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THE HASHEr"1iTE UNiVERS~rf.

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Version 5
(September 2012)
·---

--=~--

Prepared by: · · ·

or. Khalid Al=Ani
Dr. Adnen

J.

~u=Surrah

Dr. Hamzeh Abde/ .. Halim
Dr. Nayif Maso,ud

I

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
Cheunistry
Department·

Course Content :

Experiment Title
3

3
3.)

~~~~_g!rical Formula of a ~mpou1rul

~
Ci:)
..
~

r-L---~

V---

~ ~ant

11

L---

sr

~0·-:i

25

MGlarMass of a Volatile Li;tll. ~

.

qm~

(0 Colligatlve Properties: ~Jar Mass Determination
(!!}f~J//1
Identification of a Compound: PJiysffi.21fgm.e~
(jfl;,"if!__Tes

8.

18

of Cations a

nions

L--

31
L--

cf'> ~

45

-\
--;::::;? --·---·-

--

-

50

Add-Base Titration

. 9.

58

10.

Electrochemistry

n.

Chemical

12.

pH-Hydrolysis

63

The:rmody.J..:.Il::::.-a::.:nn~·
C::;S:c--------

l

--

68
72

uploaded by icivil-hu.com

4

-

c..)

6

7

s

9

10

11

12

-

- 1%~

3c

'

-r-a

I

- --:>

-

...

....
i

-

-.ii.:
::~

-

I

=-~
....: J

c::

--

I

~~I
56

:!

Ra

- ~I zzs

21

22

Sc

Ti

44.96

47.88

15

16

i7

18

SA

6A

7A

8A

5

6

7

0

0

9

N

0

F

23

v

c

12.01

14.01

16.00

15

16

13

14

Al

Si

p

26.98

28.09

30.97

s

/Ii\
Cl

I

10

Ne
20.18
18

Ar

32.07 ,35.4JI 39.95

24

25

26

27

.... o
LO

29

30

31

32

33

34

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

54.94

55.85

58.93

58.69

63.55

6538

69.72

72.59

74.92

50.94 52.00

19.00

~

35

36

Br

Kr

78.96

79.90

83-80

y

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

53
I

Xe

88.91

91.22

92.91

95.94

(98)

101.l

102.9

106.4

107.9

112.4

114.8

118.7

121-.8

127.6

126.9

131.3

39

-~

.......::
-

I

u

. ..=

14
4A

B
10.81

-

.::::.:s -~

13
3A

57

~a*
J,,8.9

72

73

Hf

Ta

178.5

180.9

60

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

192.2

197.0

207.2

At

186.2

195.l

Po

183.9

190.2

Bi
209.0

(209)

(210)

Rn

61

62

64

65

69

70

w

200.6 204.4

89

Act
(227)
58

59

63

66

67

71

140.I

Nd Pm Sm

140.9

1442

(145)

J50.4

152.0

157.3

158.9

162.5

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

Th

Pa

Cf

Es Fm Md No Lr

232.0

(231)

u

238.0

Np

(237)

Eu

Gd Tb

Pu Am Cm Bk

(244)

(243)

(247)

2

(247)

Dy Ho

68

Pr

Ce

54

(251)

Er Tm Yb

Lu

164.9

167.3

168.9

173.0

175.0

99

100

101

102

103

(252)

(257)

(258)

(259)

(260)

(222)

iliar with safety rules in the laboratory. ~~J..a5' 3 ~fa~ are a~quate but contact . we want you to -. Prescription lenses are not adequate.:::= =2D. 4. To carry out experiments involving laboratory chemicals in a safe and correct way with minimum waste:__-:> ·. . Wear safety glasses at all times. There is no grade for this first _:: session! .c:' G J.uploaded by icivil-hu.t~· Read the following safety rules before going into the laboratory and abide by them..p I 3.Y important things by doing experiments.:. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRACTICAL COURSE IN CHEMISTRY L To learn basic laboratory skills with standard chemical equipment.com Exoeriment (1} Welcome to the Chemistry lab! Chemistry is an experimental science and you will In this first laboratory. To learn to~bs. 2. Also. you will be introduced to the laboratory ~you'll get familiar with the lab and your equipment. To learn to explain observations using the concepts you have learned in the lecture ~--==--course.u.~and report the results of simple che~cal experiments correctly.

Always stay clear form the flame . 3. Do not wear clothing that hinders free movement of ~o~ hands or hangs loose outside your laboratory coat. 5- Note the position QU~~ry ~uipJJ].... 10. .:.platinum wire (for flame testing) - . SOME LABORATORY APPARATUS ~:~-. ~-- ~-~ 12. face a dangerous situation. and first aid boxes.. Some waste liquids must be s~ into special bottles.:. --. __ ... or smoke in the laboratory.Nev.. and flames..Before l~a~g the l~b_oratory turn off any water taps and burners and dispose of solid waste in the correct container. Also. ===~ Do not dispo~e of ~into the sink.s.~r..:. 4.Always follow instructions. Do not leave glassware or any other solid materials. 13. including filter papers... -=-- - ' .When ~ating any'"ihing in a test tube.. 8- Do not leave a lit burner . do not point the mouth of the test tube towards y~urself or towards any other person. .Do riot work in a laboratory if no lecturer or technician is present...com 1- Always wear your laboratory coat.:~.Request the assistance of your instructor/technician if and when you suffer a cut or a . 7- -· ~ --==== Be careful about discarding away wastes. .·'-i. P~n your apparatus on the bench so that it is convenient and C<?mfortable to use.Use the fume hood when handling strong-smelling or irritating chemicals.. __ . Keep your books and papers away from water. ..bum or.If you are in any doubt about anything.en! like fire xtinguishers eye '..:...Vas:Q..ead the experimental instructions carefully before startmg the work Especially note any precaut10ns1that must be taken. in the sink.. ~~~=-J·)_.. .::::. There are special bulbs for this purpose.___ ._ unattended. chemicals. .:.. _ . Wash _your h0:nds well before le~ving Qie labora!£_ry.-- Funnel 4 Glass rod with .. drink.-. · _ _ _ _ .g eat. not disposed of in the sink. - 11.. Clean up any spills or broken glass immediately.-. Never taste c]lemicals... ' ·-·. wash all apparatus used and clean up the bench J9P.Do not use your mo~h to fill a pipette. F.. Report all accidents immediately to a sta member or technician.~ ' ··--"" Beaker Buchner funnel .. ask the staff member or technician for advice. -=--._J\J:')"1J7 6.uploaded by icivil-hu..Keep your bench clean and tidy while you are working. A staff member or technician will help you. _ _ . .Keep unused equipment out of the way. Put broken glassware into the labeled bUCkets. s~ that you do no~cK)it over. 9. %Iso:')wash your hands or any part of your body immediately with water when Tt comes in contact with chemicals..

·t~.-.}~:·:.com ( = Reagent bottle --- ~.uploaded by icivil-hu.' S::'~.-:~:i~~!~ Test tube brush Burette clamp Pipette filler --~~ Metal spatula Ring clamp Ceramic square Wire gauze \/Vatch glass 6 Test tube holder .

uploaded by icivil-hu.com Top-loading balance 7 .

t. _ :--.. not in pencil. of each kind. _ :·s FDR ALL EXPERIM_ENTS =-= =. don't erase it. s=. including calculations.15 g Mass of water= ~ ~ L_ ~- g :-uur experimental report.:. Please mark them all.for marking before you dean up your ~-= ~eaYe the laboratory. Leave the ---:· c::: time so as to be able to reach your next class on time.:_ ?Ene hoods 6.e building.2rks if you do not follow these instructions: ~ E:: ::::atory coat and safety glasses in the laboratory at all times.find. but only when you are instructed by your instructor to do so...5-.:. _ ~iQ~ ---:. . and return everything from your locker. _clp from your instuctor or a technician. or ion fluid... Cross out the old value and write the new value as follows: 10. z: :.. Leave your bench clean and tidy when you go.-=::..""=. -~ons of the staff and walk outside through the nearest exit to the nearest ::: :he ground level. Emergency shower 8 .:arr report to your instructor . go to the nearest clear exit. There may be . --·-=a --= mistake and you need to change an entry.ave finished the experiment. =. __ ---= exit doors 5.:=:-:: .. ERMITTENT ALARMS SOUND: UJ leave the building. ---::----'!!. in the laboratory. ~ ::n!!f results in the spaces provided in the laboratory manual at the time of the -:.o: work in the laboratory after the end of the laboratory period. Always assume that an alarm is real.' . You g a calculator _t<? the laboratory_.com _ sezious hazard in any laboratory.:ke or other obstacles. Walk around the lab to find each item. but be ready to leave if the alarm becomes continuous. Fire blankets .uploaded by icivil-hu.. Here is the list of items to .:. __ 2.u-::rr results in blue or black ink.Jed personal belongings. overwrite it.. clean your apparatus. please mark the locations of the following equipment.. There .

Please indicate that you have done so by signing your = _ . ~ Ll new fields of study.3 and 7.. Please mark the locations of all the safety _:-&rl.e lab has many safety features that can be used in an emergency. You should already have read the ---=<:ions on pages 2. -= . there are some new words and equipment to get to know -:::.::·lab.:. Here is what to do: I 9 I .. Eye wash stations 8.emistry lab could be a dangerous place to work in.uploaded by icivil-hu.there.~you will find a drawing of the lab. ___________________ ID No. _ _ z. To make sure that nobody ask you to follow a few simple instructions. Please take a few minutes to get familiar with the glassware and equip-:. Fire extinguishers 7. :::.:::zri understood the 'Safety in the Laboratory' and the 'Fire Regulations' on pages ::. First aid kits 4.com 3. be using during this course. On the .. Poster with safety instructions.:•ee to follow these rules...

com . --=-::n I 10 .~item on the list.gall items from your drawer and your locker and place them on the bench. 5 and 6.. Just ask if you need help.:.. If :. Now one by one and see if you can find its name on the list on pages 4.uploaded by icivil-hu. circle the drawing.

' 0) <====-- ~:.. Determine the~1:1pirica~rm~\fthe =d.com Section No.50 g of chlorideionsin ~Ii? CJ.: -------Date : -------GroupNo.06 g of oxygen..e? ~c.Aole_ ~ h. 3 / 11 .s.s fv###BOT_TEXT###lt;=> If(_ ~"""~'\[L>~ 0 (6 . ~acts wi~h 5. r~ ~of o-i..:---------- Ex_neriment (2) Emni:rical Formula of a Compound PreLab ~~S5 \ T ==:· 2raIDS of magnesiumcombinewith 1.C.uploaded by icivil-hu.

"""'=:.154: Ho216 : No.216 mole --·--·· · . From the number of moles. the relative number of atoms of each =:::ient is determined..-in - compound.:.:mla of nicotine? · . what is the empirical zmed and produces 6. ~plel: Nicotine is a compound containing C. These masses are converted to number of moles of the elements -::sent in ihe compound. 0.. 1.031 .:~e C =mole C02 =. fa the chemical analysis ·=-.:::.hod.7~ ·::. MgS.031. Mg3N2. H.::e H = 2 x mole H20 - _ -" = 2 x mo 1 e N 2 ~ 'T -: moles = = = 0..50 g sample of the compound is of C02. C02.94 g ofH20. 6·78g .0glmol =0.. a known mass of the compound is decomposed (or burned) and the masses of the - -::ducts are determined... ZnO. and N.z--- ~ 44.Sc ef' . ]P - • ratio of atoms --:::. and this will give the empirical formula.43g 28..94g .com Experiment (2) Empirical Formula of a Compound -:ective: -:o determine the Chemical formula of magnesium oxide. (the smallest number) this will give the smallest whole-number ratio: \ «eo 12 \l-'v-Jl ?:/'I c ...:. and Mn02_The empirical formula of a compound is usually determined .::er by chemical analysis (decompositions) or by synthesis. formula is - = Co. The following are examples of empirical formulas: Fe203.. A 2.numbe~of atomsa..uploaded by icivil-hu.0glmol 2 -oh.0glmol ::=..43 g of Nj. CH3. I. -. and 0.:roduction: The empirical formula of a compound@r§Ilallest := ~~ole-:.--18.0 031 mo_. __..CH.154 mole' 2 x...zst we calculate the number of moles of each element present.\Jc.

:.:. <.0glmol f-Aczs. the number of moles is calculated and then the empirical formula is .0093 mole = 0.com C5H1N =the empirical formula In the chemical synthesis method. Iron ring.Clay triangle.uploaded by icivil-hu. Crucible tongs.372~ -ale P =.0093: 0.0. s. a '°(). 0. -pparatus and Chemicals: Balance.0233 mole G =:lle P: mole 0 = 0.. the empirical formula of -<>gnesium oxide is determined.3?2g = 16.660 . > oxide by burning a known mass of -"gnesium in air (02).0233 = 2 : 5 ?:npirical formula is P20s ~-=::. From the mass of the ::ietal and nonmetal.188 = 0. Bunsen burner.288a0 31. In today's experiment you will pr pare~ · oc:evs ·~·®· 6 · <>"' o.6_6_0_·_g_o_f_w_b_ii_tc_--=-----o_x_id_e~\ is obtained. Mg ribbon and Steel wool. ( 13 -2Sl~ .=tenninethe empirical formula of this oxide? -"!ss of oxygen= 0. _o_. damps. and magnesium.=terrnined.0g I mol =-ale O = . From the mass of product. Yample2: 7 When~ ~d.~~66 -~ 0. Crucible and cover. 0. a known mass of a metal is combined with a non :netal. stand. The product is weighed and the mass of nonmetal is determined.

