American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages

Russian Aspect at Your Fingertips: Why What You Know about Matter Matters, or a
User-Friendly Conceptualization of Verbal Aspect in Russian
Author(s): Laura A. Janda
Source: The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 251-281
Published by: American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages
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Laura A. Janda, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

The choice of perfective vs. imperfective in Russian is anything but an
automatic ? selection of options. The rich texture of this distinction, so
nimbly manipulated by speakers, confounds linguists and learners alike. I
will suggest that the complexity of aspect might be motivated by universal
experiences of matter, its properties, its interactions, and its impact on
human beings. The conceptualization of Russian aspect is built upon the
opposition of stiff solid objects and siftable fluid substances, a concept
born in the hands of children in the sandbox. Students of Russian have a
rich source of inferences about aspectual meaning and use right at their
There must be a way...
To the learner of Russian, aspect looms as an apparently infinite, chaotic
jumble, a sort of insider's secret designed to prevent real acquisition. The
linguist may have a clearer grasp of the contours of the problem, but is
generally at a loss if asked to explain what makes this category behave the
way it does. The instructor, caught between the two, comes to class armed
with long lists of meanings and uses, along with some semantic features (?
boundedness, ? totality, ? definiteness, etc.), but also a strong, felt sense
that indeed there must be another way to explain it.
If there were another way to explain aspect, it would need to:
* be easily comprehended,
* provide a multitude of implications for how events are interpreted, and
* mimic the natural feeling that native speakers have about the category.
I would like to suggest that these goals can be achieved using a meta-

SEEJ, Vol. 47, No. 2 (2003): p. 251-p.


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Slavicand East EuropeanJournal

Discrete solids include items such as rocks, sticks, chairs,
Fluid substances include items such as sand, water,
distinction is easy to master because it is something we
have all experienced and recognize. This distinction has a huge number of
entailments, such as: having shape vs. lacking shape, having edges vs.
lacking edges, being unique individuals with parts vs. being uniform and
continuous, being impenetrable vs. being penetrable, providing the satisfaction of a stable feel vs. lacking stability, and many others. Native speakers
also confirm that this distinction "feels right," accurately capturing their
experience of perfective vs. imperfective.1
Table 1 gives an overview of the properties of discrete solids as opposed
to fluid substances and how they relate to the distribution of perfective vs.
imperfective in Russian. These properties, though they overlap, can be
roughly divided into three types: 1) properties that are inherent to discrete
solids and fluid substances, 2) properties that are relevant to how discrete
solids and fluid substances interact with each other, and 3) properties that
are relevant to how human beings interact with discrete solids and fluid
substances. In terms of aspect, these sets of properties correspond to 1) the
way aspect describes the inherent structures of events, 2) the way aspect is
used to structure discourse, and 3) the pragmatic effects of aspect. Later we
will examine each property in turn, using authentic examples of Russian as
As a careful inspection of Table 1 suggests, and as will become very
obvious in the examination of the properties of matter and their alignment
with the aspectual distinction, this model does not do away with semantic
features. It instead incorporates all the features proposed by scholars of
aspect into a model that motivates their existence. This model answers the
question: What is there about boundedness, totality, definiteness, resultativeness, exterior vs. interior, figure vs. ground, and punctuality vs. durativity that makes all these concepts hold together in the meaning of aspect?2
Answer: They are the properties of matter that serve as the source domain
for the metaphorical grammatical category of aspect.
The notion that perfectives are understood as discrete solids and imperfectives are understood as fluid substances is not entirely unprecedented.
Galton (10, 288) speaks suggestively of events being "arranged" in time
(like objects). Talmy consistently compares the parameters of verbal categories with those of nominal categories in Vol. 1, and in Vol. 2 (67) states
that "[a]spect can be characterized as the 'pattern of distribution of action
through time'." More to the point, Comrie (18) suggests that "the perfective reduces a situation to a blob [...]: a blob is a three-dimensional
object, and can therefore have internal complexity, although it is nonetheless a single object with clearly circumscribed limits." Still focusing exclusively on the perfective, Holden (33) presents it as a metaphor of the sort

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Countableunits Usedwithmeasured adverbialsand partitivegenitive D.come all at once in a whole piece Lack of determinedl disnon-determined tinction.sense of a Gestalt E.pour or be stagnant. Musthavesome duration and can be inficannotform thinstable slices. Have no inherent edges B. pour.processual meanings F.repetition. Canhave various shapes. Shapeis irrelevant. heterogeneity Singleone-timeaccomplishmentsand achievements.180. b) usingthe -nysuffix. indefiniteness D.wholeness.can fill a space Usedwithindefinite timereference. Uncountable masses.can come gradually Determinedvs.lack of referenceto beginning/end A. Impenetrable.Russian Aspect at Your Fingertips 253 Table 1 Overview of solids vs.b) derived imperfectiveswithprocessualmeaning G. substances distinction and implications for Russian aspect DiscreteSolids Whatwe know about discretesolids Whatthismeansfor perfectiveaspect FluidSubstances Whatwe know about fluidsubstances Whatthismeansfor imperfectiveaspect InherentPropertiesand Event Structure Unboundedness. manner. homogeneity Ongoingactivitiesand states.definiteness C. Canbe converted to substances: a) whenmanyare viewedfroma distance. historicalpresent G.continuous and divisible.c) when packagedin a firm container Imperfectivescan generatederivedperfectivesa) usingperfectivizingprefixes thatorganizethe action.can be thin stableslices Perdurativeand delimitativemeanings (prefixespro.temporal stability.can be omnipresent C. Can stream.or with referencesthatform boundaries E. b) when reference is made to a single particle.c) whenstates/ activitiesareprefixed in no-/npo-rehomogenized derivedimperfectiveprefixedwith no- This content downloaded from 129. Uniform.1.and po-).musthave nitelylong thickness. Canbe converted to solids:a) by solidifying. nondeterminedmotion verbs.totality. completion. Each item has integrityas a unique discretewhole.only experiencedfrom exterior Exteriorreference F. Cannotstream. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .unfolding. b) when pulverized Perfectivescan generate a) derivedimperfectiveswithrepetitive meaning.217 on Tue. Have edges Boundedness A. You can reach/see/ be inside Interiorreference. punctuality B.

neutral meaning of general-factual K. foregrounding in narrative J. setting J. could hurt if used with any force Negative warnings. ingressives.180. Comfortingly soft and spreadable Generalizing meaning of negative imperatives. signal the prior presence of solids Reversals of action "AN EVENT IS A CONTAINER/PHYSICALBODY." The closest approximationto the metaphor proposed here is found in Langacker (1987: 248-67). implications of bad work. polite imperatives N. terminatives.1. Can be bounded by solids or mixed with other substances Use of imperfective infinitives with phasal verbs Human Interactions with Matter and Pragmatic Structure L. Perceptually salient objects Figure. present tense I. impede movement Imperfectives retard narrative. Can share space with both substances and solids Simultaneity of imperfectives with each other. encourage dwelling on characteristics. backgrounding in narrative. mass nominal distinction and perfective vs. Can provide a firm path of stepping stones Perfectives are dynamic. categorical negation M.254 Slavic and East European Journal Interactions of Matter and Discourse Structure H. (successful) completion. neutral imperatives giving new instructions L. frustration. Provide the satisfying feel of a stable. nothing graspable No sense of result or completion. Hard. Perceptually diffuse masses Ground. like an odor or residue. and with perfectives. Mehlig refers to the "homogenizing" effects of imperfectivization. conative meanings. Can. Slip through the fingers. who notes a strong parallelism between the count vs. contracts. might be an obstacle. as opposed to the heterogene- This content downloaded from 129. Static. imperfective. perduratives and delimitatives K. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . impolite imperatives M. move narrative along I.217 on Tue. ability to perform. manipulable object Sense of result. Cannot share space with other solids Sequencing of perfectives with each other and with NOW (a solid). Can spontaneously form as lumps of substances Successful completion in relation to conative imperfectives N. with NOW. Can serve as barriers or boundaries for substances Use of perfective phasal verbs with imperfective infinitives. similar to masses. which can force the meaning of future H.

