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Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

Available online at www.elixirpublishers.com (Elixir International Journal)

Applied Mathematics

Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

Integral Equations by using (ADM)

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud

Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, 431004, India.

ARTICLE INFO

Ar t icl e hi s to r y:

Received: 02August 2016;

Received in revised form:

01 September 2016;

Accepted: 7 September 2016;

K ey w o rd s

Ad o mia n

De co mp o s it i o n

Met ho d ,

F uzz y Vo lt erra - Fr ed ho l m

I n te gra l

Eq u at i o n,

Ap p r o xi ma te

So l ut i o n,

S ys te m

of

Vo l ter r a Fr ed ho l m

I n te g r al

Equat io n.

AB S T RA C T

A n u me ri cal me t ho d fo r so l v i n g fu zz y Vo lt erra -F red ho l m i n te gra l eq ua tio n

o f t h e se co nd k i nd wi ll i s i n tro d uced . W e c o n ver t a no nl i near fuz z y

Vo l ter r a - Fr ed ho l m i n te gra l eq ua t io n to a no n l in ear s ys te m o f Vo lt err a Fr ed ho l m i nte gr al eq ua t io n i n cr isp ca se . W e u s e Ad o mi a n De co mp o si ti o n

Met ho d ( AD M) to fi nd t he ap p ro xi ma te so l u tio n o f t h is s ys t e m a nd he nc e

o b tai n a n ap p ro x i ma tio n fo r fu zz y so l ut io n o f t he no n li ne ar fuz z y Vo lt erra Fr ed ho l m i n te gr al eq ua t io n . Al so , so me n u mer i cal e xa mp le s ar e i ncl ud ed

to d e mo n str at e t h e va lid it y a nd ap p l ic ab i li t y o f t he p ro p o s ed t ec h ni q ue.

Introduction

The topic of fuzzy integral equations which has attracted

growing interest for some time, in particular in relation to

fuzzy control, has been developed in recent years. Babolian et.

al [1] proposed another numerical procedure for solving fuzzy

linear Fredholm integral of the second kind using Adomian

method. Moreover, Friedman et. al [7] and Seikkala in [2]

defined the fuzzy derivative and then some generalizations of

that have been investigated in [3, 4]. Consequently, the fuzzy

integral which is the same as that of Dubois and Prade in [5].

However, there are several research papers about obtaining

the numerical integration of fuzzy-valued functions and

solving fuzzy Volterra and Fredholm integral equations [6, 7,

8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17]. As we know the fuzzy differential and

integral equations are one of the important part of the fuzzy

analysis theory that play major role in numerical analysis. The

concept of fuzzy numbers and arithmetic operations on it was

introduced by Bede [3] which was further enriched by Dubois

and Prade [17]. Also they [16] was introduced the concept of

integration of fuzzy functions. Chang and Zadeh [15] studied

on fuzzy mapping and control. Dubois and Prade [16, 17] made

a significant contribution by introducing the concept of fuzzy

numbers and presented a computational formula for

operations on fuzzy numbers. Shao and Zhang [21] chose to

define the integral of fuzzy function, using the Lebesgue-type

Tele: 00918087270373

E-mail address: drahmed985@yahoo.com

2016 Elixir all rights reserved

integration was given by Wu and Ma who investigated the

fuzzy Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. Recently,

Ghadle and Ahmed [9] solved Volterra-Fredholm integral

equations by using Legendre and Chebyshev collocation

methods. The properties of Chebyshev or Legendre

polynomials are used to reduce the system of Fredholm

integral equations to a system of nonlinear algebraic

equations, some mathematician have studied solution of fuzzy

integral equation by numerical method [2, 21, 22]. Bildik and

Inc studied the approximate solution by using modified

decomposition method for nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm

Integral Equations [11]. Wazwaz studied new algorithm for

calculationg adomian polynomials for nonlinear operators

[23]. Gohary found an approximate solution for a system of

linear fuzzy Fredholm integral equation of the second kind

with two variables which exploit hybrid Legendre and blockpulse functions, and Legendre wavelets. In present, we try to

employ Adomian decomposition method for solving fuzzy

nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integral equation. The structure

of this paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, the basic

concepts of fuzzy number and fuzzy set are discussed. In

Section 3, we convert a fuzzy nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm

integral equation to a nonlinear system of Volterra-Fredholm

integral equation of second kind in crisp case and approximate

42568

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

formulation of the ADM required for our subsequent

development, in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, we will give

report on our numerical findings and demonstrate the

accuracy of the proposed scheme by considering numerical

examples, and a brief conclusion is given in Section 6.

