104 views

Uploaded by ayadman

Performance Analysis of DCO-OFDM in VLC System

save

- Flip OFDM
- 2011_clanek-01
- ELEC6014W1_ELEC6014_200910_02
- C-Band VSAT Data Communication System and RF Impairments
- 117348398 OFDM Matlab Code
- OFDM Final Report
- 4539649
- OFDM Simulation Using Matlab
- S25-Wimax__46090__
- LTE Whitepaper
- OFDM SIMULATION in MATLAB
- 3320 ofdm
- OFDM - DC - ACO.pdf
- OFDM Matlab code
- Silicon Chip №4 2009
- Sat Catcher
- A-New-Approach-to-Fast-Decode-Quasi-Orthogonal-Space-Time-Block-Codes.pdf
- Edge Modulacija
- Base Paper
- 01-OptiX RTN 980 Hardware Description
- ELTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE TDD Basic Feature Description
- 64 QAM Modulator Demodulator Matlab
- 05345737G-2010
- Eclipse Platform Data Sheet ETSI
- unit-ii adc
- Overview Of MC CDMA Papr Reduction Techniques
- Wisee Paper
- Principles of OFDM2
- Digital Communications
- 167-169
- 07275086
- AM Using Simulink
- Solar Tracking
- SMTutorial_FullSlides
- Primer Spatial
- TIIS Vol 12, No 3-9 (3)
- 24_2_props_fourier_trnfm.pdf
- ch04
- part1.pdf
- AM using Simulink.pdf
- 2-IJTPE-Issue21-Vol6-No4-Dec2014-pp5-10.pdf
- Midterm Exam2017 Answer Keys
- 2722
- Midterm Exam 2017-Analog Comm
- A_1006971213046
- 16543 Lecture 4
- AM Exam 1 Solution
- Diversity
- Solutions Final Exam 2016
- process Convolution
- Digital Com4
- Report on playground noise
- ch11
- 03 Convolution.pdf
- Contr Systems Ppt02e
- 02fd6cf9553be2d58efe687b857830f6-original
- 1analogsignals.pdf
- Physical
- diffequations.pdf
- LTI Systems midterm 1 S15 sol (1).pdf

System

Ayad Atiyah Abdulkafi, Mohamad Yusoff Alias and Yaseein Soubhi Hussein

Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

al.ayad@yahoo.com, yusoff@mmu.edu.my, yaseein@ieee.org

**Abstract—The performance of indoor visible light communication
**

(VLC) systems using a direct current-biased optical orthogonal

frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) scheme is

investigated in this paper. The impact of nonlinearity of Light

Emitting Diode (LED) and its beam angle on the VLC system

performance is studied. We later analyze the effect of modulation

order, number of subcarriers, signal scaling and biasing operation

on the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) which is a major issue

in OFDM based VLC system. Simulation results show that the bit

error rate (BER) decreases as the degree of nonlinearity increases

and a better BER can be achieved as the LED behavior

approaches linear model. In addition, it is shown that reducing the

QAM order or increasing the number of subcarriers may reduce

the effect of the LED nonlinearity, thus improving the BER

performance of the VLC system. Moreover, it is demonstrated

that PAPR is higher for a large number of subcarriers and

modulation order. Finally, the PAPR of the visible light OFDM

system can significantly be reduced by employing the signal

scaling combined with biasing operation.

Keywords-component; VLC, Optical OFDM, PAPR, BER

I.

INTRODUCTION

**In recent years, there has been constantly increasing interest
**

in visible light communication (VLC) motivated by the

dramatic development of light emitting diode (LED)

technologies and the scarce spectrum resources. The radio

frequency (RF) spectrum is becoming more congested, highly

regulated, and expensive to license [1-3]. VLC refers to short

range optical wireless communication (OWC) using visible

light spectrum from 380 to 780 nanometers. It provides the

potential for multi-gigabit per-second data rate communication

at short distances with ~300 THz of available visible light

spectrum at low power and cost, using simple LED and

photodiode (PD) [4] In addition, the VLC systems that use the

infrastructure of the indoor illumination system have been

envisioned as a compact, safe, and green alternative to WiFi for

the downlink of an indoor wireless mobile communication

system [5].