but the parametersof time are relatively inaccessible. and we use inferencesfrom the source domain to comprehendthe target domain (usually a more abstract realm). and use their grammaticalcategoriesto expressthese differences.And within those communities. and fluidsubstancesare the items that are prototypically perceivedas masses.individualsmay interprettheir perceptionsdifferently.RussianAspectat YourFingertips 255 ous effects of the perfective. since we can perceivethem. But we have no perceptual organsto directlyobserve time. rich connection (usually the domain of embodied physicalexistence).We cannot expect there to be absoluterulesmappingrealityto languagecategories or utterances. Metaphor is employed whenever informationis mapped from one domain (the source domain) to another domain (the target domain). we can only infer its existence by comparing memories to present perceptions. It is probable that all languagesof the worldmake use of this differencein the statusof space and time in our consciousness. Haspelmathprovides compellingevidence from fifty-threelanguagesthat the conceptualization of time in terms of space may be a linguisticuniversal. Our perceptual organs are excellently equippedto informus about the physicalworld aroundus. Metaphor Metaphorplays a profoundrole in the structuringof linguisticcategories (Lakoff). We all live in the same world. The source domain is the domain with which we have a more direct. But we can expect to understandthe motives behind the categories and how they are manipulatedby speakers.180.But every language This content downloaded from 129. discrete solids are the items that are prototypicallyperceived as countableobjects. as well as the opportunitiesfor alternativeconstruals availableto speakers.whichhe likens to solid countableobjects. with vision and touch playing particularlyprominent roles. and any given use of aspect in Russian is motivatedby several of these propertiesin concert. Motivationis often a cooperativeventure:fourteen propertiesare listed in Table 1. the goal is insteadto comprehendthe forces at work and the distributional tendenciesthat result. Motivation One of the most robust facts about languagesis how much they differ. using a TIMEIS SPACE metaphor (where space is the source domain and time is the target domain). yet there is great linguisticvariety(Croft7).1. The parametersof concrete spatial locationthereforehave a privilegedstatus. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Of course. The presentmodel takes this idea and examinesall of its entailmentsfor aspect.217 on Tue. This meansthat every languagecommunityhas its own uniquetake on how perceptionsof reality are coded as grammaticaldistinctions. The model presented here does not aim to provideunerringpredictionsof aspectualuse. ratherthan any one of them actingalone.

never both at once (just as Englishfish in context is alwayseither singularor plural.past or future).1. This content downloaded from 129. among them the presence of biaspectualsand the interactionof aspectwith tense. a biaspectualexpresses only perfective or imperfective. For each property.Aspect refersvery specificallyto the physical formsof material"objects"and metaphoricallymapstheirpropertiesto events in the domainof time. I would like to suggest that the parallelsbetween discretesolids and perfectiveaspecton the one hand and between fluid substancesand imperfectiveaspect on the other represent one version of the universal TIMEISSPACEmetaphor. If there is no relationto the present (or by implication.-G. So although the biaspectualsare morphologicallydefective.256 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal constructsthis metaphorin its own way. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."but they are consistently regardedby scholars (see Chertkova100-9.: Properties inherent to types of matter and to event structures These experiments will involve inspecting matter and corresponding events.we will suggesta physicalexperienceand provideappropriateexamplesof how that experiencecan be used to understand the correspondingaspectualnuances. best described as two verbs with identical parallel forms. In order to performthem. consideringall the entailments of the propertiesof matterand how they alignwith the implementation of aspect.217 on Tue. Zaliznjak and Shmelev 10) as an example of morphologicalsyncretism. Otherfiniteforms(aside fromimperatives) do relate to NOW. and L below). which we will call NOW. I stronglyencouragethe use of the suggestedprops. A core characteristic of the domain of space is the fact that space is occupied by matter. and the interpretationof tense is largelydisambiguated by aspect (see especiallyH below). If space consistedmerelyof empty dimensions. H. In a given context. wouldprovidelittle (if any) structure for metaphoricalmapping.but never both). Into the sandbox This section will follow the layout of Table 1. Galton 294. no matter how unorthodoxthat might seem at first. their aspectual behavior is like that of all other perfective and imperfective verbs. we have a tenseless "gnomic"form that refers to characteristicsthat hold at all times (see examples of "gnomic" uses underB.180. A few caveats There are a few items to beware of in the landscapeof aspect. In order to aid conceptualization. Finite verbal forms in Russian may or may not have tense. There are a few hundredso-called "biaspectualverbs. I recommendthat you get some props. depending upon whetherthere is referenceto a specifictime observedin referenceto the present.

They don't have any shapes of their is possible for substancesto be spreadall around.The strokehas a clear beginningand ending. sticks. 'Snow still layiin places in the forest. seashells. the place wherethey begin and end is practicallythe same. then follow along until you reachthe edge where it ends.' B. 1) OHa npOBeJIaPpO30BOH KHCTO'IKOHI 'She drewPa pink brusharoundher eyes. like a leaf or a piece of paper. beyondwhichthe object is againabsent. The substancelacks well-definededges. for exam- This content downloaded from 129.It is an ongoing situation. and there are many possible shapes. Edges Examinea discrete solid object. however. Perfectiveverbs describe actions that take up varyingamounts of time and arguablyhave varying shapes (often indicated by the various perfectivizingprefixes).Now examine a fluid substancesuch as a pile of sand or a puff of smoke. such as a rock or a stick. leavingno space for anythingelse. blocks. The delimitativeno. The substancesseem to need to be extended in space. And.180. which is ubiquitous.217 on Tue.and can be for all practicalpurposesinfinitelythin. it would fill up the whole world. and leaves.' The action of lying in example 2.and perdurativenpo-. They can exist as thin stablestructures.When such thin solids are examinedfrom the edge.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 257 You will need a few discrete solids such as rocks. at least a little bit. you can startat a place beyond the object and then move to the edge where it begins. You can't slice sand or water or smoke and get somethingthin like a leaf. like smoke filling the room. But notice how irrelevantshape is for substances. OKOJIO ria3.discrete solids are sliceable. lacks definiteboundaries. The edges of a discretesolid are parallelto the sense of clear beginning and ending boundaries associated with perfective verbs.There is no discretesolid that is ubiquitouslike air. because if it were.1. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A. there are no clear boundariesthat you can touch. Example 1 describesa single stroke made while applyingmakeup. Furthermore. Note how the entire object is bounded by clear edges. or like air. 2) B jIecy MecraMHeige iexajIi cHer. alternatively. Shape Notice that every discrete solid object has a shape. If your object is lying on a table and you scan it from left to right.You will also need some sand and water. Be sure to includeat least one leaf (you can use a piece of paper or card as a substitute).

'And then a feeling of alarm took possessionP of Marusja. The facts of laughter described in 7 are always there. the imperfective can span some part of the past along with the present. like our pile of sand or the air in the room: 5) IIaxjioi roplrHM xjie6oM H3 TOCTepa.258 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal pie. but has some extension. put them to bed a half hour later. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I This content downloaded from 129. as in 4: IyBCTBO 4) 14 BOTMapycei OBsjiageJIoP TpeBorH.' Suddenness cannot be expressed by the imperfective. say a rock or chair. compare the sitting and playing in 3: 3a CTOJIOM. like the air around us. yJIO)KHTb 'I love Friday evening: you can sitP for a while at the table. after experiencing 40 minutes of clinical death. but rather a "gnomic" use. with the beginning and ending as close as the two sides of a leaf. In such uses. o6oraiiaeT1 KHCJIOponOM KpOBbH BeHTHJIHpyeT' JIerKHie. 'The doctor called it a miracle that a seventy-year-old man.180.>KHBeT' KJIHHHIeCKylO yKe ABeHejieIH.' Just as a substance can be spread out. the observer is absent and the verb describes a potentially infinite situation coextensive with the timeline itself. nepeHecmHriH 6) Bpali Ha3BaJi'IyJOM TO. This item is an utterly unique individual. has been livingi for two weeks now. which always requires some duration. as in 6: iejiOBeK. describing an eternal truth. well-shaped discrete solid. This isn't really a present tense at all. identify events that have significant duration. The rock or chair before you is the only rock or chair in existence that is that particular rock or chair. or the ocean: 7) CMex yrJIy6JiaeT jIbIxaHre. the imperfective can be taken out of the narrow context of the present observer altogether. 'Laughter deepensi the breathing. such that it spreads everywhere. playPfor a while with the children. like a thick.1. Integrity Return your attention to one of your discrete solids. The smell in 5 doesn't begin and end all at once. 'There was a smelli of hot bread from the toaster.' C. enrichesi the blood with oxygen.217 on Tue. qTO CeMHJeCaTHjieTHHHI 40-MIHyTHyIO cMepTb. the duration of a perfective event may be for all practical purposes infinitely short. MOXHOnOCHIgeTbP nOBO3HTbCIP 3) 51Jiio6JIioBeIep nIATHHLAbI: c pe65sTaMH. and ventilatesi the lungs.' Alternatively.' Furthermore. Ha HX nojixiaca no03Ke.

