Teaching Ensemble Fundamentals

within the Music:
An Approach to Maximize Rehearsal Efficiency

Dr. John D. Pasquale, University of Michigan
Patricia D. Hughes, Cedar Ridge High School
Arris A. Golden, Gravelly Hill Middle School

Demonstration Group
The Gravelly Hill Middle School Concert Band

Sixty-Sixth Annual
Midwest Clinic
An International Band & Orchestra Conference
McCormick Place West
Room W184
Wednesday, December 19, 2012
1:10 pm


Hughes.Teaching Ensemble Fundamentals within the Music: An Approach to Maximize Rehearsal Efficiency PRESENTERS: Dr. Golden. 2012 1:10 pm . University of Michigan Patricia D. Gravelly Hill Middle School Demonstration Group The Gravelly Hill Middle School Concert Band Sixty-Sixth Annual Midwest Clinic An International Band & Orchestra Conference McCormick Place West Room W184 Wednesday. Pasquale. John D. December 19. Cedar Ridge High School Arris A.

a .

7. 2 3. 5. 3. forward motion tonal energy style dynamics cadential clarity PAGE ONE . internalization of subdivided pulse metered inhalation metered exhalation start of the note precisely in time length of note (precise durational value) change of the note precisely in time release of the note precisely in time Body of Sound 1. 4. 4. 6. note shape 8. 5. 2. articulation production 4. vowel shape 5. resonance 7. embouchure 2. air stream 3. The Directed Listening Hierarchy Pulse 1. 4. 2. 3. instrumental tendencies Symmetry 1.Teaching Ensemble Fundamentals within the Music: An Approach to Maximize Rehearsal Efficiency 1. 5. characteristic sound quality 6. release of note 9. tonal strength volume levels of listening ensemble symmetry chart manipulation of the ensemble symmetry formula Musicality 1. executive skills 10.

2. Synopsis of the referenced counting system Rhythmic Examples PAGE TWO .

List of fundamental articulation syllables for each instrument Flute Double Reeds Clarinet Bass Clarinet Saxophones Trumpet Horn Trombone Euphonium Tuba Percussion “dah” “dah” “dee” “doo” “doo” “dah” “dah” “dah” “dah” “dah” “dah” *Syllables with which the tongue touches the teeth or reed and subsequent shape of the tongue as it rests inside the oral chamber following the articulation. PAGE THREE .3.

PAGE FOUR Trumpet Horn Trombone Euphonium Tuba 50% air.4. 50% lip vibration 50% air. Fundamental parts of the instrument to assess proper embouchure production and tongue placement. 50% lip vibration 60% air. Physical ratio of air stream to lip vibration used in the cup of the mouthpiece of brass instruments for fundamental tone production. 5. 40% lip vibration 60% air. 40% lip vibration 70% air. Flute Oboe Bassoon Clarinet Bass Clarinet Saxophones All Brasses Percussion Headjoint Reed Bocal and reed Mouthpiece and barrel Mouthpiece and neck Mouthpiece and neck Mouthpiece Mallets or sticks appropriate to the instrument played Concert pitches that should be produced by woodwind fundamental parts Brasses should match a reference pitch. 30% lip vibration .

Ensemble Symmetry Chart * Upper Voices Piccolo Flute Oboe E-flat Clarinet B-flat Clarinet Middle Voices English Horn Alto Clarinet Alto Saxophone Low Voices Bassoon Bass Clarinet Tenor Saxophone Baritone Saxophone Contra Clarinet Contra Bassoon A B Trumpet Horn Tenor Trombone Euphonium Bass Trombone Tuba D E F Percussion C G Figure 2. in fact. it is not. By no means are the clinicians suggesting that all voices in music should be heard equally. Often times. Ensemble Symmetry Formula * A=B=C=D=E=F=G *The goal of Figures 1 and 2 are to aid the students in creating a frame of reference of ensemble balance with specific listening responsibilities in real time.Figure 1. students should have a tangible reference tool from which to manipulate their sounds. PAGE FIVE . These figures provide a suggested starting place for instruction. For the beginning of conceptual understanding of ensemble balance. educators assume this skill to be innate within the students when.