Lift the cover _ ccasionally to introduce oxygen to react with Mg. Continue heating until all Mg is converted to ash. If the zncible is too hot you will not get an accurate weight. Use steel wool for polishing. See fig (1) for ::::::rect assembly. Heat with hot flame for c=o or three minutes. dry.11en the crucible cools to room temperature (that is. add a few drops of distilled water to decompose ~:. Do not iift the cover widely. not warm to the touch). If this happens cover the crucible ~ediately.uploaded by icivil-hu. because too :=:ich air will burn the Mg brightly (with flame). Replace cover and heat the crucible and contents slowly at the beginning.icible and cover to a balance and weigh them to two decimal places(± 0. .com ~erimelllta! Procedure: Record all observations and data directly on report sheet IN INK.=:!cible until the crucible bottom becomes red.25 g of the element in the crucible and weigh 'the crucible+ Mg accurately to = 0. MIDN2. DO ~-OT PLACE THE HOT CRUCIBLE ON THE LAB BENCH AS IT WILL BURN iHR BENCH.magnesium nitride.01 g ).. - Polish about 2 cm of Mg ribbon and cut it into small pieces. that may have formed during combustion. partially covered crucible on the clay triangle. about 15 to 20 minutes. Heat the open crucible slowly until the ash is completely dry .ce about 0. Place a clean. -=·. •. _ Tum off the flame and allow the crucible and cover to cool on the clay triangle. 14 transfer it .01 g). then remove the cover and heat the . Then place the covered zucible in the desiccators and cool to room temperature. bring the =-. =ith the cover to the balance and weigh them to two decimal places. Remove the burner and Cool the crucible. This step removes any moisture from the crucible. WHEN THE CRUCIBLE STOPS FEEL[NG WARM TO YOUR HAND.-Ilow the crucible to cool for 2 minutes on· the clay triangle.

15 .uploaded by icivil-hu. (l): Setup for magnesium oxide determination.com Fig.

com Section No.3 g /mole) Mass of~ =-- 1\i.: -------Date : -------Group No.i ) ( 4 _ '2.fasso~ ~ ~ass of Crucible ancL~ ~ass o(magnesium oxidM ( 3 l-.0 g/ mole) ~Mg:~eO Empirical formula of magnesium oxide @fl the compound % of Mg in the compound ---== _.) Moles of Mg (EM.oles of oxygen (FM of 0 = 16.uploaded by icivil-hu.of Mg= 24.: _ Experiment (2) Empirical Formula of a Compound Report Sheet Trial I ~fass of6IDPtY\rucible ~.:_~lW your calculation for steps of 6-11 :- 16 Trial II .

o0f .:> \.__. ~ . by a chemical equation..all its formation.::-i3 : escribe the effect of each of the following factors. "'..-=_J the crucible's surface (because oCfimproper.. · ? W n~. . the effect of the added wa~r in the ~ecomposition of magnesium nitride. If the magnesium oxide ash is not dried completely. ~-effecton the reported value of (M~ to Ql_mole ratios: _ -. whether increases..rntn · ·a e 1s · crorrne..) \-\ 3 .~r ~tP. and somes lost. b s ± t--) ().) 0 ~.eatrg_g._.. * ~ :. ~ t\. . .com Experiment (2) Empirical Formula of a Comoound \ -=>\.fJLT<}_A. or has - - If c~bon is .. If rapid oxidation of magnesium occurs by too much air..£/ b.. "-<£) __ ~ wl-'Y.--- ~ ~ ..:i r... - f' c ac\£" e._. .tmovingthe carbon residue by further heating. If air is not sufficient to react with all the magnesium.. 9~ ~ d.d dunng / · h.$\. v 2= Explain. 3 </J ~ -_.' s ._..Exp 1am · h ow magnesrum (~ · ._ ~ - P:1111~ti·nn fr c.heating)and the crucible ·~lt~nts is weighed withoufr.d}J{~ - ~ '.1' ~~> - --..~ L ~ . _.(C± 17 ift. '/V~u~ _ (... c.uploaded by icivil-hu. decreases. d:::hex e3 J.hemic..

Ac~ctl 18 . S?IDpl~ o~ .l'-=·z.H20.: ------- Experiment (1} Limiting Reactant P:relab reacts with excess Ba.uploaded by icivil-hu._'--'-\~~~-C(&---T'9-+-~~~~~~ ~? .Cli..: ------Date : ------Group No.><?~ '. Calculate the% yield ofBa3(P04)2? ~--~-->x--~~1~~-d~~-'--'-r~ln~'c:a-""='-'. y ield -z. If the mass of ~O g .com ~-ame: ----------_ ":::::iber: ---------~ --=-~ame: ---------~ Section No.-:]04)2 obtained i~.

2 g mole-1 = 24.2 g mole-1 = 0. excess is PO/.123 mole ..2glmol =Ba2+_= rnole.75' -- 10.5% 20 .mol~ 3 2 ~of BaCh.. B23_ro4)z(s) _ J4 =mole Na3P04.r: ." . containing 40.00 g I 244.12H20 = 244.105 x 3/2 = 0.123 mole of :J the Iimlrlng reactant is Ba2+.. and the reactant in.2H20 =. Calculate the % yield of :_ }.. _ ! 3Ba2+ 3_ eoretical yield of product is calculated from the limiting reactant as follows: 3a3(P04)2 =moles Ba2+ x 1 mole Ba3(PO)z 3 moleBa2+ = 0.mole Pol.041 mole x 602. (FM) ofBaClz. Since we have only 0. x 100 = 91.12H20 and 30.2 g mole = 0.£) .-{s) • -=~a3P04.2 g mole-1 = 4.2 g!mole.74 x 10.. _. .2 g/mole.2H20 = 3 x (mole_B513(P04)2) _ ---~ BaCb.l2H20 = 380.80.00 g of BaCh. ~ \ ?(l~.69 g (this is the theoretical yield) 22·65g = . ecionic equation is: + zro.x 3 ~ 1.com __ .25 g ·-:::...2H20 = 30.12H20 = 5.69g = -: Ba3(P04)i (1.74 x 10-2 mole X 244.2H20 is dissolved in precipitate of Ba3(P04)2 weighing 22.J11-X 10.0 x 100 = 57.123 x .65 g is produced.00 g of Na3P04.l2H20 = 40.00g /.requires 0.uploaded by icivil-hu.:=ple 2: 602.185 mole Ba2+.BaC}z.7 % 24.:-2+ =mole BaC}z.2H20 = 1.041 mole = 0.! 3 0.105 mole 3..

Report the mass to ±0.01 g) and seal it into the Buchner funnel with a small amount ~~d ~..at~r~ whlle-the. =er the beaker with a watch glass and heat gently with stirring for 30 minute. --ns and Chemicals: - -:-.er policeman Filter paper (Whatman No.tal Procedure: .12H20. filt~r the precipitate byvacuum as-shown ::g.. keep the temperature at about 80-90°C :. mixture is determined..mL beaker :=sen Burner 100-mL beakers . "'-'::::.ol~tion i~ hot.01 g) 21 . The mixture is weighed and then dissolved in water.re the filter paper from the oven and weight the precipitate and paper to(± 0. -~srer to a 400 mL beaker.uploaded by icivil-hu... the composition of the ----::. labeled beaker 1 & 2 to be used in part (II). From the weights of mixture and precipitate.the precipitate to settle.2H20) and (Na3P04. remove the filter paper and ~in the oven and dry the precipitate at a temperature of I 00°C for about 1 hour. -. Weigh duplicate unknown salt mixtures and perform the following -::Eeh. then decant two 50mL volume of the supernatant liquid r=o 100 mL beakers._the precipitate with two portions of distilled water. l. :::. Do not _the solution. the precipitate formed is -.2H20 __ -a~04.::::::: nng Filter flask . Transfer any precipitate remaining in the beaker into the funnel with a zeman and hot water.2H20 and _:2H20..ce 400.0 g of an unknown mixture containing BaCh.__S are required. 42) Ba Ch }fa3P04 Unknown mixture of (BaCh.::::ing rod ___::::. add 200 mL of distilled water and stir the mixture for minute. -~a filter paper(± 0.] weighed.12H20) ~-·=--.01 g.-g stand and clamps Buchner funnel -'::'e gauze =~glass .com =:::i the following experiment you will receive an unknown mixture of BaCh..gh on a weighing paper about 1.

5 M BaCl~ to the solution in beaker 1..:. then Ba2+ is in excess and Pol.is in excess and Ba + is the limiting reactant. :: :Ormed. If a ___.uploaded by icivil-hu.. then P043.=::= 3 formed.•eess P04-3: add ~"'""'S of 0.. _'l_o_V_a_c_u_llill __ ' . __ Fig..is the limiting reactant....5 MNa3PQalto the solution in beaker 2. (1): Setup fpr vacuum filtration 22 .. =Icess Ba2+: add 2 drops of0.com -:IDn of the limiting reactant: ~-5 reactant is determined using the olutions in beakers 1 & 2 as follows: ~ ...

. (FM.2 g/mole) : .Ioles BaCh.: _ ExDerimentD} Limiting Reactant Report Sheet _):-Preparation of Ba3(P04)z =n number ~ Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 of mixture (g) 2ss of filter Paper (g) :SS of Filter paper+ Ba3(P04)2 (g) ~s of Ba3(P04)2 (g) :): .: --~----Date : -------~ Group No. (FM= 244.Determination of the Limiting reactant ~ ~ting reactant in salt mixture ::::Xcess reactant in salt mixture ::alculations: _.2H20.1ass of Na3P04.i2H 0 reacted. 23 .2g/mole) ~lass ofBaCh. 380. l2H20 reacted (g) Mass of salt mixture (g) :Aass of excess reactant (g) ~1<i Of BaCh.uploaded by icivil-hu.2H20 in the mixture --=your calculation on a separate paper.ro .Jass of Ba3(P04)2 (g) : Ioles Ba3(P04)2: (FM= 602.2 g/mole) 4 2 :.com Section No..2H20 reacted (g) ~foles :Na.

.- 01.· . decrease.> 1.ga cd~filterpaper instead of on~y.com Experiment (3) Limitin!! Reactant PostLab . e_/ o... . ~ . "~ 24 1 -=' < I . ~Gi~.· . a. h d "th ~d..uploaded by icivil-hu. Usiti. 1' ?'/ t:_0->-~ c..D:.. L) . . .) -f\ ~ ~\:.---i> .0~1 .f~ Describe the effect of each of the following factors (whether increase. #2->~C5:J-U-P (d \. ~ ~ ')/ 0. Insufficient washmg of the precipitate.u o\ec.. If th e precipitate rs was e wi an ac1 1c so ution... or ~ ~ has no effect) on the actual yield of Ba3(P04)2 p~(..Af'\ O:e?\h e- ...:».g S" e ' :~y~10--~ .. What is the effect of heating the solution on the particle size of Ba3(P04)2 precipitate? ~ 0~ ...0SJSU decrmcL d.?Li~ 0~~9\y ... If the precipitate was~n. b.otdried completely.

)l ~ PU'--@~\ 1-~rr ~ ###BOT_TEXT###quot; j 't._:i..A.com - --=-- -- _.s_s +~mm~ ~ G... -fjc 6 p L.. F \. ~ Ao ol'lrecJ.....-)\ .\-mo:> ."'\J'Y1E....S..uploaded by icivil-hu._. \wt o__s ~\$ PV 5 MC\S.\ co F' \ ~mo.l: 4\.:O _)__.. R_ \ fvlo lct v Jv'-a.'o\e. 4). l a:i.

_. -- OG¥1At-Q(I-~ ~ b ®[µ v Gly5oh(b:gJ80°C).J ® ___j I ~~ {iJ © ~~j~~~)~ ·~ v_... Benze~~)..p \C\ ~ k~ ~z.nass f the hydrogen~ .r. ' ..._ this _experiment? Give reasons..com Section No...'7~ <J °'-S 9-- /it blo eV-i--!:.: -------Date : -------- Group No.. .uploaded by icivil-hu...: Experiment (4) -------- lolar Mass of a Yolatile Liquid- J ....Q_ntainedin ~n identical cylinder at the same . tC::..:..:Q.. r '\(:!i:>'t}~ ~~<SS-- rY P:relab ~:::he following compounds can we determine its molar mass using the method ... <\co ~---------------------------~ ~ l('..1 So . = G0~-' . .{' ·y-~ C\ ...=:iinder contains compressed hyd~ngas an\! the.--~t - m~s of oxygen would be c.-'~ &~@ '{:off"~p 25 +- i ~ {~~ uJ-~6) - . 2...

-ed Dumas apparatus and procedure. is given by (2) n=(m/M) -.uploaded by icivil-hu.::neyer flask. and from these densities he determined the atomic and molar masses of ____ gases. _-. ~:to determine ~. Dumas used this principle in atomic and molar masses.com f'.0821 atm L KT =temperature of boiling water (K).4ola:rM~ss of~ Volatile LiQuid ::fiv·e: To determine the molar mass of an unknown volatile liquid.. Dumas measured the densities of volatile liquids vaporized). The flask is then heated to the boiling point of water to vaporize the liquid _ expel air and excess liquid. Finally the flask is cooled to room temperature. The molar ' is determined using the ideal gas law: (1) PV=nRT ~ number of moles. In this experiment the molar mass of a volatile liquid is determined using the _.::e ideal gas equation becomes: (3) -::iere: P =atmospheric pressure (atm) V =volume of vapor (L) m = mass of vapor (g) M =molar mass of volatile liquid (g/mol) R =gas constant= 0. The flask = contents is weighed again and the mass of the condensed vapor is calculated. 26 1mor1 I'' . n. . equal volumes of gases at the same temperature ~e contain equal number of particles (molecules). A volatile liquid is transferred to a weighed _::.ccording to Avogadro's principle.

Erlenmeyer flask from the beaker. -. pour about 10 ml sample of the volatile liquid (supplied by ~instructor) into the Erlenmeyer flask.com -imental Procedure: -eigh together a dean and dry 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. ~eat the beaker slowly till the water boils (this step should take about 10 minutes) . _:::ig a graduated cylinder. :eke a small hole through the aluminum foils with a sharp pin . Remove the outer aluminum foil and rubber band only. till all the volatile liquid has vaporized. Dry the outside of the flask and the aluminum foil completely. -:. Weigh the Erlenmeyer flask. 27 . accurately and :-ecord the mass. to cover up the liquid level in the flask. along with few . :-=nter the aluminum foil (8 x 8 cm) over the mouth of the flask and secure it in place ~ the copper wire.. -"3:e a larger piece of aluminlilu foil (10 x 10 cm) over the first foil. immediately remove the. Continue gentle ~zating of water for another 5 minutes.uploaded by icivil-hu. Place the beaker. a copper wire and an -:num foil (8 x 8 cm) on a Top-loading balance and record the weight as accurately rossible. cover and secure it ::.?2ace the Erlenrrieyer flask into a 400 ml beaker and clamp it to a stand. ?~ace some water in the beaker. place with a rubber band.vhile waiting for the Erlenmeyer flask to cool.:sing a towel. read the atmospheric pressure on the :aboratory barometer.::riling stones. _ Ieasure the temperature of the boiling water and record it. . Allow the Erlenmeyer flask to sit for 15 minutes to cool to room temperature. with aluminum cover and wire still on. •-Jlow the water to boil gently. with the flask over Bunsen burner as shown in the following figure. Turn off the Bunsen burner.

Determine the volume of the flask by filling it to the rim with water and measuring the volume of the water with a graduated cylinder. Record the volume. 28 . .com 19. Repeat the above steps for a second trial.:10.a uploaded by icivil-hu.

