Indicators used in gap calculations: sources and definitions

Area
Access to Finance

Access to Collateral

Business training and ownership
(Financial literacy and know-how)

Non-financial barriers (Labour
Pratices, Social and cultural norms)

Indicators

The Women in Business Gap
Year

Units

Source

Definition

Saved at a financial institution in the past year,
ratio f/m (% age 15+)

2011

Ratio

Findex

This indicator denotes the percentage of respondents who report saving or setting aside any money by using an account at a formal
financial institution such as a bank, credit union, microfinance institution, or cooperative in the past 12 months (% female vs male, age
15+).

Account at a formal financial institution, ratio
f/m (% age 15+)

2011

Ratio

Findex

This indicator denotes the percentage of respondents with an account (self or together with someone else) at a bank, credit union,
another financial institution (e.g., cooperative, microfinance institution), or the post office (if applicable) including respondents who
reported having a debit card (% female vs male, age 15+).

Loans rejected, ratio f/m (top managment and
ownership)

2012

Distance

BEEPS

This indicator derives from the BEEPs questionaire question K16 and K20a, which was filtered by question b7a and b4a to obtain
disaggregation by gender (topmanagement and ownership).

Women's access to finance (seen as an
obstacle or not), ratio f/m (top management
and ownership)

2012

Distance

BEEPS

This indicator denotes the percentage of firms with female top managers who finds access to finance an obstacle or not. Questionarie
question k30 was used filtered by b7a and b4a. The answers of k30: moderate obstacle, major obstacle and very severe obstacle;
was used.

Perception and risk adversity, ratio f/m (top
management and ownership)

2012

BEEPS

This indicator is based on the BEEPs question ecak17 (2-7) "reasons you did not apply for a loan"; capturing perception of access to
finance and risk adversity.

Women's access to finance programmes

2012

Rating 1-5 where
WEO, EIU
5=most favourable

Availability of outreach programmes for women that target the provision of financial services through either government initiatives or
private lenders. Rating 1-5 where 5=most favourable (with countries like Denmark and France scoring 5).

Mobile phone used to receive money, ratio
f/m (% age 15+)

2011

Ratio

Findex

This indicator denotes the percentage of respondents who report using a mobile phone to receive money in the past 12 months (%
female vs male, age 15+).

Mobile phone used to send money, ratio f/m
(% age 15+)

2011

Ratio

Findex

This indicator denotes the percentage of respondents who report using a mobile phone to receive money in the past 12 months (%
female vs male, age 15+).

Collateral required, ratio f/m (top management
and ownership)

2012

Ratio

BEEPS

Based on BEEPs question 2012 k13 "Was collateral required for most recent line of credit" (yes/no), filtered by gender questions
b7a and b4a (topmanagement and ownership)

Property Ownership Rights

2012

Five points, from 0
EIU-WEO
to 5

This indicator assesses if customary practices take precedence over legislation (statutory law) in ways that are harmful to women,
resulting in less-than-full ownership rights for women over their property. The scoring for this indicator ranges from 1 to 5, whereas :
1= Men and women do not have equal ownership rights over moveable and immoveable property; and 5= Men and women have
ownership rights according to legal codes and customary practices do not take precedence over statutory law.

Inheritance Laws in Favour of Male Heirs

2013

One point index,
World Bank, Business
0.5 = no ; 1 = yes and the Law

This indicator looks at inheritance practices in favour of male heirs.

Business finance products, ratio f/m (proxy
for financial literacy)

2011

Ratio

This indicator contains of 3 financial variables: (1) the percentage of respondents with a credit card (% female vs male, age 15+), (2)
the percentage of respondents with a debit card (% female vs male, age 15+), (3) the percentage of respondents who report using
their accounts at a formal financial institution for business purposes only or for both business purposes and personal transactions (%
female vs male, age 15+).

Literacy rate, ratio f/m

2012

Ratio

Upper Secondary Education, ratio f/m
(enrollment rates, by gender)

2012

Ratio

Female top management and ownerhsip

2012

Percentage

BEEPS (and world bank
Female ownership based on ownership by female(s) greater than or equal to 50%. BEEPs question b4a. And, Percentage of firms
for semed, where beeps
with females as the top manager. BEEPs variable b7a.
are not available yet)

Non Discrimination Practice

2012

Ten point index,
from 0 to 10

EIU-WEO, based on
ILO

Access to Childcare Practice

2012

Five points, from 0
EIU-WEO
to 5

This indicator considers the availability, affordability (including the price of childcare as per cent of average wages) and quality of
childcare.

Labour Force Participation Rate, ratio of f/m
(15+)

2013

Ratio

WB

Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply
labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.

Gender Pay Gap

2013

Percentage

UN ECE

Ration

Findex

United Nations Statistics
A literate person is defined as someone who can both read and write with understanding, a short, simple statement on his or her
Divison, UN Social
everyday life.
Indicators
Low income and low educated women are proved to have the lowest financial literacy rates. Less educated women are less lickely to
start their own business and cotribute to lower survival rates. Women with an education beyond secondary educational level are said
World Bank
to have a certain level of financial understanding.

This indicator measures a country's progress in enforcing the provision of the ILO Discrimination (Employment and Occupation)
Convention (No. 100).

Gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings from employment, shown as a percentage of men’s
average earnings (in monthly earnings).

Suggested WiB gap For comparison Relevant 2014 EBRD gender gaps Country Central Europe and Baltic States Croa ti a Es toni a Hunga ry La tvi a Li thua ni a Pol a nd Sl ova k Republ i c Sl oveni a South-eastern Europe Al ba ni a Bos ni a a nd Herzegovi na Bul ga ri a Cyprus Kos ovo Ma cedoni a . FYR Montenegro Roma ni a Serbi a Turkey Eastern Europe and Caucasus Armeni a Azerba i ja n Bel a rus Georgi a Mol dova Ukra i ne Rus s i a n Federa ti on Central Asia Ka za khs ta n Kyrgyz Republ i c Mongol i a Ta ji ki s ta n Turkmeni s ta n Uzbeki s ta n Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Egypt Jorda n Libya Morocco Tuni s i a Comparator Countries Fra nce Germa ny Ita l y Sweden UK Employment and firm ownership WiB Labour Practices Access to Finance Sma l l Medi um Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um Sma l l La rge La rge La rge La rge Medi um La rge La rge La rge Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge La rge Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Sma l l Not a va i l a bl e Not a va i l a bl e Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge La rge La rge La rge not available not available La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge Medi um Sma l l not available Medi um La rge Medi um La rge La rge La rge Medi um Medi um Large La rge Medi um Medi um Medi um Sma l l La rge Medi um La rge Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge Medi um Sma l l Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge Medi um Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge Not a va i l a bl e La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge La rge Medi um Sma l l Sma l l La rge not available La rge La rge La rge Not a va i l a bl e La rge La rge La rge La rge not available La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge La rge not available La rge La rge Sma l l Sma l l Medi um Sma l l Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um Medi um Sma l l La rge Sma l l Medi um Medi um Medi um La rge Medi um Medi um .