Basic Concepts

Fuzzy numbers generalize classical real numbers and we can

say that a fuzzy number is a fuzzy subset of the real line which

has some additional properties. The concept of fuzzy number

is vital for fuzzy analysis, fuzzy differential equations and fuzzy

integral equations, and a very useful tool in several

applications of fuzzy sets. Basic definition of fuzzy numbers is

given in [6, 17].

Definition 2.1. A fuzzy number is a fuzzy set like : R [0, 1]

with the following properties:

(i) is upper semi-continuous function,

(ii) is fuzzy convex, i.e,

( + (1 )) {(), ()} , ,

[0,1],

(iii) is normal, i. e, 0 for which ( 0 ) = 1,

(iv) Sup = { | () > 0} is the support of the , and

its closure cl(sup ) is compact.

+ {0}.

(, ) = sup max{|() ()| , |() ()|}

[0,1]

[15]. Then, it is easy to see that d is a metric in E and has the

following properties (see [3]):

(i) ( + , + ) = (, ), , , ,

(ii) (, ) = || (, ), ; , ,

(iii) ( + , + ) (, ) + (, ), , , , ,

(iv) (, ) is a complete metric space.

Definition 2.3 [8]. Let : R E , be a fuzzy valued function.

If for arbitrary fixed t0 R and 0, 0 such that

|t t0| <

is said to be continuous.

Theorem 2.1 [17]. Let

fixed [, ] assume

f ( x)

is

fuzzy number E, 0 1, denoted by [], is defined as

improper fuzzy Riemann-integral is a fuzzy number.

Furthermore, we have:

() = ( (, ) , (, ) )

bounded interval [(), ()], where () denotes the lefthand end point of [] and () denotes the right hand end

point of [] . Since each can be regarded as a fuzzy

number defined by:

function and fuzzy Riemann integrable on = [, ) then

() + () is fuzzy Riemann integrable on . Moreover, we

have:

(() + ()) = () + ()

Definition 2.4. The integral of a fuzzy function was define in

[1] by using the Riemann integral concept. Let [, ] ,

for each partition = 0, 1, . . . , n of [, ] and for arbitrary

i [i-1, i], 1 , suppose

Definition 2.2. A fuzzy number in parametric form is a pair

(, ) of functions () (), 0 1, which satisfy the

following requirements:

i. () is a bounded non-decreasing left continuous function

in (0,1], and right continuous at 0,

ii. () is a bounded non-increasing left continuous function

in (0,1], and right continuous at 0,

iii. () (), 0 1. A crisp number is simply

represented by () = () = , 0 1. We recall that

for a < b < c which a, b, c R, the triangular fuzzy number

= (, , ) determined by a, b, c are given such that

() = a + (b a) and () = c (c b) are the end

points of the -level sets, for all [0,1]. The Hausdorff

() = lim

function () is continuous in the metric d, its definite integral

exists [7], and also

42569

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

(1) and (2) by using Adomian method. The fuzzy FredholmVolterra integral equation of the second kind (2) is as follows:

() 1 1 (, )(,

())

continuous, both approaches yield the same value. More

details about the properties of the fuzzy integral are given in

[16, 18].

2 2 (, )(,

()) = ()

where 1, 2 0,

and

1 , 2

f is a fuzzy function of ,

Volterra-Fredholm integral equations. Consider the following

types fuzzy Volterra-Fredholm integral equations:

((, ), (, )),

0 1 ; [, ] are parametric.

(, ) = (, ) + (, , , )

(, )

(1)

(, ) 1 1 (, )(, (, ))

and

2 2 (, )(, (, )) = (, )

() 1 1 (, )(,

())

2 2 (, )(,

()) = ()

where

, 1 , 2

(5)

(2)

and

, , are

Now, parametric form of a linear fuzzy Volterra-Fredholm

integral equation can be written as the following:

(, ) 1 1 (, )(, (, ))

2 2 (, )(, (, )) = (, )

(6)

1 (, , ) = min 1 (, ) : (, ) (, )

2 (, , ) = min 2 (, ) : (, ) (, )

1 (, , ) = MAX 1 (, ) : (, ) (, )

2 (, , ) = MAX 2 (, ) : (, ) (, )

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Then

where

(, ) = ((, , ), (, , ))

(, ) = ((, , ), (, , ))

(11)

and

(12)

(13)

42570

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

where the = [ , ], =[ , ] , n 0, are the so-called

Adomian polynomial defined by:

(17)

convert to a system of nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm

integral equations in crisp case for each 0 t 1 and

. Now, we explain Adomian method as a numerical

algorithm for approximating solution of this system of

nonlinear integral equations in crisp case. Then, we find

approximate solutions for ( x) , .