-.uploaded by icivil-hu.1ola:r 1ass of a Volatile Liquid ~ 1=)\.J ----~---------------------~ .. - ------------------------- I 30 p ...com Experiment (4) l\.

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Ya6J lo .:-------~ ~-~~-~--~~~ -=-erName:~~-~--~~~~~ Experiment (5) CoHigative Properties: lolar Mass Determination PreLab Smdents prepared two cyclohexane solutions having the same mass of solute.: ~------~ Date : ~------~ GroupNo. However ::ndent 1 usedµrg:pf cyclohexane. Number: Section No.com ::.uploaded by icivil-hu. t. Student 2 used{IIj Which student will observe the 2rger freezingpoint change? Explain. '-\ 31 =re .

and the boiling point . and the ==ion.-e Kr and Kb are the molar freezing point and boiling point constants for the solvent.:.e)-in cyclohexane by measuring the fr~ezing points for. T are rtional to the rnolality. z than the type.rs! solute = (g I mol.. non-electrolyte "-.:action: The addition of a non-volatile solute to a solvent produces characteristic changes in a ~s physical properties. boiling point ..-.zjng point is determined at the intersection of two lines drawn tangent to the curves above zx. From Kr and equations (1) and (3). of the solute in the solution: ~ . These changes are: vapor pressure lowering. a graph representing a decreasing temperature as a function of time (Figure 1 ). non-electrolyte by observing the --::::cebetween the freezing points of a solvent and a solution . of solute particles dissolved in the solvent. Vapor pressure lowering.d. . extrapolation of the . wt. Tb = (1) ... The solution's cooling curve -CS not reach a plateau.com Expe:rimen. the pure cyclohexane.2on. you =calculate the formula weight of the solute. 1111er because the antifreeze-water solution has a lower :freezing point and a higher -::: point than pure water.uploaded by icivil-hu. These properties are governed by the number.::. The freezing point depression. The change in colligative properties of a solution is directly proportional to the amount 1::te dissolved in the solvent. boiling point elevation. . Cyclohexane's freezing point and that for the solutions are obtained from a cooling ~-e. m. as well as the mass of solute and solvent. )solut~ (3) '-. For example when antifreeze (ethylene glycol) is .:. t:.Krm Kbm (2) -' . Kg solvent Kg solvent -\ In this experiment you will determine the molar mass of a non-volatile.=:on and freezing point depression.colligative properties of solutions. and freezing point depression are . Its :-:.. .:lohexane's cooling curve reaches a plateau at its freezing point.t (5) Colligative Properties: Iv.. Tf.. but continues to decrease slowly as the cyclohexane freezes. 6 Tr = t:. m 32 . D. below the freezing point (See Figure 1 ).:o an automobile's cooling system it will prevent freeze-up in the winter and boiling in .Iolar Mass Determination ~e: -=:'o determine the molar mass of a non-volatile.::eau to the temperature axis determines its freezing point.

01 g) approximately 0.. pour this into the cyclohexane. Prepare about 300 mL of an ice-water slurry in a 400-mL beaker. . I °C) at more :=equent intervals (20 sec). vertical zzis) versus time (t.2g of the unknown on weighing boat. When the solution is near the freezing point.01 g) the ~~and contents.) Have your instructor approve your graphs. ::reezmg Point of Solvent-Unknown Solute: freezing point trials for the solution are to be completed. Record your unknown number on your data sheet. into the solvent to measure the temperature.::.l°C) readings at timed intervals (30 sec) on the Report Sheet.perature (± O. discard the solution into a bottle marked "waste solvent. Ask the =. Place -~ test tube and cyclohexane in the ice-water bath (Figure 2). Transfer the =iknown to the cyclohexane in the 200-mm test tube.01 g). If an unknown is a liquid. --eigh (± 0. weigh (±0.01 g) about 3 =L of it in a 10-mL graduated cylinder.01 g) a clean. the lines' intersection-is-the solution's freezing point Repeat the freezing point determination one more time (warm the tube and the solution to a temperature higher than the freezing point of the solution then cool again as before.. plot the temperature (°C. record ::=:---. Weigh (±0.. 'The difference is the weight of the unknown liquid added to the cyclohexane.e test tube until the solute dissolves." :":

O 33 .. On a linear =-::ph paper (provided by your laboratory technician).2. aental Procedure: . roll =. Plot the temperature vs. Draw lines tangent to the 'curvesabove-and belowthe freezing point. then reweigh the empty cylinder.uploaded by icivil-hu. The same unknown zclute-cyclohexane solution can be used to repeat Parts B.zrough one hole of a two-hole stopper. Insert a thermometer. The ::::::iperature corresponding to the plateau of the cooling curve is cyclohexane's freezing -::Int. dry 200 nun test _--e. Determine the solution's freezing point in the same way as the solvent's was found in Part A. Add approximately 10 g of cyclohexane to the test tube and reweigh (±0. ~the outside of the test tube containing the cyclohexane and reweigh (±0.S sharp as that for the pure solvent. Continue recording until the temperature begins to drop again. It will show a "break" at the temperature where freezing began. The -::=::::iperature remains virtually constant at the freezing point until solidification is almost cmplete.l and B. time (on the same graph as in Part A) to get the solution's cooling curve. record the temperature (±0. horizontal axis) to obtain cyclohexane's "cooling curve".com . In the transfer be certain that none :f the solid solute remains in the boat or adheres to the test tube's side. The break may not be ?. If some does. After completing the collection of the experimental data.reezing Point of Solvent: -zsemble the apparatus shown in Figure (2).'i:ructor for a solid unknown sample. -:J:ile stirring with the wire stirrer inserted through the stopper's other hole.

{·~ ..-· ..~ .~t~~-~-. Freezing point apparatus 34 ..1:~ an!·::. .lohel(ane ! ~nd ~o~utio:-i} TIGURE 2.uploaded by icivil-hu. . -~~j~f.\.. ~:-.' -'-~··$~~>}·~ .- {~rd ~dutio.(~" .com I ! c~ot~t.·:~:~.· :~.n} -~·: · . Cooling curves fer solvent and solunon . Cy<. .... -:-~:· Cfclot-.: t (GOlufu>'°') FIGURE 1.

'l) 60 Cb 60 80 6 80 100 vs 100 180 120 '6 120 210 140 140 240 160 160 I 270 180 180 I 300 200 200 .320 .I 330 220 220 360 240 240 .::::e(second Temp. . .. Temp..-- -- - - - - .uploaded by icivil-hu.. 570 380 380 600 400 400 630 420 420 660 440 440 I If needed. 320 510 340 340 540 360 360 ....T A (SOLVENT) PART B (SOLUTION) Trial 1 Tr'iai 1 I I II Time l V\ I I Temp. 30 60 90 120 150 ..:. 20 \VJ 20 40 'LO 40 "P 6..- - - - - - . 36 I . t.. Time I 0 tl?) 0 I .480 - - -.. continue recording your data on separate sheets of papers and submit them with your Lab Report.com DATA FOR COOLING CURVES :-_-IB.. Trial 2 nv \?. I 300 !~ - >- . 390 260 260 420 280 280 450 300 .

B .com Experiment (5) Co!Hgative Properties: Mola:r Mass Determination 3ow will the free~int change of cyclohexane be affected ( compared with the =eezing point cfiange by a non-volatile.- uploaded by icivil-hu. P an.' ' If some so 1 ute a neres to tne test tune's wai·. non-associating and non-dissociating solute) by: > -- A non-volatile solute that d~s? Explain. ~ ~ c~ l . ~ ~ A-'>B+c 1J) Two solutes that react according to the equation. th e rreezmg r• • pomt ch ange greater or less than it should be? Explain! f ) 37 . is . 1 .1 m . . A + B ~ C? Explain! ~ ~J.

..\be.ve-:x_~'v\_e_ 3./ J\.: Date: Group No. lov-~e_ o~se Or pi /lf. Boiling point: . 38 o...rol 00~ 4e L~q4fd re--en w . Define:A.. Using the apparatus described in this ex eriment.. Its density is~/ mi. What physical property.fiii table (1) is~ unknown? · ·-~ A-\. ·4. A students liquid unknown boils at~~ximately 69°C.} 1 v.. ~ch chemic.uploaded by icivil-hu.com Section No..rcLM -M oLe v0kfy\ ~t--~ ioo~\l~ E? e._ _{v 2. distinguishes cyclohexane from . when should the boiling point of a liquid be recorded? _.11 ~ .C?tpe. -::::: CY. measurable in this experiment.!''- 2. Solubility: B. -----.: Exne:riment (6) -------~ -------~ -------~ Identification of a Compound: Physical Properties Prelab :.sv.£lohexene? ------. is insoluble in water but soluble in cyclohexane.

:_has a high density-it doesn't require much volume in order to have a large mass of lead. The density is the mass per unit volume.mrpose of this experiment to identify a chemical compound from the data collected on ability. In this experiment we will ~e the solubility of a substance in three different solvents: water. liquid .edge of the reactivity of the compound. odor.The more common _:zl properties include color... cyclohexane.:. Substances with a large density have a large __::: in a small volume.or gas. Additional tests. are soluble in water but insoluble in gasoline. and boiling point. 39 . reflecting the differences in the ecular composition of the solute from that of the solvent.and .hanol (C2H50H). The solubility of a compound is the maximum mass (usually in grams) of the . lead is "heavy" and water is zrless clear liquid.. density . may be necessary. These properties can be observed without any .ES table salt.com Rx eriment 6 Identification of a Comoound. to confirm ·ry.. For instance. Physical -.melting point.alve: -=:-o identify a compound based on its physical properties -=:-o learn how to properly assemble a boiling point apparatus Gold is yellow. ~ :.-jes are often used for the identification of a chemical substance . Qualitatively each substance is recorded as being soluble (complete -~~. slightly soluble (partial dissolution). or insoluble.ition).:2:1ce that dissolves in a fixed mass (usually lOOg) of solvent at a given temperature. salt is white and crystalline.ical has different solubilities in different solvents. boiling point . (C6H12) _ =-.uploaded by icivil-hu. These are all physical properties of chemical substances. however. roses are red.1:J£ the substance is a solid.::. density. A . some substances .solubility . tests that reveal more -:::ation about its chemical or physical properties. Phv~dcal P:rooertie§ --. While we commonly say that Lead is"heavy" we really mean that __.

Acetone.. and about 15ml of an unknown liquid. :-2e boiling point of a substance is characteristic of the magnitude of the forces acting ·etween molecules. rubber band. Stirring rod.J .=:ermolecular forces is different for each compound. Since the magnitude of the . Ethanol. the higher will be boiling point. 40 ---------------~.com Bolling point: When a liquid is gradually heated.~olecular forces.:::. dropper. thermometers 110°C. At the boiling point . 150 ml-beaker.. wire gauze. Burner. there is a temperature at which bubbles form =?()ntaneously and continue to form until the entire volume of the liquid has been converted to z gas.=ce temperature of the escaping vapor equals that of the liquid.. Beaker 250 ml. 0-ring. each has a characteristic boiling point. this temperature depends upon . ::"Clohexane. ~pa:ratus and Chemicals: -: mm test tube (4). The greater the magnitude of the .e prevailing atmospheric pressure. and ~llary tube. The boiling point values listed in Table (1) are measured _: normal atmospheric pressure (called one atmosphere of pressure).. pipette. This "constant" temperature is called the boiling point of the liquid. called intermolecular forces.:.uploaded by icivil-hu.

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79 Etliylacetate LF--10..fU/ ./ \...0\ 0. . . slightly soluble... slS = S rie«a sym bo1s use d~: = ~'<f.J.. ~ Acetone . s = ..Agitate the contents (Figure 1) Does each drop dissolve? Partially dissolve? Record your observations. Solubilitv in water and Ethanol: Repeat the test with water and ethanol as solvents. Describe the solubility of your unknown as soluble. J" r ") LJJ~ II -"" 6 .. q LOO . ~-:..~ . 0.lS ~ ~ v u.~rimenfal Procedure: ~ote: (Ask your instructor for an unknown listed in Table 1) 1.:!.) -¬ . s s 0 1 «. 2. ·- C2HsOH s s.Point(C) 56 80 80.__c - I->k I--> s s s s s s s s s 0 ~ I'-+ fY""'S> lto ~ c.£'2 ' u ble ...com "":. .74 83 < ) 0.::?_:..qy-- Fda. H20 <--- C) i.805 ~ C~ex~i<i:Pe 0..."'.. ~ o Lw.1 fffe.l.. l1 . laboratory chemicals Z 'V SO 1U ble.) . So!ubilitv in Cvclohexane: Into a 75-mm test tube add 3 drops of your liquid llll.. -:::r j Y\ Y) vi oL pci.uploaded by icivil-hu.S.66 .05 »._../·1-hexene .81 .. _ J.S --~\°') Boiling J Solubility 0.__ s: I _79_..::V.1 \ n'i l 97 100 l s s s ~ws 77 98 68 63 83 ~ . J ~C-o\-\ ( v . .79Cyclohexene 0.79 n-propanol 0!8.'lalown to 1 ml of cyclohexane.. .. C6H12 .Y- 0 0 .~' - ·~ 1 G 1 s s s s s s s s 1 i 1 !_::s1s. s s .P . -~ .~pvJ L. . .79 C-MF>th:mriC)c \3.. J -=-· Table (1) physical properties of ~ome common.79 ~n-otle'" 0..D'*""icj Z- "' ). .4i( Eth:inot~ 0.:z.9>~' Compound Dens'ity(g/ml) (CJ.-- ' (_' :1 ... 9r insoluble in each solvent.'6?~ ~ --...67 Isoprouanol 0.90 0~684 ~ Heptane n-hexane 0. e.fil§r.v<..

. However.. Slowly heat the water in the water bath while stirring with the stirring rod..~~:i:~e~the capillary tube.. ·: ·~·-. .. Pipette 2ml of the liquid into a beaker and +eigh. .. discontinue heating the water bath. Assemble the Boiling Point Apparatus.~!2. . This is the boiling point of the liquid. Density: Complete two trials to determine the density of your unknown.- ·. '. Complete two measurements for the boiling point of your unknown. Measure the Boiling Point. Position it beside the thermometer bulb using a rubber band.. Invert (open end down) a 10-crn capillary tube in the liquid. ·. 2. Place 10 drops of the unknown liquid into a 7 5-rru-n test tube. Calculate the density of the liquid.. Determine Mass and Volume of Unknown. ·-··· ~- -----~ 3.com B. ~ .~·---···-·-~-·-· ··-. the capillary tube must be removed and reinserted before heating resumes.!?l~~--~~?. Wh~:r!_the_]?ub. Repeat the Measurement. . The stream of bubbles slows as the bath cools.. When a rapid and continuous stream of bubbles escapes the capillary tube. ' -- '•· ··-.I. ..~l?e... record the temperature. Place the apparatus into the water bath. C.~.?igure (2) apparatus for determining the boiling point of a liquid 42 . Assemble the apparatus in Figure 2. The same (volume of) liquid may be used. ~~5::'.§. Determine the boiling point a second time. 1.3:!!4-_l?~f~E~)h~JLq1:1~~-. . Boiling point: Check out a 110°C thermometer..uploaded by icivil-hu. . --------------. . ~-····· -· ~ ··~·· ·• .