However, the inherent nonlinearity of LEDs is a challenge

for optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OOFDM) due to its sensitivity to the resulting distortion [6].

LEDs have a minimum threshold value known as the turn-on

voltage (TOV) which is the onset of current flow and light

emission (below the TOV, the LED is considered in a cut-off

**region and is not conducting current). Above the TOV, the
**

current flow and light output increases exponentially with

voltage. The LED outputs light power that is linear with the

drive current. However, thermal aspects causing a drop in the

electrical-to-optical (E/O) conversion efficiency (light output

of the LED decreases and slowly approaches a steady-state

value; LEDs self-heating characteristic) must be considered.

Consequently, the dc and ac/pulsed currents must be adjusted

accordingly to ensure that the LED chip does not overheat [7].

In [8] it has been demonstrated that through the exploitation of

the high peak to- average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM, it is

also possible to significantly enhance the data rates of IM

optical wireless systems. Practical implementation of OFDM

for optical wireless (OW) systems using non-coherent light is

described in [6] by considering the LEDs and PDs. This

research presents the performance analysis of DCO-OFDM in

VLC system by studying the impact of modulation order, the

inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) size, LED nonlinearity,

signal scaling and biasing operation on the PAPR and bit error

rate (BER). The reminder of this paper is organized as follows.

Section II presents the system models. The simulation setup

and results are presented in Section III. Finally, conclusion is

drawn in Section IV.

II.

SYSTEM MODELS

**At the system transmitter, OFDM uses IFFT to transform a
**

set of multiplexed, overlapping subcarriers in the frequency

domain to a signal of its time-domain equivalent form. A single

OFDM symbol carries a set of data symbols, X in the

frequency-domain. The OFDM symbol is a vector, which

consists of a set of N subcarriers. The IFFT algorithm outputs

the discrete OFDM symbol vector x in the time-domain, which

is given by [9]

xm =

1

N

N −1

∑ Xk e

j

2πkm

N

for 0 ≤ m ≤ N − 1

(1)

k =0

**where N is the size of IFFT and Xk is the kth subcarrier symbol.
**

The corresponding FFT conversion pair to (1) can be expressed

as

Xk =

1

N

N −1

∑ xm e

m=0

−j

2πkm

N

for 0 ≤ k ≤ N − 1

(2)