the resultis no longera leaf. In fact. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Youcan count them: 1.217 on Tue. but for the substances.but by the hundreds. You can prove this to yourself a bit more easily by breakingoff a partof a leaf. KaKnpeacKe.1.and claim that it is the very same one. Imperfectiveverbs have a homogenizingeffect on the events they describe. The event in 8 is a unique occurrence.the piece is not that rock or chair. And each one occupies a defined extension in space (or. the resultingpiles are just as much"sand"as the originalpile was.The actualarrestsdescribedin 9 were no doubt each unique. 3.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 259 can't go find anotherone.180. in the case of a thin slice.but rathera new individual. no matterhow identical.reducingthem to a uniformcontinuity. where the transformation is completed in two hours: 10) MOXHOJIi 3a IBa qaca cTaTbPKpacaBHxueH? 'Is it possible to becomePa beautifulwoman in two hours?' This content downloaded from 129. Countability Takeout yourrocks. 2.often composedof subevents that are thoughtof as being identical.' D.insteadit sumsthem all up as if they were all the has to be imposed using measures. So for the discretesolids quantificationin somethingnaturaland inherent. Quantifiedphraseslike 3a sBa Iaca'in two hours'are often offered as a test of perfectivity.There is nothinguniqueaboutmy pile of sand. 'Borderguardsare arrestingiviolatorsfor illegal bordercrossingnot by the tens anymore. COTHAMH rpaHHIUbI3agepXaHBaloTiHapymHTeinei norpaHHIHHKH.not the same one I had before. 'The boy was run overpby the commutertrain. in a continuous repetition: 3a He3aKOHHbIHnepexog 9) Yxce He geCaTKaMH. If I divide it into two (or more) piles of sand. but the imperfectivedoes not describe them that way. such as a leaf.The only way we can measurefluidsubstancesis by fillingcontainerswith them and then countingthe containers.' Perfectiveverbs typicallyrefer to single one-time events in this way. And if I break off a piece of the rock or part of which would be the same as any other or the whole. But we can't count the sand or the water. We see evidence of a similarcount-vs. The experience with a substanceis very we get one cup of sand. as in example 10. etc. those piles are even the same sand as the originalpile. virtuallyno space).-massbehaviorin verbs. but partsof one. the perfectiveverb is a discreteblock that occupiesthe exact stretchof time referredto.In this case. two cups of sand. It happenedonce and was very specific: 3agaBHJIoP 8) MaJIbqHKa 3JIeKTpHIqKOH.

k. the imperfective is compatible with open-ended quantities that have no definite beginning or ending. 12) 06 3TOMs 6yny KpHiaTbiBCIO 'I'm going to yelli about that all night. Water can just sit like a lake and air can just sit in this room (compare the cup full of water you left standing).' E. Fill two of them with water. 'She waited upi for her husband during the nights. Alternatively.' along with any reference to a discrete fit. Take the other full cup and slowly pour it into the empty one.a. Furthermore.260 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal It is this inherent quantification. 'A Siberian tigress kepti the inhabitants of Potsdam in fear for two hours.217 on Tue. unidirectional) vs. as in 11: 11) 1 BbInIHJIP xaio. Motion can either simply exist. in one piece. 'I had/drankPsome of the tea that I ordered by phone. kept going on until it filled two hours. KOTOpbIH 3aKa3aji no TejieiOHy. It doesn't have any alternatives. It can't flow.' Imperfective events. you are demonstrating the two alternative behaviors of fluid substances.1. Leave one cup of water standing on the table. all going in one direction.' Yelling fills the night like water in my cup. Drop it onto the table. non-determined distinction for motion verbs. lack this inherent quantification. but like the cups of sand. like a river or the wind (compare the water flowing from the full cup to the empty cup). and it arrives on the table all at once. They can be stagnant or they can flow. as in 14: 14) OHa nogXKHganaJi Myxa HOqaMH. Alternatively. but can fill the contours of an externally imposed dimension: HOxIb. Put three cups on your table. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a substance can get organized. Substances like water and sand. I can measure imperfective action by spans of time like sBa iaca 'two hours. as in 13: 13) CH6HpcKasTHrpHnaa sia aca gepKaJIa'B CTpaxexciTeiefi HIOTcgaMa. the signalling of completing some amount that motivates the association of the partitive genitive with the perfective aspect when it is used to denote single one-time accomplishments. however. The whole rock stays together. Streamability Pick up a rock.180. While you are doing this. do have alternatives.' This event was not internally measured. Imperfective verbs have a corresponding set of alternatives that perfective verbs lack: the determined (a. yielding This content downloaded from 129.' but this omits the 3a 'in. like the yelling in 12.

repeated roundtrips. and perfectiveverbs must be 'gradually'in order to express accompaniedby an adverblike nocTeneHHO what the imperfectiveaspect does in 16 withoutany extra assistance.' 20) CbIH XOfHTinO napKy. or motion can flow in a direction. 'Our son is on his way/walkingito school. somethingclearlysignalledby the imperfective.1. 'Our son is walking/knowshow to walkialready.In addition. 'Our son is walkingi around in the park.HaKanJIHBaJIcAi 'A feeling of protest againsttheir "truth"naturallywelled upi in me. 'Our son is walkingto and from/attendingischool already.217 on Tue. as in 17: 17) CbIH HIeTi B IKOJIy.' 19) CbiH y)Ke XOnHTiB IIIKOJIy. where motion is as undifferentiatedas any other imperfectiveaction. yielding the determined verbs. The imperfectiveunprefixedmotion verbs show the classic determined vs.imperfectiveverbscan signal the gradualaccumulationof a process.' This content downloaded from 129.' HgTHVS. The event of becominginvolvedin mushroomcultivationin 15 no doubt included many subevents: first learning about this activity. obtainingresults. non-determined distinction: exaTb vs.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 261 the non-determinedverbs.180.spendingmore and more time on it. Perfectiveverbs don't acknowledgethis difference.' etc. acquiringmaterials. or motion in no particulardirection (see the three examplesbelow) use the non-determinedverb. It is possible to describe gradual accumulationswith perfective verbs.and refer insteadto a Gestaltin its entirety. etc. as in 16: npoTeCT HpOTHBHX "npaBAbI". the determinedmotion verbs describeonly motion streamingalong a path to a goal. 18) CbIHyxae XOHTi. e3gHTb'ride. 16) Bo MHe. As a verbal parallel to a stream of flowing water.' All other descriptionsof walking. But the perfectiveverb doesn't show us any of this detail. all at once: 15) OH yBJIeKC5PBbIpauHBaHHeM rpH6oB.The non-determinedverbs are more like other imperfectiveverbs:they just describeactivities. such as abilityto walk. XOnHTb 'walk. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 'He became fascinatedPwith cultivatingmushrooms. but such constructionsare ratherrare.' The expression of gradual accumulationis associated with imperfective verbs. It presents the event as a complete package. and correspondto a pool of waterthat is not flowingall in one direction. honing skills.' Thisprotestaccumulatesovertime. eCTeCTBeHHO.

'She squeezes' the cigarette with her teeth. and takes' a drag. as in 21: ero 3a nJieuH. the pile of rocks might look like a pile This content downloaded from 129. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .217 on Tue.180.' The purpose of the historical present.262 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal Remember that a discrete solid object can't flow. (/npHxoHTTbS)'arriveP(i). You can't feel around and explore what's inside. and we just have regular perfective verbs (and their prefixed imperfective counterparts). This distinction between determined and non-determined exists only for motion verbs. and if you can get far enough away. to re-create a sense of being in the middle of the action. 21) fIojinefHicKHeKpenKo eepKaJIHi 'The policemen heldi him firmly by the shoulders. is also served by this property of the imperfective.' G. which accounts for the predominant use of imperfective verbs in the historical present in Russian (see Stunova). If you have enough of them. flicksi the lighter. Descriptions like how the man was held are most compatible with the imperfective aspect. You can't penetrate it. Although all three actions were certainly completed. Point your finger at the rock from above and bring it down to press against the rock. imeJIKaeT' eTcai. Now perform the same experiment with the sand. F Penetrability Put a rock and a pile of sand on the table. The sense of external wholeness of the perfective gives it a strong association with the past tense. and only in the imperfective. You can penetrate the sand and you can feel around inside it.1. like nIIOTHP. In a parallel fashion.'the streamability of determined and non-determined verbs is no longer an issue. Example 22 presents three such verbs in a sentence drawn from a narrative description of events framed in the past. perfective verbs reveal nothing of their structure (recall the discussion of example 15 above). like npHiHTHP motion. Descriptions of the manner in which an event takes place (feeling around for what's inside) have a strong tendency to occur with imperfective verbs. see H-N): H 3aTarHBa3a)KHraJIKOi 22) OHa ciHMaaeTi3y6aMHcHrapeTy. Perfective verbs can't flow either. the speaker manipulates aspect to achieve the effect of the historical present (manipulations of this sort are particularly prevalent in the building of discourse and pragmatic structure. watching it unfold. and the penetrability of the imperfective enables it to express present tense (as we will see in detail in H below). Once you create a or add prefixes that describe the path of perfective verb. Conversions Take all your rocks and pile them in one corner of the room and go to the opposite corner and look at them from there.

