CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

The study of the products of government, namely Development through
an understanding of public policies* has been dominated by students of
Political Science first and Public Administration later. Today the study of
Public Policy has acquired a new dimension and is struggling to acquire the
status of a new discipline called “Policy Science”. It is no exaggeration to
suggest that Development

parse proposes analysis of policies of government

as a substitute for politics. Stephen Brooks maintains: “While not anti
democratic, the analytical approach to public policy making aspires to the de
politicization of the policy process1. Although the term policy science’ is
mostly associated with Lasswell and Y.Dror, a policy orientation was evident in
the very beginnings of American social science, the concern which informs the
policy science writings of Laswell and Dror is evident in the work of American
social scientists today. Education and sociological training for legislators were
measures stressed by Lester Ward with a view to embedding rational decision
making into the very culture and political institutions of American society. The
tradition of rationalism runs from Ward to Dror. Brooks writes: “These visions
of a new politics share a conviction that the institutionalization of scientific
analysis into the policy-making processes is a necessary condition for the
attainment of democratic government in a modern society2”. “Thus,

it is

1

clear that the study of development process while a government is at
work (More so a coalition) is basically an American way of measuring the
working/ functioning of government.

The Dewyism which pervades policy science has been acknowledged by
Lasswell when he wrote: “Policy sciences are a contemporary adoption of the
general approach to public policy that was recommended by John Dewey and
his colleagues in the development of American Pragmatism”3. Similarly Sidney
Hook explains, “for Dewey the survival and expansion of democracy depends
upon its use of scientific method or creative intelligence to solve its Problems4”.
It is for this reason that he laid stress on the study of developmental agenda of a
government. However, even then this subject of study was not given a status
that it desired. But it was at a later date that the concept of ‘Policy Science’ was
first formulated by Harold Lasswell in 1951 in his co edited work “The Policy
Sciences”. This work is regarded as the first systematic effort towards building
a new field of enquiry to deal with social problems as governments do through
their so called `developmental activity’.

The writings of Scotta and Shore, Horowitz, and Tribe provide a more
detailed picture of the emergence of policy science. A group of converging
factors, such as war, poverty, crime, race relations, and pollution are seen to be
responsible for producing a great interest in policy science vis-a-vis
governments in the late 1960s. Brooks therefore adds: “Policy science is the
most recent and certainly the most explicit, manifestation of this quest for an

2

independent vantage point, above the political fray, affording objective criteria
upon which policy decisions can be made5.

Public Policy Studies and Developmental Process; Inter Connections

Questions of policy ultimately rest on the application of knowledge to
political decisions. Such knowledge is generated both within and outside the
government agencies and other institutions connected to public affairs. An
understanding of the causes and consequences of policy decisions permits us to
apply the knowledge of social science to find the solutions to problems
confronting development. The acquisition and dissemination of information
about public policies has become a major theme in social sciences, especially in
the discipline of public administration. The use of such knowledge for making,
managing and evaluating public policy is generally termed ‘Policy Analysis’.
Policy analysis is a technique to measure organizational effectiveness through
the examination and evaluation of the effect of a programme. Public policy
analysis is thus nothing more than estimating the impact of public policy on the
developmental programmes of a government. It is in this sense an instrument
through which the success and failures of subsequent governments are
measured and continuity and change is observed and analyzed.

The study of public policy thus, prepares and helps us to cope better
with the future. It improves our knowledge about the society and their needs.

3

It uses further the following instruments of assessment and monitoring. However. especially in India. 4 . thinking about the future is quite primitive. However. there has been considerable growth in the research and training in policy analysis since the early 1970s in many developed countries. decision tool and the process called evaluation. both among social scientists and policy makers. As Bibson Winter has observed: “The problem of policy is ultimately how the future is grasped and appraised. The essential meaning of responsibility is accountability in human fulfillment in shaping of the society’s future. The attractiveness of the government as a research sponsor has also been enhanced6”.An important part of the study of public policy is concerned with society’s future. In spite of the importance of the public policy. policy analysis has been substantially stimulated by the government’s increased concern for public policy problems. In most developed countries. as Gibson Winter has pointed out this is not the case in developing countries and therefore the depth of this kind of study in countries like India? For example if we take a look at the Dictionary of Public Administration it defines policy analysis as “a systematic and data-based alternative to intuitive judgments about the effects of policy or public options7”. to measure public policy.