E[•] the average of those values [10].h e j 2πhm N for 0 ≤ m ≤ 2 N − 1 end fraction of the OFDM frame. a DC-offset is added in the DC-coupled optical OFDM (DCOOFDM) scheme. The OFDM symbol is a periodic function with a period. This results in a 2N-point IFFT output of the OFDM symbol.. and only responds to the average light intensity. This is a transpose-conjugate copy of the active subcarriers. where the elements of new IFFT input vector. X *N −2 . linear scaling and biasing model are adopted to ensure the forward signal is within the dynamic range of the LED [12]. X 1* ] (3) and the DC component. The signal xm is then converted to the analog waveform x(t) using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).. X N . The value BDC is the biasing level added to x(t) to ensure a unipolar OFDM signal at the LED input. Equation (1) is modified to xm = 2 N −1 1 N ∑X H . Equation (7) can be reduced to Yh = X h + N AWGN . and α is the parameter to scale x(t) within the dynamic range of LED. In a DCO-OFDM system. h (9) An advantage of OFDM transmission is that it can overcome this ISI problem by using a cyclic prefix (CP) inserted at the beginning of the OFDM frame. At the receiver. m e −j 2πhm N for 0 ≤ h ≤ 2 N − 1 (8) m=0 therefore. by substituting (6) in (5). After the scaling and biasing operation. this mitigates the detrimental effect caused by the dispersive channel by localizing it in a non-information bearing prefix of the OFDM symbol which is later removed upon reception. X 2 . X1 .h is a Gaussian noise component of the h-th FFT output at the receiver is given by 2 N −1 N AWGN . NAWGN. Any reductions in PAPR are normally illustrated using a PAPR complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) diagram. XH are [10] X H = [ X 0 . The total data rate for a DCO-OFDM transmission is given by (4) h =0 RDCO−OFDM = th where h is the h -subcarrier symbol of XH. Tp=1/ Δf. The CCDF of the PAPR is defined as the probability that the PAPR of an OFDM frame exceeds a given reference value PAPR0 and it is the most frequently used measure for describing PAPR reduction [11]. The generation and recovery of the DCOOFDM scheme is straightforward. 2 N −1 Yh = ∑ xm e −j 2πhm N 2 N −1 + ∑ nAWGN.X N −1 . Also. X *2 . X0 = XN = 0. the resulting signal y(t) will have a mean value BDC and a variance σy2= σ2 σx2 where σx2 is the variance . m e m= 0 −j 2πhm N for 0 ≤ h ≤ 2 N −1 (7) where max xm2 is maximum value of the OFDM signal power. which is typically M-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). the real-valued time-domain OFDM signal envelope is still characterized by a high PAPR. which is added to the other half of the IFFT frame.m are the signal and noise amplitude of the m-th point of the 2N point time domain signal. A DC-offset (implemented in practice as a dc-bias current to drive the LED transmitter) is added to the generated time-domain waveform to lift the signal into a unipolar region and is then transmitted. The forward signal y(t) drives the LED which in turn converts the magnitude of the input electric signal r(t) into optical intensity. In an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The human eye cannot perceive fast changing variations of the light intensity. the transmitted and the received signal are given by y = x + n AWGN (6) where n is AWGN noise component.The output of (1) is a complex signal and cannot be used in an intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) system such as the LED based VLC. The timedomain optical OFDM symbol waveform is real and bipolar. and Δf is the subcarrier spacing which is given by Δf=B/(N-1)where B is the signal modulation bandwidth. X *N −1 . Hermitian symmetry is used to achieve a real-valued IFFT output. The prefix is longer than the estimated delay spread in the channel. h = ∑n AWGN .. The CP is a cyclical copy of an r (t ) = α x (t ) + BDC (12) where α and BDC are both real-valued. a fast Fourier transform (FFT) operation performs the conversion from the time to the frequency domain and each element of the FFT output Yh is given by 2 N −1 Yh = ∑ ym e for 0 ≤ h ≤ 2 N − 1 (5) N −1 ∑ log 2 Mk (10) k =1 where B is the modulation bandwidth and log2M represents the number of bits per symbol of a carrier modulation scheme. The PAPR is defined as PAPR = 2πhm −j N B N max x m 2 2 E[ x m ] (11) m =0 where y is vector consists of a set of amplitudes of the received time-domain signal of length 2N. However. the positive forward signal r(t) that drives the LED must be obtained from x(t) after both a linear scaling (LS) and a biasing operation as m= 0 where xm and nAWGN... To ensure a unipolar signal to meet IM/DD requirements.