uploaded by icivil-hu. In part C.1\..~ ~f\ .tp affect the boiling Eint of a liquid? Ask your instructor. £ ~e. <Jo t're.ct c~ t< o A 1).2 if the ~oiling _Eoint is recorded when bubbles are rapidly escaping the ca illa tube.p ~ If several drops ofliquid unknown (Part B) cillfg to the pipette wall after delivery will the density of the unknown be reported too high or too low? Explain deC(E'a>e- [&\ ~ ~ ~~( (A). If the boiiing point is recorde@the liquid enters the capillary tube (after the heat is removed).vr\p <\o1-P 9 44 .ct \:> fX A . will it be recordedtoo high or too low? Explain.. .:.com Experiment (6) Identification of a Compound: Physical Properties Post Lab ~~ Bow does ~e to .-_------------- (B).\) (J-)2?. will it be recorded too high or too low? Explain -== \J .

. HCl Unknown salt Test tube rack with test tubes ::mn 45 .Sium thiocyanate . HC03Chloride. Na2C204 =(III) sulfate. (N~)2S04. NaOH oxalate.::::a. AgN03 ~chloride. Fe2(S04)3 ::15. ca2+ iron(III). Na2S04 ::ssium chloride . To use chemical tests to identify an unknown salt. K+ calcium.J.. NH/ ammo mum. Bromide. ~:::illm nitrate.KCl chloride .com Experiment (7) Tests for Cations and Anions To observe reactions of several common cations and anions. Ca(HC03)2.J. FeCh. BaCh ~illll hydroxide . Br- er --:= unknown could be any of the 16 possible combinations of these cations and anions. ~cals and equipment: :. for ~le KBr. NH4N03 _: nitric acid.ining' one cation and one anion. NaCl =::rm bromide .ionium nitrate .. We have limited the possible ions in your unknown to -= following: Cations potassium. Fe3+ ._<lbes!ve Iabcls _-er nitrate ..I solutions of: -~ sulfate . etc. Anions Sulfate. zzroduction: One of the most common and important tasks for a chemist is to identify unknown rpounds. In this experiment you will use simple chemical tests to identify an unknown salt :-:::. HN03 _ :~ydrocbJoric acid..uploaded by icivil-hu. so." Hydrogen carbonate. Ca(N03)2 =:::. KSCN . N aBr =--~ Two test tube holders Bunsen burner Platinum wire at end of glass rod Red litmus paper ~:lli1 hydrogen carbonate: Na!f co3. A .

. u. LJ.=s: tubes held side by side so that the results can be compared. In the tests you can use .. "The solution znains colorless". After the test tubes several times with tap water and finally twice with distilled water =::n your wash bottle. z: you want to know how much this will fill a test tube. When you perform the test on the known compound :'. ys1s.:-2oximately the same volumes of the solutions. UU.:'""' ~ · V. Volumes of 1 or 2 mL are used.1.:r-· . a different reaction or no reaction at all.i.. In fact. To gain experience you should do all the tests for the cations and the anions even if :"'Ju have already established the identity after a few tests. Use clean test tubes.....v 1c.. Dirty glassware will give confusing or misleading results."-'U-- .. For example: "A white precipitate formed".&. etc.com .:ositive test for your unknown if you get the same result as was obtained for the known -ompound. A positive test is a test that cnfirms the presence of a certain ion. --=~ wash 46 ..i ·~-vt.. When you do the same test on your unknown you =2-Y see the same reaction._ i-hPcP..ii. Each test is performed with a known compound and with your unknown salt in two . '.. Write down what you see ~g a complete sentence. You can do the tests in any order.' You get a ..V used u •. ~ . You should label each test tube to remember which tube contains the known xmpound and which contains the unknown.uploaded by icivil-hu.hl!.~l!'r"!v a.a. doing so. eed to measure out volumes exactly using a measuring cylinder..:.l will... would -·y waste time and increase the chance of contamination. you can measure out 1 or 2 mL of .n~1· a. Do not write 'No change.. of course. <>n example -r . obtain a positive test.:=lled water in a measuring cylinder and pour it into a test tube.::' vl ~~::s.l OUd 0 no t The nrocedure p1v~ .. "A clear blue solution forms".. b0>ctc ~r ~nn•~«-"'+._.

: ~~~~~~~~ Experiment (8) Add-Base Titration Pre lab =~fine the following terms:2-) Neutralization: 2) Indicator: c) End Point: d) Equivalence point: 2-In a titration ofNaOH against HCI.12 mL of 0. 26.1624 M NaOH was used to neutralize a certain volume 0.com Section No.uploaded by icivil-hu.: ~~~~~~~~ Date : ~~~~~~~~ Group No.1438 M HCL What volume ofHCl was neutralized? 50 .

After filling the burette. All titrations must be carried out a minimum of three times.Odiumhydroxide s?lution using this standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate. A piece of white paper with a black bar placed behind the glass may help you to read the volume. When titrating. the tip of the burette must be inside the flask as shown below. The first titration gives an approximate value. 0. -~for goodlaboratory practice:\ Always label beakers that contain your solutions. using a standard solution of sodium hydroxide.00 mL. -:=-o make accurate volume measurements using a pipette . e. always remove the funnel. sodium hydroxide). Keep your eye level with the meniscus for all readings. Check to see that no bubbles are in the tip of the burette.com Experiment (8) =!ectives: -:=-o determine the standard concentration of E.g. The funnel should NOT stay permanently at the top of the burette since any drops of liquid from the funnel will change your readings. 51 . After draining titrant out of the burette.uploaded by icivil-hu.burette and volumetric flask. -----=-:=-o determine the concentration of an unknown hydroct>Joric acid (HC1) solution. wait about 10 sand then read the burette. ~ Do not try to get the meniscus to a particular position. distilled water then three times with a small amount oftitrant (in this experiment. Always rinse out the burette with soap & tap water.

. to 2 decimal places. Swirl the flask gently as you add the NaOH so that the solutions mix.50 g KHP. Weigh out. Make sure that no air bubbles are trapped in the tip of the burette.uploaded by icivil-hu. Record the volume to two decimal places as the "Initial burette reading" 4. Add a few drops (about 2 drops) of the phenolphthalein indicator to the KHP solution. Use the spatula to transfer the crystals from the bottle to the 100 mL conical flask. 5. Remove the funnel from the burette.RRECT: Burette tip too high :Experimental Procedure: A. When the pink color takes a longer time to disappear. that the meniscus is below the zero mark.?mfthis Willy Ust thumb 1md !We> fing!. Fill the burette with the NaOH solution.lnse out the burette \v1th. Add amount of distilled water to the !CB:P..1th right hand I . funnel. Swirl carefully until all the solid has dissolved.com : 011:r hands should lhoM the stopcock and flask as shown below Wrap :idt rumcl ~"Ol. (1) Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution by titration: -1. Record the mass in the "Report sheet". using a small. Run out enough liquid so .solution away in the sink.: Correct way to hold hands )3urette tip should be inside flask) CORRECT: Burette tip inside flask ThTCO. add the NaOH more slowly. Rough titration: Add the NaOH solution from the burette rapidly to the conical flask containing the KHP and indicator. Making the KHP solution: 1. to adjust flow Keep smrling flask v. B. 2. Stop as soon as you see the first permanent light pink color 52 . about 0.:n. :R. 3. -Thfow-thtfrinse. a small ·amoiirif ofsodium -hyctroxide-sofotion. 2.

e titration for a second trial. -:__--rfilion of an unknown (HC!) solution -.=. You can add this volume of .. -=--he flask after each titration with distilled water..:::::.... ~-i...~e new "Initial burette reading" .:.Prepare your sample as in Steps 1 &2 in part A .-::..uploaded by icivil-hu. until the first permanent light pink color is seen. Never rinse the flask with KHP ---~ Fit-st titration: Refill(if necessary) the burette with NaOH solution and make a :. your instructor for your unknown (HCl) solution . then with 53 ... -~- =~titration two more times zlean all used glassware (including the burette) first with tap water. TI1en add the NaOH slowly and carefully (drop ----. _. .e steps in part B-1 using unknown ( HCl) solution instead of the KHJP' solution.::. Record the "final burette --=--and calculate the "Volume added".==-volume from your rough titration and subtract 2 mL. This is the ~te volume ofNaOH you need for the titration.ydroxide quickly to your flask. Calculate the "Volume :y subtracting the initial burette reading from the final burette reading..com -~e volume in the burette as the "Final burette reading".

2) ...· ·. Calculate the number of moles ofNaOH. Conclusion: The concentration of NaOH solution is inole L-1.mt.· ...-.. Calculate the concentration of the NaOH solution in mole L-1 in the average volume of the solution used in the titration..-...2) .. 4...uploaded by icivil-hu.. ....... Part (B..'I'itratlou of an unknown ( HCI) solution: Rough titration First titration Second titration Final burette reading: Initial burette reading: Volume added: ....com 3..... (To be used in part B.- Number of the unknown hydrochloric acid solution: 55 _ .· .-Averagevohfrne ofSodilih:i-liydroxide-added-=.

:. _::lusion: ~concentration of Unknown #~~~~. :2culate the concentration of the HCl solution.:cuiate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide in the average volume.00 mL of the hydrochloric acid solution.=.uploaded by icivil-hu. Ezlculate the number ofmoles ofHCl in 10.rite a balanced equation for this reaction.HCl solution is -~~~~~~~mole L-1• 56 .com .

- .. (§) cQ3) .uploaded by icivil-hu. ..com Experiment {8) PostLab 1. ~ b) More than the required drops of Phenol naphthalene is added to the flask.-· .- - - ·-· . ------------------· - -· .- - . What is the effect the followin mcrease.. determination of the concentration ofHCi? decrease or no effect) on the a) Air bubbles in the burette. 4 The color at the end point is too pink.-.- --- 57 - ..-.··.c.

· .-----~ b~een tile heat of reactom obtained by dissolving solid NaOH in ·aquesous HCl solution (step 2) and the heat of solution obtained by dissolving solid NaOH in water (step 1 ).. therefore increases..is heat and. such as heat of solution. Heat of solution: it is the heat flow during the process of solution.uploaded by icivil-hu. Th ex erirnent of th.com Experiment (9) Calorimet:irv :bjective: To measure heat of reaction This experiment is designed to measure the-BEATS OF REACTION of a series of chemical reactions.the -two. Heat of neutralization: It is the heat evolved.in. we shall study only the first two of these~ 1. heat' of formation. class will be to determi e the heat of solution of an ~ 58 .It ·can· be-obtained· -from. at constant ressure· whe~ acids are .temperature.a ove. However.. . water. ~n. as in (step 1) above. The solution absorbs th. as an example when NaOH dissolves in. etc. Where the C£!Ilbine<!_geat of solution and heat of neutralization in kJ is L'l. --------- 4.ases..is laborato 'unknown salt.. hydrated ions are formed and heat is released.Thedifference __ -..eutra:lized ·wit .H2_ 3. c \~Q~ ~ -·"\ /- OH)v +(He~ - > ~~ ~a~aq) + --·---------~ ###BOT_TEXT###amp; Where the heat of solution in kJ is LlH1 · -----ilf2oi -=-- 2.steps. There are several knids of "heats of reactions". heat of combustion..

.184 JI~ and the density of the solution to be 1.Note: The difference in the heat of reaction (Example 2) a.3 x 10 J/mol r ··1 f... Moles of CsOH = 0..3 °C...e heat is given off (evolved) by the system..3 Q ~ b.·.. Total mass of solution= 202... -- ...-· .0 = 1.01334 ~ e.0 mL of an aqueous solution of hydrogen c}:lloride (HCI) in a calorimeter.00 g sample of solid _CsOH reacted with 200..0 °C b.00 g/mL) + 2. a. ilT = 2. 'if~e 0 znperature of the water was raised from 22...00 g / 149....184 Jig °C and the density of the :}u~ion to be 1.. Temper~ture change..01334 mol = -7 . (200. Heat of reaction in kJ /mol..00 g/mL).. the temperature of the solution_increased from 22. Calculate the heat of reaction in kJ/mol? (Assume the specific heat of the solution to be 4.11d the heat of solution (Example 1) is the heat of neutralization... d.. i.184 X 2.. TotaLmws of solution.0 x 104 J/mol f.0g c.0 X 4.00 g/mL) a.com zsmple I ~~ mJ2 2... Heat absorbed by the solution= 202.. -~.. LIT~ 23..7 x 103 J d.... 1.........0 of water in a alorimeter. So the heat of neutralization of Cs OH with H Cl is ----...0 mL water) {l..3 X 102 kl /mol . Heat evolved per mole of CsOH = 930 J/0..9 g /mol = &...3 to 24. Heat evolved per mole of CsOH = 1.uploaded by icivil-hu.00 g CsOH c.. Heat of solution in KI/mole= (-7.. 5 -hY-o_ltb>~ e.3 ~ Calculate the heat o so_ut1on m ~ (_assume the specific heat of the solution to be 4.4.·... m.00 g sample of s~lid ~OH )s dissolve~ i/"200.-- (b(np /mol \__/ --··-·--· ·---- -~ \ D ~. Moles of CsOH = mass/1vfolar mass= 2.. t~ Heat absorbed by the solution= heat evolved by CsOH = ~[§olutin x specific heat ofsolutioOO= ~~'=9301= ....01334 rnol - rvo...0 x 104 J/mol) x (1 kJ/103 J) = -70 kJ/mol / Note: the minus sign shows that the reaction is exothermic. Temperature change...·-. Example 2 A_2.22..

_:=.cdd the solid NaOH to the water in the calorimeter. You should weigh the NaOH fast.0 g of NaOH.-- .::ir the solution as in procedure 1 above.OH (ti. . using 3.com ~~tal Procedure: --~3sume that the density _of ail solutions is 1.. Read the temperature ~ery 30 seconds.-eigb.XOrd the temperature of water. --------·- --- -----------·-- ------ 60 - - - - - - .._c!d 100.0 g of NaOH. Record the maximum (final) temperature. --· .- .- . You will be given the molar mass of the salt..:zy lrYGROSCOPIC..-. ::. -.00 g/mL and their specific heat is ~°C.:-mffiationof the heat of reaction (AH2 _. --eigh accurately about 2..ose the calorimeter and stir the water until a constant temperature is reac~ed.. You should weigh the NaOH fast.0 mL of 0. accurately about 2. .. since it is ---ery HYGROSCOPIC.aximum temperature is reached.H1 _-::.uploaded by icivil-hu.. -= ruination of the heat of solution for Na. Record the maximum temperature reached. and record the initial temperature.500 M HCl solution to the calorimeter.0 mL of water to the calorimeter.0 g of the unknown salt in place ofNaOH. Repeat the procedure in part A.. ~ation of the heat of solution of an unknown salt: Pick up an unknown salt from the instructor and record the unknown number on the report sheet.dd 100.- - - .. .-.-- -- - - - . Stir gently. _-_dd the solid NaOH to the HCI solution in the calorimeter and stir gently until the =. since it is -. ::..