to specific Developmental problems identified well ahead of time9. Policy recommendations if they are made at all are subordinate to description and explanation8”. the central idea in policy science is that it entails a theory of choice for development and an approach to the 5 . and developmental plans and lastly an informed citizenry to fend off the anti democratic specter of an expert ruling class so that they take part in the process of development irrespective of their political choices. However. physical and natural sciences.Policy analysis encourages social scientists and policy makers to examine policy issues and decisions with scientific tools. Close cooperation between researchers in government. This policy analysis culture has three main features as found in Dror’s pioneering writings: They include Technical experts who are sensitive to the ethical implications of decisions. This means an overhaul of the traditional approaches to making of decisions. The rationalist model involves a commitment to scientific planning.Subramaniam characterizes policy science as “the practical application of all relevant knowledge in the social. Thomas Dye labels policy analysis as the thinking man’s response to demands. He observes that specifically public analysis involves: “A primary concern with explanation rather than prescription. the specter of Duncan MacRae is warded off by the suggestion that a policy analysis culture be created in order to achieve greater Development through policy making. Policy science is rational approach to the processes of policy making. From Lass well to Dror to the present. V.

As Nagel expresses it. social science does more analysis of hypotheses. Relevance of the Study of Public Policy* Most governments of Third World courtiers are engaged in the momentous task of kindling national resurgence through socio-economic development. therefore. Public policy is an important mechanism for moving a social system from the past to the future. to sustain improvements in their social system and to increase the capacity of their political system with a view to achieving the major objective of national development. 10 Thus as one goes on to understand the scope of policy studies and the process of development one finds that there is an organic linkage between the two and that it needs to be unleashed delicately (especially) when thee is coalition government at work. and thus develops a body of potential premises that can be used in deducing conclusions. and optimizing. just as chemistry was able to deduce the existence of new Clements before they were empirically discovered. It helps to shape the future. strategies and concepts which will contribute towards a better understanding of this are essential. They seek to improve the relevant policies. taken for granted that the studies of approaches. They are struggling hard to develop their economy. predictions. The study of public policy represents a powerful approach for this purpose. Alvin Toffler exposed the problem of adjustment to rapid change in his popular sociological book 6 .determination of policy accelerates development. It is. causation.

the growth of public functions has paralleled the growth of public policies. In these countries. 7 . The future requires new policies and choices. Our collection of data for these purposes my include changes in population growth rates. industrialization. the problem of policy is ultimately how the future is grasped and appraised. What is trivial today may be of colossal importance in a future decade. urbanization and environmental protection etc. People cannot avoid being concerned with the consequences of public policy. and how the present sustains them are important questions in the study of public policy. The study of the past is very important as it helps in explaining the present policy system. education. public health and the like. social organization. As Gibson Winter observes. The question of continuity or change in them affects directly or indirectly the growth and development of a nation/State. The past policies perpetuate themselves into present and future policies. Public policy is at times conditioned by the past.Future Shock11. However the present dimensions of Public Policy that has emerged in the developing countries or as how they now appear. We can carry the process further by forecasting what these projections might look like in a decade.. the scope and size of the public sector has grown enormously in response to the increasing complexity of technology. We may take the idea of projecting some key social trends into the future. We can understand the future by extrapolation of the present trends. The essential meaning of responsibility is accountability in human fulfillment in shaping of the society’s future12.

if they understand and know something about public policy. present policy making can be thought of as problem solving behavior. Indeed factual knowledge is a prerequisite to solving the problems of society. and the choice of conflicts allocates power. It deals with the definition of a policy problem.Further. an understanding of the causes and consequences of public policy helps us to apply scientific knowledge to find the solutions to the practical problems of development. because the definition of alternatives is the choice of conflicts. political power tends to impose upon the definitions of a problem. Thus. Not only this. realizing that the definition of the alternatives is the supreme instrument of power that may in future bring about the space needed for the development process to achieve the goal set for it from time to time”. are in apposition to say something useful concerning how governments or public authorities can act to achieve their policy goals. the study of public policy helps the development of professional advice about how to achieve particular 8 . the study of public policy is of vital importance for the present to tune the future. In this context Schatt Schneider says. Such advice can either be on what policies can be pursued for achieving particular goals or what environmental factors are conducive to the development of a given policy. The definition of a problem that may generate more conflict then consensus. An understanding of these linkages contributes to the development of policy science. “He who determines what politics is about runs the country. The professionals. In policy making. In other words.

