is that especially moreover finally Living in the City Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages. Life in the city is very different from life in the country. On the plus side. Many a (k) _____ struggling to work through the rush-hour (l) _____ asks. stressful. many hospitals. you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. so you don’t need to own a car.

especially on Sundays.  Writing Write rough notes about the pros and cons of living in the country. Last of all. despite all the crowds. What is more. She is an American who lives in London Terry Tomscha talks about her experience of living and working in England. and even the parks can become very crowded. However. Group A Listen to Sheila and Bob talking about when they lived in New York. Compare them with your partner. cheap accommodation. but unless it is very well-paid. In the conclusion give your own opinion. Write about 250 words. who like the excitement of the city and don’t mind the noise and pollution. often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside. it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city. Write three paragraphs called “The Pros and Cons of Living in the Country”. when they get older. for every plus there is a minus. particularly in the rush hour. c) What do they/does she say about the following things? 104 . you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do. I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people. public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty. It is particularly difficult to find good. and particularly when they have young children.However. where she has been for the past eleven years. in a small village outside London. They now live back in England. Bob and Sheila spent two years living in New York because of Bob’s work as a banker. In conclusion. when it seems that every city-dweller is looking for some open space and green grass. Group B Listen to Terry. you might have a job. For one thing. Neither of them had lived in a big city before. Listening New York and London a) What do you know about New York and London? Have you been there? What did you do? What did you think of these cities? b) Work in two groups. many people. because living in a city is often very expensive.

It is the oldest city in North America and was being built 3 on the remains of the Aztec capital. put a tick by it. But. Unfortunately. Exercise 7 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. it is the most exciting and most 00 friendliest city in the world. write it in the space provided. I raise my 7 eyes and look at the mountains which surround the city like as 8 the rim of a dish.240 meters) can 15 make breathing it difficult at first. 9 Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuatl. which are permanently be covered 10 with snow. and some have a word which should not be there. Newcomers.Is it a good place to live? Why? d) Find a partner from the other group. Tenochtitlan. There are two examples at the beginning (0) and (00). 0 I live in Mexico City. sometimes look like as if 14 they are old and sick because the altitude (2. but I have to admit that it can 1 be more uncomfortable and very more stressful than other 2 places. making districts you thought you knew more well 6 look unfamiliar! If I would feel like a less urban sight. 12 the pollution usually prevents you from seeing vary far at 13 all. If fewer have had cars in Mexico City. It is also 4 one of the much most modern. To me. If a line has a word which should not be there. If a line is correct. if I could live anywhere 105 __most__ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ . we would 11 be able to enjoy this poetic sight many more often. Compare your information. even young ones. In the south east there are two volcanoes.BOB AND SHEILA TERRY 1 People  What are they like?  What is important to them?  What do they like doing?  Where do they live? 2 Shops  What are they like?  Do they like them?  What time do they open? 3 Work and holidays 4 Transport  What do they mention? 5 General opinions -. Some of the lines are correct. new buildings and roads are always 5 being constructed.

What city has more ancient monuments than any other? What city was founded by two children who were raised by a wolf? Where can you see the sculpture that commemorated the birth of those two children? In what city can you see the most ancient metropolitan area? Where else but Rome? Come and experience it. Не раз місто вщент руйнувалося іноземними загарбниками.This year come to Rio! See the dancing and the costumes and hear the music. and you want to present a list of complaints. сповнених драматичних подій і героїчних вчинків. put your skiis on at the door and go cross-country skiing through the streets and into the woods.The government of the city has reduced the number of police in the street. 3.Last year the government of the city told the people that the streets would be repaired immediately.Last summer the mayor promised to install new street lights in the neighbourhood. but they didn’t repair most streets until the election time. 5. And we may be small. 3.The city does not protect its monuments. Tomorrow you are going to a strike. By December they had still done nothing. many years. Exercise 9 Translate into English.  Speaking You live in a large city. 4. Finland the heart of Scandinavia. There’s more history: see where modern democracy has its roots. Історія цього стародавнього міста охоплює більш ніж 15 віків.Now is the time to think about next year’s vacation. There’s more tradition: all over Britain you can enjoy annual festivals that have been held each year for many. the most up-to-date hotels. Exercise 8 Translate into Ukrainian. 6. They had just cleaned the statue in front of the park when someone wrote on it. and you think that the mayor and the city government should do something about it. There’s more shopping: look at all the beautiful stores around our famous Trafalgar Square. he had promised that taxes would go down. Prepare a 5 minute speech where you will explain why you consider the problems below so serious. And live in luxury at a beautiful hotel. Місто Київ На півночі України вздовж мальовничих берегів Дніпра розкинулося прекрасне квітуче місто Київ. 2.The city wastes too much money on parties for important people. You think that life in this city has deteriorated a lot.Before the people elected the mayor. I would still choose Mexico City. 1.You say you love winter recreational activities? In Helsinki you can leave your hotel. You’ll find the best food.in the world. in the British Parliament. but this year the city has taxed them at even higher rate. 4. але знову і знову воно піднімалося 106 . the government doesn’t give people enough protection. 2. at the most famous carnival in the world. but we are not provincial. And why not think about London? No other city offers you more. 1.

Try to reach a group concensus on the best solution to the problem. According to the guidelines of the country. 40 businesses. a. You are a member of a preliminary design committee chosen because of your creativity on past projects. і як туди дістатися. трамваїв. It has an area of three square miles. the residential area. a factory. театри відомі в усьому світі.місто жвавих сучасних житлових масивів. the rural area. room for development.Verbally compare your decisions with those of your friends in your discussion group. highways. 2. бібліотек й музеїв. наврядчи є на Україні таке місто. Your task is to design and present a layout of the city. The maximum population of the town at any future time will be 15000 people. Imagine that there is one large piece of undeveloped property in the centre of a small town. Discuss. 3 shopping centres.з руїн. 1500 appartments. the business district. Яскраве минуле Києва завжди привертало увагу мільйонів туристів. Значна частина промислової міці країни зосереджена в Києві. Його архітектурні пам’ятники. 1500 houses. side-walks. Listen carefully to your classmates’ opinions. видавництв. Тут ви не зіткнетеся з труднощами. яке б могло пишатися такою кількістю і красою парків відпочинку. понад 20 вузів. your city must initially have at least: 1 police station and 1 fire station. державних рад. 3. 1. Віками Київ був златоглавою столицею України. поїздів метро пролягають через усе місто і далеко за його межі. 2 medical clinics or hospitals. адміністративного і культурного центру. 107 . Would you prefer that the land be used for (choose): a park. bypasses. тролейбусів. художні галереї. Але наше місто славиться не тільки своїм минулим. мистецьких спілок. економічного. 1 sports arena. a meeting place for young people. Mark on your plan and explain the location of: cultural centre. де провести свій вільний час. Exercise 10 One of the most innovative architects in your area has just persuaded a group of wealthy people to finance the building of a new town. Explain and defend your opinions. музеї. 4. a department store. десятків дослідних і проектних організацій. 5 community gardens. if a person wants to build a house should the government approve the plans first? Explain. The location is in the heart of one of the richest agricultural areas in the country. кіностудій. Should the government of a town control each type of building in the town? For example. 2 embankments. the suburbs. Маршрути aвтобусів. Більш того. twoway roads. що ваблять приємним затінком і пропонують безліч розваг. tennis and basketball courts or something else? Why? b. but do not be afraid to disagree with them. Столиця є також місцем розташування Академії Наук. the main motorway. сполучених зручними транспортними шляхами. Київ . Характер і ритм життя у місті повністю відповідає його статусу політичного. a thoroughfare.

trees. c. Draw a detailed map of your native town or city (district). 2. 3. Would you like to live on a small island? Why/Why not? You are going to read an article about a family who moved to a remote island. Think of your home city or town where you are from. considered as things to look at (7) the world of animals. Each student should mention five things. Then tell the class what your partner will be doing in ten years. Write 5 things you like about it and 5 things you dislike. trees. 4. What would you do to make life better for its citizens?  Reading 1. make this environment (11) Exercise 12 No cities or towns are perfect. fields. fields. insects and plants (6) hills. etc. 6. and explain the rationale for its organization. etc. First read the false summary and spot the mistakes by guessing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. place where your family lives (4) opposite of city (7) area near to or round a place (12) hills. Example: Alexander will be driving his own car in the air as in ten years there will be air roads. Exercise 11 TOWNS AND VILLAGES. Then listen to the text of and find out if your guesses were correct. b. Imagine that you are elected the government of a town. Why do you think they wanted to move? Listening 2. He will also have a video telephone in his flat. Speaking How do you think your life in your city will be different in ten years? Will you be swimming in a pool on the roof of the skyscraper you live in? Will the entrance to all museums be free? With the partner talk about things you think you’ll be doing in ten years. Explain your decision. a. Crossword. 5. and cars will be able to fly. Can you think of a title for the text? 108 .

