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**Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and
**

Computer Science

**Exclusive OR/Exclusive NOR (XOR/XNOR)
**

•

•

•

•

•

•

**XOR and XNOR are useful logic functions.
**

Both have two or more inputs. The truth

table for two inputs is shown at right.

a XOR b = 1 if and only if (iff) a ≠ b.

a XNOR b = 1 if and only if (iff) a = b.

Both may also have many inputs. For >2

inputs, the XOR output is 1 for an odd

number of 1 inputs; XNOR has a 1 output

for an even number of 1 inputs.

Symbols are shown below and to the right.

Like NAND and

a

a ⊕ b NOR, XOR and

XOR b

XNOR are not

XNOR

1

a

b

**XOR/XNOR Truth Table
**

a b a XOR b a XNOR b

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

**basic Boolean functions,
**

a b but can be made from

AND, OR and NOT.

Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits

XNOR = ab + ab

XOR = ab + ab

© N. B. Dodge 9/15

The University of Texas at Dallas

**Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and
**

Computer Science

**Quick Simplification Review
**

•

•

•

•

**The first technique we studied to simplify a
**

Boolean expression used algebraic techniques.

For instance, consider the truth table at right.

The minterms shown represent the SOP

expression: f = abc + abc + abc

The Boolean expression is easily simplifiable

using the Boolean identities:

**f = abc + abc + abc
**

f = abc + abc + abc + abc

1

1

f= ab( c + c ) + ac ( b + b )

=

f ab + ac

•

2

a

b

c

f

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

**The simplified circuit is shown below the
**

truth table.

Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits

© N. B. Dodge 9/15

The University of Texas at Dallas

**Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and
**

Computer Science

**Quick Simplification Review (2)
**

•

•

•

**We can also plot the minterms on a K-map
**

and graphically simplify the expression (and

the circuit).

On the K-map below, the three minterms

( abc , abc , abc ) are plotted.

The simplified expression derived from the

two prime implicants is the same as that

using algebraic simplification.

bc bc bc bc

a

a

3

000

001

011

010

0

1

3

2

100

101

111

110

4

5

7

6

1

1

1

a

b

c

f

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

Identical circuit

solution using

K-map method:

=

f ab + ac

Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits

© N. B. Dodge 9/15

Dodge 9/15 . and z.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Exercise 1 • Let’s do another simplification exercise before moving on. the simplified expression. y. x. is 1 when x and y are both 1 or when x and z are both 1. 4 x y z f 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. Consider this “spec:” The function f of three variables. and the simplified circuit. Find the SOP expression. Use the K-map on the next slide to perform the same simplification. B.

The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science K-Map Solution y z yz yz yz x x 5 000 001 011 010 0 1 3 2 100 101 111 110 4 5 7 6 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. B. Dodge 9/15 .

. Then the truth table for the 2-input decoder will show that for each combination of y and x (00. Then let us define a = 1 for x = 0. y = 0.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Decoders • • • • • 6 An n-to-2n decoder is a combinational logic circuit that has n inputs and up to 2n outputs. Dodge 9/15 . That is. Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. Assume that the decoder has the maximum possible number of outputs (4). c. it can have 2n outputs. and d = 1 for x = 1 and y = 1. and d (here. 11). Let us call the inputs y and x and the outputs a. one of the outputs will go high (logic 1). x is the more significant bit). The decoder will have 2 inputs and up to 2n = 22 = 4 outputs. Each output of a decoder will normally be true (i. 01. b. go to logic 1) for only one combination of the n inputs. but it may have less. B. Consider the case of an n = 2 decoder.e. 10. c = 1 for x = 1 and y = 0. b = 1 for x = 0 and y = 1.