(18)

(19)

(20)

substituting Eqs. (15) and (16) into Eqs. (5) and (6), n 0 we

get:

The ADM has been applied to a wild class of functional

equations [1, 10, 12, 19, 20, 22, 23] by scientists and

engineers since the beginning of the 1980s. Adomian gives

the solution as an infinite series usually converging to a

solution consider the following fuzzy Fredholm-Volterra

integral equation of the form:

0 f ( x, t )

1 1 1 ( x, r ) A0 dr 2 2 ( x, r ) B0 dr

x

.

.

() 1 1 (, )(,

())

n1 1 1 ( x, r ) An dr 2 2 ( x, r ) Bn dr

2 2 (, )(,

()) = ()

(21)

and

we can write

0 f ( x, t )

(, ) 1 1 (, )(, (, ))

1 1 1 ( x, r ) A0 dr 2 2 ( x, r ) B0 dr

2 2 (, )(, (, )) = (, )

and

(, ) 1 1 (, )(, (, ))

2 2 (, )(, (, )) = (, )

functions [, ], given by

() =

=0 () ,

() =

=0 ()

(15)

(, (, )) , (, (, )) into

an

infinite

series

(, (, )) = ,

(22)

we approximate

(, ) = [(, ), (, )], by:

1

= 1

=0 (, ) , = =0 (, )

(23)

where

of

n

Volterra-Fredholm integral equation of the form:

(, (, )) =

=0

=0

=0

(, (, )) = ,

limn ( x, t ), limn ( x, t ).

n1 1 1 ( x, r ) An dr 2 2 ( x, r ) Bn dr

(, (, )) =

=0

(16)

( x, y) f ( x, y)

( x, y, s, t )(s, t )dsdt

b

42571

and

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

( x, y, s, t ) [ij ( x, y, s, t )]

consider the

th equation

, = 1, . . . , ; j = 1,...,n

of (1) as:

m0

b n

( x, y, s, t ) (s, t )dsdt

a

ij

j 1

(24)

if

( x, y ) m fi ( x, y)

b n

i ( x, y) fi ( x, y)

im

j 1

( x, y, s, t ) j ( s, t )( im ( x, y) )dsdt

(28)

ij

m0

Ti (1 , 2 ,..., n )( x, y)

b n

( x, y, s, t ) (s, t )dsdt

a

j 1

ij

(, ) = (, ),+1

= (, , , ) (, )

then, we have:

=1

i ( x, y) fi ( x, y) Ti (1 , 2 ,..., n )( x, y)

(25)

n

i ( x, y) ij ( x, y)

truncated at some order k. The quantity, can thus be

reasonable approximation of the exact solution, provided k is

sufficiently large, as k , the series converge smoothly

toward the exact solution for 0 t 1 [24].

j 1

Numerical Examples

and

previous section for solve two examples.

and

then

has

been

equation as:

approximated

the

solution

by

k 1

ik ( x, y) ij ( x, y)

j 0

we have:

j 0

j 0

to use Adomian method, let

i ( x, y) ij ( x, y) j

(26)

The exact and approximate solution of Adomian method in this

example at x = 0.5 and y = 0.5 for n = 3 are shown in figure 1.

j 0

Ti ( x, y) Aij j

j 0

By substituting (26) and (27) in (25), we have:

(27)

42572

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

Figure 2: Compares the exact and approximate solutions.

Example 2. In this example, the method in this paper will be

applied by the Mathematica 5.0 software package. Consider

the fuzzy Fredholm-Volterra integral equation as follows:

where

Conclusion

We solved fuzzy Volterra-Fredholm integral equations by

using ADM was converted to a system of Volterra-Fredholm

integral equations. In this paper, the ADM has been

successfully employed to obtain the approximate solution of

the fuzzy Volterra-Fredholm integral equation. For this

purpose, in examples we used ADM to find the approximate

solution of this system and hence obtain an approximation for

fuzzy solution of the fuzzy Volterra-Fredholm integral

equation, are used to solve the linear and nonlinear system.