signal amplitudes below the LED TOV and above the LED saturation point are clipped [6]. The QAM symbols are then modulated by IFFT to transform the symbols into time-domain samples. symbol-by-symbol DC bias is added to conform with the non-negativity constraint. The scale factor must be appropriately chosen to work with the dynamic range constraints of the LED. Pr is the received optical power. Nonlinearity factors have a major impact on system performance. B. which is subjected to the non-linear distortion function. and R(ϕ) is the transmitter radiant intensity which is given by m R (φ ) = cos m (φ ) 2π (16) where m is the order of Lambertian emission. r(t). Compared with the LOS link. F(r(t)). The signal is then converted to the analog waveform using a DAC.of x(t). The knee factor in (13) is set either to limit (hard clipping) or to smoothly clip (soft-clipping) the upper peaks of the OFDM signal. The order of Lambertian emission m is related to the LED semiangle at half-power Ф1/2 (also called the transmitter beam angle ) by m= ln 2 ln(cos Φ 1 / 2 ) (17) A photodiode is used in the receiver side to transform the received optical intensity into the amplitude of an electrical signal. ψ is the angle with respect to the receiver. Results and Discussion In this section. After passing through the channel. 1. ϕ is the angle with respect to the transmitter. The resultant signal modulates a light source and is transmitted over the WOC channel. Simulation Setup The simulation flowchart of our investigation is shown in Fig. of the transmitter front-end. a high value of α can result in a clipped optical signal. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS A. The required LED model behavior can be described as follows: f (vLED ) f (v LED ) 2k 1 / 2k ) ) iLED (vLED ) = (1 + ( im 0 if vLED ≥ 0 (13) if v LED < 0 k is a parameter to model the degree of nonlinearity (also called the knee factor). ⊗ stands for linear convolution. the received signal can be negative as well as positive. the parameters that are affecting the performance of DCO-OFDM in VLC system are investigated. Data bits are randomly generated and converted from serial to parallel to form symbols for M-QAM. 2. Therefore only the LOS link is considered and contributions from NLOS links are neglected [2]. The CP is first removed and the linear convolution is converted to circular convolution then the signal is demodulated using FFT. The received optical power in Watt at receiver plane in a LOS path (ignoring the reflection of walls) is given by Pr = Pt H (0) LOS (14) where Pt is the transmitted optical power. The LOS channel path loss is defined as H (0) LOS = A R (φ ) Ts (ψ ) g (ψ ) cosψ D2 (15) Where A is the active receiving area. the received signal is bipolar instead of unipolar. The indoor VLC channel consists of two types of links. . namely the line-of-sight (LOS) link and the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) diffuse link [2]. So. The data symbols then are extracted from the output of FFT and QAM demodulation is achieved. k. The data bits are recovered after serial-to-parallel conversion. D is the transmitterreceiver distance. The reverse process is carried out at the receiver after removing the DC bias. OFDM is based on IFFT and FFT algorithms. the implementation on the DSP is straightforward. the received signal is obtained as y(t) = h(t) ⊗ F(r(t)) + nAWGN(t) (18) where y(t) represents the received distorted replica of the transmitted signal. and H(0) is the optical LOS path loss. h(t). Ts(ψ) is the filter gain g(ψ) is the concentrator gain. a LED non-linearity model is proposed in [7]. On the other hand. and f(vLED) is the function describing the measured/data sheet I–V characteristics. im is the maximum permissible ac/pulsed current through the LED. Here. III. This is very serious problem in OFDM systems due to the large PAPR. A CP is inserted before the parallelto-serial conversion takes place. It is important to note that the noise is added in the electrical domain. In particular. unlike the transmitted signal. on LED input-output relation is depicted in Fig. hence. The impact of LED nonlinearity degree (or knee factor). The nonlinearly distorted transmitted signal is convolved with the channel impulse response. the received optical power from the NLOS link is usually much smaller. the optical pass loss is the most important quantity to characterize the channel. and it is distorted by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). nAWGN(t). Since. After shifting the signal to passband. at the receiver. In analogy to a solid state power amplifier (SSPA) model for RF domain systems. the following equivalent discrete model for a noisy communication link is employed in the system description y = h* F( r) + nAWGN (19) where * stands for discrete linear convolution. Therefore.

3.6 End Amplitude BER performance evaluation 0.05 IFFT 0 -0.2 0.6 0 50 100 150 200 Time Index Fig. -0. simulations are performed with the same values of k mentioned above. it is clear from Fig. LED electrical-optical response for different degrees of nonlinearity k 10 0 k=2 k=3 k=10 k=50 DAC 10 Linear scaling and DC bias addition BER PAPR calculation 10 10 10 LED nonlinear distortion function 10 10 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 h(t) convolution and AWGN addition 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SNR (dB) 14 16 18 20 Fig.1 0. and im=0. The knee factor controls the smoothness of the transition from the linear to the saturation region.2 0 Fig.15 QAM Modulation k=2 k=3 k=10 k=50 0. As it is expected.5 Start 0.4 0.2 For demonstration purposes. 3. Simulation Flowchart -0.45 0.3 0. 2. the LED curves for different values of k (k=2.35 LED (v LED S/P conversion 0. 1.8 0.4 -0. 2.4 Generate input bits ) (A) 0. In order to show how different levels of non-linearity affect the performance of the VLC system in term of BER.5 A have been assumed.5 1 vLED (V) CP insertion and P/S conversion Fig.2 Original OFDM signal After adding CP After CP. 10 and 50) using f (vLED) = vLED/R where R is a normalization resistance.5 0 0. LS and DC bias 1 P/S conversion and bits extraction 0.0. as the value of k increases the LED behavior approaches linear model. BER vs. SNR for different degrees of nonlinearity k ADC S/P conversion and CP removing FFT In addition. 3 and less BER can be achieved as the LED behavior approaches linear model. 4.25 i 0. OFDM signals 250 300 350 . It can be seen that the upper saturation can be effectively controlled by the knee factor k. increasing k factor will result in improving the BER performance as shown in Fig. QAM-Demodulation 1.