 fundamentally  characteristic  and   resonant.  sustain.  change. Level  1  listening:  The  listening  responsibility  when  the  individual  player  solely  listens  to   himself  or  herself.  and   release  a  note  on  each  instrument.  and  mental  audition  of  the  pitch. Ensemble  Volume: The  sum  of  combined  decibels  when  each  instrument  of  the  wind   ensemble  is  playing  together  in  a  symmetrical  sound. Level  2  listening:  The  listening  responsibility  when  the  individual  player  listens  and   matches  others  in  the  section  or  voice  color.  symmetrical.   sections.  lip   flexibility.  resistance  of  the  instrument  to   create  resonance.Commonly Used Ensemble Pedagogy Terms and Definitions Commonly  Used  Ensemble  Pedagogy  Terms  and  Definitions Air  Stream:  The  column  of  air  used  to  play  a  wind  instrument. Macrobeat: The  primary  beat  within  the  meter. Body  of  sound:  The  “core”  between  the  articulated  front-­side  and  back-­side of  the  note. PAGE SIX . Articulation:  The  physical  action  of  beginning  a  note  with  the  tongue. Internalization  of  pulse:  The  technique  of  a  player  feeling  the  pulse  within  their  body   before  and  while  they  play. Ensemble  Clarity:  The  result  when  individual  players  combine  with  other  players  in   producing  sounds  that  are  precisely  together.  and  consistent  sounds   throughout  all  registers. Front-­side  of  the  note:  A  physical  description  of  where  the  sound  starts.  and  performed  musically  in  regard  to  the  composer’s  intent. Executive  Skills:  The  physiological  and  mechanical  skills  of  finger  dexterity.  vibrant.  strength  of  the  embouchure. Ensemble  Color:  The  specific  combination of  characteristic  sounds  from  individuals.  consistently  sustained  body.  inherent  individual  performance  issues  associated  with   the  construction  of  each  instrument. Level  3  listening:  The  listening  responsibility  when  the  section  or  voice  color  listens  and   matches  all  other  sections  within  the  ensemble. Characteristic  sound: The  result  of  allowing  the  instrument  to  vibrate  in  the  center  of   the  harmonic  series  as  a  result  of  the  balance  of  air. Fundamentals: The  individual  pedagogical  skills  required  to  begin. Instrument  tendencies: Specific.  and   release  of  a  note. Forward  Motion: The  manipulation  of  relationships  between  note  beginnings  with  prior   or  subsequent  releases  within  a  musical  phrase.   Back-­side  of  the  note:  A  physical  description  of  where  the  sound  stops. Clarity  of  Note  Shape: The  clearly  defined  articulation. Cadential  clarity: The  symmetrical  hearing  of  voice-­leading  and  resolution  within  a   musical  context.  or  voices  that  consist  of  the  most  mature. Dynamic  production:  The  physiological  process  of  creating  changes  in  volume  within  a   musical  context. Balance: The  volume  manipulation  component  of  creating  symmetry  of  sound  within   ensemble  settings. Embouchure:  The  physiological  components  of  the  face  and  oral  cavity  involved  in   properly  producing  a  resonant  and  characteristic  sound  on  a  wind  instrument.  and  rate  of  articulation.