'I had bad luck with films. These four means of conversion of matter correspond to the ways in which we derive imperfective and perfective verbs in Russian. The first meaning will take a series of unique perfective events and sum them all up as if they were identical members of a set. Now turn to your substances.which can have either of these meanings. The water could freeze into a single block. hardening) can also transform one type of matter into the other. my dances were rarely filmed.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 263 of sand. oHa 3aumja 3a BemaaIKy. the result would be sand.217 on Tue. The perfective verb Bbi6paTb'choose. Hago CHHMaTbH3 TOIKH"iCHHI3yBBepx". Example 23 refers to the sum of many selections as a repetition of acts. They need to be shot "from below". elect' can be suffixed to form the imperfective BbI6HpaTb. OcTaJbHbIe MejIieHHO BbI6HpaJHi ce6e HapAgbI.6IocTranbTep H MIrKHe 60THHOIKH. When imperfective verbs are derived from perfective verbs by suffixation. whereas example 24 shows the same imperfective verb with a processual meaning. MH He noBe3JIO. if you could pulverize a single rock. This content downloaded from 129. referring to the gradual progress of a single act. 24) flogo6paB ce6e TpyCHKH.H B TaHLOBIuHKH KaJpe noJnyaJincb npH3eMHcTbIe. On the one hand. and for the most part in excerpts. you can see that it is composed of single grains (and the water is also understood as a collection of single drops).180. nIOJIHOCTbIO ogeTaR. they can have two meanings. much like the pulverization of a rock into sand. MOHTaHIbI CHHMaJIH 23) C KHHOC'beMKaMHI MaJIO. with the exception of the ballet film "Cinderella. but the speaker is glossing over the differences and focusing instead on a generalization which makes them look like a collection of identical events.' Each shot referred to in 23 was indeed chosen and could individually be described using a perfective verb. Each shot was also no doubt different. Also." They often chose a bad angle for the shots. Alternatively. pa3aejeacb H uepe3 HeCKOJIbKO MHHyT. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1. and the dancers looked stocky in the close-ups. The second meaning breaks down the external barriers of the perfective gestalt and views the action as an ongoing process.H 6oJIbmeHi iaCTblO B OTpbIBKaX. 6bIJIa yxe roToBa H?TH. Iacro BbI6HpaJImIi noxyio TOmKynJIAc'beMOK. Thus it is possible by changing one's perspective to view a group of discrete solids as a fluid substance or vice versa. much like the rocks seen from a distance. Actual physical changes (pulverization. or the sand could be cemented into something like a rock (sandstone). if you look very closely at the sand. Bo-nepBbix.3a HCKjlOeHHmeMc)HJIbMa6aJIeTa "3oJIyiIKa". yielding a repetitive meaning.

When other combinations of prefix + imperfective stem occur. undressed. Some activities.can additionally "rehomogenize" (Mehlig) transformatives.217 on Tue. roporIHHa'pea').and delimitative no. despite the fact that the content is primarily a fluid substance. In addition to these direct conversions between the types of matter. specific to a single circumstance in 24. Ilo. In such instances we are dealing primarily with perfectivization. has characteristic parameters. paperP' [HanHcaTbP]. was already prepared to go. a bra.180.suffix enables us to examine a single instance of a uniformly repeated action.serve as solid boxes packaging fluid activities. such as pa6oTaTb6 'worki' and cHIeTb 'siti. thus producing a new transformative verb. You can demonstrate this by pouring sand into a small box and closing the lid.1.' The event of selecting an outfit is unitary. subscribep. and the corresponding perfective verb generally has the prefix that best overlaps with those parameters. she went behind the cloak-room.' Mehlig has drawn a parallel between -Hy-and -uHa. This can happen in various ways. and in a few minutes. The verb nognHcaTbP'sign. The accomplishment. let's return to nHcaTbi'writei' and its This content downloaded from 129. This is the difference between npbiraTb 'jump' and npbIrHyTb'jump (once)' or yJnbI6aTbcs'smile' and yJibI6HyTbcs'flash a smile. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The others were slowly choosingi their outfits. the prefix often acts as a catalyst to give the resulting event a special shape. is characterized by the path of the prefix noj.'3 The -Hy.' These homogeneous activities can be packaged as npopa6oTaTbP/npocHIeTbP'workP/sitPfor a certain amount of time' or nopa6oTaTbP/nocHIeTbP/ 'workP/sitpfor a while' (compare the sitting and playing in example 3). The perfectivizing prefixes take undifferentiated states and activities and shape them into events with clear boundaries and shapes. like the discrete solid formed by the hardening of a substance. and 'readi' [qHTaTbi] will usually result in 'read through to the endP' Thus the activity is generally associated with an accomplish[npouHTaTbP].' for example. the perdurative npo. In terms of verbs. it is possible to take a substance and place it in a solid container. if continued. but it has been broken down to show how the selection unfolds as a step-by-step process.264 Slavic and East European Journal 'After selecting shorts. To see how this works.'under. and soft shoes for herself. This is generally possible only if the imperfective activity does not have a natural outcome ("non-transformatives" according to Mehlig). thus obtaining what is from the outside a discrete solid. parallel to looking at a single grain of sand as an individual discrete solid. fully dressed. have a typical outcome: 'writei' [nHcaTbi] will usually result in 'produce a written document on 'eati' [ecrbi] will usually result in 'eat upP' [c-becTbP]. ment (termed "transformative" by Mehlig). which is used to create singulative nouns (compare ropox 'peas' vs.

Now turn to your fluidsubstances. it can be repackagedas nonognmcbIBaTbP 'signPfor a while/doPan amount of signing' (imagine the rocks viewed now as sand packedin a box). The humanobserver of NOW interactswith perfective and imperfectivejust as the solid ball interactswith the discretesolids and fluid substancesin our tool no0nHcbIBaTbi 'sign. They can't occupy the samespace. the fleeting present moment.. and it has a smileyface drawnon it.217 on Tue.. Now put the rubberballon the tableandlift a cup of sand above it.-K. subscribeP. You get the same effect: the best you can do is to set the rock down next to the ball. Compatibility Put one rock on yourtable and anotherrock in yourhand. since they are soft and mobile. the infinitespread of the "gnomic"use of the imperfectivebears no relationship to any present moment or observer.. but they are not prototypicalsolids. subscribe'.pourthe waterinto the sand.As we will see. where the observeris not involved in the scene.they are mutuallyincompatiblein space. Like the ball. B CBOHnocaieHHIeHHI nononIHcbIBaJI 25) FoBOpsT.'which. in its repetitive meaning. our humanbodies are discretesolids. They are compatibleand can occupy the same space. I use one about the size of a ping-pongball.180. soft rubberball. This content downloaded from 129. Like a universalblood donor. a fluid substanceis compatiblewith anything--it can share space with other substances and also with solids. Bringthe rock in your hand down onto the rock on the table and push.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 265 catalyzed perfective nognimcaTbP 'sign. Make a pile of sandon the table and take a rock in yourhand. This ball representsthe human observerof NOW.. there are certain "gnomic"uses of the perfectiveas well. The only thingyou can do is to put the second rocknext to the firstone. If this activityis sufficientlyconstruedas a smooth repetition. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . derived by suffixation. Repeat this experiment with the rubberball on the table and a rock in yourhand.1. refers to signing documents (remember the pile of rocks viewed from a distanceas sand). Bringthe rock in yourhand down onto the pile of sand and push. In example7.With some sand in one cup and some waterin the other. Release the sand over the ball. The rock enters the pile of sand and becomesembeddedthere. as in example 25: P 6yMar. KJIHHTOH 'Theysay that duringhis last days Clintonsignedpa bunchof papers.: Properties relevant to the interactions of types of matter and to discourse structure For this section you will need another prop: a small. It is importantto note that the observeris not alwaysonstage.'The imperfective.' H. The resultis that the sandand the water mix. The resultwill be that the sandenvelopsthe ball (similarto the rockembeddedin the previousexperiment). H.