com -B: Determination of the heat of reaction of NaOH with HCI (.0 g/mol Molar mass ofNaOH Moles ofNaOH reacted 0.Hn) Data: Trial I Trial II Volume ofHCl solution Mass ofHCl solution -·- . Average Alf -· Show your calculation for Trial I: 62 _ .6.. Average heat of neutralization Part C: Determination of the heat of solution of an unknown salt: Trial II Trial I 1... Initial temperature ----§:---Final-temperature---·-------····-------6. Mass of solution 7. Initial temperature 8.H2) and the heat of neutralization (.H of solution 7. Heat of neutralization (L1H2 _ L'. ~H2 of solution 10. ti. Volume of water 2. 5.uploaded by icivil-hu. Final temperature 9.1H.6. Mass of unknown salt 4. Mass of water 3. . Mass ofNaOH 40.) 11.

- 40...: -------Date : -------- Group No.H 1 of solution 10. Moles of Na OH 6.-- - - - - - . Mass of solution 7.0g/mol - - - .. Initial temperature 8...- -- - .- . Volume of water 2.0..-..uploaded by icivil-hu. 6. Mass ofNaOH 4.- - -. Molar mass of NaOH 5.com Section No. Mass of water 3.- 61 ---------- -..:-------- Experiment (9) Calorimetrv Report ~heet Data: Trial II Trial I 1. Final temperature 9.- - - .... Average ...Hi ---------- ------------- -.

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
Experiment (10)
Electochemist:ry
=dives:

$

To measure the cell potential for various electrochemical cells.
To study the dependence of the cell potential concentration on the cell.

- zroduction:

_ Electrochemical Cells:
An oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction) such as:

Zn(s) + Cu2+ (ao) ~ Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

.:2:Il be

separated into two half-reactions, called half-cell reactions.

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- ~
Zll{s) ~

Zn

2+

(aq)

Cll(s)

+ 2e-

The first half-reaction is the reduction half-cell and the second half-reaction is the
oxidation half-cell.
The above redox reaction can be carried out in a way such that the components of the
oxidation and reduction half-cells are not mixed together, and the potential of the reaction can
be measured, as shown in the Figure below.
__ Such acell c@_b~-r~_gr_e~ep1e_d_
gy: __ ·-

G

I

zn2+ (I.OM)

_

I

-~

-

-

Cu2: (l.OMJ

- .- -

I

-

-

-- . -

-- -

- ..

-

-

-

- - ·-

--·

·-

Cu(s)

The measured potential for this cell is 1.10 V. This value is referred to as the standard
cell potential, E0 which indicates the voltage observed when all species are in their standard
states (1.0 M for species in solution, and 1.0 atm. pressure for gases). Most commonly £0
values are measured at 298 K.

63

-

-- -.

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
This cell potential, E0, can be calculated from the two half-cell potentials:

ZD{s) ~

Zn+2 (Hvi) + 2e-

Cu2+ (l M)

+ 2e- ~

Cll(s)

v

(oxidation)

E0 = 0.76

(reduction)

E0 = 0.34 V

-et reaction:

ZD{s)

+ Cu2+ (lM)

-t

Zn+2 (lM) + Cll(s)

E0 =1.10

v

When a cell reaction is written so that EO is positive, the reaction will proceed
spontaneously from left to right when all components are in their standard states.

B. Concentration Cells

In this experiment you will observe the effect of varying the concentration of a
species, participating in an electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, on the cell potential.
Since the potential of an electrode depends on the concentration of the ions used in the
electrode half-cell, a cell may be constructed from two half-cells differing only in the
concentration of ions. The principle behind this is simple, dilution of a concentrated solution
is spontaneous, so this process gives a cell with positive E. For the process:
An+ (aq) (concentratedj-o An+ (aq) (dilute)
a cell can be constructed such as:

A I An+ (dil)

11

An+ (cone) I A

which represents the reaction:

--

-

--

- -·-- -

-

- - --

A(s) + An+ (cone) -t

- ------------

-

- --

A(s) + An+ (dil)

- - - - - - - - -- ·- --

Since the two half-reactions are the same, Eo(anode) ~-Eo(cath) so-that Eo-(ceTl);,-0.- - - - - -

Applying Nemst equation, at 25°C, we get:

-----

E=

0.0592 l

---og
n

[An+]dil
[An+]conc

64

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
Experimenfal Proceduxe:

A. Electrochemical Cells:
1. Make a complete cell as shown in the Figure. Place 30 mL of 0.10 M Zn(N03h solution
and 30 mL of0.10 M Cu(N03)2 solution in. separate 100 mL (or 150 mL) beakers.
Obtain a zinc plate and a copper plate from the store room, clean both sides of each plate
(electrode) with a strip of sand paper.
2. Fill a U tube with saturated KN03 solution, insert loose cotton plugs soaked with a
saturated KN03 solution in the ends of the tube leaving no air bubbles. Place the U tube
across the beakers as a salt bridge.
3. Insert the metal plates in the solutions of their own ions.
4. Attach the appropriate electrodes to the voltmeter's terminals, using connecting wires, and
read the voltage.
5. Remove the wires connecting the cell to the voltmeter and short-circuit the cell with a
single piece of wire.
What chemical reaction is taking place?
Which way are the electrons flowing?
What changes can you observe which confirm that a chemical reaction is taking place?
6. Repeat steps 1-5 above making the following cells: Pb/Cu, and Pb/Zn. Record the voltage
reading for each cell. (The standard reduction potential of Pb +2 + 2e- -7 Pb is - 0.13 V)

B. ConcentrationCells
Set up a simple concentration cell by using a Cu/0.10 M Cu(N03)2 half-cell as that prepared
in section A, and a second half-cell prepared as follows:

1. Take 30 mL (the same volume as before) of O.lM KN03 solution and add to it exactly one
drop ofO.lOM Cu(N03)2 solution.
- - -2.-clean: a-cu-strip-with·a·sand -paper and-insert it-into-th€ beaker.. -· - - --- -· - -

. __ .

3. Connect the two half-cells by a salt bridge and measure the cell voltage.
4. Now add 10 drops of O.lOM Na2S solution to the second, more dilute, half-cell. Since CuS
is very insoluble the addition of Na-S has the effect of decreasing Cu2+ concentration to an
extremely small value.
5. Measure the cell voltage again.
6. Label the electrode signs and processes (draw a diagram).
7. Measure the temperature of the solution.

65

. ·- _

e afop nas a: VcJd--a'i&"ef/cfd-d"'~d'd?~d:ibdd>'.is about -_5/30) (O.lM) = 2 x 10-3M).com -centration Cells ::. calculate the concentration of Cu2+ from the relationship :se solubility product: · Then calculate the value of E and compare it with the observed value obtained after the addition of Na-S solution to the dilute Cu2+ half-cell.f-cell is about (0. Usethe Nemstequatjon to caJcuJ.f'.1M= 2 x l0-4kf.. Eobserved = ---Ecaiculated (show calculations)= 67 . 10 drops (0.uploaded by icivil-hu.ate me ~:le of E at 298 K and compare it with your observed value.5 cm3) of Na2S solution ( the concentration of S2.d:bfi~_b)~. Why might they differ? --=:er adding.DfJ.ation of Cu2+ in the dilute ·.05/30) x 0.

they must be interrelated. ElYlF. 68 . LiG* . Consider the reaction: aA + bB K ¢::> [CeY [AeY cC + dD [Det [Bet Where [Ae]. At any given concentration.ele"Ctfomofive-force. [Be]. Usually.indicates.of. A second quantitative criterion of the tendency for reaction to occur is the potential or · -. Q. By comparing Kand Q values one can predict the direction of the spontaneous reaction.uploaded by icivil-hu. Since potentials. equilibrium constants and free energies measure the tendency of a reaction to occur. and they are.l S. All these take into account both the enthalpy change of a reaction. A third criterion of the tendency of a reaction to occur is the free energy change of the reaction. L'. Li H.· that the reaction will proceed spontaneously in the direction as written and a negative potential indicates that the reaction will proceed spontaneously in the opposite direction. through the expression: ~0° = -nFE0= -RTlnK Where ~G0 is the standard free energy change of the reaction and E0 is the standard cell potential.. and the change in the entropy or randomness.com Experiment (11) Chemical The:rmodvnamics Objectives: e To study the factors that affect the spontaneity of a chemical reaction. [De] are equilibrium concentrations. of the reaction. [Ce]. measurements ofK are not easy to carry out. is: K = Q only at equilibrium. the concentration expression. One simple measurement is the equilibrium constant. Introduction: Several criteria could be used to judge the spontaneity of a chemical change.aoxidation=-reduction-reaction:--A -positive-potential. e To determine some thermodynamic functions for a chemical reaction. K.

.flow: Zn/Pb: ------------- Chemical reaction: Direction of e.. ....· .-.---.....com Group No....: _ Exoeriment (10) Electochemistrv Reoort Sheet Jlata and Caicufations A..flow: ------------- 66 .uploaded by icivil-hu.flow: ------------- ..· ..Pb/Cu'.. Elect:rnchemicai Cells: for each cell you made calculate Eo from your textbook table of electrode potentials.· ....· -....... Cakufated Measmred Zn/Cu Pb/Cu Zn/Pb Zn/Cu: Chemical reaction: Direction of e.-.. Explain differences if any....·.. Compare your calculated values with those observed...-....Direction of e..-chemical-reaction:-....

------ .. especially in.--- --. From these you will calculate LiG and LiS values. In this experiment you will measure EMF and ~H fora chemical reaction.- .---------- ---- -. both Kand LiG0 can be calculated.---·---- -.com =:\vc know E0 for example. aqueous solutions.. Cell potential measurements can often be made quickly and accurately and raerefcre sre favored for finding the tendency of a reaction to occur.-. If LiG is positive.----·--- ---·-- *If LiG is negative.uploaded by icivil-hu. the reaction will proceed spontaneously in the oppositedirection.. 69 . --.- ------- --. the reaction will proceed spontaneously from left to right as written..

lOM FeS04. 7. 3. 8.0mL of water.lOM Fe(:. 5.5 nE 9.H for the reaction as follows: a} In a 100 mL beaker.. by mixing 8. 10.com 1.uploaded by icivil-hu. to the nearest 0.lM HN03.20M KMn04. where E is the observed voltage in volts and n is the number of electrons exchange in the overall redox reaction . 2.50 mL of 0.30 M Fe(N03)3 and 8.Jvfu04 solution in the beaker with stirring and ____________ :r_:eco!~~~~_!1i~~~-~b_s!~_e_d_tem_E~r_a~~e~ 70 -----·- _ . and introduce 25 mL of a ready made mixture of 0. of H20 (using a graduated cylinder). Introduce the 25 mL of this solution into a 150 mL beaker.96. 5.0mL of 6M HN03 and 5.30M FeS04. Insert the carbon electrodes in the beakers consisting of the two half cells: i. Fe2+ at-id measure the voltage of the cell ~ and 1i. add about 0. Calculate A G for the cell reaction using the relationship: 8.5g of manganese dioxide..+ 4H+ + 3 e' ~ 6.N03)3 and O. Prepare the salt bridge as you did in the previous experiment. Mn04. When the voltage is stabilized record it. (Klv1n04 and FeS04 d) Add the FeS04 solution to the K. Measure t:..50 mL of 0. place 20mL of 0. t:. b) Place 20mL of 0. 4.20C. In another beaker. (all measured by graduated cylinder).101 KWm04 and O. 1v1n02.00 ml. Prepare 25 mL of a solution containing O..50M FeS04 in a flask. c) Carefully measure the temperature of each solution solutions).G (kJ) = ..

Write an equation representing the hydrolysis of each ion: . Hvdrolvsis PreLab 1. Fe3+ . F: b.--···-- . . or Neutral Na2C03 KN03 Al Ch NfLtN03 .- . Predict whether an aqueous solution of each of the following salts is acidic.. a..- - - 72 - - - - ·--·· -. or neutral: Salt Equation justifying your prediction Acidic.. or Fe2+ ? 2.- . - -· . Explain... .com uH. Basic.uploaded by icivil-hu. Fe3+: 3. basic. Which ion hydrolyzes more.

less than 7.is expressed in terms of the pH. which are surrounded by polar water molecules (hydrated) to varying degrees depending on the size and the charge of the ion.0 X 10-7 mol/L producing a pH = 7. Addition of a base.com Exoeriment (12) oH..uploaded by icivil-hu. producing a pH greater than 7.sicity of most aqueous solutions is frequently due to small concentration ofH+ or OH-.stfien-. This splitting of water molecules by ions is called hydrolysis. producing a basic solution.ions. A strongly hydrated anion. Introduction: The acidity or ba.free. which either releases H+ ions or consumes OH. Hydrolysis: Salts ionize in aqueous solution forming cations and anions. In this experiment. Addition of an acid. again weakening the 0-H bond and setting OH. attracts the positive end of the H20 molecule. 6 To measure the extent of hydrolysis of various ions. which either releases OH-ions or consumes H+ ions. Hvd:rolysi§ Objectives: e To measure the pH oflaboratory and home acids and bases.-pfoduciiigan acidic solUl:ion--:-TliepH-l. 73 . the pH's of some acids and bases will be measured using acid-base indicators or a pH-meter. A strongly hydrated cation attracts the negative end of the polar H20 molecule and -. increases [H+] and thus pH becomes less than 7. The concentration of H+ or OH. the [H+] = [OH-] = 1. _ decreases the [H+] in solution. on the other hand.-weakens tneD-:HOond: This lib-eratesfiee H+-. The pH is then greater than 7. such that: pH = - log [H+] (1) Water dissociates very slightly producing equal concentrations ofH+ and OH(2) At 25°C.