They are content with their own company and make their own entertainment. C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.The Sirrs sold their farm in Yorkshire to move to the Welsh island of Graemsay. They were anxious to meet their neighbours as soon as possible. While they left their children playing on the beach. They insist that the only thing they miss about their previous life is going to the cinema. Once on the island the Sirrs tried to imagine what life could be like for them. On the first trip. But few people would actually give up a warm comfortable home to move to a remote island in the middle of the North Sea. Unhappy with their busy lifestyles they sold their 400 year-old cottage in Yorkshire to move to the tiny Scottish island of Graemsay. Although they are the only pupils at the local school. The island looked more beautiful than they could ever have imagined. the Sirrs met many of the island’s tourists and were given a warm meal. Knowing that the island would look its best in the summer. Attracted initially by the low price. the young couple and their three children decided to go and have a look. B. The move has brought new challenges to the family. Despite a seasonal chill. This article is about a family who moved to an island. The six-bedroom house came with a farm and 300 acres of land. Before they moved. Many of them urged the couple to complete the transaction as soon as possible. 3. Incredibly. Rob and Jill contacted the agent concerned and discovered that “the estate” advertised actually comprised a post office. six houses and a private sandy beach – all for $ 60.000 was accepted. On that first trip they met up to half of the sixty or so island inhabitants and were given a warm welcome! The couple were thrilled that the people of Graemsay were so friendly. The Sirrs family. The deal was astonishing – the “estate” comprised a post office. the weather was clear and the sea calm. Interested. But the children are young enough to adjust and seem happier in the new environment. however. However. For questions 1-6. They didn’t want to be under any illusions. the Sirrs’ bid of $55. choose the answer (A. the Sirrs looked around and realized that the deal was even more astonishing than they had first thought. for less than the price of a modest semi-detached house. the Sirrs thought long and hard about bringing their children up in such a remote place. Within two weeks of their visit. they receive lots of attention and are able to take advantages of the school’s modern facilities. it was possible to buy half of the island. Rob and Jill have started a sheep farm and renovated the cottages to rent out as holiday homes. The move has brought new challenges to the family. 109 . Rob and Jill have started a cattle farm. they had no need to worry. moving to the remote island has brought the family closer together. Many people long to escape from the hustle and bustle of modern life. The only thing they miss is going to the zoo. The family consider themselves lucky. The children are the only pupils at the school and take advantage of the school’s free facilities.000. decided to do exactly that. six villas and a private sandy beach. they chose to view the property in December. If anything. The family viewed the property in September.

the family have been visited by many friends who are envious of their beautiful surroundings. B. it was the only time of year they could travel. They hated Yorkshire. 3. estate. adjust. give something back to the island. Exercise 1 1. told them that $ 55. told them to buy the property before someone else got it. B. B. They had always wanted to live on an island. 1. little financial cost. illusions. they wanted to see what the place was like at the worst time of the year. urged them to bid a higher price. C. D. C. thrilled. B. D. 5. It was a chance to escape. greater use of school resources. 6. 2. 4. When they first visited the island. They also hope that by improving their property they can. were anxious about meeting the island people. D. wanted to get to know the island people. could not imagine what their neighbours would be like. C.000 was accepted. were a little shy and felt isolated. D. initially. in future. Nervous and worried. They decided to visit the property in December because A. urged them to complete the sale of their house in Yorkshire. 110 . Their neighbours A. C. Which best describes the Sirrs’ feeling before the move? A. they have all the benefits of a beautiful place to live. benefits. Happy and calm. The family consider themselves lucky. the Sirrs A. C. company. D. Their children were unhappy at school. to view. For very little cost. envious.Since the move. peace and quiet. D. Look at the following words in bold in the text and try to explain them: hustle and bustle. One advantage mentioned of being the only students is A. they wanted to spend Christmas in Scotland. fewer discipline problems. modest. Sad but register. C. Why did the Sirrs family move to the island? A. B. the weather was unusually good. B. Excited but apprehensive.

polluted. The … fell through when they couldn’t agree on a price. best. wall 5. tranquil. relaxed. People are becoming more and more … about the state of the environment. stable 2. 1. grounds 3. illusions. (supplies) 8. (offer) 3. busy. He only spoke to two or three people a week because his house was so … (isolated) 4. valley. Their house looks so run down that they have decided to … it this summer. … myself lucky 7. cowshed. fence. slow. lively. to receive. Being offered a job in Chicago was what … Alan to move to America. He has been a (n) … of the village for over sixty years. field. picturesque. hen-house. stressful 111 . … chill 4. deal. hedge. crowded. modern. natural. calm. quiet. scenic. content. to bring. gate. bustle. pigpen 4. (is composed of) 10. prompted. … a look Exercise 3 Find the odd word out. (resident) 2. … lots of attention 2. resources. Use the word(s) only once. to start.  Speaking Decide which adjectives describe a city and which describe the country. … a sheep farm 5. … long and hard 6. farmhouse. to be under … 13. … new challenges 10. Oil … are in danger of running out over the next century. barn. He is not … with his salary and is trying to find a better job. bid. inhabitant 1. cottage. comprises.Fill in the correct words from the list below: concerned. Bill’s … was the highest at the auction so he got the painting. seasonal. remote.2. hustle. entertaining. busy. warm. (caused) 9. to have. Give reasons. acre. to give a(n) … welcome 3. noisy. the … and bustle 8. modern. dirty. remote. (worried) Exercise 2 Fill in the appropriate word(s) from the list. to consider 1. to look its … 9. (business agreement) 6. peaceful. quiet. land. to think. A football team … eleven players. renovate. (redecorate) 7. healthy. … facilities 12. … lifestyles 11. (satisfied) 5.

and a neighbor’s helping hand in a time of need By Karen Reisner Oronoco. Sometimes. Minnesota The COUNTRY conveys a feeling of freedom. While Sunday dinner was being prepared. more attention at school Bad points: e. Talk about living on the island using the expressions below: At first I felt… What I like best is …. imagine you are one of the Sirrs’ children. occasionally. the sunrises and sunsets and many magical moments in between.g. The joy of making it was only exceeded by eating the smooth creamy dessert. Sensations of Country Life Are Simply Sensational They’re as varied as the scent of newly mown hay. Sometimes we’d spot a shooting star to wish upon or watch in wonder as the northern lights danced across the sky. most notably the weather. it seems so heavenly. we children made homemade ice cream. we possess a sense of optimism. We have the illusion of controlling our own destiny. I recall the magnificent beauty of the hills. My childhood days were also spent picking wild gooseberries and raspberries. One good/bad thing is … Good points: e. but it can be quickly undermined by countless factors. I’ve witnessed the drama of a bald eagle eating its kill as a half dozen brazen crows harass and encircle it to no avail…listened to the plaintive wailing of a baby raccoon 112 . few children to play with Exercise 4 Read the article and translate it into Ukrainian. taking turns with the hand crank.g. As I look back on that time in my life. Other times. they’re exhilarating – like when I used to ride bareback down the long green rows of corn with the wind-blown mane of my straw-colored palomino brushing my face. As the cool night air settled upon the Earth. I enjoy …. we’d lie in the soft grass and watch fireflies and the twinkling in the heavens. self-confidence and self-reliance. For moments like these. the most devastating lows. or the music of corn leaves rustling on the summer breeze. I miss …. Speaking Read the text again and underline the points for and against living on an island. spaciousness and well-being. We played croquet in the front yard at dusk and watched heat lighting in the evening sky. Always Optimistic But like all true-to-life dreams. On the other hand …. Then. these sensations are as subtle as the scent of freshly plowed earth or newly mown alfalfa…. I feel a part of nature in the country. not all is idyllic. Those who depend upon the land for their livelihood know that it can deliver the greatest highs and. I’ve watched a deer rear up on its hind legs to nibble from a bird feeder and chuckled as a strutting tom turkey displayed himself to his reflection in a chrome hubcap.

Good Neighbors Country living fosters good friends and neighbors. Choose from the paragraphs A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7). Kew Gardens will always be special for lovers of animals/plants and gardens. Some plant hunters go abroad. 0 D 500 people are employed at Kew Gardens. cowers under the kitchen table during a thunderstorm. it’s a long working day. The family dog. Child and kitten are found. Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is the word’s finest botanical garden and plant research centre. There is an example at the beginning (0). whether they are labourers/cleaners or experts.” It is interesting to know  Reading 1. then listen to the text and find out if your guesses were correct. Kew Gardens is a botanical garden and plant research/sales centre. “We start work at ten to eight in the morning with watering as the first job of the day. to weather-beaten maintenance men. No wonder Thomas Jefferson was inspired to write. In a magazine article ‘Kew Gardens’ eight paragraphs have been removed. These. Gatekeeper and ticket/staff officer Jackie Howard says everyone at Kew sis friendly. Country living is a life that simply fills me up. from scientists doing the latest medical research.under my bedroom window as it became temporarily separated from its mamma…and observed skunks and woodchucks make their homes under my house. 3. “Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God. 500/5. People think you can do it all by machine nowadays but every plant has different needs. There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use. They start work at ten past/to eight. neighbors and even strangers spend hours searching. hope and expectation of each new day as the sun rises over my country place. When a toddler follows her kitten into a field of tall corn. Could you find gardens like this in your country? What would you expect to find there? In what ways are plants and flowers important to us? Listening 2. Matthew Ford is trying to save the Plymouth pear. too. brave enough to protect me from the threats of a dangerous bull. A calf born in the dead of winter. dig up rare species and post/smuggle them back home to sell. Growing orchids/fruit is vital to conserve species under threat. are sensations that make life in the country so special. You are going to read the text about Kew Gardens. digging the flowerbeds. 113 . but well. tired and hungry. an injured baby pig or orphaned lamb may become temporary house guests.000 people work at Kew. For student Sarah Wilson. friends. the tallest/rarest tree in Britain. training for the Kew Diploma in Horticulture. First underline the correct item by guessing. But most important of all are the feelings of faith.

