1Título del trabajo

Cristian Rojas & Miguel Gutiérrez.
Enero 2015.

Nombre de la institución.
Nombre del departamento.
Nombre de la asignatura

Todos los derechos reservados.Copyright © 2015 por Cristian Rojas & “ESTA PAGINA ES OPCIONAL” Miguel Gutiérrez. .

.Dedicatoria ESTA PÁGINA ES OPCIONAL.

normasicontec.Agradecimientos .Dedicamos esta plantilla a los usuarios de nuestros sitios: normasapa. normasieee.org.com.com.

com. ESTA PAGINA ES OPCIONAL Abstract Este es un documento de Word de ejemplo que puede ser usado como plantilla para dar formato a su tesis o disertación. no olviden recomendarnos con sus colegas y compañeros. El abstract o resumen debe contar con 350 palabras o menos.Gracias por su preferencia de normasapa. .

Prefacio .

................................................1 Título 3...................................................................................................................................2 Título 3............................................................................................................2 Capítulo 4 Resultados y discussion............................................1 Título 2........Esta página es opcional.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Vita..........................................................................................1 Título 2...Tabla de Contenidos Capítulo 1 Introducción e información general.............................................................................................................................8 ..................................................6 Apéndice......................................................................................................................................1 Capítulo 2 Figuras y tablas..................5 List of References.................................................................2 Título 2......................................................................................................................................2 Título 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Título 3.........................................................

.......................Lista de tablas Tabla 1..................... El título debe ser breve y descriptivo........3 ...................

...........Lista de figuras Figura 1.4 ... Formas y descripción de las formas........................................................

Capítulo 1 Resumen ejecutivo .

" LF was adopted as the measure for determining LOS at signalized intersections. 2. The second part reviews the design principles of traffic signal. In 1963." HCM 1965 defined loadfactor (LF) as a "ratio of the total number of green signal intervals that are fully utilized by traffic during the peak hour to the total number of green intervals for that approach during the same period. driving comfort and convenience. which include speed and travel time. . safety. The criteria to define each LOS category using LF are shown in Table 1.Chapter II Theoretical Background The theoretical background is organized in two parts. The first part examines the evolution of the Level-of-Service (LOS) concept. and operating costs.1 LOS Evolution The development of the concept of LOS dates back to the 1950s. LOS was formally introduced in HCM 1965. freedom to maneuver. the Highway Capacity Committee voted to introduce the concept of LOS into the HCM. traffic interruptions. it was recognized as "a qualitative measure of the effect of a number of factors.

3 D <=0. Among the various attempts to develop a more rational method for quantifying the LOS for signalized intersections. Table 2 Criteria for signalized intersection (Circular 212) . Tidwell and Humphreys investigated the feasibility of using average individual delay (AID) as a measure for LOS. much research effort on field delay measurement techniques and analytical delay estimation occurred after the publication of HCM 1965. then a delay index appears commensurate for intersection design. absence of a rational basis for breakpoints.Table 1Criteria for signalized intersection (HCM 1965) LOS Load Factor A 0." Subsequently.0 F - Difficulty in identifying loaded cycles by field observers. and insensitivity to low traffic volumes were some of the problems with LF. Volume/capacity (v/c) ratio was also used as another measure to determine LOS.0 B <=0. They argued that "if speed is to be considered the criterion for uninterrupted flow conditions. Transportation Research Circular 212 proposed a guideline to determine LOS based on the stopped delay.7 E <=1.1 C <=0. as shown in Table 2.

06 B >16-22 >0. the actual time stopped at a signalized intersection.7 C >22-28 >0.6-0. as a LOS measure for signalized intersections.0 F >40 varies HCM 1985 first specified the average stopped delay.8-0." The breakpoints to separate each LOS category are shown in Table 3. In it.8 D >28-35 >0.LOS Stopped Delay v/c A <=16 <=0.9-1. Table 3 Criteria for signalized intersection (HCM 1985) Stopped Delay LOS A (sec/veh) <=5 B >5-15 C >15-25 D >25-40 E >40-60 F >60 .7-0. LOS was defined as "a qualitative measure describing operational conditions and their perception by motorists and/or passengers.9 E >35-40 0.