Note  starts:  A  physical  description  of  the  front  of  the  note. John D. cavity.  and  embouchure  do  not  move  as  the  note  is  released. Rhythm: The  relationship  between  sound  and  silence  in  relation  to  pulse.. Microbeat: The  division  of  a  primary  beat  within  the  meter  into  duple  or  triple   Musicality:  The  relationship  between  musical  events  as  per  composer  intent  and   Metered Inhalation: Breathing in for a prescribed number of beats prior to the components.   Pulse:  The  equal  division  of  time  into  portions.   Meter:  Organizing  equal  divisions  of  time  into  patterns  of  strong  and  weak  beats. Style: The  manipulation  of  note  shapes  and  releases  following  the  note’s  articulation   Side-­to-­side  energy:  An  individual  matching  of  all  aspects  of  wind  playing  with   within  a  given  musical  context. Texture: The  result  of  the  combination  of  various  instruments  or  voices  playing  together.   Resonance:  The  quality  of  a  sound  as  a  result  of  sympathetic  vibrations  within  the   and  forward  motion  within  a  defined  musical  context.  quality.Microbeat: The  division  of  a  primary  beat  within  the  meter  into  duple  or  triple   components. Vowel  sounds:  A  technique  for  wind  instruments  of  shaping  the  tongue  with  a  vowel   sound  within  the  oral  cavity  to  create  a  desired  tone  quality  depending  on  the  register   of  the  music. Vowel  sounds:  A  technique  for  wind  instruments  of  shaping  the  tongue  with  a  vowel   Tonal  Strength:  The  combination  of  resonance.  oral   at  the  precise  time  within  the  meter  from  one  note  to  another. Symmetry: Subdivision:The  result  of  each  instrument  heard  at  a  tonal  strength  appropriate  for  the   Deconstructing  meter  to  its  smallest  rhythmic  value  appropriate  to  the   music.  timbre.  timbre. Pasquale. start of a note.  tonal  strength.   Open-­throat  note  release:  The  most  resonant  ending  of  a  note  where  the  throat. Tonal  Strength:  The  combination  of  resonance. Phrasing: The  result  of  proper  instrumental  fundamentals. Phrasing: The  result  of  proper  instrumental  fundamentals.A diss. PAGE SEVEN .  and  note  shape   Open-­throat  note  release:  The  most  resonant  ending  of  a  note  where  the  throat. Resonance:  The  quality  of  a  sound  as  a  result  of  sympathetic  vibrations  within  the   Side-­to-­side  energy:  An  individual  matching  of  all  aspects  of  wind  playing  with   harmonic  series  achieved  through  proper  playing  fundamentals.” D. University of Oklahoma at Norman.  tonal  energy. played  with  tonal  strength. 2008. played  with  tonal  strength.M.  and  volume  in  an   sound  within  the  oral  cavity  to  create  a  desired  tone  quality  depending  on  the  register   individual  sound.  and  note  shape   Musicality:  The  relationship  between  musical  events  as  per  composer  intent  and   at  the  precise  time  within  the  meter  from  one  note  to  another.  mechanics.  quality. performers  on  either  side. tempo. harmonic  series  achieved  through  proper  playing  fundamentals. Note  changes: The  relationship  of  instrumental  fundamentals. cavity.  and  embouchure  do  not  move  as  the  note  is  released. Texture: The  result  of  the  combination  of  various  instruments  or  voices  playing  together. Subdivision: Deconstructing  meter  to  its  smallest  rhythmic  value  appropriate  to  the   Style: The  manipulation  of  note  shapes  and  releases  following  the  note’s  articulation   tempo.  and  volume  in  an   Tonal  Energy:  The  relationship  and  manipulation  of  individual  and  ensemble  sounds   individual  sound.  tonal  energy.   Note  starts:  A  physical  description  of  the  front  of  the  note.  tonal  strength. “Directed Listening for Wind Ensemble Conductors: a Pedagogy For Developing Aural Analysis and Effective Rehearsal Strategy. Meter:  Organizing  equal  divisions  of  time  into  patterns  of  strong  and  weak  beats.  oral   and  forward  motion  within  a  defined  musical  context. Pulse:  The  equal  division  of  time  into  portions.   conductor  interpretation.  mechanics. conductor  interpretation. Symmetry: The  result  of  each  instrument  heard  at  a  tonal  strength  appropriate  for  the   Tonal  Energy:  The  relationship  and  manipulation  of  individual  and  ensemble  sounds   music. performers  on  either  side. Note  changes: The  relationship  of  instrumental  fundamentals. within  a  given  musical  context. of  the  music. Rhythm: The  relationship  between  sound  and  silence  in  relation  to  pulse.