Further. an important mechanism for moving a social system from the past to the future is well followed to explain in scientific terms the question of continuity or change in them keeping in focus the development process under the coalition government in the state of Karnataka. Scope of the Study A significant part of the study of public policy consists of the study of development of scenarios and extrapolations of contemporary trends. industrialization and 9 .development goals in the light of a democratic process of change of guards at the state level as and when elections takes place. It is not only concerned with the description and explanation of the causes and consequences of government activity. it can be noted that the field of public policy has assumed considerable importance in response to the increasing complexity of the society. social organization. but also with developing scientific knowledge about the forces shaping public policy. social demands and need for supply. To wind up this discussion of why one needs to study public policies while researching on the Developmental process thus justifies the fact that they are interconnected. Countries in response to the increasing complexity of technology. The study of public policy helps to understand the social ill of the subject. when the scope and sheer size of the public sector has grown enormously in all the developing countries in response to the increasing complexity of technology. Under this study of public policy.

especially of the developing countries. there is great pressure on governments to accelerate national development. increase national production. and the provider of common goods and day to day services. government has.urbanization are focusing their attention to fulfill the demands that emanate from them. To quote a United Nations publication. make full use of human and other resources. the arbiter of disputes. become the principal invocator. They are now concerned with the more complex functions of nation building and socio economic progress. and improve the level of living. At present the functions of practically all governments. adopt and facilitate necessary institutional changes. These trends and developments have therefore enhanced both the size and scope of the public policy in a democratic set up where the study of development process involving 10 . the major determiner of social and economic programmes and the main financer as well as the main guarantor of large scale enterprises that ensures that the process of development traverses without hindrances to achieve the goals desired by the Governments. have significantly increased in manifolds. For better or worse. directly or indirectly. “in countries where the problem of poverty is less serious. Today the government is not merely the keeper of peace. make use of up to date and relevant technological innovations.

disposes of his garbage through the public removal system. fire and health system. he dies. Michael Teitz on the other hand describes the outreach of public policy in terms of the citizen’s life cycle: Modern urban man is born in a publicly financed hospital receives his education in a publicly supported school and university. The range of public policy 11 . reads his library books. Ideological conservatives notwithstanding. his everyday life is inextricably bound up with government decisions on these and numerous other public services14”. communicates through the post office or the quasi public telephone system. in public library picnics in public parks. drinks his public drinking water. The line of argument developed here is that all of us are greatly affected by the myriad public policies in our everyday lives. is protected by public policies.various bodies of government and political institutions in tandem to achieve goals of development (and to see that change and continuity one negotiated) 13. A study of the process of this kind of complex mechanism in changed forms of the government (from Single party dominated Political System to a coalition) is no easy task. eventually. spends a good part of his time traveling on publicly built transportation facilities. again in a public hospital and may even be buried in a public cemetery.

inflation. The fiscal and monetary policy instruments which exist now do not appear to be adequate for these purposes. industrial and transport operations may be one such mechanism. education. In some mixed economies. and more so in the least developed countries which do not have sufficient resources. and so on. this is inevitable. science and technology. Joint ventures in agricultural.is vast: from the vital to the trivial. environment protection. the actual policy outputs have continued to be governed by ad hoc* and incremental concerns. and the scientific study of the same at the state level and its understanding in terms of its implications as a process of development in the newly (experimented) formed coalition government in Karnataka ** forms the scope of this study. Statement of the Problem In most developing countries. Today public policies may deal with such substantive areas as defense. A larger private sector compacting for resources with the public sector causes a high degree of unpredictability regarding policy outputs. The expanding sphere of public policy is reflected in the plan documents such as of the Planning Commission of India etc. housing. however. taxation. 12 . It would therefore be necessary to institute new mechanisms to coordinate the operations of the two sectors public and private. To some extent. there are as yet few full-fledged attempts to involve the private sector in development planning. medical care and health.

A rational and technical analysis has to be the basis of political decision makers in order to reach realistic and feasible policy outputs. But these have 13 . The lack of an environment of stable political conventions seems to be a major obstacle to institutional development. The public administration system must develop sensitivity to factors affecting policy implementation and also be sufficiently flexible to adopt alternative strategies with changes in these factors. however. would depend upon the availability of qualified and motivated personnel and establishing proper linkages. Attempts have occasionally been made to increase the interaction between the different departments and legislative bodies of people when considering specific development proposals and policies. In some developing countries because of the weakness of the legislatures. The building up of institutions is a major policy concern in developing countries. The rapid turnover in the ranks of top political criteria for the evaluation of policies and administrative obstacles also tend to affect the development of institutions for planning and perspective policies adversely.While much experience has been gained in planning and policy formulation. planning and policy processes have tended to be concentrated in executive departments. the records of their successful implementation are meager. Planning can be made more operational by strengthening the linkages between the agencies active in the process and by improving the instruments for policy formulation and implementation. The effectiveness of this approach.