The iterative method conjugate gradient method and

Homotopy analysis method are proposed to solving the fuzzy

Volterra-Fredholm integral equation.

References

x

EXACT

APPROXIMATE (ADM)

0.1

0.2204663982

0.2203548375

0.2

0.3063488741

0.3062332542

0.3

0.4037996457

0.4035946723

0.4

0.5234862761

0.5233741235

0.6524855123

0.6523678927

0.6

Numerical Solution of Linear Fredholm Fuzzy Integral

Equations of the Second kind by Adomian Method, Appl.

Math. Comput. 161 (2005), pp. 733-744.

[2] S. Seikkala: On the Fuzzy Initial Value Problem, Fuzzy

Sets and Systems, vol. 24, no. 3, (1987), pp. 319-330.

[3] B. Bede, S. G. Gal: Generalizations of the Differentiability

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Fuzzy Differential Equations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems,

vol. 151, no. 3, (2005), pp. 581-599.

[4] Y. Chalco-Cano, H. Roman-Flores: On New Solutions of

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[5] D. Dubois, H. Prade: Towards fuzzy Differential Calculus.

I: Integration of fuzzy Mappings, Fuzzy Sets and Systems,

vol.8, no. 1, (1982), pp. 1-17.

42573

Kirtiwant P Ghadle and Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud./ Elixir Appl. Math. 98 (2016) 42567-42573

space. II, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 45, no. 2, (1992),

pp. 189-202.

[7] M. Friedman, M. Ming, A. Kandel: Numerical Solution of

fuzzy Differential and Integral Equations, Fuzzy Sets and

System, 106 (1999), pp. 35-48.

[8] B. N. Mandal, S. Bhattacharya: Numerical solution of

some classes of integral equations using Bernstein

polynomials, Appl. Math. Comput, 190 (2007), pp. 17071716.

[9] Kirtiwant P Ghadle , Ahmed Abdullah Hamoud: On the

Numerical Solution of Volterra-Fredholm Integral

Equations with Exponential Kernel using Chebyshev and

Legendre Collocation Methods, Elixir International

Journal, Appl. Math. 95 (2016), pp. 40742-40746.

[10] G. Adomian: A Review of the Decomposition Method in

Applied Mathematics, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 135 (1988), pp.

501-544.

[11] N. Bildik, M. Inc: Modified Decomposition Method for

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[12] E. Babolian, J. Biazar, A. R. Vahidi: Solution of a System of

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Method, Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004), pp. 847-854.

[13] E. Babolian, A. Davari: Numerical Implementation of

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153 (2004), pp. 301-305.

[14] S. Abbasbandy, T. Allahviranloo: Numerical Solution of

Fuzzy Differential Equations by Taylor Method,

Computational Methods in Applied Mathematics, 2

(2002), pp. 113-124.

IEEE Trans. Systems, Man cybernet, 2 (1972), pp. 30-34.

[16] D. Dubois, H. Prade: Operations on Fuzzy Numbers, Int. J.

systems Science, 9 (1978), pp. 613-626.

[17] D. Dubois, H. Prade: Towards Fuzzy Differential Calculus,

Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 8 (1982), pp. 1-7.

[18] D. Dubois, H. Prade: Theory and Application, Fuzzy Sets

and Systems. Academic Press, [1980].

[19] I. L. El-Kalaa: Convergence of the Adomian Method

Applied to a Class of Nonlinear Integral Equations, App.

Math. Comput. 21 (2008), PP. 327-376.

[20] M. A. Fariborzi Araghi, Sh. S. Behzadi: Solving Nonlinear

Volterra-Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations using

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Methods in Appl. Math. 9 (2009), PP. 1-11.

[21] Yabin Shao, Huanhuan Zhang: Fuzzy Integral Equations

and Strong Fuzzy Henstock Integrals, Hindawi

Publishing Corporation Abstract and Applied Analysis,

(2014), Article ID 932696, PP. 1-8.

[22] T. Allahviranloo: the Adomian Decomposition Method

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Mathematics and Computation. J, 163 (2005), pp. 553563.

[23] A. M. Wazwaz: A New Algorithm for Calculating Adomian

Polynomials for Nonlinear Operators, Appl. Math.

Comput. 3 (2000), pp. 53-69.

[24] K. Abbaoui, Y. Cherruault: Convergence of Adomians

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