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During his four year assignment. Director of the Michigan Hockey Band. Associate Director of the Michigan Marching and Athletic Bands. “Instrumental Music Education in China: Cross-Cultural Performance and Pedagogy. played on Dr. the Cavaliers have been named Drum Corps International World Champions three times and the recipient of two Jim Ott Awards for “Excellence in Brass Performance. he is the conductor of the University Band. “America’s Premier 19th Century Brass Band. Pasquale served as a conducting associate to the Wind Symphony. inaugural conductor of the Alumni Concert Band. Faculty Composer Concert Series. Pasquale is a member of the conducting faculty at the University of Michigan serving as the Assistant Director of Bands. he was an adjunct instructor and graduate teaching assistant within the Music Education Department. John D. Pasquale guided the historically authentic recreation of 19th century brass band repertoire. Dr. PASQUALE Dr. pedagogue and adjudicator in band and orchestra programs throughout the United States and Asia. In this position. The Cavaliers Brass: From the Concert Hall to the Football Field. through performances and tours spanning the United States and Canada. Through his teaching at the Cavaliers.” in Beijing. Symphony Band Chamber Winds and Concert Band. Pasquale served as the Associate Brass Caption Manager of the Santa Clara Vanguard Drum and Bugle Corps from Santa Clara. Texas. Contact Information | jdpas@umich. Texas.” Receiving the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in Conducting from the University of Oklahoma at Norman in 2008.edu | 734-763-5891 PAGE TEN .” Dr. He holds a Master of Music degree in Instrumental Conducting from the University of Oklahoma and a Bachelor of Music Education degree from Texas Christian University in Fort Worth. Pasquale conducted an internationally recognized and competitive middle school wind ensemble holding the position of Director of Bands at Griffin Middle School in The Colony. Pasquale was the 2001. China. In addition to his responsibilities at the University of Michigan. Pasquale was a contributor to the instructional DVD entitled. clinician.” In this position. Shanghai and Xi’an. Pasquale is in demand as a conductor.ABOUT OUR PRESENTERS JOHN D. Dr. Illinois. John D. teaches conducting and program administration through independent study. “The Pride of Oklahoma” Marching Band. which has been met with international acclaim. within the Lewisville Independent School District. Pasquale period instruments. In addition. Pasquale served as the Music Director of The Dodworth Saxhorn Band. guest conductor with the Symphony Band. California. Concert Band and the Weitzenhoffer Family Department of Musical Theatre. Dr. and directed the summer program. conductor of the Campus “Maize” and “Blue” Bands. Symphony Band. 2002 and 2003 recipient of the “Making A Difference Award” given by the student body of Griffin Middle School and received the 2003 nomination for Griffin Middle School “Teacher of the Year. and taught ensemble music as a member of the Brass Staff of the Cavaliers Drum and Bugle Corps from Rosemont. New Century Ensemble. In the genre of marching and pageantry arts. Prior to attending the University of Oklahoma. During his tenure from 2002-2009. Opera Orchestra.