NH4C2H302. Allow sufficient time for the reading to reach a stable value. 2. C- Atmospheric Hydrolysis: Ammonium salts readily hydrolyze with water vapor releasing ammonia gas. and (NH4)2C03. and record the pH.---oerimen tal Procedure: 1. In a 50-mL beaker introduce about 30 mL of each test solution listed in the Report Sheet. Estimate the pH of each solution. 4. Clean nine test tubes with soap and water and rinse with distilled water. or co. Place 2 mL of each solution listed in the Report Sheet into separate test tubes and add 5 drops of universal indicator to each.. 3. Transfer 30 mL of each solution listed in the Report Sheet into a 50-mL beaker. releasing more ammonia gas. 2. Identify the ion that hydrolyzes and write an equation for its reaction with water. and repeat steps 2 and 3 with the other samples described in Part A. C2H302-. Place a "waste" beaker under the electrodes. pH measurement with pff-meter: 1. base? 74 er. is the strongest .B- Hydrolysis of Salts: I. Calibrate the pH meter. (This step is done by your laboratory technician). 2.com :_. touch dry with a soft paper towel. Cautiously smell solid NH4Cl. Stir the sample. rinse them with distilled water. Measure the pH of each solution with the pH-meter. The extent of hydrolysis may be detected by smelling the solid crystals. The salt producing the strongest ammonia odor causes the equilibrium NH/ (aq) + H20 ~ NH3(g) + (6) H30+(aq) to shift farthest to the right. Save the test samples for other students to use. the anion having the strongest affinity for hydronium ion (the strongest base) causes equilibrium (6) to shift farthest to the right.. . Therefore. insert the electrodes.". Which anion.uploaded by icivil-hu.Remove the electrode and the sample.

- .1 M KCI 0..-.- .10 M HC2H302 O.1 M NaC2H302 0.uploaded by icivil-hu.com Section No..- -..- Balanced Equation - - .IOMNH3 O...lOMNaOH Distilled Water Tap Water Orange Juice Milk 7-UP B.- --- pH Ion Hydrolyzed ----------- .___ I -----·--- -.: --~~~------~---_ Experiment (12) pH.lOMHCl 0.1 MNH4Cl 75 ...- -.: Date : Group No. Hydrolysis of Salts Solution . Hydrolysis Report Sheet -~ pH Solution pH I I Indicator . pH meter O.- PH-meter - 0.- - ·.--- - .

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O 33 .. On a linear =-::ph paper (provided by your laboratory technician).2. aental Procedure: . roll =. Plot the temperature vs. Draw lines tangent to the 'curvesabove-and belowthe freezing point. then reweigh the empty cylinder.uploaded by icivil-hu. The same unknown zclute-cyclohexane solution can be used to repeat Parts B.zrough one hole of a two-hole stopper. Insert a thermometer. The ::::::iperature corresponding to the plateau of the cooling curve is cyclohexane's freezing -::Int. dry 200 nun test _--e. Determine the solution's freezing point in the same way as the solvent's was found in Part A. Add approximately 10 g of cyclohexane to the test tube and reweigh (±0. ~the outside of the test tube containing the cyclohexane and reweigh (±0.S sharp as that for the pure solvent. Continue recording until the temperature begins to drop again. It will show a "break" at the temperature where freezing began. The -::=::::iperature remains virtually constant at the freezing point until solidification is almost cmplete.l and B. time (on the same graph as in Part A) to get the solution's cooling curve. record the temperature (±0. horizontal axis) to obtain cyclohexane's "cooling curve".com . In the transfer be certain that none :f the solid solute remains in the boat or adheres to the test tube's side. The break may not be ?. If some does. After completing the collection of the experimental data.reezing Point of Solvent: -zsemble the apparatus shown in Figure (2).'i:ructor for a solid unknown sample. -:J:ile stirring with the wire stirrer inserted through the stopper's other hole.

{·~ ..-· ..~ .~t~~-~-. Freezing point apparatus 34 ..1:~ an!·::. .lohel(ane ! ~nd ~o~utio:-i} TIGURE 2.uploaded by icivil-hu. . -~~j~f.\.. ~:-.' -'-~··$~~>}·~ .- {~rd ~dutio.(~" .com I ! c~ot~t.·:~:~.· :~.n} -~·: · . Cooling curves fer solvent and solunon . Cy<. .... -:-~:· Cfclot-.: t (GOlufu>'°') FIGURE 1.

'l) 60 Cb 60 80 6 80 100 vs 100 180 120 '6 120 210 140 140 240 160 160 I 270 180 180 I 300 200 200 .320 .I 330 220 220 360 240 240 .::::e(second Temp. . .. Temp..-- -- - - - - .uploaded by icivil-hu.. 570 380 380 600 400 400 630 420 420 660 440 440 I If needed. 320 510 340 340 540 360 360 ....T A (SOLVENT) PART B (SOLUTION) Trial 1 Tr'iai 1 I I II Time l V\ I I Temp. 30 60 90 120 150 ..:. 20 \VJ 20 40 'LO 40 "P 6..- - - - - - . 36 I . t.. Time I 0 tl?) 0 I .480 - - -.. continue recording your data on separate sheets of papers and submit them with your Lab Report.com DATA FOR COOLING CURVES :-_-IB.. Trial 2 nv \?. I 300 !~ - >- . 390 260 260 420 280 280 450 300 .

B .com Experiment (5) Co!Hgative Properties: Mola:r Mass Determination 3ow will the free~int change of cyclohexane be affected ( compared with the =eezing point cfiange by a non-volatile.- uploaded by icivil-hu. P an.' ' If some so 1 ute a neres to tne test tune's wai·. non-associating and non-dissociating solute) by: > -- A non-volatile solute that d~s? Explain. ~ ~ c~ l . ~ ~ A-'>B+c 1J) Two solutes that react according to the equation. th e rreezmg r• • pomt ch ange greater or less than it should be? Explain! f ) 37 . is . 1 .1 m . . A + B ~ C? Explain! ~ ~J.

..\be.ve-:x_~'v\_e_ 3./ J\.: Date: Group No. lov-~e_ o~se Or pi /lf. Boiling point: . 38 o...rol 00~ 4e L~q4fd re--en w . Define:A.. Using the apparatus described in this ex eriment.. Its density is~/ mi. What physical property.fiii table (1) is~ unknown? · ·-~ A-\. ·4. A students liquid unknown boils at~~ximately 69°C.} 1 v.. ~ch chemic.uploaded by icivil-hu.com Section No..rcLM -M oLe v0kfy\ ~t--~ ioo~\l~ E? e._ _{v 2. distinguishes cyclohexane from . when should the boiling point of a liquid be recorded? _.11 ~ .C?tpe. -::::: CY. measurable in this experiment.!''- 2. Solubility: B. -----.: Exne:riment (6) -------~ -------~ -------~ Identification of a Compound: Physical Properties Prelab :.sv.£lohexene? ------. is insoluble in water but soluble in cyclohexane.

:_has a high density-it doesn't require much volume in order to have a large mass of lead. The density is the mass per unit volume.mrpose of this experiment to identify a chemical compound from the data collected on ability. In this experiment we will ~e the solubility of a substance in three different solvents: water. liquid .edge of the reactivity of the compound. odor.The more common _:zl properties include color... cyclohexane.:. Substances with a large density have a large __::: in a small volume.or gas. Additional tests. are soluble in water but insoluble in gasoline. and boiling point. 39 . reflecting the differences in the ecular composition of the solute from that of the solvent.and .hanol (C2H50H). The solubility of a compound is the maximum mass (usually in grams) of the . lead is "heavy" and water is zrless clear liquid.. density . may be necessary. These properties can be observed without any .ES table salt.com Rx eriment 6 Identification of a Comoound. to confirm ·ry.. For instance. Physical -.melting point.alve: -=:-o identify a compound based on its physical properties -=:-o learn how to properly assemble a boiling point apparatus Gold is yellow. ~ :.-jes are often used for the identification of a chemical substance . Qualitatively each substance is recorded as being soluble (complete -~~. slightly soluble (partial dissolution). or insoluble.ition).:2:1ce that dissolves in a fixed mass (usually lOOg) of solvent at a given temperature. salt is white and crystalline.ical has different solubilities in different solvents. boiling point . (C6H12) _ =-.uploaded by icivil-hu. These are all physical properties of chemical substances. however. roses are red.1:J£ the substance is a solid.::. density. A . some substances .solubility . tests that reveal more -:::ation about its chemical or physical properties. Phv~dcal P:rooertie§ --. While we commonly say that Lead is"heavy" we really mean that __.

Acetone.. and about 15ml of an unknown liquid. :-2e boiling point of a substance is characteristic of the magnitude of the forces acting ·etween molecules. rubber band. Stirring rod.J .=:ermolecular forces is different for each compound. Since the magnitude of the . Ethanol. the higher will be boiling point. 40 ---------------~.com Bolling point: When a liquid is gradually heated.~olecular forces.:::. dropper. thermometers 110°C. At the boiling point . 150 ml-beaker.. wire gauze. Burner. there is a temperature at which bubbles form =?()ntaneously and continue to form until the entire volume of the liquid has been converted to z gas.=ce temperature of the escaping vapor equals that of the liquid.. Beaker 250 ml. 0-ring. each has a characteristic boiling point. this temperature depends upon . ::"Clohexane. ~pa:ratus and Chemicals: -: mm test tube (4). The greater the magnitude of the .e prevailing atmospheric pressure. and ~llary tube. The boiling point values listed in Table (1) are measured _: normal atmospheric pressure (called one atmosphere of pressure).. pipette. This "constant" temperature is called the boiling point of the liquid. called intermolecular forces.:.uploaded by icivil-hu.

.rv..: IZ::oili"'-3 s\-c-l"~ ~ t:\)' ~ ~I zi>: fl\ p ~ 0 ~/ ~~=- ·-- ._--.._~-:_-·~ ' A f>p =t-~ ie~P ~to . y ~"' Y W Ve\..P~. 0n~ \ _-... ...__ _/ ·~ct_ ~ e-1/ -~~b~~) ~.com i*"""".1 . \:i4VYl~p\~ ....o01r ClsC. ..p ~ ~ -~ - ~ i.-\<:v=-·~ .~-J 7.uploaded by icivil-hu.

79 Etliylacetate LF--10..fU/ ./ \...0\ 0. . . slightly soluble... slS = S rie«a sym bo1s use d~: = ~'<f.J.. ~ Acetone . s = ..Agitate the contents (Figure 1) Does each drop dissolve? Partially dissolve? Record your observations. Solubilitv in water and Ethanol: Repeat the test with water and ethanol as solvents. Describe the solubility of your unknown as soluble. J" r ") LJJ~ II -"" 6 .. q LOO . ~-:..~ . 0.lS ~ ~ v u.~rimenfal Procedure: ~ote: (Ask your instructor for an unknown listed in Table 1) 1.:!.) -¬ . s s 0 1 «. 2. ·- C2HsOH s s.Point(C) 56 80 80.__c - I->k I--> s s s s s s s s s 0 ~ I'-+ fY""'S> lto ~ c.£'2 ' u ble ...com "":. .74 83 < ) 0.::?_:..qy-- Fda. H20 <--- C) i.805 ~ C~ex~i<i:Pe 0..."'.. ~ o Lw.1 fffe.l.. l1 . laboratory chemicals Z 'V SO 1U ble.) . So!ubilitv in Cvclohexane: Into a 75-mm test tube add 3 drops of your liquid llll.. -:::r j Y\ Y) vi oL pci.uploaded by icivil-hu.S.66 .05 »._../·1-hexene .81 .. _ J.S --~\°') Boiling J Solubility 0.__ s: I _79_..::V.1 \ n'i l 97 100 l s s s ~ws 77 98 68 63 83 ~ . J ~C-o\-\ ( v . .79Cyclohexene 0.79 n-propanol 0!8.'lalown to 1 ml of cyclohexane.. .. C6H12 .Y- 0 0 .~' - ·~ 1 G 1 s s s s s s s s 1 i 1 !_::s1s. s s .P . -~ .~pvJ L. . .79 C-MF>th:mriC)c \3.. J -=-· Table (1) physical properties of ~ome common.79 ~n-otle'" 0..D'*""icj Z- "' ). .4i( Eth:inot~ 0.:z.9>~' Compound Dens'ity(g/ml) (CJ.-- ' (_' :1 ... 9r insoluble in each solvent.'6?~ ~ --...67 Isoprouanol 0.90 0~684 ~ Heptane n-hexane 0. e.fil§r.v<..

. However.. Slowly heat the water in the water bath while stirring with the stirring rod..~~:i:~e~the capillary tube.. ·: ·~·-. .. Pipette 2ml of the liquid into a beaker and +eigh. .. discontinue heating the water bath. Assemble the Boiling Point Apparatus.~!2. . This is the boiling point of the liquid. Density: Complete two trials to determine the density of your unknown.- ·. '. Complete two measurements for the boiling point of your unknown. Measure the Boiling Point. Position it beside the thermometer bulb using a rubber band.. Invert (open end down) a 10-crn capillary tube in the liquid. ·. 2. Place 10 drops of the unknown liquid into a 7 5-rru-n test tube. Calculate the density of the liquid.. Determine Mass and Volume of Unknown. ·-··· ~- -----~ 3.com B. ~ .~·---···-·-~-·-· ··-. the capillary tube must be removed and reinserted before heating resumes.!?l~~--~~?. Wh~:r!_the_]?ub. Repeat the Measurement. . The stream of bubbles slows as the bath cools.. When a rapid and continuous stream of bubbles escapes the capillary tube. ' -- '•· ··-.I. ..~l?e... record the temperature. Place the apparatus into the water bath. C.~.?igure (2) apparatus for determining the boiling point of a liquid 42 . Assemble the apparatus in Figure 2. The same (volume of) liquid may be used. ~~5::'.§. Determine the boiling point a second time. 1.3:!!4-_l?~f~E~)h~JLq1:1~~-. . Boiling point: Check out a 110°C thermometer..uploaded by icivil-hu. . --------------. . ~-····· -· ~ ··~·· ·• .

uploaded by icivil-hu. In part C.1\..~ ~f\ .tp affect the boiling Eint of a liquid? Ask your instructor. £ ~e. <Jo t're.ct c~ t< o A 1).2 if the ~oiling _Eoint is recorded when bubbles are rapidly escaping the ca illa tube.p ~ If several drops ofliquid unknown (Part B) cillfg to the pipette wall after delivery will the density of the unknown be reported too high or too low? Explain deC(E'a>e- [&\ ~ ~ ~~( (A). If the boiiing point is recorde@the liquid enters the capillary tube (after the heat is removed).vr\p <\o1-P 9 44 .ct \:> fX A . will it be recordedtoo high or too low? Explain.. .:.com Experiment (6) Identification of a Compound: Physical Properties Post Lab ~~ Bow does ~e to .-_------------- (B).\) (J-)2?. will it be recorded too high or too low? Explain -== \J .