LOS was defined again in HCM 2000 as "a quality measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream. Control delay includes not only the stopped delay.2 Design principles of traffic signal Traffic signals are one of the most effective and flexible active control of traffic and is widely used in several cities worldwide." Table 4 lists the threshold values to define each LOS category Table 4 Criteria for signalized intersection (HCM 199) Control Delay LOS (sec/veh) A <=10 B >10-20 C >20-35 D >35-55 E >55-80 F >80 More recently. control delay replaced stopped delay. and in this work we will use the methodology of HCM 1997 2. but also the delay due to deceleration and acceleration to the cruising speed.In 1997. traffic interruptions. generally in terms of such service measures as speed and travel time. LOS was defined in HCM 1997 as "a qualitative measure that characterizes operational conditions within a traffic stream and their perception by motorists and passengers. freedom to maneuver. The conflicts arising from movements of traffic .

in different directions is addressed by time sharing principle.change interval and clearance interval. There are two types of intervals . and complexity in the design and implementation. the disadvantages of the signalized intersection are large stopped delays. a user may experience relatively high stopped delay. Although the overall delay may be lesser than a rotary for a high volume. However. First. and green splitting.  Green interval: It is the green indication for a particular movement or set of .  Clearance interval: is also called all red and is provided after each yellow interval indicating a period during which all signal faces show red and is used for clearing off the vehicles in the intersection. They are discussed below:  Cycle: A signal cycle is one complete rotation through all of the indications provided. This chapter discuss various design principles of traffic signal such as phase design. and lost times are also presented. capacity. some definitions and notations are given followed by various steps in design starting from phase design. The advantages of traffic signal include an orderly movement of traffic.  Interval: Thus it indicates the change from one stage to another. cycle length design. It indicates the time interval between the starting of green for one approach till the next time the green starts.  Cycle length: Cycle length is the time in seconds that it takes a signal to complete one full cycle of indications. Change interval is also called the yellow time indicates the interval between the green and red signal indications for an approach. It is denoted by C. an increased capacity of the intersection and requires only simple geometric design. The concept of saturation flow. Definitions and notations. A number of definitions and notations need to be understood in signal design.

This is the actual duration the green light of a traffic signal is turned on.  Lost time: It indicates the time during which the intersection is not effectively utilized for any movement.  Phase: A phase is the green interval plus the change and clearance intervals that follow it. during green interval.  Red interval: It is the red indication for a particular movement or set of movements and is denoted by Ri. .movements and is denoted by Gi. Thus. will take some time to perceive the signal (usually called as reaction time) and some time will be lost before vehicle actually moves and gains speed. when the signal for an approach turns from red to green. It allows a set of movements to flow and safely halt the flow before the phase of another set of movements start. non-conflicting movements are assigned into each phase. This is the actual duration the red light of a traffic signal is turned on. For example. the driver of the vehicle which is in the front of the queue.

Capitulo 3 Plan de marketing Estudio de la demanda Estudio de la oferta Estudio de comercializacion .

Capitulo 4 Plan de organizacion .

Capitulo 5 Plan de operaciones .

pero es posible dejar espacio en blanco en páginas que solo contienen tablas y figuras.Capitulo 6 Plan financiero Tablas y figuras deben ser puestas en páginas diferentes independientemente de su tamaño. Tablas y figuras pueden ser puestas en un apéndice al final de la tesis o . No se debe dejar espacios en blanco en las páginas de texto. Título 3.

Más texto.Capítulo 3 Resultados y discusión. .

Fastqc. L. V... S. A. (2005). G. 15(10). Lazarus. D. B.. & Nekrutenko. 19-10. Ananda. Kuster.. transcriptome. M.. and information-based medicine. . A quality control tool for high throughput sequence data. P.. J. Trimmomatic: A Flexible Read Trimming Tool for Illumina NGS Data. Current protocols in molecular biology... (2010). usadellab. . php. & Taylor. Blankenberg. R. org/cms/index. (2010). & Giorgi. F. Bolger. URL http://www. Galaxy: a web‐based genome analysis tool for experimentalists. (2004). A. Mangan.... 1451-1455. Hardison. C.. C. J. Shah. Giardine. G.. Burhans. N. Genome research. Galaxy: a platform for interactive large-scale genome analysis. Elnitski. . Bioinformatics in the post-genomic era: Genome.. proteome.. Addison-Wesley Professional.. Riemer. R. Augen..Lista de referencias Andrews. Coraor. R.

Apéndice Las tablas y figuras pueden ir en el apéndice como se mencionó anteriormente. También es posible usar el apéndice para incluir datos en bruto. . instrumentos de investigación y material adicional.

Vita Acá se incluye una breve biografía del autor de la tesis. .