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Security

Semester 2 5774

Recitation 3

12 March 2014

Simplified DES

1

Introduction

In this lab we will work through a simplified version of the DES algorithm. The algorithm is not cryptographically secure, but its operations are similar enough to the DES operation to give a better feeling for

how it works.

We will proceed by reading the Simplified DES algorithm description in the Stallings section. We will

then work through a full example in class.

2

Full Example

Let the plaintext be the string 0010 1000. Let the 10 bit key be 1100011110.

2.1

Key Generation

**The keys k1 and k2 are derived using the functions P 10, Shift, and P 8.
**

P 10 is defined as follows:

5

2

7

4

P10

10

6

3

7

4

P8

8

**The first key k1 is therefore equal to:
**

Bit # 1 2 3 4

K 1 1 0 0

P 10(K) 0 0 1 1

Shif t(P 10(K)) 0 1 1 0

P 8(Shif t(P 10(K))) 1 1 1 0

5

0

0

0

1

6

1

0

1

0

7

1

1

1

0

8

1

1

1

1

3

1

9

8

5

10

9

9

1

1

1

10

0

1

0

6

P 8 is defined to be as follows:

**The second key k2 is derived in
**

Bit # 1 2

K 1 1

P 10(K) 0 0

Shif t3 (P 10(K))) 1 0

P 8(Shif t2 (P 10(K))) 1 0

a similar manner:

3 4 5 6 7

0 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 1

1 0 0 1 1

8

1

1

0

1

9

1

1

1

10

0

1

1

So we have the two keys k1 = {1110 1001} and k2 = {1010 0111}

2.2

Initial and Final Permutation

**The plaintext undergoes an initial permutation when it enters the encryption function, IP . It undergoes a
**

reverse final permutation at the end IP −1 .

The function IP is defined as follows:

1

Finally. then fK (L. R) = f{1010 0111} (0010 2 0011) = (0010⊕F (0011.3 8 we 4 0 0 6 have the following after the initial permutation: 5 6 7 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Functions fK . SW just swaps them so R = 0011 and L = 0010. The result from F is therefore 0001 6. fK1 (L. so SW (L. F (0010. R) = f{1110 1001} (0010 0010) = (0010 ⊕ F (0010. The steps are: Bit # R E/P(R) k1 E/P(R)⊕k1 SBoxes(E/P(R)⊕k1 ) P4(Sboxes(E/P(R)⊕k1 )) 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 6 7 8 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 5. 0010) 7. 1. 8. We have already calculated IP (P ) = {0010 0010}. k) takes a four bit string p and eight bit key k and produces a four bit output. SK). we must perform the following steps: IP −1 ◦ fK2 ◦ SW ◦ fK1 ◦ IP 1. {1110 1001}) = P 4 ◦ SBoxes ◦ {1110 1001} ⊕ (E/P (0010)) 4. R) = (0010 ⊕ 0001. • The function SW just switches the two halves of the plaintext. R). L) • The function F (p. {1010 0111}. 0010) = (0011. then L = 0011 and R = 0010. SW . K • The function fk is defined as follows. R) → (R. R). Then it XORs the key with the result of the E/P function 3. Applying the next functions: 2. It performs the following steps. {1110 1001}). 4.IP 2 6 3 1 4 8 5 7 The function IP −1 is defined as follows: 4 1 3 IP −1 5 7 2 Applied to the input. Then it substitutes the two halves based on the S-Boxes. R) = (L ⊕ F (R. We now do the calculation of fk2 (L. Let P = (L. the output from the S-Boxes undergoes the P 4 permutation: P4 2 4 3 1 Applying the functions. 0010) 3. Calculating we then have fk1 (L. 0011)) . So far. First it runs an expansion permutation E/P : E/P 4 1 2 3 2 3 4 1 2. Bit # 1 2 3 P 0 0 1 IP (P ) 0 0 1 2.

0011) = (0001.L) 1 0 1 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 1 0 5 0 1 6 0 0 7 1 1 8 1 0 13. So the final result of the encryption is 1000 1010. 3 .L IP −1 (R.9. we perform the IP −1 permutation: Bit # R. So now we have the outcome of F as 0011 11. Last. Calculating we then have fk2 (L. 0011) 12. R) = (0010 ⊕ 0011. The steps for F are as above: Bit # R E/P(R) k2 E/P(R)⊕k2 SBoxes(E/P(R)⊕k2 ) P4(Sboxes(E/P(R)⊕k2 )) 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 0 1 0 1 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 10.

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