. HCl Unknown salt Test tube rack with test tubes ::mn 45 .Sium thiocyanate . HC03Chloride. Na2C204 =(III) sulfate. (N~)2S04. NaOH oxalate.::::a. AgN03 ~chloride. Fe2(S04)3 ::15. ca2+ iron(III). Na2S04 ::ssium chloride . To use chemical tests to identify an unknown salt. K+ calcium.J.. NH/ ammo mum. Bromide. ~:::illm nitrate.KCl chloride .com Experiment (7) Tests for Cations and Anions To observe reactions of several common cations and anions. Ca(HC03)2.J. FeCh. BaCh ~illll hydroxide . Br- er --:= unknown could be any of the 16 possible combinations of these cations and anions. ~cals and equipment: :. for ~le KBr. NH4N03 _: nitric acid.ining' one cation and one anion. NaCl =::rm bromide .ionium nitrate .. We have limited the possible ions in your unknown to -= following: Cations potassium. Fe3+ ._<lbes!ve Iabcls _-er nitrate ..I solutions of: -~ sulfate . etc. Anions Sulfate. zzroduction: One of the most common and important tasks for a chemist is to identify unknown rpounds. In this experiment you will use simple chemical tests to identify an unknown salt :-:::. HN03 _ :~ydrocbJoric acid..uploaded by icivil-hu. so." Hydrogen carbonate. Ca(N03)2 =:::. KSCN . N aBr =--~ Two test tube holders Bunsen burner Platinum wire at end of glass rod Red litmus paper ~:lli1 hydrogen carbonate: Na!f co3. A .

. u. LJ.=s: tubes held side by side so that the results can be compared. In the tests you can use .. "The solution znains colorless". After the test tubes several times with tap water and finally twice with distilled water =::n your wash bottle. z: you want to know how much this will fill a test tube. When you perform the test on the known compound :'. ys1s.:-2oximately the same volumes of the solutions. UU.:'""' ~ · V. Volumes of 1 or 2 mL are used.1.:r-· . a different reaction or no reaction at all.i.. In fact. To gain experience you should do all the tests for the cations and the anions even if :"'Ju have already established the identity after a few tests. Use clean test tubes.....v 1c.. Dirty glassware will give confusing or misleading results."-'U-- .. For example: "A white precipitate formed".&. etc.com .:ositive test for your unknown if you get the same result as was obtained for the known -ompound. A positive test is a test that cnfirms the presence of a certain ion. --=~ wash 46 ..i ·~-vt.. When you do the same test on your unknown you =2-Y see the same reaction._ i-hPcP..ii. Each test is performed with a known compound and with your unknown salt in two . '.. Write down what you see ~g a complete sentence. You can do the tests in any order.' You get a ..V used u •. ~ . You should label each test tube to remember which tube contains the known xmpound and which contains the unknown.uploaded by icivil-hu.hl!.~l!'r"!v a.a. doing so. eed to measure out volumes exactly using a measuring cylinder..:.l will... would -·y waste time and increase the chance of contamination. you can measure out 1 or 2 mL of .n~1· a. Do not write 'No change.. of course. <>n example -r . obtain a positive test.:=lled water in a measuring cylinder and pour it into a test tube.::' vl ~~::s.l OUd 0 no t The nrocedure p1v~ .. "A clear blue solution forms".. b0>ctc ~r ~nn•~«-"'+._.

: ~~~~~~~~ Experiment (8) Add-Base Titration Pre lab =~fine the following terms:2-) Neutralization: 2) Indicator: c) End Point: d) Equivalence point: 2-In a titration ofNaOH against HCI.12 mL of 0. 26.1624 M NaOH was used to neutralize a certain volume 0.com Section No.uploaded by icivil-hu.: ~~~~~~~~ Date : ~~~~~~~~ Group No.1438 M HCL What volume ofHCl was neutralized? 50 .

After filling the burette. All titrations must be carried out a minimum of three times.Odiumhydroxide s?lution using this standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate. A piece of white paper with a black bar placed behind the glass may help you to read the volume. When titrating. the tip of the burette must be inside the flask as shown below. The first titration gives an approximate value. 0. -~for goodlaboratory practice:\ Always label beakers that contain your solutions. using a standard solution of sodium hydroxide.00 mL. -:=-o make accurate volume measurements using a pipette . e. always remove the funnel. sodium hydroxide). Keep your eye level with the meniscus for all readings. Check to see that no bubbles are in the tip of the burette.com Experiment (8) =!ectives: -:=-o determine the standard concentration of E.g. The funnel should NOT stay permanently at the top of the burette since any drops of liquid from the funnel will change your readings. 51 . After draining titrant out of the burette.uploaded by icivil-hu.burette and volumetric flask. -----=-:=-o determine the concentration of an unknown hydroct>Joric acid (HC1) solution. wait about 10 sand then read the burette. ~ Do not try to get the meniscus to a particular position. distilled water then three times with a small amount oftitrant (in this experiment. Always rinse out the burette with soap & tap water.

. to 2 decimal places. Swirl the flask gently as you add the NaOH so that the solutions mix.50 g KHP. Weigh out. Make sure that no air bubbles are trapped in the tip of the burette.uploaded by icivil-hu. Record the volume to two decimal places as the "Initial burette reading" 4. Add a few drops (about 2 drops) of the phenolphthalein indicator to the KHP solution. Use the spatula to transfer the crystals from the bottle to the 100 mL conical flask. 5. Remove the funnel from the burette.RRECT: Burette tip too high :Experimental Procedure: A. When the pink color takes a longer time to disappear. that the meniscus is below the zero mark.?mfthis Willy Ust thumb 1md !We> fing!. Fill the burette with the NaOH solution.lnse out the burette \v1th. Add amount of distilled water to the !CB:P..1th right hand I . funnel. Swirl carefully until all the solid has dissolved.com : 011:r hands should lhoM the stopcock and flask as shown below Wrap :idt rumcl ~"Ol. (1) Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution by titration: -1. Record the mass in the "Report sheet". using a small. Run out enough liquid so .solution away in the sink.: Correct way to hold hands )3urette tip should be inside flask) CORRECT: Burette tip inside flask ThTCO. add the NaOH more slowly. Rough titration: Add the NaOH solution from the burette rapidly to the conical flask containing the KHP and indicator. Making the KHP solution: 1. to adjust flow Keep smrling flask v. B. 2. Stop as soon as you see the first permanent light pink color 52 . about 0.:n. :R. 3. -Thfow-thtfrinse. a small ·amoiirif ofsodium -hyctroxide-sofotion. 2.

e titration for a second trial. -:__--rfilion of an unknown (HC!) solution -.=. You can add this volume of .. -=--he flask after each titration with distilled water..:::::.... ~-i...~e new "Initial burette reading" .:.Prepare your sample as in Steps 1 &2 in part A .-::..uploaded by icivil-hu. until the first permanent light pink color is seen. Never rinse the flask with KHP ---~ Fit-st titration: Refill(if necessary) the burette with NaOH solution and make a :. your instructor for your unknown (HCl) solution . then with 53 ... -~- =~titration two more times zlean all used glassware (including the burette) first with tap water. TI1en add the NaOH slowly and carefully (drop ----. _. .e steps in part B-1 using unknown ( HCl) solution instead of the KHJP' solution.::. Record the "final burette --=--and calculate the "Volume added".==-volume from your rough titration and subtract 2 mL. This is the ~te volume ofNaOH you need for the titration.ydroxide quickly to your flask. Calculate the "Volume :y subtracting the initial burette reading from the final burette reading..com -~e volume in the burette as the "Final burette reading".

2) ...· ·. Calculate the number of moles ofNaOH. Conclusion: The concentration of NaOH solution is inole L-1.mt.· ...-.. Calculate the concentration of the NaOH solution in mole L-1 in the average volume of the solution used in the titration..-...2) .. 4...uploaded by icivil-hu.. ....... Part (B..'I'itratlou of an unknown ( HCI) solution: Rough titration First titration Second titration Final burette reading: Initial burette reading: Volume added: ....com 3..... (To be used in part B.- Number of the unknown hydrochloric acid solution: 55 _ .· .-Averagevohfrne ofSodilih:i-liydroxide-added-=.

:. _::lusion: ~concentration of Unknown #~~~~. :2culate the concentration of the HCl solution.:cuiate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide in the average volume.00 mL of the hydrochloric acid solution.=.uploaded by icivil-hu. Ezlculate the number ofmoles ofHCl in 10.rite a balanced equation for this reaction.HCl solution is -~~~~~~~mole L-1• 56 .com .

- .. (§) cQ3) .uploaded by icivil-hu. ..com Experiment {8) PostLab 1. ~ b) More than the required drops of Phenol naphthalene is added to the flask.-· .- - - ·-· . ------------------· - -· .- - . What is the effect the followin mcrease.. determination of the concentration ofHCi? decrease or no effect) on the a) Air bubbles in the burette. 4 The color at the end point is too pink.-.- --- 57 - ..-.··.c.

· .-----~ b~een tile heat of reactom obtained by dissolving solid NaOH in ·aquesous HCl solution (step 2) and the heat of solution obtained by dissolving solid NaOH in water (step 1 ).. therefore increases..is heat and. such as heat of solution. Heat of solution: it is the heat flow during the process of solution.uploaded by icivil-hu. Th ex erirnent of th.com Experiment (9) Calorimet:irv :bjective: To measure heat of reaction This experiment is designed to measure the-BEATS OF REACTION of a series of chemical reactions.the -two. Heat of neutralization: It is the heat evolved.in. we shall study only the first two of these~ 1. heat' of formation. class will be to determi e the heat of solution of an ~ 58 .It ·can· be-obtained· -from. at constant ressure· whe~ acids are .temperature.a ove. However.. . water. ~n. as in (step 1) above. The solution absorbs th. as an example when NaOH dissolves in. etc. Where the C£!Ilbine<!_geat of solution and heat of neutralization in kJ is L'l. --------- 4.ases..is laborato 'unknown salt.. hydrated ions are formed and heat is released.Thedifference __ -..eutra:lized ·wit .H2_ 3. c \~Q~ ~ -·"\ /- OH)v +(He~ - > ~~ ~a~aq) + --·---------~ ###BOT_TEXT###amp; Where the heat of solution in kJ is LlH1 · -----ilf2oi -=-- 2.steps. There are several knids of "heats of reactions". heat of combustion..

.184 JI~ and the density of the solution to be 1.Note: The difference in the heat of reaction (Example 2) a.3 x 10 J/mol r ··1 f... Moles of CsOH = 0..3 °C...e heat is given off (evolved) by the system..3 Q ~ b.·.. Total mass of solution= 202... -- ...-· .0 = 1.01334 ~ e.0 mL of an aqueous solution of hydrogen c}:lloride (HCI) in a calorimeter.00 g sample of solid _CsOH reacted with 200..0 °C b.00 g/mL) + 2. a. ilT = 2. 'if~e 0 znperature of the water was raised from 22...00 g / 149....184 Jig °C and the density of the :}u~ion to be 1.. Temper~ture change..01334 mol = -7 . (200. Heat of reaction in kJ /mol..00 g/mL).. the temperature of the solution_increased from 22. Calculate the heat of reaction in kJ/mol? (Assume the specific heat of the solution to be 4.11d the heat of solution (Example 1) is the heat of neutralization... d.. i.184 X 2.. TotaLmws of solution.0 x 104 J/mol f.0g c.0 X 4.00 g/mL) a.com zsmple I ~~ mJ2 2... Heat absorbed by the solution= 202.. -~.. LIT~ 23..7 x 103 J d.... 1.........0 of water in a alorimeter. So the heat of neutralization of Cs OH with H Cl is ----...0 mL water) {l..3 X 102 kl /mol . Heat evolved per mole of CsOH = 930 J/0..9 g /mol = &...3 to 24. Heat evolved per mole of CsOH = 1.uploaded by icivil-hu.00 g CsOH c.. Heat of solution in KI/mole= (-7.. 5 -hY-o_ltb>~ e.3 ~ Calculate the heat o so_ut1on m ~ (_assume the specific heat of the solution to be 4.4.·... m.00 g sample of s~lid ~OH )s dissolve~ i/"200.-- (b(np /mol \__/ --··-·--· ·---- -~ \ D ~. Moles of CsOH = mass/1vfolar mass= 2.. t~ Heat absorbed by the solution= heat evolved by CsOH = ~[§olutin x specific heat ofsolutioOO= ~~'=9301= ....01334 rnol - rvo...0 x 104 J/mol) x (1 kJ/103 J) = -70 kJ/mol / Note: the minus sign shows that the reaction is exothermic. Temperature change...·-. Example 2 A_2.22..

_:=.cdd the solid NaOH to the water in the calorimeter. You should weigh the NaOH fast.0 g of NaOH.-- .::ir the solution as in procedure 1 above.OH (ti. . using 3.com ~~tal Procedure: --~3sume that the density _of ail solutions is 1.. Read the temperature ~ery 30 seconds.-eigb.XOrd the temperature of water. --------·- --- -----------·-- ------ 60 - - - - - - .._c!d 100.0 g of NaOH. Record the maximum (final) temperature. --· .- .- . You will be given the molar mass of the salt..:zy lrYGROSCOPIC..-. ::. -.00 g/mL and their specific heat is ~°C.:-mffiationof the heat of reaction (AH2 _. --eigh accurately about 2..ose the calorimeter and stir the water until a constant temperature is reac~ed.. You should weigh the NaOH fast.0 mL of 0. accurately about 2. .. since it is ---ery HYGROSCOPIC.aximum temperature is reached.H1 _-::.uploaded by icivil-hu.. -= ruination of the heat of solution for Na. Record the maximum temperature reached. and record the initial temperature.500 M HCl solution to the calorimeter.0 mL of water to the calorimeter.0 g of the unknown salt in place ofNaOH. Repeat the procedure in part A.. ~ation of the heat of solution of an unknown salt: Pick up an unknown salt from the instructor and record the unknown number on the report sheet.dd 100.- - - .. .-.-- -- - - - . Stir gently. _-_dd the solid NaOH to the HCI solution in the calorimeter and stir gently until the =. since it is -. ::..

com -B: Determination of the heat of reaction of NaOH with HCI (.0 g/mol Molar mass ofNaOH Moles ofNaOH reacted 0.Hn) Data: Trial I Trial II Volume ofHCl solution Mass ofHCl solution -·- . Average Alf -· Show your calculation for Trial I: 62 _ .6.. Average heat of neutralization Part C: Determination of the heat of solution of an unknown salt: Trial II Trial I 1... Initial temperature ----§:---Final-temperature---·-------····-------6. Mass of solution 7. Initial temperature 8.H2) and the heat of neutralization (.H of solution 7. Heat of neutralization (L1H2 _ L'. ~H2 of solution 10. ti. Volume of water 2. 5.uploaded by icivil-hu. Final temperature 9.1H.6. Mass of unknown salt 4. Mass of water 3. . Mass ofNaOH 40.) 11.

- 40...: -------Date : -------- Group No.H 1 of solution 10. Moles of Na OH 6.-- - - - - - . Mass of solution 7.0g/mol - - - .. Initial temperature 8...- -- - .- . Volume of water 2.0..-..uploaded by icivil-hu. 6. Mass ofNaOH 4.- - -. Molar mass of NaOH 5.com Section No. Mass of water 3.- 61 ---------- -..:-------- Experiment (9) Calorimetrv Report ~heet Data: Trial II Trial I 1. Final temperature 9.- - - .... Average ...Hi ---------- ------------- -.