B.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Decoders (2) • The truth tables for a-d in our 2-to-4 decoder are: x y * a b c d 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 • Using the truth tables above. we can define a-d in terms of x and y. b. and d in terms of x and y. Dodge 9/15 . with x the more significant bit. a = xy b = xy c = xy d = xy 7 Boolean expressions for a. c. Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. * Note that we put x first because we regard the xy pair as a number.

then a-d represent a x true condition for each of the four possible y binary numbers that x and y can represent. B. • 8 a b c d Based on the logic expressions above.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Decoders (3) • • • Remembering that = a x= y. we can draw the decoder circuit as shown at right. b xy = . Dodge 9/15 . = a 1. c x y. Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. for = xy 01.= and xy : If we consider xy a binary number with x the MSB and y the LSB. for = xy 10. = b 1. for = xy 11. which is a unique combination of the two bits in the binary number yx: For = xy 00. = d 1. = c 1. Thus we say that each output a-d has an address.

and each output will have a unique “address” that x represents one of the eight possible combinations of the three inputs. 7… Two Notes: – Any n-input decoder can have up to 2n outputs. y In the same way.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Decoders (4) • • • • • 9 In the same way. a b c d e f g h 3-input. eightoutput decoder xy z Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits g © N. each output for an n-input decoder is created by a single n-input AND gate. – In general. a decoder with 3 inputs may have up to 23 = 8 outputs. Dodge 9/15 . Such a circuit is shown to the right. a 4-input decoder could have up to 24 = 16 outputs. 6. for 5. Its inputs are the n decoder inputs. but it may have less. Etc. each of which z is a unique combination of the inputs.. some of which may be inverted. B.

an n-bit address. depending on the value of the n-bit address. • The multiplexer is usually symbolized by the abbreviation MUX as the symbol for its function. Dodge 9/15 .The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Definition of a Multiplexer • A multiplexer is a combinational logic circuit that has up to 2n inputs. • The n-bit address is decoded. • The multiplexer connects one of the inputs to the output. and one output. just as we have studied in the last five slides. B. 10 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. • Thus the multiplexer uses a decoder and a selector circuit (which we will see in a subsequent slide) to tie one of its inputs to its output.

Assume a 4-input MUX. Then there must be two address lines. d. x (MSB) and y (LSB). c. B. Dodge 9/15 . The output is denoted as f.Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas Multiplexer: An “Input to Output” Selector • • • • The truth table for a multiplexer is shown below. x 0 0 1 1 11 y 0 1 0 1 f a b c d Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. b. with inputs labeled a.

with the various parts of the circuit labeled. Dodge 9/15 .The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Components of a Multiplexer a b c f d Output* x y • 12 Selector * Note that the multiplexer has a 1-bit output. Decoder The multiplexer is shown above. B. Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.

13 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. The output is the value of the input selected by the address. – A multiplexer has only one output. one of which is selected by each address for output (it may have less inputs). but it might have less). • Multiplexer: – A multiplexer has two sets of inputs: n address lines (just like the decoder) and as many as 2n inputs. – A decoder has up to 2n outputs (it can have that many. which are called the address. • Thus we see that a decoder makes up a part of a multiplexer. Dodge 9/15 . Each output line is true (or 1) for a specific combinations of the input lines. B.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Differences in Decoder and Multiplexer • Decoder: – A decoder has n inputs. maximum. called the address.

and 7. x-z. design a MUX to output the inputs a-c on addresses 3. B. A decoder has a three-input address. it has only three. 6. respectively. but although it may have up to 23. Output 1 is true on address 3. 2 on address 6. in this case. Dodge 9/15 . with x = MSB. Now using the decoder and adding a selector circuit. 14 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. and 3 on address 7. Design the decoder. or 8 outputs.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Exercise 2 • Let’s design a simple decoder and multiplexer.

* A computer never adds but two numbers together at one time. B. the right number goes in current column. • The ALU or datapath is a combinational logic unit that can add. and the left number (always a 1) becomes a “carry” to the next column to the left. – The resulting sum in any column will be only a single digit. – If the sum of one column is a 2-digit number.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Binary Arithmetic Circuits • A binary adder is a large part of a computer central processor unit (CPU). (Patterson and Hennessey call it the “datapath”). subtract. NOT. OR. starting on the right. Dodge 9/15 . The CPU “figuring” unit is sometimes called the ALU. etc. or arithmetic/logic unit. or do logical operations such as AND. • Consider the “rules of addition” (adding two numbers only*): – Numbers are added on a columnar basis. – Column addition always includes the carry from the column to the right. 15 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.