3 His work has been instrumental in saving the British lady’s slipper orchid. And it’s not just tropical rainforest specimens we need. The inside of the orchid is a world of delicate lushness. as many people think.” Perhaps that. pruning and top-dressing until the public starts to arrive.” 7 As gatekeeper and ticket officer Jackie Howard says. This is the leading botanical centre in the world and it has people in every country where plants are in danger.Then it’s sweeping up the dead leaves. C “Many plants contain life-saving products. and he is currently hoping to do the same with the Plymouth pear.” says Matthew.” says Elaine.” 2 “All life ultimately depends on plants. 4 Growing orchids is vital to conserve species which are under threat. it will probably be a mixture rather than a single chemical. E She points out that there aren’t as many AIDS researchers using plants as people might think. the rarest tree in Britain. so it’s vital to protect our own plants.” 1 “I knew I couldn’t get better training anywhere else. grows one in eight of all the flowering plants in creation.” D It grows more than 40. B Educating the public about the way in which all life depends on plants is certainly one of Kew’s most valuable functions. Many pharmaceutical companies prefer to use synthetic materials but it 114 . and if we lose one species it has a huge effect on all the others. Right now I’m working on a chemical from a European species. and researches and protects over six million other species. and we don’t know what’s in them all or what we may be losing if a species is allowed to die out. as much as its long history and international prestige. 5 “I’m quite hopeful. John Sitch cares for the exotic pink and purple blooms here and tender loving care.” 6 “Some plants have valuable chemicals we can’t make artificially. And the approachable attitude of the staff is what makes this possible. too. explains why Kew will always be a special place for lovers of plants and gardens.000 different kinds of plants. “and I feel that if we find something. I view all living things as interrelated. both from farmers and developers who are destroying their tropical homes. whether they are labourers or high-powered experts. “Everyone who works here is friendly. He is working as part of a team to identify. A This is where scientific officer Matthew Ford fits into the picture. and smuggle them back home to sell. dig up rare and valuable species. propagate and re-establish colonies of endangered plants in Britain and abroad. and from plant hunters who travel abroad.

blooms. (secretly bring) 6. labourers. He decided to ………………. plant hunters. This has caused the loss of over 200 jobs. pine. species. specimens.000 people visiting Kew every year. We must make an effort to ………………… certain plants which are in danger of disappearing. Kew has come under serious financial strain lately. plane. Ferns are one of the oldest ……………… of plant. artificially. digging. new discoveries are still being made. H Kew Garden plays a medical role as well. F However. branch. gatekeeper. combat. Watering plants regularly will help …………… dryness. This bush has ……………. …………………… is very important for keeping the soil moist and protecting the roots. 1 twig. flowerbeds. I He has been working at Kew since leaving school at 17 but insists he still has a lot to learn about plants. dying out. ultimately. Sarah and the staff are kept on their toes. expertise. tulip 115 . instrumental. (a protective layer of earth) 2. the shrubs around the house because they were blocking the view. But she is quick to point out that Kew is more than just a public pleasure park. Although there are 5000 different species of orchids being cultivated here. trunk 2 oak. prestige Exercise 2 Fill in the correct word from the list below: prune. (types) 4. Elaine Porter and her colleagues in the Jodrell Laboratory spend the working day researching plants which may combat the effects of the HIV virus and AIDS. We visited a nursery that ………………… plants which can survive with little water. seed. It is illegal to ………………… plants into a country.. Exercise 1 Look at the following words in the text and try to explain them: botanical. rainforest. interrelate. Exercise 3 Find the odd word out. (becoming extinct) 5. cultivates. maintenance men. G With 900. Children should be taught that animals and plants………………… . Many valuable plants will be in danger of ……………… if they are not protected. rarest.is important to work with real plants as well. that resemble yellow bells. (resist) 3. When planting new flowers. top-dressing.(act together) 10. conserve 1. (trim) 9. (flowers) 7. smuggle. (grows) 8.

leaves. and 6) ……………….. 2 ………. b. A chemical which fights 5) ……………. peelings 1 peanut …………. spade.………………. 5 ………. 6 ………….. delicate...……………….. 2 banana ……………. Of course. pleasure..experts 5 ……………….. it is vital that we protect 11) ………………. Many 3) …………. to mow. rind. 2 to prune with ……. 4 to plant with a ….. (value) substances can be 4) ……………. life-saving. (survive) of our forests and woodlands.strain 10 ……………….. spade.. the lawn c. 116 . long.. 5 lemon …………. 4 potato ………….lushness 11 ………………products 6 .park Exercise 5 Fill in the correct word from the lists below: a. 3 to cut off a branch with a ………. 4 ……………. to prune... a hole. 4 ………………….. threat. Exercise 6 Fill in the correct word derived from the words in brackets. to hoe. plant research.. shell..history 9 species under …………. peel. (vary) of plants which may combat the AIDS virus. redwood 4 soil. bud. to dig. saw. the 10) ………………… (produce) of oxygen is another important role that plants play. weeds. 3 bacon ……………. to rake 1 ………… a field. 3 …………. weather. Plants and flowers are not only 1) ………………… (beauty) they are also 2) ………… (use) both to humans and animals. (find) in even the most common plants. 5 to water with a ………….plants 2 tender loving ………… 8 ……………on their toes 3 …………………. clippers... trowel 1 to dig with a ………….. endangered. For this reason.. a rosebush. earth. lily. high-powered. financial 1 …………………. care. (cancer) growths is derived from the yew plant... compost 5 branch. (medicine) uses. to be kept. plants do not only have 9) ………….. Apart from providing food. (danger) species of plants and ensure the 12) ……………. (experiment) tests on a 8) …………………. skin....3 rose. hose.. centre 7 …. orchid. (research) are doing 7) …………….. Use the word(s) only once. to plough. petal.. seedpod Exercise 4 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below.-beaten 12 …………………..

David is growing ………………… . everything seems to be ………… . (not at all tired) 2. things are bound to go wrong at times. she looked ………………… . . John didn’t tell me he was getting married – I heard it ………………… . The last time I saw old Mr Smith was fifteen years ago.I wish he’d stop bothering me! (source of annoyance) 4. You’re so pretty already that you would just be ………………. gilding the lily. He’ll be two metres tall before long. like a weed. (easy and pleasant) 3. (deceive you) 7. That man has become a real ……………………… . coming up roses. beat around the bush. (extremely quickly) 9. lead you up the garden path. (going very well) 8. (avoid the main issue) 117 .. (dead) 5. He’s not to be trusted.Exercise 7 Fill in the correct plant-related idiom from the list below: thorn in my side.Please don’t ……………………………………. There’s no need for you to wear make-up. (from gossip) 6. a bed of roses 1. Even though she had been working most of the night. through the grapevine. pushing up the daisies. (attempting to improve sth already attractive) 10. – just tell me what you want. so don’t let him ………………… . With his business having become such a success. by now. he must be …………………. You can’t expect life to be ……………………… . as fresh as a daisy.

Can you tell me where you’re located? Director: At the corner of third and Turner. it is considered polite to address a police officer with the title “Officer”. Alec: Is it far from the railway station? Martha: The railway station is north of the city. good . There you can take bus 21. The title officer is used for both male and female police officers. Are there any bookstores in Winfield? Officer: Yes. 2. Get off at Museum Street. could you also tell me what time the museum opens? Director: 10:30 Monday through Friday. Officer: You are welcome. May I help you? Student: Yes.. Thanks for all your help. 118 . and there’s a bank on your left. The railway station is at the end of High Street. Student: Could you tell me how to get there by bus? Director: Sure. Director: You’re welcome. Don’t get lost! Cultural note: In the United States. Go one block north to Main Street. Turn left at the corner of Main Street and Park. the college bookstore is pretty far. The general bookstore is just up this street on the left between the drugstore and the train station. It is at the Corner of Church Street and Ocean Avenue. thanks for your help. 3. Martha: The river is east of the city. there are two.Toshio: Excuse me. You’ll see the coffee shop on your right and office buildings on your left. Officer. Did you get that? Toshio: I think so.. It is between Warner’s Department Store and the supermarket. Take the Turner Street bus. Now. Alec: Thank you.. Walk a block and a half. Get off at Fourth Street. yes! I know that bookstore. Take the first street on your right. Student: 10:30 . You’ll see City Hall. Student: Could you spell the name of the first street? Director: Of course. 1. Alec: But I don’t know where the river is. Student: Fine. Officer. Toshio: Oh. Just one more question..PART II DIRECTIONS  Reading Read the dialogues and pay attention to the way directions are given. Walk north on it. It’s T-U-R-N-E-R. It’s High Street.Director: Science museum. Is there a bank near here? Officer: Yes.Alec: Could you tell me where Market Street is? Martha: It’s one block across from the telephone company and the telephone company is one block west of Riverside Road. you’ve helped me a lot. there’s a bank on Park Road.