hardly been sufficient to overcome the administrative obstacles affecting the quality of planning and policies on account of the weakness of central guidance institutions. The ultimate authority in policy making. To make planning and policy making more effective. it is necessary to strengthen the linkages among the various agencies and to establish other linkages for evolving a consensus on operational polices and their implementation. a President/Prime Minister/Chief Minister or a political party alone cannot make public policies. in most developing countries. In view of the technicalities and complexity of various policy questions today. therefore. In developed countries such an approach has already gained recognition. there have sometimes been serious problems of administration involving the relations between planning agencies and functional and sectoral agencies. the necessity for the establishment of 14 . Attempts have been made to link policy making. Broadly speaking. it is still in the process of development. planning and budgeting to constitute a systems approach. a weak information base. In the wake of the new challenges for development. There is. At the functional level. efforts must be made not only to link planning and budgeting together but also to ensure that both development plans and budgets are not inconsistent with the development polices of the government. planning and budgeting rests with those who hold the power to legitimize policies. the structure of public policy making involves the whole political system. lack of consensus on developmental goals and priorities among the various institutions.

financial and other experts to analyze the policies and advice on them and the policy alternatives on an interdisciplinary basis. there must be economists. a planning commission. with the central/State policy cluster appropriate machinery should also be established for. the executive branch of government has. planners. Under the political advisers in the central/State policy cluster. From the point of view of institutional development. An important question here is. whether these units work together with an integrated approach or independently of each other.“special central/State policy units to carry out the work of policy formulation and policy analysis”. to ensure the fact that there is some amount of continuity in the policies formulated and implemented by the democratically elected governments in view of planned development. and their key political advisers. Further. while there remains scope to include or exclude a programme or programmes under the canopy of such policy in order to reach out the developmental goals of a new government which is democratically elected. In most developing countries. statisticians. Policy and plan implementation. Reporting and feedback. This cluster should consist of the head of the government. 15 . and the adjustment and revision of policies and plans. the policy-making bodies such as the Cabinet. or a planning unit. the cabinet ministers. and a budgeting unit. and specialists. Reviewing. a State palmary board etc. it is important for these units to be organized into an integrated central/State policy cluster. National development Council.. public administrators.

In this sense one can clearly conclude to state that the Development process as it unfolds invariably exposes the government preferences to continue or change the policies that previously existed and thus makes the study socially relevant and academically innovative. implementation. planning and budgeting should be approached as an integrated whole to control government performance and there by measure the scope for continuity/change of a policy for development therefore the need for the study of policies and the relevance of understanding it. an instrument to verity facts analyze inter-relationships. a tool to establish generalization and general laws that contribute to the very building. adjustments and revisions will be made on the policies and plans.The central/State policy cluster must ensure that adequate machinery is provided for policy and plan implementation. These four aspects viz. It is seen as extension of knowledge.. that the progress of policy and plan implementation shall be reported back to the center/State. Applied research with in this vast world of research aims at finding solutions to 16 . That the feedback will be enough for the central policy cluster to provide evaluation and control and that. it must be emphasized that policy making. and must be treated as whole. In brief. on the basis of such an evaluation. reporting reviewing and readjustment are interdependent. Objectives of the Study Objectives of research are invariably varied.

It brings out the factual data and enables those at the help of affairs of government to find alternation in decision making. And lastly to explore the quantum of continuity and change in the policy output under coalition vis-à-vis the development process. A sincere effort is made to figure out these taking few policy issues of common concern under the coalition government of Karnataka. the objectives of this particular research in five fold. e. b. To Study and understand the interrelationship between development process and public policies. To measure the extent of Development in Karnataka under coalition governments keeping in view the public policy output. it is important to note that these objectives vary from one research subject to the other. In this sense. Survey of Literature A large number of articles and books devoted to the teaching of policy studies and the training of policy analysts reveal the fact that policy science is a 17 . To understand and estimate the effectiveness of governance under coalition system.the problems of society. To explain the possible relationship between different partners of coalition in decision making and development continuity or change. d. Although the objectives of research explained above are manifold. a. c.

implementation and evaluation of policy issues. structural rationality. on the other hand Some writers on the subject argue that policy science. For example. like physics and chemistry. and systems for better policy-making. Y. political science. which consists mainly of a review of the principles of optimization of decision theory. Its boundaries are not precisely delineated. professionalism. psychology. Nagel advocates the development of a code of ethics.16 They cut across such disciplines as sociology. In a similar way. they generally do not provide an operational definition of the concept due to the cross disciplinary nature of knowledge involved in the formulation. Lass Well also stresses the knowledge of the decision process implies systematic and empirical studies of how policies are made and put into effect to get the desired development.scientific approach centering on the development of professional analysts who are expert in rational decision making. and institutionalized checks15. management science. While most authors on the subject seem to agree on the basic aims of policy science. is a science. Dror himself in his writings emphasizes 18 . Dror and most writers on the subject seem to agree on the fact that policy science constitutes an interdisciplinary approach which is concerned mainly with improving the policy process through the use of systematic knowledge. The evidence for the orientation of these professionals can be found in Nagel’s discussion of the methods of policy analysis. public administration. What Dror emphasizes is that the policy science is not directly concerned with the substantive contents of discrete policy problems but rather with improved methods of knowledge. etc. and organized activity.