Galton identifies "succession" (referring to the succession of events in time) as the hallmark meaning of the perfective. A string of perfective verbs will almost always signal a series of sequenced events (it is possible for perfectives to express actions that are simultaneous. simultaneity. see Stoll 78-79. without reference to any specific present tense. example 7. and these properties as they relate to NOW also disambiguate tense. one that is past and one that isn't. OHcnpOCHJIP 26) KorIa OTe i npocHyJIcP H BCTanJP Hac: "KTOnOKPbIBaJIaMH HaKpbIJIMeHS?". like blocks piled up in one spot. However. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 86). perfective verbs can also be used in a gnomic sense to represent either a habitual sequence or a potential to complete an action.266 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal These experiments illustrate a whole range of properties characteristic of how aspect is used to signal sequencing. it must encounter the human observer (equivalent to our rubber ball) in the timeline.1. If one event is already named in the timeline (like the rock on your table). the one with the rubber ball and the rock. he askedp us: "Who covered me with blankets?"' Like the two rocks in your first experiment. where the imperfective action spreads all through the timeline. involves tense. such as the one we already encountered in B. imperfectives handle simultaneity (compatibility in time). A spot that is further down the timeline is of course one that is later. The tense that is past is always past (although one could debate this in the conditional). 'When father awokeP and got upPand went outPof the cabin.217 on Tue. Here is an example where four perfective verbs indicate a sequence of four events: H BbIrejiP H3maianaa. The next experiment. then another event. and tense. meaning that the second event takes place after the first one. for an illustration of simultaneous perfectives. perfectives handle sequencing (incompatibility in time). Sometimes the non-past conjugated forms are used without direct reference to an observer. but the tense that isn't past depends on the presence/absence of the observer and on aspect for its interpretation. Example 26 shows how this sequencing is applied to a succession of multiple events. Basically. will have to enter at a spot further along the timeline. no two perfective events can occupy the same place in the timeline. We will now illustrate how each experiment correlates to the behavior of Russian verbs. which means that they don't refer to the present moment. since it cannot enter at that same spot. when a non-past form of a perfective verb makes reference to a specific act. Russian has two tenses. As we shall see below in examples 28 and 40. Aside from tenseless forms (such as the infinitive and imperative). but this interpretation requires significant support from context.180. The human observer occu- This content downloaded from 129. so we must make a digression on this topic. These are the gnomic uses. it is rare and never the "default" interpretation.

the present moment. In this example. the observer is not in the timeline. All spots after NOW are of course located in the future. describing the sequencing without referencing any actual events. while the barricades of revolting students were being erectedi in the Latin quarter. called "synechdochical habituals" by Nesset (178) or the "habitual correlative" by Bondarko (197-208) and Dickey (5567). the aristocratic sixteenth quarter was enjoyingi peace and quiet.' When there is no reference to a specific event. as if this sequence was a permanent feature of his existence: .1. the effect would be of a summary events. a spot after NOW.MaMa 28) MHe BOaBOpe HpaBHJIOCb Bo wBope? H3oKHa. as in example 27: 6aJIaHca. Sometimes Mama would lean outP of the window and yellP: Are you in the courtyard?' This usage focuses on the habitual nature of the sequence. If instead imperfective Bo 3 OKHaH KpHuaJIa': verbs were used (MaMa HHorLa BbIcoBbIBaJIacb'i Are you in ABope?'Mama sometimes leaned outi of the window and yelledi: actual of of a series the courtyard?'). The erection of barricades in example 29 is temporally coextensive with the enjoyment of peace and quiet elsewhere in town. Putin is describing a sequence of events (his mom leaning out of the window and then calling for him) that occurred repeatedly in his childhood.TaMBCSHama XKH3Hb npoxoAHnja. they have a gnomic function. 'During the memorable Parisian May of '68. the events signalled by imperfective verbs are usually interpreted as simultaneous. Consider the mixture of sand and water. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 29) ae mecTbgecT BOCbMor. and when we add a non-past perfective event to this scene. and non-past perfectives are available for other interpretations.217 on Tue. with less emphasis on the habitual sequencing. If they occur in strings of two or more (here we have to go back to the first experiment with the two rocks). mecTHagnlaTbIi KBapTaJIHacJaxKlancsi nOKOeMH apI4CTOKpaTHIeCKIHH THIIHHOH.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 267 pies NOW. signalling a commonly occurring sequence. coexisting in the same place in the timeline. In a like fashion.' This content downloaded from 129. ropMOHaJIbHoro 27) 3aBTpa nojiyxyp i a6opaTopHbie aHaJIH3bi 'Tomorrow I will receivep the laboratory analysis of the hormonal balance.KpHKHeTP: BbICyHeTCAP HHorga 'I liked it in our courtyard--our whole life took place there. the perfective event (equivalent to our rock) is forced once again to enter at a spot further along the timeline. thus motivating the interpretation of non-gnomic perfectives as future. Korga B JIaTHHCMaM IIaMSTHbIMnapIKXCKM KOM KBapTaJIe B03BOAHJIHCbi 6appHKagbI 6yHTyIolIIHX CTygeHTOB.180.

Here is an example of ongoing efforts at a classy restaurant: ero. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The perfective verbs thus play a dynamic role. like the human observer.180. onoInHeeMi HOBbIMHcoycaMH. it is probably better instead to imagine yourself walking outside. moving the narrative along. It is easy to understand why the imperfective non-past can be used to express present tense. If instead you have to wade through water or trudge along a sand dune. Dynamicity Although this property can be demonstrated on a table-top. This fact motivates the use of the imperfective present in sentences like 32 (compare also 6) and 33: 32) 51pa6oTaIoi 3secb c npomunororoga. the opening of the window (imperfective) was going on before. Rather than being incompatible with the observer. including some memory of the recent past and anticipation of the immediate future. is a bit stretchy. In example 30. In example 34. This relationship corresponds to the observation of a present tense. The effect of perfective and imperfective verbs in a narrative parallels this property of matter: the main events of a story line are expressed by perfective verbs. whereas digressions are expressed by imperfective verbs.268 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal The rock embedded in a pile of sand corresponds to an imperfective event punctuated by a perfective one.' 33) 3aBTpa MbIegeMigOMOHi. enabling swift progress. something accessible NOW. 31) CeHiiac pa6oTaeMi Hag HOBbIM MeHIO.217 on Tue.1.' The present moment as we experience it is not a zero-dimensional point. the perfective verbs provide the backbone of This content downloaded from 129.' The last experiment involved pouring sand over the rubber ball. 'I have been workingi here since last year. you will find your movement is held back. JBepb oryJIymuHTenbHO 3aTpei[aJIaP. which is parallel to the human observer of the present moment engaging with a nonpast imperfective verb. but. encompassing it. and likely for some time after the slamming of the door (perfective): 30) Korga a OTKpbIBaJIiOKHO. we are expandingi it and workingi on new sauces. 'We are goingi home tomorrow. your way is paved. 'Right now we are working' on a new menu.' I. whereas imperfective verbs tend to slow us down so that we can focus on other things. A path of firm stepping stones makes it easy for you to move from one to the next. during. 'While I was openingi the window. the sand joins the observer in the NOW moment. the door made a deafening crashp. pa6oTaeMiHa.

Chvany (1990/1996. and its dimensions are irrelevant.Ha pOrMHY yexajiaP B epesBHIOIIOMHHOBO OoM.rge OHH )KHJIHi. 296-99) has demonstrated that these saliency effects can be observed also in non-sequential poetic texts. Salience Make a large pile of sand on your table. OTeLI CMoefiMaMOHi.H BCAI B TBepcKoii o6JacCTH. The point of the question is to set up a discussion. Take a few rocks and arrange them on the pile of sand. see L below). pOgCTBeHHHKH e3SATi Tyga oTAbIxaTb'. rIO3HaKOMHJICIP OHHno>KeHHJIHCbP. In that same place. They got marriedPwhen they were' 17 years old. Korga HM6bIJIoino 17 neT. where our grandmother was from. of course.B IIHTepe )KHTb' CTaJIoPTpyAHO. all marked by perfective verbs. whereas the imperfective verbs handle the descriptive passages.1. meeting and marrying. TaM XKe. Now ask: What type of matter behaves as figure (or foreground) and what type of matter behaves as ground (or background)? Imagine walking down the beach. Thus. often without any connection to other events. B CaHKT-rIeTep6ypreB 1911 roay.180. in Pominovo. The Russian imperfective has one use that is associated with backgrounding: the general-factual. 'My father was bornPin St. still standsi to this day. 6a6ymKH. beginning of the war. Discrete solids enjoy a salience not shared by fluid substances. my father metP my mother. The imperfective verbs. KorAa HaqaJIacbP 34) OTe pOAHJICSIP CeMbS nepBaA MHPOBaABOHHa. KCTaTH. bringing us from one event to the next. Petersburg in 1911. What catches your eye. what do you collect to take home? The shells and stones and bits of driftwood. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . on the other hand. CTOHT'. and the whole family leftp for the village of Pominovo in the Tver region. When WWI beganp. [O CHX nop. it becamep hard to livei in Petersburg. presented as a framing device used to introduce other items that will be foregrounded in a narrative. retard the narrative to tell us about the state of the house and the age the parents were when they married.217 on Tue. you might ask: BbI 'lHTaJIH'3Ty KHHry?'Have you read' this book?' The act of reading is not highlighted. Because the events that general-factuals refer to are of the type more typically associated with perfective verbs This content downloaded from 129. The house where they livedi.' J. by the way. if you just want to find out whether someone has read a given book (but have no reason to expect that they should have done so. and the relatives goi there for vacations'. This contrast is clear in example 34 immediately above: the salient events are the birth. B IIOMHHOBe. moving to the country. The general-factual is used when the objective is merely to establish that some event has taken place.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 269 the narrative.