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
Experiment (10)
Electochemist:ry
=dives:

$

To measure the cell potential for various electrochemical cells.
To study the dependence of the cell potential concentration on the cell.

- zroduction:

_ Electrochemical Cells:
An oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction) such as:

Zn(s) + Cu2+ (ao) ~ Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

.:2:Il be

separated into two half-reactions, called half-cell reactions.

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- ~
Zll{s) ~

Zn

2+

(aq)

Cll(s)

+ 2e-

The first half-reaction is the reduction half-cell and the second half-reaction is the
oxidation half-cell.
The above redox reaction can be carried out in a way such that the components of the
oxidation and reduction half-cells are not mixed together, and the potential of the reaction can
be measured, as shown in the Figure below.
__ Such acell c@_b~-r~_gr_e~ep1e_d_
gy: __ ·-

G

I

zn2+ (I.OM)

_

I

-~

-

-

Cu2: (l.OMJ

- .- -

I

-

-

-- . -

-- -

- ..

-

-

-

- - ·-

--·

·-

Cu(s)

The measured potential for this cell is 1.10 V. This value is referred to as the standard
cell potential, E0 which indicates the voltage observed when all species are in their standard
states (1.0 M for species in solution, and 1.0 atm. pressure for gases). Most commonly £0
values are measured at 298 K.

63

-

-- -.

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
This cell potential, E0, can be calculated from the two half-cell potentials:

ZD{s) ~

Zn+2 (Hvi) + 2e-

Cu2+ (l M)

+ 2e- ~

Cll(s)

v

(oxidation)

E0 = 0.76

(reduction)

E0 = 0.34 V

-et reaction:

ZD{s)

+ Cu2+ (lM)

-t

Zn+2 (lM) + Cll(s)

E0 =1.10

v

When a cell reaction is written so that EO is positive, the reaction will proceed
spontaneously from left to right when all components are in their standard states.

B. Concentration Cells

In this experiment you will observe the effect of varying the concentration of a
species, participating in an electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, on the cell potential.
Since the potential of an electrode depends on the concentration of the ions used in the
electrode half-cell, a cell may be constructed from two half-cells differing only in the
concentration of ions. The principle behind this is simple, dilution of a concentrated solution
is spontaneous, so this process gives a cell with positive E. For the process:
An+ (aq) (concentratedj-o An+ (aq) (dilute)
a cell can be constructed such as:

A I An+ (dil)

11

An+ (cone) I A

which represents the reaction:

--

-

--

- -·-- -

-

- - --

A(s) + An+ (cone) -t

- ------------

-

- --

A(s) + An+ (dil)

- - - - - - - - -- ·- --

Since the two half-reactions are the same, Eo(anode) ~-Eo(cath) so-that Eo-(ceTl);,-0.- - - - - -

Applying Nemst equation, at 25°C, we get:

-----

E=

0.0592 l

---og
n

[An+]dil
[An+]conc

64

uploaded by icivil-hu.com
Experimenfal Proceduxe:

A. Electrochemical Cells:
1. Make a complete cell as shown in the Figure. Place 30 mL of 0.10 M Zn(N03h solution
and 30 mL of0.10 M Cu(N03)2 solution in. separate 100 mL (or 150 mL) beakers.
Obtain a zinc plate and a copper plate from the store room, clean both sides of each plate
(electrode) with a strip of sand paper.
2. Fill a U tube with saturated KN03 solution, insert loose cotton plugs soaked with a
saturated KN03 solution in the ends of the tube leaving no air bubbles. Place the U tube
across the beakers as a salt bridge.
3. Insert the metal plates in the solutions of their own ions.
4. Attach the appropriate electrodes to the voltmeter's terminals, using connecting wires, and
read the voltage.
5. Remove the wires connecting the cell to the voltmeter and short-circuit the cell with a
single piece of wire.
What chemical reaction is taking place?
Which way are the electrons flowing?
What changes can you observe which confirm that a chemical reaction is taking place?
6. Repeat steps 1-5 above making the following cells: Pb/Cu, and Pb/Zn. Record the voltage
reading for each cell. (The standard reduction potential of Pb +2 + 2e- -7 Pb is - 0.13 V)

B. ConcentrationCells
Set up a simple concentration cell by using a Cu/0.10 M Cu(N03)2 half-cell as that prepared
in section A, and a second half-cell prepared as follows:

1. Take 30 mL (the same volume as before) of O.lM KN03 solution and add to it exactly one
drop ofO.lOM Cu(N03)2 solution.
- - -2.-clean: a-cu-strip-with·a·sand -paper and-insert it-into-th€ beaker.. -· - - --- -· - -

. __ .

3. Connect the two half-cells by a salt bridge and measure the cell voltage.
4. Now add 10 drops of O.lOM Na2S solution to the second, more dilute, half-cell. Since CuS
is very insoluble the addition of Na-S has the effect of decreasing Cu2+ concentration to an
extremely small value.
5. Measure the cell voltage again.
6. Label the electrode signs and processes (draw a diagram).
7. Measure the temperature of the solution.

65

. ·- _

e afop nas a: VcJd--a'i&"ef/cfd-d"'~d'd?~d:ibdd>'.is about -_5/30) (O.lM) = 2 x 10-3M).com -centration Cells ::. calculate the concentration of Cu2+ from the relationship :se solubility product: · Then calculate the value of E and compare it with the observed value obtained after the addition of Na-S solution to the dilute Cu2+ half-cell.f-cell is about (0. Usethe Nemstequatjon to caJcuJ.f'.1M= 2 x l0-4kf.. Eobserved = ---Ecaiculated (show calculations)= 67 . 10 drops (0.uploaded by icivil-hu.ate me ~:le of E at 298 K and compare it with your observed value.5 cm3) of Na2S solution ( the concentration of S2.d:bfi~_b)~. Why might they differ? --=:er adding.DfJ.ation of Cu2+ in the dilute ·.05/30) x 0.

they must be interrelated. ElYlF. 68 . LiG* . Consider the reaction: aA + bB K ¢::> [CeY [AeY cC + dD [Det [Bet Where [Ae]. At any given concentration.ele"Ctfomofive-force. [Be]. Usually.indicates.of. A second quantitative criterion of the tendency for reaction to occur is the potential or · -. Q. By comparing Kand Q values one can predict the direction of the spontaneous reaction.uploaded by icivil-hu. Since potentials. equilibrium constants and free energies measure the tendency of a reaction to occur. and they are.l S. All these take into account both the enthalpy change of a reaction. A third criterion of the tendency of a reaction to occur is the free energy change of the reaction. L'. Li H.· that the reaction will proceed spontaneously in the direction as written and a negative potential indicates that the reaction will proceed spontaneously in the opposite direction. through the expression: ~0° = -nFE0= -RTlnK Where ~G0 is the standard free energy change of the reaction and E0 is the standard cell potential.. and the change in the entropy or randomness.com Experiment (11) Chemical The:rmodvnamics Objectives: e To study the factors that affect the spontaneity of a chemical reaction. [De] are equilibrium concentrations. of the reaction. [Ce]. measurements ofK are not easy to carry out. is: K = Q only at equilibrium. the concentration expression. One simple measurement is the equilibrium constant. Introduction: Several criteria could be used to judge the spontaneity of a chemical change.aoxidation=-reduction-reaction:--A -positive-potential. e To determine some thermodynamic functions for a chemical reaction. K.

.flow: Zn/Pb: ------------- Chemical reaction: Direction of e.. ....· .-.---.....com Group No....: _ Exoeriment (10) Electochemistrv Reoort Sheet Jlata and Caicufations A..flow: ------------- 66 .uploaded by icivil-hu.flow: ------------- ..· ..Pb/Cu'.. Elect:rnchemicai Cells: for each cell you made calculate Eo from your textbook table of electrode potentials.· ....· -....... Cakufated Measmred Zn/Cu Pb/Cu Zn/Pb Zn/Cu: Chemical reaction: Direction of e.-.. Explain differences if any....·.. Compare your calculated values with those observed...-....Direction of e..-chemical-reaction:-....

------ .. especially in.--- --. From these you will calculate LiG and LiS values. In this experiment you will measure EMF and ~H fora chemical reaction.- .---------- ---- -. both Kand LiG0 can be calculated.---·---- -.com =:\vc know E0 for example. aqueous solutions.. Cell potential measurements can often be made quickly and accurately and raerefcre sre favored for finding the tendency of a reaction to occur.-. If LiG is positive.----·--- ---·-- *If LiG is negative.uploaded by icivil-hu. the reaction will proceed spontaneously in the oppositedirection.. 69 . --.- ------- --. the reaction will proceed spontaneously from left to right as written..

lOM FeS04. 7. 3. 8.0mL of water.lOM Fe(:. 5.5 nE 9.H for the reaction as follows: a} In a 100 mL beaker.. by mixing 8. 10.com 1.uploaded by icivil-hu. to the nearest 0.lM HN03.20M KMn04. where E is the observed voltage in volts and n is the number of electrons exchange in the overall redox reaction . 2.50 mL of 0.30 M Fe(N03)3 and 8.Jvfu04 solution in the beaker with stirring and ____________ :r_:eco!~~~~_!1i~~~-~b_s!~_e_d_tem_E~r_a~~e~ 70 -----·- _ . and introduce 25 mL of a ready made mixture of 0. of H20 (using a graduated cylinder). Introduce the 25 mL of this solution into a 150 mL beaker.96. 5.0mL of 6M HN03 and 5.30M FeS04. Insert the carbon electrodes in the beakers consisting of the two half cells: i. Fe2+ at-id measure the voltage of the cell ~ and 1i. add about 0. Calculate A G for the cell reaction using the relationship: 8.5g of manganese dioxide..+ 4H+ + 3 e' ~ 6.N03)3 and O. Prepare the salt bridge as you did in the previous experiment. Mn04. When the voltage is stabilized record it. (Klv1n04 and FeS04 d) Add the FeS04 solution to the K. Measure t:..50 mL of 0. place 20mL of 0. t:. b) Place 20mL of 0. 4.20C. In another beaker. (all measured by graduated cylinder).101 KWm04 and O. 1v1n02.00 ml. Prepare 25 mL of a solution containing O..50M FeS04 in a flask. c) Carefully measure the temperature of each solution solutions).G (kJ) = ..

Write an equation representing the hydrolysis of each ion: . Hvdrolvsis PreLab 1. Fe3+ . F: b.--···-- . . or Neutral Na2C03 KN03 Al Ch NfLtN03 .- . Predict whether an aqueous solution of each of the following salts is acidic.. a..- - - 72 - - - - ·--·· -. or neutral: Salt Equation justifying your prediction Acidic.. or Fe2+ ? 2.- . - -· . Explain... .com uH. Basic.uploaded by icivil-hu. Fe3+: 3. basic. Which ion hydrolyzes more.

less than 7.is expressed in terms of the pH. which are surrounded by polar water molecules (hydrated) to varying degrees depending on the size and the charge of the ion.0 X 10-7 mol/L producing a pH = 7. Addition of a base.com Exoeriment (12) oH..uploaded by icivil-hu. producing a pH greater than 7.sicity of most aqueous solutions is frequently due to small concentration ofH+ or OH-.stfien-. This splitting of water molecules by ions is called hydrolysis. producing a basic solution.ions. A strongly hydrated anion. Introduction: The acidity or ba.free. which either releases H+ ions or consumes OH. Hydrolysis: Salts ionize in aqueous solution forming cations and anions. In this experiment. Addition of an acid. again weakening the 0-H bond and setting OH. attracts the positive end of the H20 molecule. 6 To measure the extent of hydrolysis of various ions. which either releases OH-ions or consumes H+ ions. Hvd:rolysi§ Objectives: e To measure the pH oflaboratory and home acids and bases.-pfoduciiigan acidic solUl:ion--:-TliepH-l. 73 . the pH's of some acids and bases will be measured using acid-base indicators or a pH-meter. A strongly hydrated cation attracts the negative end of the polar H20 molecule and -. increases [H+] and thus pH becomes less than 7. The concentration of H+ or OH. the [H+] = [OH-] = 1. _ decreases the [H+] in solution. on the other hand.-weakens tneD-:HOond: This lib-eratesfiee H+-. The pH is then greater than 7. such that: pH = - log [H+] (1) Water dissociates very slightly producing equal concentrations ofH+ and OH(2) At 25°C.

NH4C2H302. Allow sufficient time for the reading to reach a stable value. 2. C- Atmospheric Hydrolysis: Ammonium salts readily hydrolyze with water vapor releasing ammonia gas. and (NH4)2C03. and record the pH.---oerimen tal Procedure: 1. In a 50-mL beaker introduce about 30 mL of each test solution listed in the Report Sheet. Estimate the pH of each solution. 4. Clean nine test tubes with soap and water and rinse with distilled water. or co. Place 2 mL of each solution listed in the Report Sheet into separate test tubes and add 5 drops of universal indicator to each.. 3. Transfer 30 mL of each solution listed in the Report Sheet into a 50-mL beaker. releasing more ammonia gas. 2. Identify the ion that hydrolyzes and write an equation for its reaction with water. and repeat steps 2 and 3 with the other samples described in Part A. C2H302-. Place a "waste" beaker under the electrodes. pH measurement with pff-meter: 1. base? 74 er. is the strongest .B- Hydrolysis of Salts: I. Calibrate the pH meter. (This step is done by your laboratory technician). 2.com :_. touch dry with a soft paper towel. Cautiously smell solid NH4Cl. Stir the sample. rinse them with distilled water. Measure the pH of each solution with the pH-meter. The extent of hydrolysis may be detected by smelling the solid crystals. The salt producing the strongest ammonia odor causes the equilibrium NH/ (aq) + H20 ~ NH3(g) + (6) H30+(aq) to shift farthest to the right. Save the test samples for other students to use. the anion having the strongest affinity for hydronium ion (the strongest base) causes equilibrium (6) to shift farthest to the right.. . Therefore. insert the electrodes.". Which anion.uploaded by icivil-hu.Remove the electrode and the sample.

- .1 M KCI 0..-.- .10 M HC2H302 O.1 M NaC2H302 0.uploaded by icivil-hu.com Section No..- -..- Balanced Equation - - .IOMNH3 O...lOMNaOH Distilled Water Tap Water Orange Juice Milk 7-UP B.- --- pH Ion Hydrolyzed ----------- .___ I -----·--- -.: --~~~------~---_ Experiment (12) pH.lOMHCl 0.1 MNH4Cl 75 ...- -.: Date : Group No. Hydrolysis of Salts Solution . Hydrolysis Report Sheet -~ pH Solution pH I I Indicator . pH meter O.- PH-meter - 0.- - ·.--- - .

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