It is. Acquisition of the relevant data using 19 . It is a technique which helps the decision maker to take decisions with improved methods of knowledge. taxonomy.19 Carol Weiss describes policy as a decision driven model of research use. measurement. Like other social sciences. Lass well is of the view that policy science is merely an approach which is concerned with improved methods of knowledge and systems for better policy making. This sequential model has the following stages. policy science is also not an exact science because substantive science is concerned with the pursuit of truth which it seeks to understand and predict.that policy science constitute a breach in the solid wall separating contemporary sciences from ethics and philosophy of values.17 The empirical aspect to policy science is stressed by Lass well thus: to insist on the empirical criterion is to specify that general assertions are subject to the discipline of careful observation. thus. and should build up an operational theory of values including value morphology. etc (but not the substantive norms themselves) as part of policy science. Identification of missing knowledge. concerned with more effective manipulation of the real world leaving open the possibility not understanding phenomena. This is a fundamental distinction between science and non-science. or to a process using simulations to explain what really is. 18 The term model is commonly used in physical sciences and policy science is a term that is used to apply to both a description of some part of the real world. Definition of the social problems. which has explanatory and predictive properties.

20 Policy science may contribute to the selection of policy options. in consequence of: (a) 20 . and Policy choice and Development alternatives. the dichotomy between specialist and generalist would be irrelevant. and Interdisciplinary in policy research would finally give way to supra-disciplinary.22 Dror. it has two major to thrusts. the feats of the issues that are viewed as susceptible to alteration. It contributes to the way in which policy making is done.social research techniques. in fact being the most forceful advocate of policy sciences. argues that the maturation of policy science would effect the state of knowledge in three ways: It would lead to bringing the gap between basic and applied research through a synergic relationship between normal science and policy science. Nagel and others also argues that policy analysis provides new insights and enables policy makers to make better informed choices and by implication better policy. As conceptualization. With the emergence of policy scientist. and its policy options may percolate into society. policy science can have an influence upon the political agenda of Development through sensitizing both policy makers and the mass of people. a specialist in general approach and method. influencing the way that a society thinks about issues. and the alternative measures for development as it considers.21 Stokey and Zeckhauser also declare that no sensible policy choice can be made without careful analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each course of action. In all sum. Interpretation for problem solution.

To them. policy science is concerned with better achievement of goals through the use of structural rationality. Policy science involves primarily the development of professional analysts who are expert in rational decision-making. the ideal of the use of policy science as an approach to the selection of policy choice remains vigorous.23 Tribe argues that policy science aims at exaltation of utilitarian and self interested individualism. The rationalist model involves a commitment to scientific planning. and (b) deliberate development of professionals trained in the policy orientation. Improved methods and techniques occupy the central position in the analytical approach to policymaking and the form of governance in Dror’s writings. MacRae advocates greater rationality in policy making which can be achieved through the deliberate creation of a policy analysis culture. and administrative scientists working on common policy problem.23 What Dror emphasizes is that policy science is not directly concerned with the substantive contents of discrete policy problems but rather with improved methods of knowledge. This implies an overhaul of the traditional patterns of policy making. policy analysis implies that such procedures will lead to more frictionless situations that we now have. and systems for better policy-making Scott and Shore remark. efficiency and maximized production. It is an interdisciplinary approach which is 21 . 24 For Laden it is felt that policy science is with utilitarian assumptions. natural. situations that maximize the good and minimize harm done to those affected by them. Notwithstanding these characterizations.“continuous exchange between social.

Though the process is more reactive than analytical. ‘Usable Knowledge’. the policy process is too amorphous to allow for the rational model of policy-making proposed by policy science. the knowledge generated by policy relevant social research is dependent upon ordinary knowledge to an extent unacknowledged by policy science. nor need anyone articulate the problem of resource allocation or articulate the answer. Tribe. Resource allocation by buying and selling requires no decision about resource allocation by anyone. Lindblom and Chohen criticize the analytical approach to policy-making in their recent book. They write: the problem solving capacity of interaction is obscured because the interactions often do not result in a decision by an official or collective authority explicitly resolving a recognized problem. analysis may well contribute to the decision making processes at the level of the interacting actors so that analysis need only attend to limited questions.26 Lindblom and Chohen have compared the analytical and interactive approaches to social problem solving and suggest that the latter is frequently more appropriate.25 The analytical approach that has developed a substantial body of criticism has some the main currents which are represented by Scott and Shore. Their criticism is threefold: Analysis is but one approach to dealing with social problems. The 22 .intended to afford these analysts objective criteria upon which policy decisions can be made. and Lindblom and Chohen.