Ms.us | 919-245-4000 PAGE ELEVEN . Contact Information | patricia. HUGHES Patricia D. Hughes was also featured in the Conn-Selmer Keynotes Magazine as the “Director of Note” in the spring of 2006.k12. Hughes Since the foundation of the band program at Cedar Ridge. Ms. district-wide. North Carolina. Most recently. and all state honor bands each school year. collegiate. was a featured ensemble at the annual North Carolina Music Educator’s Conference in Winston Salem. and in 2006. Ms. Hughes was the North Carolina Representative featured in School Band and Orchestra Magazine’s annual “50 Directors Who Make a Difference” article. from 2004-2012. She received certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards in 2007. North Carolina. Most recently. she served as the Secretary for this organization. Student performers in each of the Cedar Ridge Bands have achieved numerous individual accolades and are members of countywide. A 1990 recipient of the North Carolina Teaching Fellows Scholarship. Ms. Hughes has served in many capacities throughout her career.hughes@orange. In 2008. Hughes is also active as an adjudicator for both concert and marching band and is a member of the UNCG Summer Music Camp conducting staff. Ms. Hughes attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Patricia D. Ms.PATRICIA D. She has been chairperson of the Central District High School All-District Band Clinic and has served as the chair and site host of the Central District Middle and High School Concert Band MPA from 2005-2012. Hughes is the Director of Bands at Cedar Ridge High School in Hillsborough. Hughes has been elected by her peers to the prestigious American School Band Director’s Association.nc. As a member of the Central District Bandmasters Association (CDBA). Patricia was chosen by her colleagues as the North Carolina Central District Award of Excellence recipient in 2006 and was selected as the Central District’s Band Director of the Year in 2005. ensembles have performed concerts and participated in festivals throughout the eastern United States. earning the Bachelor of Music Education Degree in 1994 and later attended The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG) earning the Master of Music Education Degree in 2004.

Ms. Since the opening of the Gravelly Hill Middle School in 2006. Golden was chosen be her peers as the CDBA Award of Excellence recipient in May 2009. Contact Information | arris. Golden is in constant demand as a guest conductor. Michael Markowski in 2014 and 2015 respectively. the North Carolina Music Educator and School Band and Orchestra Magazine. Ms. Golden is the Director of Bands at Gravelly Hill Middle School in Efland. this invitation included a concert performance by the band. Ms. Music Educators National Conference. In March 2008. and Sigma Alpha Iota: Women’s Professional Music Fraternity. and marching band adjudicator throughout North Carolina and Virginia. Also a published author. Ms.golden@orange. marching band instructor. Student members Arris A.Arris A. Brian Balmages. Ms. Golden’s professional affiliations include the American School Band Directors Association. respectively. Golden Arris A. Pierre LaPlante and Mr. Ms. In November 2010.us | 919-245-4050 PAGE TWELVE . as well as a clinic performance under the leadership of Dr.nc. The Gravelly Hill Concert band has participated in multiple adjudicated festivals in the past six years. Ms. John Pasquale. the Concert Band was honored to be one of two featured middle school bands at the North Carolina Music Educators Association Annual In-Service Conference held in Winston-Salem. the University of Michigan. “Kitsune: The Fox Spirits. featuring band classes for all grade levels. concert band clinician. Golden has had articles and interviews featured in the Music Educators Journal.k12. Golden of the Concert Band have worked with numerous clinicians during its six years of existence. A Nationally Board Certified Teacher. jazz ensemble. and Performing Arts in the same year. as well as numerous smaller ensembles that meet throughout the school year.” written by Mr. Music. North Carolina. and in the 2006-2007 school year. the Central District Bandmasters’ Association. Assistant Director of Bands. Director of Athletic Bands at Campbell University and is on staff as a conductor for the UNC-Greensboro Summer Music Camp. the Gravelly Hill Bands have grown to a membership of 101 students. Ms. Steven Bryant. The Gravelly Hill Concert will also premiere new works for young band by Mr. the North Carolina Music Educators’ Association. North Carolina. Ann Arbor. Golden received her undergraduate degrees in Music Education and Political Science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1996 and 1991. including the premier of two newly commissioned works for young band. percussion ensemble. and “The Machine Awakes” for young band and electronics by Mr. and received the Master of Music Education degree from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG) in 2004. Golden has also served as a guest conductor for the Cape Fear Wind Symphony. receiving only Excellent and Superior Ratings. Ms. Golden was also named the Central District’s Band Director of the Year in 2004 and was the recipient of the Cary Chamber of Commerce “Honor a Teacher” Award in Fine Arts. Golden was named one of the United States “Fifty Directors Who Make a Difference” by School Band and Orchestra Magazine. Ms. Golden has also completed coursework toward the Doctorate in Educational Leadership from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Golden was honored with induction into the prestigious American School Band Directors’ Association.



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