sometimes Russian perfective verbs put the properties that correspond to both kinds of matter into a single package. It is no wonder that forms of phasal verbs like HanaTbP'begin..BJInIOTJIHaHTII6HoTHKH o6pa30BaHHle aHTETeJI K BIH4. And now I have another question.217 on Tue. as in example 36: 36) 14 KaKpa3 B 3TOT MOMeHTCTaJIHPHaImyKOMHaTy OTKpbIBaTbi KJIIOIOM. 'And right at that moment they startedPto openi our room with a key. Contiguity Put a pile of sand on your table and take a block of wood in your hand (preferably one that is about as long as your pile is wide). as we see in example 35. Her previous question is of no further relevance.' In addition to being modified by both yce 'already' and OAHaKMbI'once.180.' nepecTaTbP 'stop. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..perduratives and the no. they often collocate with the adverbs we associate with perfectives. The following two examples illustrate these two types of verbs: 37) IIoieMy ieJIOBeK.' the general-factual cnpamHBsaJai'askedi' is even sequenced with the perfective OTBeTHInH 'answered. K. with no sand on one side.270 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal (single.' The justification for using the imperfective general-factual is that the speaker wants to background this information..' npeKpaTHTbP'cease' (the equivalents of the block) can only be followed by imperfective infinitives (equivalent to the sand). but plenty on the other. Packages of contiguous combinations of discrete solids and fluid substances correspond to Russian ingressives (3a-prefixed verbs meaning 'begin doing something') and terminatives (oT-prefixed verbs meaning 'finish doing something'). You answered no. H Tenepb y MeHa enme OAHHBonpoc. Put the block of wood down on the table near the sand and push it toward the sand until you have the following situation: the block of wood is like a dam. completed one-time acts).1. What she wants to foreground is the new question she is about to pose. pOTHIBOCTOAHHA Bapyr 3aroBopnJIPo TpaAHIaIx KaK06 <ycTapesBiHxcTepeoTHniax>? This content downloaded from 129. BbI OTBeTHJII. All she wants to do is to establish the fact that she is a regular user of this website. taken from an AIDS website: Ha 35) 51 y sac yKe OAHaAKJbIcnpamHBsaJai.delimitatives.' CTaTbP'start. 'I have already askedi you once whether antibiotics influence the formation of HIV antibodies. The sand bordered by the block is the physical parallel of an activity with a fixed onset or terminus (depending on which side you view it from). paHee BaKHeimeMy HI3 ycJIoBiHH o6paiuaBiniHHCg K nyXOBHOCTHKaK K HapK03nHAeMHH.' As we have already seen with the npo. ITO HeT..

TO Torga Bonpoc: CjienanHP JIH BbI This content downloaded from 129. As we have seen. completionof sittingmetonymicallyexpressesfinishinga jail term.-N. Now try to get a similargripon some sand. In the aspectualrealm.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 271 'Whywould a person who previouslytreatedspiritualityas one of the most importantconditionsfor opposing the drug epidemic.ecJIHOTcHIeJIP 38) B KaKHecTpaHbIMO>KHO 'Whichcountriescan one go to if one has done timepin the USA as a hacker?' Note that since sittingis the primaryactivityassociatedwith imprisonment. EcJIH 3TO TaK. L. and the technie needs to confirm whetherthose instructionshave been followed. suddenly starttalkingPabout traditionsas "outmodedstereotypes"?' B CIiA KaKxaKep? e3AHTTb. and imperativeinstructions. Instabilityhas the correspondingarray of negativeconnotations. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .However. a techie is doing some trouble-shooting with a computer user. hallmarksof perfectiveverbs. if there are expectations(a rule book.1. Hcnonb3sy B KaaecTBe mIIIo3a ADAM 4521.then the perfective is used to ask this type of yes-no question. A discretesolid is typicallysomething that is firmand manipulable. Youcan'tsucceed. L.a syllabus. The user clearly has instruc- tions for what to do in this situation.or any other type of contract).TOhost-MamHHay Bac noJ QNX 4.180. whichis why the perfective is used: Bac npaBHJIbHOHnoHsJ. gnomicstatementsof satisfactionpotential.Firmnessimpliesstabilityand all the connotations of satisfactionthat go with it. satisfactionis found in the successfulcompletion of an action and enduringresults. providedthere are no specificexpectations. the imperfectivegeneral-factual(discussed under J above) is used to ask if an action has taken place.instead the sand slips throughyour fingers.22 H 39) ECJImH c Hee BbI Iepe3 RS485 HHTep)eHic 3anpamHBaeTe gaHHbie y ycTpocITBa c RS232-HHTep(eHiCOM.217 on Tue.: Properties relevant to the interactions of humans with types of matter and to pragmatic structure The remainingpropertiesrelate to how humanbeings interactwith the two types of matterand the inferencesthat we draw. The desirabilityof satisfactionis particularlypronouncedin three constructions:yesno questions verifying whether an expected action has been performed.Perhapsthe best way to appreciatethis contrastis by rememberingthe delightof a nicely packedsnowballthat you (or someone else) brought home as a child and the tears of disappointmentshed when this satisfyingdiscretesolid dissolvedinto a fluidsubstance. In example39. Stability Pick up a rock and close your hand around it to get a sense of how it feels. a set of guidelines.

.OTKpoiiTeP noKcaJIyicTasarm6araXcKHK. have you donePeverythingaccordingto the instructions?' "Gnomicsatisfactionpotential"refers to an ability to complete an act. then the perfectiveis used.. or tried (unsuccessfully)to do something. please presentpyour documents....BOT6yMarH . devoid of any referenceto an actualtime. then you use the perfective.. Likewise.' The lack of stability characteristicof fluid substancesparallels various negative implicationsthat can be made by using imperfectives. ok. nperbSIBHTeP..22 and from it you are requesting data through an RS485 interface from a device with an RS232 interface.Here are the papers. -Hy BOT.. Imperfectives are often used to suggest that someone worked at something with- out gettinga result. present or future.180. using an ADAM 4521 as a buffer.. the statement in example 40 is a sort of "Murphy'sLaw" of archaeology:it doesn't engage an observerwith any specificevent. BamuH OKyMeHTbI. The use of the future in English (with will. -Well. which is originally a modal) is here a cognitiveparallelto the Russianperfective"future. -Please openP your trunk.272 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal JIHnepeMbIiKyINIT nocJie gaHHbIi MOlyJIb(ADAM 4521) H y6paJIHP JIH Bce T.lo6pbiHi geHb.' The use of the perfectivein 40 underscoresthe sentimentthat this outcome is a very distinctpossibility. it just states that this is the type of thing that can happen.. There is nothing impolite about such imperatives.217 on Tue. If you want to say that Ivanis the man who can get a job done. If this is the case. they just make clear requests.Good day. see section M below).standingfirmlylike a discretesolid. 'The least experiencedleader of the section with the least skilledteam will alwaysmakepthe most importantdiscovery.1. as in the exchange between a person and a customsofficerin 41: 41) .These imper- This content downloaded from 129..then your host-machineis running QNX 4. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .e. nocKaJIyicTa. Note also the combinationof scerga 'always'with a perfectiveverb here: 40) HaHMeHee OnbITHbImiHamaJIbHHKymacTKa c HaHMeHee o6ymeHHOHi KOMaHAOHBcerga cenJIaeTP HaH6onee BasKHOe OTKpbITHe. ceJIa." If an imperativeis used to give someone new instructions(as opposed to imperativesused in polite social situationswhich don't give new instructions. just in general. then there is the question: Have you completedPthe appropriatemodule (ADAM 4521) and have you removedpthe default INIT after configuration?In other words.rHP KOH3HrypHpOBaHH1? no HHCTpyKIUHH? 'If I have understoodyou correctly. since the speaker clearly wants the satisfactionof a result.. .

can't they at least try to do something?If I can'thave the full satisfactionof a discretesolid.180. What would you This content downloaded from 129.3anHCbIBaHii. yqHTbci 'studyi' (as opposed to HaymHTbcaP opposed to noHMaTbP 'learnP'). If you ask someone to do something and they fail to underscoredby the imperfectiveverb.1. I'm in a big hurry!' The firstimperativein 42 gives a new instructionand is perfective.JIOBHTbi 'catchP'). Given the negative in 43: 43) MyxKHHa Ha MOTOLHKJIeHeaKKypaTHOgenaJIi MaHeBpbI. but changesthe aspect to imperfective in order to emphasizehis total rejectionof this allegation: 44) . nepeneTeBs epe3 pyJib. had a result.. please. and are followed by a sequenceof perfectiveevents. and uses the perfective to ask when he left the Communist party.Putinnot only insertsthe negation. which allow an imperfective to extend to muchor all of the timeline.' We know that the maneuverswere completed. HcKaTb''look fori' (as opposed to HaHTHP'findP')(see Chaput). 'The man on the motorcyclemadeisloppy maneuvers.Korga BbI BbImIIJIHH3 napTHH? . you might become frustratedand ask them to at least put in some effort.Write it downi. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . our reactions to them are very different.A OqeHb TOpOnIIocb! 'Write down my telephone is no surprisethat negation is often associatedwith the a result he crashedinto the abutmentand flew over the handlebar. as in 42: 42) 3anHmIHMOilTeIe4)OH..RussianAspect at YourFingertips 273 fectives are called "conatives"and include verbs like: cnasaTb''take (an 'try to catchi'(as exam)i'(as opposed to caaTbP'pass (an exam)P').but the second one is imperfective.217 on Tue. In the exchangein example 44.. yrosapHBaTb''try to convincei' (as opposed to yroBopHTbP 'convinceP').This associationis also motivatedby the propertiesof uniformity(C) and spreadability(M). But they were bad maneuvers.I He BbIxoHJ'i! -When did you leave the party? -I didn't leavei it (at all)!' M.. can I at least get some substanceout of you? A differentsort of dissatisfactionis impliedwhen the imperfectiveis used to emphasizethat somethinghas been done badly. B pe3yJlbTaTeBpe3aJicAB 6opgiop. Texture When the two types of matter are set in motion on a trajectory aimed at a human being. an intervieweris obliquelyaccusingPutin of changinghis affiliationfor political gain.expressingfrustration:if the person won't get the job done. using an imperfectiveverb.