5.5 6 PAPR0 (dB) 6. The PAPR performance for different QAM modulation orders is depicted in Fig. In order to study the effect of modulation order on the BER performance. We also observe that the PAPR increases with increasing the number of subcarriers for all of the constellations. 7 shows the PAPR performance of OFDM signal in VLC system for different IFFT sizes.5 8 Fig. However. these methods should be performed on either the analog signal. 7. 4. the PAPR is higher for a large number of subcarriers.4 0. the BER increases i. Also.2 Amplitude 1 0. For PAPR reduction methods to be effective solutions to PAPR.4 10 after D/A conversion IFFT output CCDF (Pr[PAPR>PAPR0]) 1. 8.8 0. the contribution of ISI in VLC systems is not as severe as an RF system. It can be seen that using LS and DC biasing method substantially outperform the original signal in which the PAPR performance of the 16 QAM with LS and Dc biasing is the best. or an upsampled version of the digital signal. which corresponds to a longer symbol period where the influence of nonlinearity grows with an increase in the symbol period.5 7 7.1. 6 for DCO-OFDM with and without linear scaling (LS) and DC biasing operations. In addition. IFFT output and the continuous signal after D/A conversion Fig. A large IFFT size results in a narrow bandwidth of each subcarrier.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time Index 35 40 45 50 0 N=64 N=128 N=256 N=1024 10 10 10 -1 -2 -3 3. Fig. many of components in the transmitter and receiver must have a wide dynamic range due to the high PAPR of OFDM signal caused by the peak regrowth after D/A conversion. because the frequency response of VLC channel falls-off relatively slowly. If the OFDM signal is not to be distorted.The effect of IFFT size on PAPR performance In practical OFDM-based systems. higher SNR is required to achieve same BER when QAM changes from lower order to higher order schemes. This is because once the signal is D/A converted the peaks of the signal may occur between the discrete samples as shown in Fig.e. a linear scaling has been adopted in our simulation to make the OFDM signal work with the dynamic range constrained VLC system while a DC bias is added to the bipolar OFDM signal to conform with the non-negativity constraint as shown in Fig.5 4 4. It can be seen that the PAPR of the timedomain VLC signal grows with the number of IFFT points i.6 0. a CP is introduced to preserve the orthogonality between subchannels. 5. BER vs. 8. This increases tolerance against ISI due to delay spread. It is clear that as the QAM modulation order increases. 10 0 10 -1 10 0 16QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM -1 BER CCDF (Pr[PAPR>PAPR0]) 10 10 10 16QAM 16QAM + LS and DC bias 64QAM 64QAM + LS and DC bias 128QAM 128QAM + LS and DC bias 256QAM 256QAM + LS and DC bias -2 -3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PAPR0 (dB) Fig.5 5 5. large FFT/IFFT size is obtained at the expense of higher computational complexity. simulations are conducted with k=50 for different QAM order as shown in Fig. 6. SNR for different QAM for DCO-OFDM VLC system .e. CCDF curves for PAPR of DCO-OFDM for different QAM modulation orders with and without LS and DC biasing 10 13 10 -2 -3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SNR (dB) 14 16 18 20 Fig.