School Road / a department store. Example: the Roma restaurant / Prince Street A: Could you. a theatre f. can you tell me the way (1) …… Trafalgar Square? Certainly. Cliff Road / a marina e. the police station / College Avenue b. a parking lot. a restaurant. a supermarket c.Exercise 1 Make dialogues where Student A is an alien in the city the map of which you can see on the next page and is to ask questions about the buildings and places you can see below. Prince Street / a pool.  Excuse me. a post office d. a bookstore. a drugstore Exercise 3 Make dialogues when one of you will be looking for the places and buildings from the list. a park. Use the map on the next page and the directions from the dialogues above. Warner’s Department Store / Main Street and Station Road e. The park is in the centre of the avenue. a skating rink. Give full information about each street with the location of places and buildings. College Avenue / a telephone company. tell me where the Rome restaurant is? B: The Roma restaurant is at the end of Prince Street a. Main Street / art museum. a mall. Church Street / a church. a French restaurant. a fire department. StudentB is a citizen of this city and is to give directions to Student A using the expressions from the dialogues above. the fire department / School Road / the elementary school and the hospital d. a police station. the Young’s House / Kennedy Avenue and Station Road c. Park Road / a zoo. a subway station. a fire department. Turn to the left at the bottom and in less than a minute you’ll be (3) …… Trafalgar Square. a TV studio Listening Complete the sentences with the appropriate prepositions. Example: Winfield Avenue / appartment building / a park There is an appartment building in the beginning of Winfield Avenue. 119 . Listen and correct yourself. a high school. a pool. a bus station. please. an amusement park. Chinese restaurant / Park Road / Winfield Avenue and Main Street Exercise 2 There may be more than one piece of information about some of the streets. a bridge. don’t forget to explain what you need these places for. Go down Regent Street (2) …… Piccadilly Circus and then go down the Haymarket. a hospital h. a library g. a community college. a. Ocean Avenue / a bookstore. to help him find these places. a church b.

120 .

She leant back (w)_____ a rock. Sorry. There’s a bus-stop just (8) …… there. Come along. It went (i)_____ the corner. There’s sure to be. Thank you. hurry up. she sat down (u)_____ the grass (v)_____ the river. 121 . it’ll take you ten minutes or a quarter (5) …… an hour. When she awoke the sun had disappeared (y)_____ the horizon. full up. Thank you. inside only. you’ll have to wait until there’s room upstairs. and will you get (13) ……. Exercise 4 Prepositions of movement Fill the gaps with a preposition from the list below. Fares. any bus’ll take you. But you’d better ask the policeman (6) …… there. Does this go to Trafalgar Square? Yes. She climbed (p)_____ a stile and started walking (q)_____ a big flied. Sorry. (k)_____ all the shops and (l)_____ the countryside. The sun was warm. Ask the conductor to put you down (9) …… Trafalgar Square. you can’t smoke (12) ……. There may be several possibilities. she saw a huge bull running (r)_____ her! She raced (s)_____ the far side of the field and squeezed (t)_____ the hedge. please. above behind across off by into against up round out of on over below through onto past down to along towards beside at in Mary’s day out The sun rose (a) _____ Mary’s house. Mary closed her eyes and listened to the water flowing (x)_____. sir. Soon she was fast asleep. The bus arrived and she got (h)_____ the bus. and Mary got (o)_____. No room (10) …… top.           Thank you very much. Mary came (b)_____ her front door and went (c)_____ the path. It topped (m)_____ the duck pond (n)_____ the next village. She crossed (f)_____ the road and walked (g)_____ the bus stop. please. No standing (11) …… the platform… pass down the bus. officer. It was a beautiful day. He’ll give you all the information you want. How far is it (4) ……here? If you walk. please. Suddenly. sir. (d)_____ the gate and (e)_____ the street. Out of breath. Trafalgar Square. Thank you. sir. Excuse me. (j)_____ the High Street. is there a bus (7) …… here to Trafalgar Square? Yes. sir.

Put this tag on your bag and keep the claim check. Do you have any baggage to check? Only one suitcase. Alice: How much is the fare? Operator: It’s $1. Then two round-trip tickets. Write your name on this tag. Operator: You can catch the bus right there.Operator: May I help you? Alice: Can you tell me which bus to take downtown? Operator: Where are you calling from? Alice: I’m at the corner of Linda Vista Road and Ulric Street. is there a bus stop near University Avenue? I want to get off there. please. I want to hand-carry this one.PART III PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION  Reading Read the following dialogues and make your own dialogue where you will find out how to get to a place in your city by transport. Is this an express bus? Yes it goes straight through to Portland. unless you have a monthly pass. Thank you. please. 2. I’d be glad to. You’d better have the exact change or a $1 bill. Have a good trip. May I help you? I’d like two tickets on the next bus to Portland. 1. One way or round-trip? You save 10% on a round trip ticket. Alice: Do I need to transfer? Operator: No. The bus will be loading at the west end of the depot in 15 minutes. They leave on the hour and the halfhour. either bus goes directly to town.Clerk: Alec: Clerk: Alec: Clerk: Alec: Clerk: Alec: Clerk: Alec: Exuse me. There’s a bus stop one block before. Thank you. No stops. Don’t you want to check that one too? No.00. 122 . Would you please tell me when we get there? Yes. Try to get exact directions to these places. please. Keep the transfer to show the driver.Bob: Driver: Bob: Driver: Bob: Driver Bob: 3. Alice: Thank you. Could you tell me where I would get off to transfer to the H bus? Get off at First Street and cross the street. Take either number 4 or H bus.

which you can also use on the Underground and on British Rail. what time will you arrive at Mission Boulevard and Sapphire? 5. how long do you have to wait for the next bus? Exercise 3 Put each of the following words in the correct space in the passage below. conductor. Valley Blvd. rush hour. Fashion Valley. If you have to be at Fashion Valley at 12:00 noon. crew. single-decker. lift. destination. Mission Beach and Pacific Beach MONDAY THROUGH FRIDAY SCHEDULE Leave Due Lake Due Due Due Arrive Grossmont Murrey College Fashion Mission Mission Center Blvd. Mission Valley. platform. How many buses leave Grossmont Center before 12:00 noon? 3. If you leave College Avenue at 10:57.Exercise 1 Read the paragraph and say how people in your country pay transport fare. If you travel in the rush hour during the week. sliding doors. fare. Exercise 2 Study the bus schedule below to answer the questions that follow. London Transport can sell you a One Day Bus Pass (this does not include the central zone). subway. double-decker. Grossmont Center. hail. like Underground fares. How long does it take to go from Grossmont Centre to Fashion Valley if you leave Grossmont Center at 7:25 in the morning? 2. you can buy Bus Passes in advance from newsagents and some bus garages or a Local Area Bus Pass if you live in an outer area. what’s the latest bus you can take from Grossmont Center? 4. driver. Ave. If you leave Grossmont Center at 10:37 in the morning to go to Fashion Valley but you miss the bus. cab. you may pay more in some zones. & Sapphire 6:20 6:27 6:40 6:55 7:07 7:15 7:25 7:32 7:45 8:00 8:12 8:20 8:37 8:44 8:57 9:12 9:24 9:36 9:37 9:44 9:57 10:12 10:24 10:30 10:37 10:44 10:57 11:12 11:24 11:36 11:37 11:44 11:57 12:12 12:24 12:36 12:37 12:44 12:57 1:12 1:24 1:36 1:37 1:44 1:57 2:12 2:24 2:36 2:37 2:44 2:57 3:14 3:26 3:36 1. taxi-rank. Blvd. But it may be better to buy a Travel Card. bus stop. Fares are also higher if you are travelling through two or more zones and one of them is central. inspector. London Buses The system of bus fares is based on zones. tube. 123 . to San Diego State University.