the properties of firmness and stability represent a possible threat. So if you have some sand. identifies something that is to be avoided altogether. the most typical of which is a visit to someone's home. 'To6bI BI yIJmHOTcioJac TeM Ke KOJIHneCTBOM rJIa3. take off their coat. Example 46 comes from a paintballing website.274 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal rather have thrown at you: a rock or a cupful of water? When discrete solids are flung at us. There's no reason to throw rocks when a soft.1.He yumH6HTecbP roJIOBoH 0 HH3KHe CBOlbI! 'Now we have moved to the very top of the pyramid. Guests need to come in. Tio3TOMy-HE CHHMAITEi MACKY HA IIOJIE!!! HHKorgaH HHInpHKaKHX o6CTORTeIbCTBax! 'I really want you to leave here with the same number of eyes that you had when you came. a specific danger. whereas the properties of soft spreadability mitigate the force of the motion and can be pleasing. but because the guests are in the host's territory.217 on Tue. Implied conversions Occasionally matter will spontaneously convert from one type to another. Perfective imperatives can be associated with warnings and rudeness. That is why we always hear naJIbTo!'Take off your utterances like IlpoxoJHTei! 'Come ini!' CHHMaHTei coat!' CagJHTecbi!'Sit down'!' when there is company. and. conversely. Imperatives are the linguistic propellants that launch verbs at interlocutors. and the generalization of the interdiction is abundantly clear: 46) 1 oqeHb xoqy. Perfectives are used to alert someone to an immediate threat. sit down. on the other hand. WTOH npHiuJI. N. etc. whereas imperfective imperatives are the norm for general guidelines and certain polite situations. as we see in example 45: 45) BOTMbInepeMecTrHncbHa caMbIi Bepx nIpaMHEbI. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . much like saying: 'Watch out for that rock! Don't trip over it!' The parallel to the properties of discrete solids is strong. the corresponding perfectives would be rude or strange at best. gentle encouragement is all that is called for. This isn't any news to anybody. it is customary to receive permission before proceeding. Don't hitP your head on the low arches!' The negative imperfective imperative. a discrete solid might leave a This content downloaded from 129. some of it might spontaneously clump up to form discrete solids. both the guests and the host know that these things are going to happen. Let's start with negated imperatives.180. So-DON'T REMOVE YOUR MASK ON THE FIELD!!! Never and under no circumstances!' Politeness is an issue in certain social situations. So we have a situation where we don't need to provide new information or apply any real force.

borrow.217 on Tue.' thing (such as cecTb/caJHTbca 'sit down.' B3ATb/6paTb'take/ verb involves the posithis latter BKJIIOxHTb/BKJIioqaTb 'turn on'. But the priesttried and tried to convincehim and finallyhe did convincephim. or by imaginingthat someone has left an onion (discrete solid) out and later removed it. or margin notes in a book borrowed from the library). HaKoHeU. Here is a classic example of the imperfective expressing an annulled event. ITO enHCKon npocJIbiman o ero yMe H XOieT c HHMno3HaKOMHTbCA. Instead the imperfective signals a reversed event. from Lev Tolstoy's translation of The Three Bears: This content downloaded from 129.CnepBa Ho KCeHA3yrosapHBsan. removingit. and the residue is any experience or effect that lasts after the change in position has been reversed (such as memories of a trip. Many verbs (like no-6pITbCS 'shave. we observe the followingparallels:the placingand removingcorrespondsto verbs that involve changingthe position of some'lie down. and the imperfectivecorrelates of these verbs tend to have a conative ('tryingto') meaning.If you keep the activitygoing. At first the youngson-in-lawdidn'teven wantto hear about it.180. Other verbs (see those listed in the discussionof conatives above in section M) signalactionswith no guaranteedoutcome. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but the odor (fluid substance)remainsin the room.the more likely we are to ultimatelysucceed. and then noticing any residue of substance that might be left behind.' In 47.we tend to feel that the more sand we sift through. the priest runs a lot of attempts throughhis mill before finallypullingout a firmsuccess: 47) OAHaWbI OH npHmeni H cKa3an yMeHOMy 3ATIO. Because the result of the original completed event (the placing of the solid) has been annulled by the reversal of that event (the removal of the solid). and noticingthe water (fluid substance)left behind. The latter case might best be illustratedby setting an ice cube (discretesolid) on a plate. the perfectiveverb yrosopHnP'convinceP'emphasizesthe final success in contrastto the precedingattempts. you will get the job done. the more likely we are to find a hard object in it.' tion of a switch). we cannot refer to the event with the perfective.yrOBopHJIP. 'Once he came and told his educated son-in-law that the bishop had heard about his intelligence and wanted to meet him.' Jieub/JnoaKHTbca noexaTb/e3JHTb'travel.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 275 residue of substancebehind opposed to the meaningof successfulcompletion signalledby the correspondingperfective.' Ha-nicaTb 'write')describeactivitiesthat proceeddependablyfrombeginningthrough completion.' OTKpbITb/OTKpbIBaTb 'open. In example 47. MOJIOgoH3ITb H cJiymaTb06 3TOMHe XOTeJI. Although there are no guarantees. The finalexperimentinvolvedputtinga discretesolid somewhere.1. yrosapHsaJIH.removing it.' Bc-naxaTb 'plow. In the world of aspect.we feel that the more we try to do something. Likewise.

so the perfective result is missing. Another strategyis to comparenews reportsof the same event and see how the use of aspect differs (we tried this in reference to the hostage This content downloaded from 129. Studentsare also requiredto markthe aspect of everyverb they write in theirweeklyjournalessays.For example. like an advancedsearchfor an exact phrase containing onHaqbI 'once' immediately followed by an imper- fective past tense form (the recipe for locating general-factuals). and we begin every class by quickly running through all the verbs and calling out which aspect they are. in groups or as a whole. but there is evidence of her action since she messed up the bed. Individualverbscan subsequentlybe analyzedfor the relevantpropertiesfrom the table. You and your students will discover similarformulae and soon become adept aspect internet sleuths. Her act of lying down has been reduced to a flimsy inference. and on random days students are required to hand in a print-outof the readingwith the aspect of every verb markedas a gradedexercise.I've invented my own tricksfor findingsome of these items. I strongly suggest that students be routinelyrequired to identifythe aspect of every verb they encounterin readingsand producein assignments. and each week can focus on a property.180.217 on Tue. I bring in examples (like those in sections A-M above. my studentshave dailyreadingsfrom a website.' Goldilocks lay down and then got up. which they can bring in for class discussion. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1.rambler.Items A-H in the table are accessible to all levels of learners.comor www.In additionto verbsin our readings and essays. There are fourteenproperties in the table. In order to keep levels of aspect awarenesshigh. but many more) that I have located (mostly by doing advancedsearches on www.Studentscan be taughthow to find theirown exampleson the internet(this is particularlyusefulfor properties I-N).or the exact phrase He 'not' immediatelyfollowed by imperativeforms (to find both perfective warnings and imperfective interdictions). compose lists of propertiesfor each. MHxaiJIo HIBaHblICTpaTImHbIM '-WHO LAY DOWNi IN MY BED AND MESSED IT UP?- roaredMikhailoIvanychin a terriblevoice. How to implement this approach in the classroom Here are a few suggestionsabout how this metaphoricalmodel of aspect can be implementedin the roughlycorrespondingto fourteenweeks in a typicalsemester. Earlyin the semester I bringsome discretesolids and fluidsubstancesto class and ask the students to interact with them Slavicand East EuropeanJournal B MOIK) OCTEJIbEICMIJI EE?-3apeBen 48) -KTO JIOXKIIJIC5Ii roJIOCOM. she's not there anymore. whereas I-N might be more appropriately focused on in more advanced courses.