Dodge 9/15 . – If a 2-digit result. ci. B. – The column i carry. The left digit is carry i.Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas Principles of Addition • Decimal addition example: 1 1 “Carries” → • 5 8 7 6 4 3 1 2 3 0 Binary numbers are added in exactly the same way: “Carries” → • 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10101000111 + 01111110101 (1) 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Basic principles for an n-column addition: – Add column i plus carry from column i–1 (ci–1). or ci. Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. the right digit is si. will be added to column (i+1). si. – If a one-digit result. that number is the sum of column i.

carry out is defined as: Co = ab The SOP representation of the 2-bit half adder is at the right. B. First we consider a 2-bit “half-adder.” The truth table on the right shows sum and carry bits for the 2 input bits a & b. a b S co 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 S Exp co Exp ab ab ab a S b Co Half-Adder Circuit Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. is to use one binary “column adder” for each of the n bits.Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas A “Half-Adder” Circuit • • • • • 17 We would now like to design a digital adder for two binary numbers. Thus. all that is necessary to add two nbit numbers. Thus. Likewise. “sum” is the simple SOP expression: = S ab + ab . to add two 8-bit numbers. we simply use eight column adders. Since addition is done on a columnar basis. Dodge 9/15 .

the sum s is expressed as: = s ab + ab • • As noted on the first slide today. this is the expression for the XOR gate. Dodge 9/15 . B. Note that this is no longer a “standard” SOP representation. We can then construct the logic gate equivalent of the half-adder as shown on the right. Thus an alternate expression for s is: s= a ⊕ b • • • 18 Note that carry out is still: Co = ab .The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Alternate Construction of a Half-Adder • We note that in a half-adder. but it is easier to build! Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.

The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science “Half-Adder” in Action = 0. Dodge 9/15 . B. 19 =1 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.

Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. Thus the 2-bit ai–1 ai+1 ai column adder must be a 3-bit adder. + + + there is also the possibility of a carry bit. in addition to the column bits. most adder circuits use all fulladders.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The “Full Adder” • • • • • 20 The half-adder circuit is an important step in Col (i+1) Col (i) Col (i–1) building a digital adder. + + + This 3-bit adder is called a “full adder. we will see that use later in Columnar Addition this lecture. ci-1 from the column to the right. since carry-in for the least significant bit can be useful. (ci) (ci–1) (ci–2) When adding binary numbers on a columnar basis. ai and bi. B. the rightbi–1 bi+1 bi most bits of the two numbers of two numbers si+1 could be added with a half-adder (no carry in). Dodge 9/15 . si si–1 However.” In adding two n-bit binary numbers. but it is not the total solution to the binary addition problem.

B. 21 S Exp co Exp abc * abc abc abc abc abc abc abc * For simplicity. Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas Full Adder Boolean Equations • The full column adder truth table is shown. we represent “carry in” above simply as c. Dodge 9/15 . along with SOP terms for the 1’s in the S and co columns. • For the sum SOP function:* a b ci S co 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 S = abc + abc + abc + abc • For the carry out SOP function: 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Co = abc + abc + abc + abc • The SOP circuit for the full adder is shown on the next slide.

B. 22 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. Dodge 9/15 . Note that sum and carry have a common term.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science SOP Circuit for a Full Adder • Above is the SOP equivalent circuit for a full adder.

That is. it is NOT in correct SOP or POS form. B. Although this is an easier circuit to build (XOR’s simplify the circuit). Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. – S = (a ⊕ b) ⊕ c – C = ab + ( a ⊕ b )c o – Where c = cin The equivalent logic construction is shown in the circuit on the right. The exact proof is left to the student.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Alternate Construction of Full Adder • • • • • 23 We note that since we can construct a full-adder similarly to a halfadder. then we should be able to use the alternate half-adder (XOR logic) to construct a full adder. Dodge 9/15 . for the full adder.