27 Lindblom and Chohen also criticize the analytical approach to policy making on its assumption of the existence of decision makers.30 Lindblom and Cohen’s their criticism denies that policy involves a distinct and superior way of dealing with social problems. casual empiricism.32 23 . They argue that the knowledge generated by policy relevant social research is dependent upon ordinary knowledge that is based upon common sense.28 Dror advocated a decentralized network of policy science centers and the deliberate promotion of a policy science culture.29 However. and that thereby it rules out the role of the interactive and social learning approaches to social problem solving. Analytical problem solving implies the identification of managerial decision makers whose choice are decisive. or thoughtful speculation and analysis.31 On the other hand. Cohen and Weiss argue that the intensive research of a policy problem generally produces a picture of greater complexity rather than clarity. on the expectation of developments in a physical science as compared to social sciences. They suggest that interactive and social learning approaches are more appropriate to the reality of the policy process. Lindblom and Chohen suggest that the policy analysis approach is misleading in that it identifies problem understanding as both necessary and prior to problem solving.significance of the interactive model has been described by Lindblom in his book ‘Politics and Markets’. is unavoidable. but concede that it is simply more systematic in approach. This. they suggest.

Vickers observes’ Policy making may be regarded as the by product of a situational process.If the result of scientific improvement in some aspects of physical science is convergence at least for a time. within important conceptual limits the result of improvement in the social science is a richer. by which the conjunction of a particular situation in the world of events and the world produces a new situation in both worlds. By this reasoning. This stress upon society’s communication network leads Vickers to identify social learning as the key to improved policy-making. as suggested by both Vickers and Janttsch. the expectation that policy relevant research will provide unambiguous guidance for policy is misplaced. Lindblom and Cohen’s argue that the increasing awareness of the competing attractions of science and art in problem solving has tempered the enthusiasm for policy science. 24 .33 Despite the fact that the analytical approach to policy-making is bound by several limitations. more diverse picture of things. though it is often described as policy analysis rather than policy science. which in turn gives rise to new acts of judgment and decision. give much needed recognition to the art of policy making. it is of great value. as advocated by Lindblom and Chohen. and interactive problem solving. Cohen and Weiss suggest a more modest role for social research. mainly advocated by Dror is entrenched. a process. that is. Vickers considers communication as the major obstacle to more effective policy-making. Social recognition through cultural design. This approach. stating that it can contribute to social wisdom.

This approach to human systems gives rise to two related distortions: It stresses technological solutions to social problems. which is mostly originating from the west. social change through value adaptation. Jantsch contends that society and its sub systems possess a life far richer and deeper a life which heightens. arguing that they are informed by an unrealistic separation between regulators and the system being regulated. and it is reductionism in that it denies that human systems are “more than the sum of individual expressions for their members”36. involving social regulation through deliberate adaptation of the appreciative system.34 Jantsch. focuses.e. Thus Jantsch suggests an alternative approach to policy-making. magnifies. the entire survey of literature.Form small organizations to entire systems of organizations anticipate Lindblom and Chohen’s advocacy of interactive problem solving as an alternative to analysis. According to Jantsch. 35 is critical of analytical approaches to policy. this means that human systems can be understood merely as networks for processing information and making decisions. and restrains the life of all the human members which express themselves s through these systems. Policy science and the analytical approach are located squarely within the orbit of western rationalist though. to the exclusion of cultural design (i. following Vickers. In this way. that the attempt to study development process through policy science studies “frame work is a less 25 . as much of the work of this kind is done there clearly indicates to the fact..

more so. In this sense. this study is unique and contributes to a difference in the understanding of government functioning and process of development so as to allow the researcher to make a judgment about how much of development as a process and product of government is continued as a policy or is experiencing change in a coalition system of government. These statements and that of Dror’s belief that institutionalized policy science would result in improved policy options are some of literature that are currently going around is circles which deal with policy sciences. when there is an attempt to relate is with coalition government under these circumstance one can confidently argue that this research will contribute chicly to the existing literature and that thee is enough scope for further research in this area. common minimum agreement on programmes and such other normative issues. which has to have its axis on the mutual trust. commonality of beliefs. There is however hardly any work that presents development process as distinguishingly connected to the kind of government in vogue. Hypotheses 26 .explored area.