Each line has a particular colour on the map. check. which is slower but cheaper. There are moving staircases or escalators to take you down to the platform below. sometimes called a ___ . Circle. You get on. You can see where a bus is going to because the ___ is written on the front. so at some stations you can change to other lines. Very simple. at a station. most of them have their own architectural and artistic design. If you follow the directions. For longer distances take a train or a long distance bus. Metropolitan. A 50-kopeck token will take you to any station you like and you can even make a tour of the entire system. There are a few lines in the Kyiv metro. You catch a bus by waiting at a ___ . usually called a ___ . and some are under construction. The ___ open. Now. Central. Most buses have a two-person ___ : the ___ . At the end of the journey. who drives of course. All in all there are more than 300 stations on the London Underground. If it has only one floor. Go down to the ___ on the ___ or in the ___ . (or ___ if it’s a woman) who takes your money. How to travel by metro.metro. the ___ in New York and the ___ in Paris and many other cities). get on the right train and – have a nice journey! In the Kyiv Metro you do not feel as if you are underground. for example. Piccadilly. coach. it’s called a ___ and you can get a good view from the top. No stations are alike. look out for a metro station first. You simply ___ . Bakerloo. or you can say that at these stations there is an 124 . you can see how much the ___ is by looking at the ___ . But expensive! What about taking a bus? If it has two floors. escalator. There are no tickets in the metro. They intersect at Khreschatyk Station. Jubilee and East London Section. There are ten lines: Victoria. is the most comfortable way to travel. you will get to the right platform with no trouble at all. You buy your ticket at the ticket office. and that’s it. Keep your ticket because an ___ might want to ___ it. where there are several taxis waiting. tip. District. The underground system is very simple in Kyiv. go through the automatic gates to the escalators and down to the platform below. At the station you can see the notice telling you where to go. The train comes. The London Underground. Very simple. Quicker than the bus is the underground (called the ___ in London. They are easy to recognize because of the large letter M. conductress. and the ___ . rack A taxi. Put your luggage on the ___ and sit and wait till you arrive. If you want to travel by metro. This is due to the unique architecture and the artistic design of the stations which are like palaces. You look at the map of the underground system. The London Underground is very big. You may have to change lines. You add a ___ to this. meter. The lines cross each other many times. It’s easy to follow.  Reading Read and translate the texts. But try to avoid the ___ . Northern. the taxi in the street or go to a ___ . We haven’t got any line running nonstop between their two ends. There are two terminal stations on each line. The train is very fast. it’s called a ___ .

Harrods is the best _______ in London. Some stations are closed on Sundays. Each line has a particular _______ on the map. 125 . They are easy to recognize because ____ the large letter M. look out ____ a metro station first. others – on Saturdays and Sundays. 8. and some are ______ construction. There are _________ staircases or escalators to take you down to the platform below. 9. 4. you will get ____ the right platform ____ no trouble at all. This is due to the unique ____________ and the __________ design of the stations which are like _________. 2.interchange with other lines. We waited in the rain at the _______ for one hour before the bus came. Heathrow is one of the biggest _______ in the world. 7. get ___ the right train and – have a nice journey! 4. Exercise 2 Insert necessary words: 1. 3. but it’s very expensive to go shopping there. 2. and some are under construction. 3. go __________ the automatic gates to the escalators and down to the platform below. Now. look out for a metro ______ first. 4. Stop the car! The __________ are red. Exercise 1 Fill in the prepositions where it is necessary: 1. If you want to travel ____ metro. still others are open Monday to Friday at rush hours only. There are a few _____ in the Kyiv metro. There are no tickets ___ the metro. We haven’t got any line running non-_____ between their two ends. 6. Each line has a particular colour ____ the map. the name of which in Britain is British Rail. They intersect _____ Khreschatyk Station. In the Kyiv _______ you do not feel as if you are underground. There are a few lines ___ the Kyiv metro. 6. A B rush air park port town * motor way stop railway department agent’s store traffic car centre * shop book travel office lights bus ticket station hour 1. A 50-kopeck token will take you ___ any station you like and you can even make a tour ___ the entire system. 2. If you want to _______ by metro. 5. 5. Exercise 3 Match a word in A with a word in B to make a new noun and fill in the gaps with the correct compound noun. If you follow the directions. At some stations you can change to an ordinary railway. 3.

_______ (packed to the full). If there is no 9. 3. you’ll have to 10. Quick! Get ____ the train. 4. When we travel on buses (trams. 8. trolley-bus or by the underground. Exercise 4 Explain the difference between the following words. 7. _______ is heavy. A man told me that it was near Platform 1. rush-hour. Queue ____ a bus stop. If the vehicles are few we say that the traffic is 13. If there are many cars. _______ to get from one place to another. I can’t find the place for parking. They have good cheap holidays. _______ way of going about town. It’s ready to leave. a bus driver and a bus conductor 2. _______ you may take a bus. The ________ was very big and I couldn’t find the _______ . All big towns have a ________ every morning when people go to work. 1. If you have to 6. It’s the 4. a bus and a motor coach Exercise 5 Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage below. _______ . 126 . get ____ the bus through the entrance door. I hate driving on the M25. _______ . overcrowded. a trolley-bus or go on 8. The 3. town. The traffic is especially heavy in the 14. fare and fine 3. light. I went ____ my bike instead. etc) we have to pay 11. distance. When getting about 2. 9. Sometimes you have to change the form. _______ a short 7.5. It goes around London and it’s one of the busiest _______ in the country. change. traffic. _______ in every city is very popular with the citizens. _______ bus to your destination. At this time the public transport is 15. a tram. a booking office and a box office 4. that is in the morning when people are hurrying to work and in the evening when people are coming back home. transport. fast. 2. _______ . _______ one can go by bus. Sun and Sea is the best _________ in the _____. I decided not to go ____ car. direct. It’s not too much and it doesn’t depend on the distance you go. 10. 1. Do not try to push in front ____ everyone else. _______ . and again in the evening when they go home. I bought it at a ______ . Exercise 6 Fill in prepositions where necessary. _______ and most 5. travel. _______ on to another bus (trolley-bus. 6. underground. tram). Where is the_____________ . The easiest way to get around London is ____ underground. an urban area and a rural area 5. convenient. buses and trolleybuses in the town we say that the 12. fare. foot People use various means of 1. No I didn’t borrow this book from the library.

7. Вам поталанило. які схожі на палаци. вам не відтоптали ноги.5. a season ticket and a return ticket 3. Щодо інших видів міського транспорту. Транспорт в місті Києві Найшвидшим і найзручнішим транспортним засобом звичайно ж є метро. a carriage and a compartment 2. коли рух у місті дуже інтенсивний. 8. so I had to come ____ foot. 6. He was ____ a bus which passed me. I’m late. що відображає мирні зусилля народу України. and the passenger must tip the driver. усього три лінії. 10. то якість їх послуг залишає бажати кращого. У години пік. В разі якщо вам доведеться робити пересадку на станціях. Bus ___ Riders must always have correct change for the fare box. там де необхідно. Explain your decision. ___ Train timetables are long and difficult to understand. В київському метро не відчувається. майже не можливо сісти на автобус чи тролейбус. I was travelling ____ train ____ Bristol. Кожна станція представляє сюжет історичної події. 9. Taxi ___ Taxi fares are expensive. He got ____ the car and drove off. і ви змогли вчасно пробитися до 127 . and it’s hard to understand them. a train driver and a guard  Speaking Decide if each of the sentences below is an advantage or a disadvantage for that type of public transportation. ___ Taxicabs are often the quickest way to get around city. ___ The conductors speak fast. Exercise 7 Explain the difference between 1. Exercise 8 Translate into English. When the train arrived ____ Bristol I got ____ the train. Це завдяки унікальному архітектурному і художньому дизайну станцій.My mother usually goes ____ work ____ her car. Система Київського метро досить проста. ви потрапите до потрібної вам платформи без жодної проблеми. якщо ви не потрапили до транспортної пробки. If you happen to be careless ____ traffic rules and cross a street either ____ a red light or not ____ a zebra crossing you are sure to be punished ____ traffic rules offence. a ticket inspector and a bus conductor 4. Train ___ Commuter trains never have to go through traffic. ___ Riders can get transfers from one bus route to another. Sorry. I saw Jake this morning. Put a plus in front of the advantages and a minus in front of the disadvantages. що ви під землею. Subway ___ During rush hours there are many subways to choose from. I missed the bus.

