Introduction

Maleic Anhydride (MAN) is an unsaturated oxy-organic compound which
has cyclic structure containing four carbon atoms.

Chemical Formula of Maleic Anhydride is
C4H2O3

Different names for Maleic Anhydride are being used, 2,5-furadione,
dihydro-2,5-dioxofuran and cis-butadioic anhydride.
Maleic Anhydride is very important chemical in polymer as well as
composite industry. Due to the three oxygen atom and a double bond
present in Maleic Anhydride, it is an excellent joining and cross linking
agent. This ability of Maleic Anhydride makes it very much useful and
important in polymer industry, and it is of significant commercial interest
worldwide. Its most important use is in the manufacture of “Polyester
Resin”.

1.1 History(1)
Naturally Maleic Anhydride does not exist. It was first produced by
Germen scientist Pelouze by heating the maleic acid in 1834. This was not
the commercial production.
The commercial production of Maleic Anhydride stars from 1930s after the
century of is discoveries.
In 1933 “National Aniline and Chemical Company” in United States of
America started a plant to produce Maleic Anhydride by oxidizing Benzene
catalytically.
After some time in 1980s United States switches their Maleic Anhydride
Production from Benzene to Butane. But in some European countries
Benzene is still used as raw material for Maleic Anhydride production.
“In 1983, Monsanto in USA started the world’s first plant to produce Maleic
Anhydride
from
butane
having
capacity
of
59000
t/yr”.
Hastyencroachment in catalytic technology helps to increase the capacity
to double in 1999.

1

38 (Air = 1. ethyl acetate.06 Odor Strong irritating acrid odor Specific Gravity Molten: 1. dioxane 2 .2 mm Hg at 25°C Vapor Density 3.01 M solution) Solubility in Other Solvents Chloroform. (2) Maleic Anhydride is a white solid and colorless in molten liquid form. Table 1.2.3 at 70°C (water = 1.5°F) Boiling Point 202°C (395°F) Solubility in Water (40gm/100ml) pH 2. Solid: 1.2 Properties 1. acetone.5-Furandione Chemical Formulation: C4H2O3 Molecular weight 98.0) Melting Point 52. benzene.0) Vapor Pressure 0.1 Physical Properties Chemical name 2.0). hydrocarbons.Now these days 1359000 t/yr of Maleic Anhydride is being produced worldwide.48 at 20°C(water = 1. 1.1 Physical Properties(1).5°C (126.42 (0.

2.Thermal Decomposition Temperature >150°C 1. Respiratory System) Sensitization Results Harmful if swallowed Causes severe skin burns and eye damage May cause an averse skin reaction May cause allergy or asthma signs or breathing difficulties if inhaled 1.2.4. Eye.2 Fire Hazards(2) Table 1.3 Effect Assessment Acute Toxicity (inhalation.1 1. Maleic Anhydride itself is not 3 .2 Fire Hazards Flash point: Auto ignition temperature: Flammable limits in air % by volume: 102oC (216oF) 477oC (891oF) lower limit : 1.3 Applications Maleic anhydride is an active chemical used is the manufacture of a number of useful chemicals and products. upper limit: 7.3 Health Hazards(3) Table 1. Oral or Dermal) Irritation / Corrosion (Skin.

is projected to touch 2.4% CAGR from 2012 to 2018. detergents.used frequently but it is an important Intermediate chemical to produce useful products. which is the main need of fiber glass industry. Figure 1. and herbicides. toiletries. 4 .752. 11% Unsaurated Polyester Resin. 8% Lube Oil Additives. globally. lubricating oils.96 billion in 2018. cosmetics. A report of “Huntsman Petrochemical Corporation (Austin)” represented graphically shows the use of Maleic Anhydride in Production of its derivatives. Its key usage is in the makingof “Unsaturated Polyester Resin”. Following graph shows the growth rate of Maleic Anhydride market.4 Importance(4) Maleic Anhydride is an important chemical growing its market rapidly. 2% Co-polymers. pesticides. (4)Maleic anhydride into a diversity of applications. growing at a 6.11 billion in 2012 and it is probable to grasp a value of US$5. About 60% of Maleic Anhydride produced is used in “Polyester Resin” manufacturing. 11% Agricultural Chemicals. 63% Unsaurated Polyester Resin Lube Oil Additives Co-polymers Fumaric Acid & Maleic Acid Agricultural Chemicals Others 1.4 ktons value by the end of 2018. The capacity of the maleic anhydride production. The world market for Maleic Anhydride was esteemed at US$4. and the rest is used to produce other derivatives. such as food modification.1 Worldwide Use Of Maleic Anhydride Others.

Figure 1.2 5 .

Mitsubishi Chemical is using latest technology to convert Butane to Maleic Anhydride.2 Producers in Pakistan Nimir Chemicals Pakistan Limited(11) 6 . our Mizushima plant (Kurashiki-shi Okayama-ken) has had industrial manufacture of Maleic Anhydride starting from the C 4 fraction. The current production capacity of Maleic Anhydride is 105. Canada(6) Bartek is the world's prime Malic and food grade Fumaric Acid manufacturer with a setup of over 40 distributors selling in over 35 countries. Since 1971. also one of the largest producer in the world. Suzhou Synthetic Chemical Co.1. butane is the starting material. 1.5.000 Mt/year. The production site is in Germany in Moers-Meer beck on the left bank of the Niederrhein (Lower Rheine Region). Bartek Ingredients Inc.5 Major Producers 1. Huntsman Corporation USA(8) Huntsman is one of the world's largest producers of Maleic Anhydride. some of them are listed below. Huntsman is also the world's largest licensor of Maleic Anhydride and related technologies. China(10) In China Suzhou Synthetic Chemicals Company is the largest trade manufacture of Maleic Anhydride.5.1 Worldwide Worldwide different companies in different countries produces Maleic Anhydride. Ontario. Ltd. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation Japan(9) Mitsubishi is the largest manufacturer of Maleic Anhydride in Japan. Canada plant. Sasol-Huntsman Germany(7) Sasol-Huntsman is one of the leading suppliers of maleic anhydride in Europe. Bartek produces high purity Maleic Anhydride at their Stoney Creek. This facility uses the modern in butane catalytic conversion technology in Bartek-designed and built reaction and refining systems. It is produced entirely for sale on the trade market. It also contributes in the world production in a good manner. Currently.

Maleic Acid is then converted to Maleic Anhydride. 1. Dawood Chemical Industries Dawood Chemical Industries uses Maleic Anhydride in the production of binders and glues used in manufacture of Plywood. Ltd. Nimir Chemicals Pakistan Limited is using old Benzene oxidation technology.Nimir Chemicals Pakistan Limited is the only producer of Maleic Anhydride in Pakistan. In Phthalic Anhydride manufacturing ortho-xylene is reacted with air to produce Phthalic Anhydride and Maleic Acid. 2. Karachi Al-Khair is also producing Polyester Resin from Maleic Anhydride. Major Consumer of Maleic Anhydride in Pakistan are.6 Major Consumers of Maleic Anhydride in Pakistan In Pakistan Maleic Anhydride is being used to produce its various derivatives. They also use Maleic Anhydride to produce Polyester Resin. Al-khair (HMD) Industries Pvt. And some of the Maleic Anhydride is being produce as a byproduct in Phthalic Anhydride manufacturing process. Descon Engineering Limited Descon Engineering Limited is using Maleic Anhydride to in the production of Polyester Resin. 1. 3. Different industries are using Maleic Anhydride to produce Polyester Resin. 7 .