A rigorous search for the causes and consequences of public policies. In fact methodologically this needs a meticulous and specialties of knowledge. That the Development process under the coalition government in Karnataka faced hurdles in realizing their policy options. a. That those innovative policies were the changes that coalition governments experimented with and those that were traditional were actually the ones that can be categorized as continuation of the old policies. It is in this direction that the following hypotheses are drawn after careful analysis under of the problem chosen. Methodology There is an implicit judgment that understanding is a prerequisite to prescription. and that understanding is best achieved through careful analysis rather than rhetoric or polemics.Formulation of Hypotheses or propositions as possible answers to the research questions is an important step in the process of formulation of the research problem. That these policy options were both innovative and traditional and c. This search involves the use of scientific standards of inference. an effort to develop and test general propositions about the causes and consequences of public policy and to accumulate reliable research findings of general relevance 27 . Sophisticated quantitative techniques may be helpful in establishing valid inferences about causes and consequences. They are three fold. b.

Policy analysis in this sense is an inter-disciplinary subject drawing upon data from other disciplines as well. and that apply to different governmental agencies and different policy areas. To achieve these two purposes. A number of trends have occurred in policy analysis research since the early 1970s. It provides maximum information with minimal cost about the likely consequences of proposed policies. Policy experimentation. Systems analysis and simulation. the actual consequences of the policies already adopted.Nagel has identified four key elements to it which have been undergoing a change over the past 38 years. Policy analysis as a technique puts data to use in. various methods or approaches are applied. and secondly. Yet the object is to develop general theories about public policy that are reliable. Policy analysts clearly prefer to develop explanations that fit more than one policy decision or case study explanations that stand up over a time in a variety of settings. Among the principal methodologies that are employed here are. Stuart S. 28 . These are: i) The goals with which policy analysis is concerned. It is essentially an impact research. Its purpose is two fold.therefore is a challenge to this kind of study and this could well turn out to be its limitation also. or deciding about. estimating and measuring the consequences of public policies. and Policy evaluation.

How to provide counsel to the poor in civil cases is a good example to illustrate this point. As regards the methods. but at the same time. iii) The methods for determining the effects of alternative means on goal-achievement. and iv) The Profession of policy analysis. The environmental policy provides a good example of this approach. Finally on the element of the profession of policy analysis. There is a greater trend towards considering goals as given hypotheses and then attempting to determine what policies will maximize or optimize them. On the means element. funding resources. Policy analysis is developing in increased precision in its methods. This whole process is essentially called as development process. research centers. There is also an increasing concern to draw upon the various social sciences to suggest alternative policies or means. they refer to the procedures whereby one can determine the relations between alternative policies and given goals. it recognizes the fact that simple methods may be all that is necessary for solving numerous policy problems that are directly or indirectly connected to development. which is applying these methods in relation to goals of development. 29 . there is a substantial growth in the policy analysis training programmes. The crime reduction field provides a good example of the need for an approach to this problem. there is a growing need for means that are politically and administratively feasible. Goals of development here refer to the societal benefits minus the societal costs that one is seeking to achieve through public policy decisions.ii) The means for achieving those goals.

As a researcher. That is. most policy research is derivative rather than original. political science. objectives. It is thriving as a sub discipline of the various social sciences paternally of Political Science and as an inter disciplinary subject it is depending on the existing fields of economics. Hence in this study it is proposed employ documentary analysis besides those mentioned earlier as a primary method and to strengthen it though the case studies method involving some specific and some general policies that have been experimented and evaluated to measure the change or continuity of such policies in the short term coalition that Karnataka Government has had reinforcing such study through interviews* wherever possible only helps us to format the study in its fullness. it is produced by creative play with ideas and data already developed by other. or sociology. unlike most social science research. Chapter I is Introduction. this awareness is with me and an attempt is made to overcome it here. As Eugene Bardach observes.scholarly associations and other government institutions. and other social and even natural sciences. Chapterisation Following is the pattern of Chapterisation. 30 . statement of the problems. Policy analysis is not a discipline like economics. Sociology. It is not to state that this kind of maiden study is not without its limitations. This of course is the proposed methodology employed in this study. This essentially is an introduction and legitimizing kind of a chapter which briefly speaks about the topic chose.