The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science 32-Bit Adder 1-digit (2-bit) full adder 24 32-digit (2-bit) adder May be a half-adder • A 32-bit adder would be made up like this: The 32 1-digit full adders would be wired up so that each would add one column of two 32-bit numbers (a half-adder could be used in column 1). Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. B. Dodge 9/15 .

digital subtractors were constructed as well as digital adders. • We note that ( a − b ) = a + ( b2's complement ) = a + b + 1 . B. However. Add–/Sub+ Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. it quickly became apparent that the subtraction function could be added very easily to a digital adder. Dodge 9/15 . so that we can subtract using an adder if we: – Invert b (can obtain via an XOR). We can combine these into one control signal. – Set the carry in input (ci) of bit 0 to 1 (which is why we would need a full adder even in column 1 of the binary adder circuit). we need two control signals: “Invert b” – which selects b instead of b. Carry in.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Subtraction • • In the past. Consider the following: – A 1-bit full adder produces carry out (cO) and sum (s) outputs from carry in (ci) and numerical (a and b) inputs. • • • • 25 To select subtraction. column 1 – which sets ci = 1 for bit 0.

B. Dodge 9/15 . B 4-Bit Adder Section Add/Subtract Selector Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. while if it is low. 26 B0 B1 B2 B3 C1 S0 S1 S2 S3 B Ci A C3 C2 Add-/Sub+ B A Ci Outputs Note that the Add−/Sub+ line must be XOR’ed with the C3 line to be correct for the subtract case.Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas Four-Bit Binary Add/Subtract Circuit Carry in = 1 for subtract. the B input is not changed. Ci A C0 A0 A1 A2 A3 1-Bit Full Adder (Used 4 Times) B Ci A Inputs If the Add−/Sub+ input is high. the XOR’s invert the B input.

The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The ALU or “Datapath” • We have already noted that the arithmetic/logical unit (ALU. • This ALU takes the “columnar” approach we have discussed for a binary adder. 27 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. B. Dodge 9/15 . • The amazing thing about the ALU is that it is mostly combinational logic composed of the very logic functions that we have studied so far! • Patterson & Hennessy discuss a simple version ALU in Chapter 4 of their book that only functions as an AND/OR/add/subtract/compare unit. • Their 32-bit ALU (the prototype for the MIPS R2000 computer we will learn to program later on) is composed of 32 of the 1-bit ALUs. or what P&H call the “datapath”) is the “calculating” unit of the computer central processor.

Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas A 1-Bit ALU 2-Bit MUX Select Address OR a AND b Carry In 1-bit Full Adder/ Subtractor Sum Carry/ Borrow 1-Bit Result Out 4-to-1 MUX The 1-bit ALU provides all the possible results of logic/arithmetical analysis to the 4-1 MUX. Dodge 9/15 . B. For instance. 28 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N. The 2-bit select address (derived from decoding a part of the computer instruction) selects the desired result and outputs it. outputting the borrow signal provides a comparison of a and b.

• This approach works well for AND and OR functions. 29 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science “Bit Slicing:” N 1-bit ALU’s = N-Bit Processor • Thirty-two of the one-bit ALU’s shown on the previous page may be combined to form a 32-bit MIPS CPU (which we will study later). Dodge 9/15 . This means that in a 32-bit computer. which is where the name “bit slicing” comes from. we have to propagate carries from each lower column to the next higher column. • These accelerators are not covered in EE 2310. an operation is performed on all bits at once using the 32 separate 1-bit ALU’s. • For add and subtract. we have 32 carries (the 32nd carry would be “overflow”). and so some special digital “fast carry” circuits have been developed to accelerate the carry/borrow action (they are not shown on the 1-bit ALU diagram). This “slices” the data into 32 bits. • In the 32-bit ALU. • All these carries/borrows are VERY time-consuming. B.

where c = ci This expression can be simplified to three terms. Then show the circuit design. B. Do so. consider the following: The SOP Boolean expression for a full adder carry out is: Co = abc + abc + abc + abc .The University of Texas at Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science Exercise 3 • As a special exercise in reviewing the digital adder plus some of the principles we learned earlier. Dodge 9/15 . 30 Lecture #6: More Complex Combinational Logic Circuits © N.

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