In Britain people queue ___ buses. 6. We went down ___ the lift. You don’t have any smaller change. Найкращий і найнебезпечніший спосіб перейти проїжджу частину у центрі міста. Hold onto the strap! 3. 1. щоб не проїхати свою зупинку. We met ___ the station. b) a 15% tip. Look at the timetable. Exercise 9 Put the correct preposition in each space in the sentences below. Exercise 10 Write a good question for each of the following answers on the lines below. порушуючи правила дорожнього руху.Get your ticket ___ the machine. b) stay seated and say nothing. What do you do if you are not sure of your stop? 1. 1. The driver of a horse-drawn carriage has given you a very nice tour of the city. Example: Ask the bus driver. c) ask if he would like her seat. Ask the conductor. Give a) a 5% tip.I’ll meet you ___ the ticket office. The tube stops ___ every station. 3. d) Other. Offer your seat. 7. оскільки транспортні пригоди часто трапляються за вини пішоходів. звичайно. 5. There may be more than one good answer. d) other. 5. We must wait ___ the bus stop. 7. She waited ___ the platform. A taxicab driver gives you your change in ten-dollar bills. b) Leave no tip. a) Ask the driver if he has change. підземним переходом або принаймні на зелене світло. Look at the meter. 10. навіть якщо почуваєтесь ні живим. We finally got ___ the bus ___ our destination. A middle-aged woman rider should a) get up and motion to her seat. 3. c) Ask the driver to wait a minute and get change from a nearby store. Give a good tip. 11. 4. 9. and you don’t want to tip ten dollars. 4. ні мертвим після такої подорожі. будьте уважним на вулиці і дотримуйтесь правил дорожнього руху. 128 .виходу.  Speaking Choose the best answer and tell why you choose it. Коли ви вийшли з автобусу. An elderly man gets on a crowded bus. 8. The conductor asked ___ our fares. 2. I waited 20 minutes ___ a bus. 2. 6. Pull the cord! 2. Не ставте під загрозу життя інших людей і своє особисте.

Мій дядько часто розказує історії. що перш ніж перейти дорогу. A friend wants back the bike you borrowed six weeks ago. а. але звичайно віддає перевагу метро. Я живу у великому. Це навіть і не село. b) Change your seat. You promised to repair your friend’s car. Вони вузенькі. він добре знає дорожні знаки. А мої родичі з батькової сторони. що автомобіль витрачає багато часу. Тітка радить купляти талони завчасно та вчасно їх компостувати. подивитись направо. but you don’t have money to pay the transport fare and have to get to your work somehow. The friend is still waiting. and you begin to feel uncomfortable. Автобусом дуже важко подорожувати в наш час. спочатку треба подивитися наліво. ви спускаєтесь ескалатором на платформу і можете проїхати одну зупинку або подорожувати аж до кінцевої зупинки. c) Leave the train. звивисті. Тихими вечорами я прогулююсь маленькими стежинками. 4. Навіть маленькі діти знають. автобуси ходять нечасто. 2. The ticket inspector on the train says you have the wrong ticket. The bus driver wants to know why you don’t have a ticket. a) Pull the emergency cord. вони дуже переповнені. Exercise 11 Translate into Ukrainian. про те. Його чудова природа відновлює мої сили і енергію. Крім того. а хутірець.  Speaking What can you say in each situation? 1. Міські жителі часто проводять відпустки у сільсікій місцевості. Та надійніше придбати проїздний квиток і подорожувати аж скільки душа забажає (to one’s heart’s content)! 129 . стверджуючи. The person next to you on the train is sitting very close to you. часом навідуються до нашого міста. чистому. по-друге. дійшовши середини. Вона користується автобусом. Оскільки мій дядько гарний водій. і вони їдуть по двосторонньому шосе до міста. На щастя у них є власний автомобіль. але мають свою чарівність.c) no tip. “застрявши” в транспортній “пробці”. або підземними переходами. я разом з батьками їду до бабусі у село. що живуть у селі. щоб вас не обізвали “зайцями” (bilker) і не покарали. 4. як пішоходи порушують правила: переходять дорогу на червоне світло. необхідно дотримуватись правил дорожнього руху. як і всім пішоходам. d) Tell the conductor. По-перше. Купивши жетон. гарно спланованому і прекрасному місті. 3. тролейбусом і трамваєм. йому. не користуються переходами “зебра”. Моя ж тітка віддає перевагу міському транспорту. d) other. Коли я стомлююсь від шуму і гаміру галасливого міста.

not too many. Interviewer: So you wouldn’t consider _______ even a small car? Lynn: It doesn’t make any sence for me. sometimes you just can’t find a space. especially when I’m stuck in the middle of a traffic jam. And the other big problem is crime .. chances are that either the car. isn’t it? Lynn: Like everything else. which you can use on the ____ or on the buses. tubes. you can get anywhere quickly. Before you listen. And even then. I’m afraid.. I’ve often asked myself that question. Interviewer: Peter. so if you like going out late. I reckon it’s a bit ____ to have a car. And you can go any time . especially on the Underground. or _____ of it will be missing when you come back. there’s a problem. The big problem is parking. and the tubes. unless you feel like paying a fortune in a ____ ____. study the table and predict what they will say.most public transport is fairly awful after say 12. And the buses are so ______ all the time. and sometimes I get the bus. buses.30 at night.if you leave your car in the street. there’s simply nowhere to put it if you drive into the centre. I suppose that the main reason I still do it is that I can’t stand waiting for buses and trains and things . Do you agree with what they say? Public transport Car Cost Problems Convenience Lynn: Well. you run a car. if you live in the middle of London like I do.. Interviewer: Isn’t it a bit expensive though? Peter: Yes. Sometimes I get a Travelcard. 130 . I go everywhere ___ _____ transport. It’s easier to plan your journey. it is. don’t you? Is it really worth it? Peter: Well I must admit. and I don’t have any complaints . and ___ I ___. Interviewer: It’s quite expensive nowadays though.I just ____ ___ the car. so you end up feeling like a _______ in a tin ..well. It depends how organized I am feeling that week. While in a car you ___ _____ in a ______ ____.PART IV TRANSPORT Listening Listen to what two people are saying about how they travel in a large city. I’ve worked out that it costs me between 15 and 20 pounds a week. you know. I would say it will cost me about 5 or 6 pounds a week. and there’s lots of it. Personally. It’s very easy to use public transport. As you listen. write in the table the information from the conversation. it’s much cheaper than a car.

1. food. Автотранспорт Вантажні автомобілі й автобуси – це автотранспортні засоби. backward.You wouldn’t believe how dirty city streets are.. signals. slow Exercise 3 Circle the word or phrase which is different in meaning. you know? Anyway I enjoy driving. I hope it doesn’t snow again tomorrow. small. Example: Trash cans are very heavy! A sanitation worker who drives a garbage truck. products. The mixer makes so much noise. decide what kind of driver is talking or write what kind of truck he/she drives. to exit to leave to get off to arrive to go out of 2. left 5. directions. backward to the left exit to the right forward 4. They bought a lot of hamburgers today. I’m loaded with two tons of dirt. vehicles.______________________ green light. 6. large 2. stop. Delivering oil is a dangerous job! 2.______________________ big. 131 . speeds. bus 6. car. red light 3. 8.. motor train truck automobile taxi Exercise 4 Translate into Ukrainian. ______ and shoving. size.______________________ 5 miles an hour. 4. It’s just that I can’t stand all that waiting. 7. На вантажівках перевозять товари і продукти. 9.______________________ north.______________________ truck. You’ve moved five rooms of furniture today! 3. I have seen new automobiles on the truck. I still have two more packages to deliver.______________________ passengers. fast. 5. driver motorist trucker vehicle pilot 3. 4. Exercise 1 The following comments are overheard at the local truckers’ cafe. 1. journey load trip vacation travels 5. I am on my way to pull a broken-down car to a service station. Exercise 2 Write the word that best describes the examples listed. loads 1. а автобуси використовують як громадський транспорт. Explain your decision.so I suppose I could save a lot of money if I went by bus. 10. Read each comment.

2. наприклад.Motorists should drive carefully. Причеп. 7. кузов і всі колеса кріпляться на одному шасі.The holes in the road caused many problems for the motorists.Cars. 11.The truck got off the highway at Exit 14. призначений для перевезення великих вантажів. у багатьох містах відродилося трамвайне сполучення. 9.Drivers sometimes have trouble with their car motors in hot weather. 132 .The truck lost its load in the middle of the highway. і тягачі з причепом. 1. перевозить від 20 до 100 пасажирів. so we couldn’t understand them. 12. and trains are all vehicles. у вантажівок і автобусів є окреме шасі. вони можуть розвернути на невеликому просторі. чіпляють кілька трейлерів.The policeman signaled for us to pull to the side of the road.We didn’t see the traffic signal and didn’t stop for the red light.Our car easily carries five passengers. 4. 8. Часто вони навіть випускаються тими самими компаніями.The numbers were written backwards. можна установити цистерни.They drove their cars at a high speed. 18. 6. Крім міських. Будь-яких розмірів На відміну від автомобілів. 13.Parking lot had one exit. 15.The car went backwards and then forward again to get into the parking space. як вагони до локомотива. називається трейлером. Автопоїзди Існує два основних типи вантажівок – такі. У деяких країнах широко використовують автопоїзди: до важких тягачів послідовно. чи бетономішалки. Попри свою довжину.Speeding often leads to car accidents. в яких перевозять рідину (молоко. ніж автобус.They sent their furniture to their new town via truck. Одноповерхові автобуси можуть складатися з головної машини та причепа. 3. як правило. Шасі вантажівок легко пристосувати для будь-яких потреб: на них. Перевезення пасажирів Автобуси бувають одноповерховими та двоповерховими. Двоповерховий автобус може перевозити більше пасажирів. на яку кріпляться корпус машини.Back up. 19. пальне чи хімічні реактиви).Вантажівки й автобуси мають багато спільного. рама на колесах. Трамвай може складатися з одного або кількох вагонів.The driver backed his car up without looking and hit the car behind him. Автобус. інакше кажучи. масою до 44 т. 10. де кабіна. 17. 14. 16.The load was inspected before the truck could cross into the neighboring country.Drivers should be careful of their speed in the cities. 20. Exercise 5 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. існують і міжнародні автобуси. 5. You’ve gone too far. buses. Вантажівка може бути невеликою і розвозити товари в межах одного населеного пункту. Вона може також перевозити вантажі на середні відстані чи бути великоваговим транспортним засобом. який служить громадським транспортом.Special trucks are used to take new cars to where they will be sold. Оскільки екологічно це більш чистий вид громадського транспорту.