“Line-of-sight visible light communication system design and demonstration”. “Brightness control in dynamic range constrained visible light OFDM systems”. and R. 1374-1382. G. . 2010. & Stewart. 11. Z.et al. 2006. TABLE I. Afgani. leading to high SNR in some area and dead zone in many areas. [6] H. No. Mesleh. [2] K. the effect of the semiangle at half power on the optical power distribution for four LEDs in a LOS path shown in Fig. 2014. pp. Baxley.5 2 1.. [9] Jiang.Finally. Elgala. 2010. “Visible Light Communication Using OFDM. “An LED model for intensitymodulated optical communication systems”.. and H. it has been shown that the PAPR can be reduced by using linear scaling combined with DC biasing operation. [10] Little. D.a. “Pilot-assisted PAPR reduction technique for optical OFDM communication systems”. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. Z. of the 2nd Int. Some key issues in practical VLC system design are discussed covering the PAPR and BER performance.” in Proc. 3).. & Haas. & Hanzo. J. pp. Knipp. 2008.5 2 4 2 0 -2 -4 Y(m) -2 0 -2 -4 X(m) (a) 5 6 4 4 3 2 2 0 1 -2 0 -4 4 -1 2 4 2 0 Y(m) -2 0 -2 -2 -4 -4 X(m) (b) Fig. pp. However. 129–134. It is clear that there is more than 9 dB of optical power difference between the minimum and maximum power level. W. Networks. pp. Asilomar Conf. 9.. 32.5 0 0 -1 -2 -0. Vol. In Proc.75.. pp. In IEEE Wireless and Optical Communication Conference. pp. 12707-12715. 621–625. on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities. [7] Elgala. there is almost uniform distribution of optical power at the center with a maximum power of 2. S. Ghassemlooy. We can see that the received optical power is small at the corners of the room. (1. (2008). Roberts. pp. Wang. 2008. 3.5 -3 -1 -4 4 -1. pp. 54. & Haas. 2009. 1-5. L. The simulation parameters for this scenario are presented in table I. [8] M. PIMRC 2008. IEEE Trans. (3. [12] Wang. Lightw.268.. 2008. 3. Chen.100-107. Vol. we have evaluated the performance of DCO OFDM schemes for indoor VLC. Elgala. R. 10. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Commun. 2014. pp.. of CSNDSP. Finally. 2014. Optical Power Distribution for (a) Ф1/2 =70 degree and b) Ф1/2 = 30 degree CONCLUSION In this paper. G. 189–204. 9. 3).. T.. H. D. and D.. No. it is shown that reducing the QAM order or increasing the IFFT size may alleviate the effect of the LED nonlinearity. 25. Chen. Z. Technol. 2004. REFERENCES 1 2 Received Power(dBm) The optical power distribution at a receiver plane with the half angle of 30° is shown in Fig.” J. 3) Location for 4 LEDs Semiangle at half power (Ф1/2) Filter gain Ts(ψ) 30. Elgala. SIMULATION PARAMETERS Parameter Transmitted optical power by individual LED (Pt) Room Size Value 20 mW (5 × 5 × 3) m3 (1. the VLC-OFDM signal is still characterized by a high PAPR and future work will go primarily towards addressing this issue. In IEEE Int. Z.. 1.25. R.. on broadcasting. and Computers. However..75. on Consumer Electronics. Vol. on Signals. 835-837. IEEE 19th Int. & Wu." In Proc. 22. 1. Systems. O. Zeng. An overview: peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals. 257.25.2. [4] Komine. Z. 70 degree 1 Number of LEDs per array 60 × 60 Active area (A) 1 cm2 Concentrator gain g(ψ) 2. it is demonstrated that the beam angle has a significant impact on optical power distribution in the receiver plane based on LOS link. L. Similar effect on PAPR performance is observed when modulation order changes from lower order to higher order scheme. Conf. [3] J. 2014.... H.5 dBm and a minimum power of . 2009. Technol. such uniform power distribution is possible to achieve by using a holographic light shaping diffuse. pp. T. D. H. J. no. “A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM”. 1 0. IEEE Trans. (3. 3. & Zhou. 9. 1-5. No. & Nakagawa. Q.5 dBm for 70° half angle Ф1/2 as shown in Fig. Moreover. pp. Cui. Vol. R.. 2. Vol. “OFDM for optical communications. Armstrong. Symposium In Personal.5 3 Received Power(dBm) IV. In addition.75. B. [5] O'brien. [1] Yu. H.25. C. 27. G.b. Simulation results show that the PAPR increases significantly as the size of IFFT increases. vol. M. 22. 1-5. 3). Mesleh.. No. T. H. Haas. Xu. 7. Also. "Adaptation of OFDM under Visible Light Communications and Illumination Constraints. [11] Popoola. 50. 9. . thus improving the BER performance of the system. Y. “An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light communication systems” Optics express. T. “Visible light communications: Challenges and possibilities”. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.75. “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights”. 1. Lightw. No.