Chapter II is public policy: theoretical perspectives. The Public Administration Dictionary (New York: John Wiley.88 31 . Politicians. This is basically a result sheet. End Notes: 1 *Public policies in developing countries are often seen as outputs for development.. Brewer. Chapter V is the last concluding chapter which of course is an inference chapter. Bureaucrats. This also is essentially aimed at briefing the theory about coalition and the related issues. Thus the pattern chosen to present the research out put is provided here to the reader to enable a fuller understanding of the subject chosen for research. Chapter III is titled as Coalition government: Reflection on theoretical aspects. the (Scientific) terminology of policy is seen. understood and used as relating to the consequence of development. p. 1982). Hence in this study. pp. This is a brief chapter throwing insights in to the public policy as a concept. This quintessentially is the core chapter which analyses the question of continuity or change in the Development process during coalition era.50-51. Chapter IV is Analysis of Development process during coalition government in Karnataka. Plano. 3 Ralph C. and the Consultant: A Critique of Urban Problem Solving (New York: Basic Books. 2 Quoted in Garry D. Chandler and Jack C. 1973).hypotheses and Methodological issues.

p. American Public Policy: What Government Does and What Difference it Makes (new York: Harper & Row.. p.cit. * Development Process. Understanding Public Policy (New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. Lineberry. “Gathering data for policy research”.Zeckhauser. pp. 8 See for example.120.) Making and Managing Policy (new York: Marcel Dekker. 1980). Nagel. Stokey and R. 10 Thomas R. p. 9 M. 1984.. 1974. Policy Analysis: Introduction and Applications to Health Programs (Washington: Information Resources Press. 135.132141. 1974). American Public Policy: What Government does and What Difference it Makes New York: Marcel Dekker. 1980. 3rd ed. 1968). Urban Analysis.4 Robert L.87-106 7 Robert L. Systems Analysis for Social Scientists New York: Wiley. 13 F. p. pp.Ronald Bilbert (ed. 32 . 6 Stuart S.Cortses and others. Vol.1974.Burt. Lineberry.47.39 12 Robert L.Dror. Lineberry. Understanding Public Policy Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.11 14 Y.R. A Primer for policy Analysis (New York: Norton. 2. in G.7-8. 3rd ed. 1984).Dye. 1978). “P)policy analysis”. Public –making Re-examined (new York: Intext. pp. 1977). pp.Dye.120-133 5 Eugene Bardach. 11 Thomas R. op.

27 21 Herbert Simon.28 20 20Robert L..84. 19 Thomas Dye.cit. A Logic of Public Policy: Aspects of Political Economy (Belmont: Wadsworth. p. Lineberry. A Strategy of Decision 33 .. Managing Public Policy (Boston: Little Brown. 15 C.cit.. p. p.198. Madels of man: Social and Ratioinal (New Yorki: John Wiley. 1987). Administrative Behavior.12 16 Herbert Simon.Crecine (ed.Curry. The Policy-Marking process (Englewood Cliffs: Prenticehall. mostly political parties in India plan and wish to execute them during their regime and when there is a change for any political reason it is unlikely that such policies/programmes of the previous governments are carried forward. Op. 18 Laurence Lynn. 23 See L.Lindblom.** Under Kumaraswamy’s (JD(S)) government. 2nd edition (London: Macmillan. “Public goods and public bads”. 1957).L. 1957).Wade and R. in John p.L. p.) Financing the Metropolis (Beverly Hills: Sage.Lindblom. p. Kumaraswamy as the Chief Minister. 1968). 1970). 1970). 22 James Buchanan. 24 Se. op. * Because. David Braybrooke and Charles E. Coalition government in Karnataka for all practical purposes of this study is taken as the government formed by JD(S) and BJP during the period headed by Sri.

36 C. 1968).2.105 32 Brian Hog wood and Lewis Gunn.p. op. Administrative Behaviour. 105 29 Ibid. Policy Analysis for the Real World (Oxford: Oxford University press. 1984). op. p. 26 Simon. 28 Ibid. 33 James E. op. Public Policy Making.21 * Is kept as an option and not necessarily a major method/Tool 34 . Thomas Dye. 1993).241.cit. 1984).106 31 Ibid. p. “Reasons in Human Affairs” (California: Stanford University Press.Lineberry. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-hall.p. 1963).J.6.Lindblom. No.19 34 Charles Lindblom and E.IV.cit. “British Journal of Political Science. 30 Ibid..cit.Anderson. Vol.68. 1983). The Policy Making Process (Englewood Cliffs: prentice Halla. p. p...(new York: Free Press.. 35 C. Woodhouse. 27 Simon. 1974.Hewitt. “Policy-making in Post war Britain: A Nation level test of elitist and pluralist hypotheses. The Policy-Making Process 3rd ed. p. p. 3rd edition (New York: Holt Rinehart. 25 Robert L.