(pass)  Writing a) You have had a class discussion about different forms of travel. with justifications/examples Conclusion Final Paragraph your opinion/balanced summary 133 . but so far there is no sign of the train. (miss) Oh bither. 1. (arrive) 3. Example: Jack is running towards the bus stop. colloquial expressions and idioms? If not. (forget) (lose) 4. Write an essay presenting the arguments for and against traveling by boat. (land) 5. I’ve missed the bus! 1. Sue is at the airport to meet friends. why? 3. He is looking very worried and searching for his Travel Card in his pockets. Bill is at the bus stop. The driving instructor is shaking hands with George and smiling. Which of the following points could be included in your essay? Tick (). Sheila is in the railway station looking worried.Exercise 6 What do people say in each situation? Use the verb given. but he is too late to catch the bus. The train is moving. What type of essay should you write? 2. The light on the ‘Landed’ sign is now on. Should you short sentences. (leave) (emergency handle) 2. Sue and Mark are meeting a friend at the station. Which points are pros and which are cons? Can you add any other ideas? 1 cheaper than other forms of travel 2 can be unpleasant in bad weather 3 lots of people go on sailing holidays 4 journeys can take a long time 5 more comfortable and enjoyable than other forms of transport 6 famous explorers traveled the seven seas Introduction Paragraph 1 present topic (without stating your opinion) Main Body Paragraph 2 arguments for. We can see her bag inside the train. with justifications/examples Paragraph 3 arguments against.

traveling by boat does have its disadvantages. …………… it can be more tiring. ………………………………… AGAINST Arguments Justifications/Examples 1) ……………………………. There are fewer accidents at sea than in the air or on the roads. boats are usually more comfortable than planes or cars. using expressions from the box on the right. In addition. however. …………… boats are often cheaper than other forms of travel. Para 2 Para 3 Main Body c) Read the article again and fill in the blanks below. eat in a restaurant. …………… a boat ticket usually costs less than a plane ticket. it has certain advantages. although there are some disadvantages to traveling by boat. As a result. or even go shopping.  arguments against  opinion  arguments for  present topic Did you know the boat was one of the forms of transport? Para 1 A hundred years ago. eat in a restaurant. you can take advantage of the many facilities which boats …………… have to offer and enjoy a pleasant voyage. but if you have time to …………… spare. have more space to move forms of travel around 2) ……………………………. Instead of staying in your seat Para 2 for the whole journey. Para 3 However. Then. Nowadays. talk about the pros and cons of traveling by boat. ……………………………… 2)……………………………. To begin with.Conclusion Main Body Introduction b) Read the article and label the paragraphs with the correct headings. Finally. you can go for a walk on the deck. For example. It usually takes much longer than other forms of travel. ……………………………… Useful expressions and linking words/phrases 134 . is there …………… any reason to travel by boat? Although the boat is a rather old-fashioned way of traveling.. boats are a safe alternative to cars and planes. What is the writer’s opinion on the topic? Finally. ………………………………… 3)……………………………. go 1) more comfortable than other shopping. Having more space to move …………… around makes a long journey much more pleasant. Para 4 All things considered. FOR Justifications/Examples Arguments go for a walk. replace the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs with alternative ones.. boat trips can be very …………… unpleasant when the weather is bad or the sea is rough. Journeys may take longer. the only way to make a journey across the …………… sea was by boat. when it is possible to fly …………… from one continent to another in the space of a few hours. Furthermore. making …………… journeys uncomfortable or even frightening. I believe it is a very enjoyable …………… experience.

when you are young. etc. such as. furthermore. to start/begin with.  to show contrast: on the other hand.. Even though/Nevertheless most people nowadays use a computer at work. you have a lot of energy. lastly. moreover. etc. etc.  to introduce a conclusion: in conclusion. however.  to introduce or list disadvantages: the main/most important disadvantage/drawback of. when you become a parent at an early age. etc. nonetheless. as. it is often suggested/believed/argued that….  to introduce or list advantages: the man/first/most important advantage of…. nevertheless. since. one/another/an additional disadvantage of…. all in all. one/another/an additional advantage of…. f) Read the paragraph below and underline correct linking word/phrase. secondly. like. in addition (to this). finally. to list and add points: in the first place. Besides/Despite. 2. for this reason. 2) To conclude/Secondly. One point of view against/in favour of travelling is that it allows you to meet people from different cultures. some/many people are against….. some/many people are in favour of/are convinced that….. therefore... people who know how to play a musical instrument are usually popular and make friends more easily than others. to conclude/sum up. all things considered.  to introduce examples/reasons/results: for example/instance. This means you can cope quite easily with children’s demands for constant care and attention. besides. Many people are against/argue that we need advertisements in order to keep up to date with the latest products on the market. although. etc. because. you are still young enough to enjoy life when your child becomes independent. finally. 5.. For instance/Still. thirdly. d) Read the article again and replace the linking words/phrases in bold with synonymous ones. 4) Yet/Finally. taking everything into account/consideration. Then. There are many advantages to having children at an early age. 4. one point/argument against…. it will be a while before we stop putting our ideas down on paper. still. say which of the linking words/phrases in the article are used to: a) list/add points b) introduce reasons/results c) show contrast d) introduce a conclusion e) Underline the correct linking word/phrase.. some/many people suggest/feel argue that…. Exercise 7 135 . 3. 1) To begin with/In addition to this.. even though. one point of view in favour of…. 1. but. television affects the way we think.. young parents can relate to their children and 3) therefore/ nevertheless understand them better. etc. as a result. in particular. despite/in spite of (the fact that).

Transport 1) Put ticks () to show which verbs go with which forms of transport. that cannot move or that can only move very slowly (7. 4) f A person whose job is to carry suitcases at a railway station. depending on which type of transport they are associated with. for example for a road or railway (6) j The curved metal bar at the front of a bicycle that you hold when you are riding it (10) k A journey to one or more places and back again. 4) l A long line of cars. etc. airport. What is the vertical word? a To go past another vehicle because you are moving faster (8) b A home on wheels that is pulled by a car (7) c A hard surface on which aircraft take off and land (6) d A moveable bridge that people use for getting on or off a ship (7) e A road that leads onto or off a motorway (4. often by a different route (5. 4) 136 . (6) g The goods that are carried in a ship or aircraft (5) h A place where petrol and other goods are sold to motorists (7. 3) m The place where government officials check your luggage (7) n Where you register as a passenger and weigh in your luggage at an airport (5-2. Some can go into more that one category. 7) i An underground passage. traffic check-in _ handlebars _ runway _ lights _ trolley _ desk _ deck one-way _ street _ joyrider _ life jacket _ tyres _ traffic jam _ tunnel ticket _ slip road _ trailer _ collector _ track _ spare tyre _ lay-by service _ platform _ jetty _ station _ horn _ timetable _ porter season hand _ seat belt _ carriage _ ticket _ cargo _ luggage _ cabin crash _ helmet _ coach _ gangway _ port _ customs 3) Read the clues and fill in the missing words in the puzzle. 1 car 2 bus 3 train 4 plane 5 bicycle  get into/out of get on/off take off/land ride  drive catch/miss board  overtake  park 6 ferry 2) Put a number 1 – 6 next to the nouns in the box. etc.

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n PART V 137 .