- Flip OFDMUploaded byRashed Islam
- 2011_clanek-01Uploaded byspkrishna4u7369
- ELEC6014W1_ELEC6014_200910_02Uploaded byshabooneh
- C-Band VSAT Data Communication System and RF ImpairmentsUploaded byijdps
- 117348398 OFDM Matlab CodeUploaded bytruongvinhlan19895148
- OFDM Final ReportUploaded byseshupriya
- 4539649Uploaded byartem81
- OFDM Simulation Using MatlabUploaded byanon-297226
- S25-Wimax__46090__Uploaded byJoe M. Mera Diaz
- LTE WhitepaperUploaded bysantosh_dornal
- OFDM SIMULATION in MATLABUploaded byboss_tarius
- 3320 ofdmUploaded byoh
- OFDM - DC - ACO.pdfUploaded bymonthius
- OFDM Matlab codeUploaded byKool Rakesh
- Silicon Chip №4 2009Uploaded byMateja Radičević
- Sat CatcherUploaded byAlexander Wiese
- A-New-Approach-to-Fast-Decode-Quasi-Orthogonal-Space-Time-Block-Codes.pdfUploaded bypondyit
- Edge ModulacijaUploaded bykrajst
- Base PaperUploaded byjeniyokel
- 01-OptiX RTN 980 Hardware DescriptionUploaded byPaulo Dembi
- ELTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE TDD Basic Feature DescriptionUploaded bydieudonne
- 64 QAM Modulator Demodulator MatlabUploaded byAlexandru Dragos Dimofte
- 05345737G-2010Uploaded byRaghavendra Prasad Reddy
- Eclipse Platform Data Sheet ETSIUploaded byjovares2099
- unit-ii adcUploaded bynimmycharan
- Overview Of MC CDMA Papr Reduction TechniquesUploaded byijdps
- Wisee PaperUploaded byJeroen Kraan
- Principles of OFDM2Uploaded byapi-26490800
- Digital CommunicationsUploaded byGilbert Hernandez
- 167-169Uploaded byIjarcet Journal

- 07275086Uploaded byayadman
- AM Using SimulinkUploaded byayadman
- Solar TrackingUploaded byayadman
- SMTutorial_FullSlidesUploaded byayadman
- Primer SpatialUploaded byayadman
- TIIS Vol 12, No 3-9 (3)Uploaded byayadman
- 24_2_props_fourier_trnfm.pdfUploaded byayadman
- ch04Uploaded byayadman
- part1.pdfUploaded byayadman
- AM using Simulink.pdfUploaded byayadman
- 2-IJTPE-Issue21-Vol6-No4-Dec2014-pp5-10.pdfUploaded byayadman
- Midterm Exam2017 Answer KeysUploaded byayadman
- 2722Uploaded byayadman
- Midterm Exam 2017-Analog CommUploaded byayadman
- A_1006971213046Uploaded byayadman
- 16543 Lecture 4Uploaded byayadman
- AM Exam 1 SolutionUploaded byayadman
- DiversityUploaded byayadman
- Solutions Final Exam 2016Uploaded byayadman
- process ConvolutionUploaded byayadman
- Digital Com4Uploaded byayadman
- Report on playground noiseUploaded byayadman
- ch11Uploaded byayadman
- 03 Convolution.pdfUploaded byayadman
- Contr Systems Ppt02eUploaded byayadman
- 02fd6cf9553be2d58efe687b857830f6-originalUploaded byayadman
- 1analogsignals.pdfUploaded byayadman
- PhysicalUploaded byayadman
- diffequations.pdfUploaded byayadman
- LTI Systems midterm 1 S15 sol (1).pdfUploaded byayadman