6. 2. How do motorists know which exit is the next? 4. Hwy 79 .go north and south. or 9-for example. The speed limit on many large highways is 65 miles. What reasons should a motorist have for driving backwards? 2. What must motorists be sure to do when exiting (for changing lanes)? 6. What are some problems large trucks can cause for car drivers? 6. HIGHWAYS The highways in the United States are reasonably good. Describe the longest journey you have ever made. Where is vehicular or motorised traffic usually not permitted? Why? 7. and it is not complicated to drive on them. What is the speed limit on most highways in the US? When is it different? 7. Most highway exits are very clear.for example.the abbreviation for highway a) 1. There are many laws against leaving paper and garbage on the highways. show that the highway circles a city so that motorists can avoid the downtown area or heavy city traffic. or 8 . What are some typical loads that trucks carry? 3. such as 495. It is the law that motorists stay at or below the speed limit. For this reason. 4. Exits may lead to a town or onto another highway. Highways numbered with 1. 8. On some ways. 3. drive within the speed limit. Three numbers. they should have no problems driving on US highways. motorists must be careful to use turn signals when exiting so that they don’t cause an accident with entering vehicles. What are several laws that motorists should remember? b) 1. and pay attention to other rules of the road. Highways with a number ending in 0. 7. What is unusual about highway exits in some parts of the US? 5.TRAFFIC RULES It is interesting to know  Reading Read the text and answer the questions that follow. How do motorists know which direction they are travelling? 2. Why do some roads have three numbers? 3. 5. pay attention to all traffic signals and wear safety belts. with the exit name and number on a sign above the road.go in an east-west direction. * Hwy . Motorists must also never throw anything out of the car windows. or about 106 kilometers an hour. What are some typical signals used to control traffic? 4. Hwy 72 . What traffic laws must motorists pay attention to in your country? 5. The speed is always lower on exits and entrances and is frequently lower when a highway passes through a heavily populated area. If motorists remember how highways are numbered. the exit lane is also the entrance lane for cars coming onto the highways. They are numbered to show the direction of the highway. How old must a person be to drive a motorized vehicle in your country? Exercise 1 138 .

a) Think over the questions that Adela and Marco may want to ask the mechanic about the car. 3. the other one recorded Marco’s and Adela’s statements about the accident. ___ As Marco was driving to work. they were unhurt.Marco was driving to work. Wow. although the car was damaged. but they didn’t hold. Example: Why did the brakes give out? They gave out because the brakepads were worn out. a driver cut in front of him in an intersection. off at her friend’s house. Why did the police come? Make a list of questions the police asked. b) Roleplay the conversation among these three characters. What happened? I was driving south/turning a corner/parking/speeding/coming down the hill on Highway 163 when I had a blowout/flat tire. Adela. Ashley : What did you do? Sam : I took my foot off the brake and tried to steer to the side of the road. After an accident Marco went home and read his insurance policy. I really had a close call today. Why did it happen? To find out what happened put the story in order. but they didn’t get to their destinations. Choose your variant of the dialogue. Fortunately. 139 . Decide what could be added to complete the dialogue. the tow truck arrived. and the dialogue is not finished. 8 Before the police officer finished talking to Marco and Adela. ___ Slowly they got out of the car. He was going to drop his aunt. Ashley : You are lucky no one hit you. ___ A police car arrived a few minutes after the other car left. 4. but the car began to skid. the other driver drove off when the light changed. ___ Meanwhile. On the Way to Work ___ Next he swerved right to avoid hitting the other car and smashed into a tree instead. ___ Then Marco slammed on the brakes. I lost control of the car. I pulled over before anything happened/the car started to skid. Sam : I sure am. unaware that he had caused an accident. ___ While one officer called for a tow truck.The answers in the dialogue below have several variants. 2. Ashley : After you stopped/pulled over/got out of the car what did you do? Exercise 2 1. Ashley: Sam: Ashley : Sam : What’s the matter? You look upset.

What type of coverage is Marco checking on? . In the left lane .What is insurance? . 1. I bet it’s expensive. It .What was damaged in the accident? . You have to get him as . 5. A: I really like that car. A: Oh. 6. A: Why is there so much traffic today? B: I don’t know but we are going to be late. he was doing 60 in a 50 mile-an-hour zone. It’s a Honda Accord. I think I’ll probably have to keep looking.. 4. though.. A: Well. A: I heard that Bill got a speeding ticket. B: Oh ..  Reading 140 . A: Mom. That’s the same car I have. Over there. A: It was the blue car’s fault? B: Sure was. A: That’s what I thought..How does it protect people? Exercise 3 Complete the dialogues and act them out.. B: It’s $20. The blue car hit the black car from behind.Why do you think Marco decided to read his insurance policy? .. B: Really? Bill’s a good driver. 2.. B: Oh. B: Boby? What does he want? A: His car broke down.. A: Have you seen Marta’s new car? B: Marta got a new car? A: Yeah. What color is it?. 3. A: Did you see what happened? B: Yeah. I see what the trouble is.000.....Why do you need insurance for cars? . B: Is there an accident up ahead? A: Yeah. Bobby’s on the phone.

9.(Feet. Its a tought row to hoe out there today so let me clue you in on what's happening on the highways. 1. bender. You should find yourselves moving at the quick clip once you leave the city as traffic starts to break up. flip. Its a difficult job driving out there today so let me inform you about what's happening on the highways. bottleneck) on the highway. You may even find yourself at a complete stop as you slowly approach the commercial district. Due to everyone leaving work at the same time. On the right side you’ll read the dialogue in TV slang. slue) you in on what happened yesterday! 3. The congestion is due to the nurmerous spectators gawking at the accident between a pickup truck and a big commercial truck on Interstate 5. tangelo) on the highway? 10. living. we're going to hit rush (hour. Hands) up! Something's flying toward us! 141 . traffic is congested right now with a lot of braking and accelerating. The bunch-up is due to the numerous rubberneckers gawking at the tangle between a pickup and a big rig on I-5. clue. Police will soon be arriving where the accident occurred so be alert. 11. screen). slim.The police just arrived on the (scene. A Traffic Report The traffic anchor is reporting the news. On the left side you will find the translation of this dialogue to standard English. traffic is heavy right now with a lot of slow-and-go. We were moving at a real fast (clip. second). spleen. Heads. We'll keep tabs on the traffic conditions for you every 20 minutes. go) on the roads tonight. 2. I was involved in a little fender (blender. You'll have a clear shot for a few miles then traffic will pick up again due to a bottleneck on the highway. Both vehicles lost control and got into a small accident but are now off on the right edge of the highway. The Traffic Report The traffic anchor is reporting the news. crookneck. dead) stop on the road. 4. Did you see the (tangle. There's a lot of slow-and-(mow. blow. slip)! 5. Exercise 1 Circle the word in parentheses that best completes the sentence. You may even find yourself at a dead stop as you work your way down to the commercial district. Due to rush hour. minute. 8. It took me entire hour to get home because of a (turtleneck. slender) this afternoon. Let me (glue. All the cars were at a (live. 6. Traffic is really (heavy. W'll keep a close surveillance on the traffic conditions for you every 20 minutes. Police will be arriving on the scene shortly so heads up.Read the TV traffic report. gender) today. You should find yourselves moving at a quick pace once you leave the city as traffic starts to diminish. If we leave now. tango. 7. You'll have an unobstructed passage for a few miles then traffic will increase again due to merging lanes on the highway. Both vehicles spun out and got into a fender bender but are now off on the right shoulder.

There's always a … in the highway around here. A number of other people gathered (12) …… the car but there wasn’t a great deal we could do.It’s a tough … to hoe on the roads this afternoon. towards on at near in to into round about of A Road Accident It was raining heavily as I was walking up the hill (1) …… the station (2) …… six o’clock (3) …… a Saturday morning. Shortly afterwards the man came round. I can’t wait to pass that … ! He’s more interested in watching the accident than watching the road. 8. A young woman hurried (10) …… the station and phoned for an ambulance while I took care (11) …… the driver. 7. crooknecks). Exercise 2 Complete the following sentences by using the word list below. Get ready to slow down. Finally! There’s a … in the traffic. 9. rubberneckers. hit a lamp-post and turned over. Exercise 3 Complete the sentences with appropriate prepositions. 4. 10. 6. I’ll keep … on the situation for you while you are gone. On Monday morning I went to the hospital to enquire (15) …… the man.Every time there's an accident on the road. What happened at work today? 12. … hour seems to be starting earlier and earlier. and he was groaning quietly when the ambulance arrived (14) …… high speed and rushed him away to hospital. A policeman arrived a few minutes later and asked me a lot of questions (13) ……. … me in. Don’t ever apply the brakes hard when driving over icy roads or you may … out. They told me that his injuries were not serious after all and that he was rapidly getting over the effects of the accident.I’m afraid the traffic is going to be … all the way home. Just as I was crossing the road (5) …… the top of the hill. We came to a … stop on the highway because of all the traffic congestion. There’s a lot of slow-and-… on the roads today. 5.12. you can be sure there be lots of (turtlenecks. 142 . 3. At this early hour there wasn’t much traffic and there weren’t many people (4) …… sight. a car came (6) …… the corner. 2. bottleneck clue tabs go rubbernecker dead scene spin break heavy rush row 1. but he was unconscious and there was a lot of blood (9) …… his face. skidded (7) … … the wet road. the accident. At once I ran (8) …… the car to assist the driver. 11. Some can be used more than once. It was travellig very fast and the driver was obviously having difficulty in controlling it. The ambulance arrived on the … one minute after the accident took place. Suddenly it swerved violently.

143 . 2. The advantages and disadvantages of living in the country. The advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city. Me native town/village. 3.REVISION TOPICS 1.