generalized to all possible times. standing firmly like a discrete solid. This content downloaded from 129.' was repeated signing president signingi series of individual (but similar) events..XKypHaJHCT MOacHO cgejiaTb 4)OTorpa)HIO H npe3HJgeHTyJlbi6aeTca nJIAS oTorpa4a. New York Times: CHaIaJia npe3HgeHTnojInHcajP3aKOHo 6paKe rOMOHOTOMOHInoIHCaJIP 3aKOHo6 oxpaHe npHpogbI.' This construal views the actions as discrete solids that cannot coexist in the timeline. It is important that students understand that aspect does not relate directly to what happens in the real world. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .180... H nocJie ceKcyaJIHcToB. rIOTOM OHOIISTb6epeT py-IKyH nonHcbIBaeT1BTOpOi3aKOH. Imagine that a bunch of reporters come to the Oval Office to see the President sign laws passed by Congress.1. Wall Street Journal: npe3HgeHTMeJnieHHOnognHcbIBaJIi LmyT c 3aKOHbI. the with while laws 'The KypHaJIHcTaMH. and are therefore sequenced. We also note that we are viewing the act of signing as a gradual process.)'(Thinks to himself: A president like this will signP any law.)' This is a gnomic use of the perfective to express ability.. not a process as in the previous example.RussianAspect at YourFingertips 277 crisis in the Moscow theater). San Francisco Examiner: (yyMaeT npo ce6A: TaKOHinpe3HleHT InonnHHIeTPJIIo6oH3aKOH.'Here is what happened today in the White House: The president takes a pen and signs' the first law. Washington Post: Hpe3HleHT noInHcaJIP TpH 3aKOHaH noiieji ryJISTb. Each one reports differently (but in Russian. This can also be done artificially.' This perfective sums up all three acts as if they are one and presents them as a single solid object sequenced with another solid object (the act of leaving). ecaH 6epeT pymKy nognHCbIBaeT' nepBbIi 3aKOH. 'The Chicago Tribune: lIpe3HreHTnornHCbIBaJI3aKOH3a 3aKOHOM. 3Toro nolnHcaJIP 3aKOHo BbI6opax. and after that he signedp a law about elections.' are mixed together in the timeline. is a of Here the act law after law. 'First the president signedp a law about homosexual marriages. A journalist asks him if they can take a picture and he smiles for the photographer. It is a very definite possibility. of course).. journalists. 'The president signedp three laws and went for a walk. but rather to how real people interpret those events. then he signedp a law about the protection of nature... Then he takes the pen again and signsi the second law. president slowly signedi joking that and we have two fluid Here substances. The following whimsical examples illustrate some of the possible construals of the act of 'signing' as perfective or imperfective. Boston Globe: BOT ITOcJIyYMJIOCb cerotHSSB BejiOMgoMe: nIpe3HneHT H npocHT.217 on Tue.' This use of the historical present portrays the narration as something ongoing. signing joking. a fluid substance in which the narrator and hearer are embedded.

and Ukrainianhave all insisted that it accuratelycapturestheir feelings about aspect. 1 I originallyproposedthis idea purelyas a theoreticalmodel.I wouldalso like to thankGeraldJanecekfor encouragingme to writethis article.' This is an unusual formation.WTO OHcaM 'The a maronce law about homosexual roMoceKcyaJIHcT! president signedi Now we have discovered he that is himself a Here we homosexual!' riage. MarinaChertkova.' In this example. and serves merely as background information. Furthermore. USA Today: KoHrpecc IHHmeT 3aKOHbI. see the general-factual. Ewa Dabrowska. writes laws and the 'Congress president signs' them.' This is another gnomic that an statement. Philadelphia Inquirer: IIpe3HIieHT nonoInHcbiBaJIP 3aKOHbI H nomeji ryJInTb. NOTES The authorwould like to thankthe manycolleaguesand studentswho have enthusiastically supportedthe developmentof this idea. Slovak.278 Slavicand East EuropeanJournal LA Times: rIoKa )KypHaJIHCTbIcnpamHBaJIH npe3HgeHTa o 3HaMeHHH 3aKOHoB.'The president signedp laws for a while and went for a walk. Conclusion Our students come to the classroom already equipped with complex embodied experiential knowledge that can help them acquire the full range of aspectual meanings and uses. he signedP them. MeredithClason. Kira Gor.a pilot study shows that This content downloaded from 129. VladimirPlungjan. CeHiac MbI y3HaJIm. can be spread everywhere.180.217 on Tue. showing imperfective action. Polish. Hans-RobertMehlig. One would expect a perfective since we are dealing with a singular completed event. 'While the journalists were asking the president about the significance of the laws.1. Tore Nesset. and intellectually satisfying. This can be done in ways that are accessible. OHHX nonIIHcajP. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and then repackaged in a solid container.EkaterinaRakhilina. like a fluid substance. National Enquirer (three months later): rlpe3HIeHT OAHaIKEbI nomnHcbIBaJIi3aKOHo 6paKe roMoceKcyaJIHcTOB.Sabine Stoll. enjoyable. What has happened is that the signing of laws has become homogenized into a fluid. Alina Israeli. Audiencesof nativespeakers of Czech. it is made perceptually diffuse. there is a background imperfective event (asking) serving as a fluid substance in which a punctual event (signing) is embedded as a discrete solid.And I am gratefulto Rob Noel for helpingme to interpretthe computerese in example39. and CharlesTownsend. But if an event is stated without being sequenced in a narrative. so the perfective verb means 'work on signing for a bounded interval'. Serbian.David Danaher. Elena Kubrjakova. We need to show them how this knowledge aligns with the realities of Russian grammar. The followingcolleagueshave discussedit with me and providedvaluable input: AleksandrBondarko. Russian. like a fluid substance. Stephen Dickey.a npe3HIeHTUXnonnHcbsBaeT'.

html.wineworld/ru/winedocs/restaurant/articlel Jakobson. I referthose readersdesiringa more theoreticaldiscussionto Bondarko. 186.aids. and the closely relatedchange/ suggestedby Durst-Andersen. Durst-Andersen. http://www.htm.Chertkova. http://www. and similar features suggested by Talmyand Langacker).com/forum/messages/7. http://www. http://diabetic.but thereis strongevidencethatthoroughanalysisrevealsjust this pattern.html. stability/simultaneity resultativeness( 2 The list of featuresis a distillationof those presentedby the followinggroupsof scholars: boundedness(Avilova.html.html.180. Langacker).archaeology.Talmy. Otherexamples havebeen collectedfromthe followingwebsites(thislist does not implyanyendorsement of any of these sites): http://noto.van Schooneveld. http://www.jewish. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and Wierzbicka).ru/culture/2000-10-05/ Hopper. Perkins and Pagliuca. Jandaand StevenJ.particularlyby Glovinskaia(7-25) andZalizniakandShmelev(32). http://www. durativity(Chertkova.Dickey. on http://www. will merely note that considerabledissatisfactionwith featureshas been http://www.HTM.Since this is primarilya pedagogicalarticle.seneka.Russian Aspect at Your Fingertips 279 native speakerswho are presentedwith sentences of Russianand asked to choose between variousarrangementsof blocks of wood and sand can make selectionsconsistent with this model.russian-zl.html.figure This content downloaded from http:/www.htm.berkovich-zametki.narkotiki.Mazon. http://www.totality (Bondarko.rts-ukraine.Galton. Dickey.html. I will not go into the full details of all these featural analyses.Bybee.and similarfeatures suggestedby Isachenkoand Paducheva).See Janda1986.mail. PROVENIENCE OF EXAMPLES Some of the examples have been drawn from the database used for The Case Book for Russian. sequencingvs.Paducheva.and see also similarfeaturessuggested by Bondardo. http://www.definiteness(Bondarko.html.Vinogradov) 3 Of course the semantic overlaps and contributionsof perfectivizingprefixes are not alwaysso transparent. and punctualityvs. Clancy(Bloomington:Slavica. Timberlake.mega.vlz. The resultsof these experimentswill be reportedin 1990/1996.donetsk. http://www.zooclub. but the authorwouldlike to recognizethe effortsof Sean Flanaganin assistingwith this study. interior(Comrie.ruz. ground(Binnick. http://www.

II. A.1990/1996.1965. Bybee. Paul J. "'Trying'in Russian.1 (1985):7383. 1994."Voprosy obshchegoiazykoznaniia. Time and the Verb: A Guide to Tense and Aspect. Marina Ia. From Space to Time: Temporal Adverbials in the World's Languages.and the so-called 'perfect of result' in modern Russian. Yokoyama and Emily Klenin.Bernard.1971. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1914. Fire.eds. The Hague:Mouton. I. Joan. Columbus. Bondarko. Moscow:Nauka. DO-.Ronald. Natalia S. 1991. Paris: Librairie ancienne Honor6 Cham- pion. 53-80. Oxford: Oxford UP. Ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Stanford." CanadianSlavonic Papers31 (1989):25-43. "Verbalaspect. Emplois des aspects du verbe russe. Eds. and OT-. "The role of verbal tense and aspect in the narrationof 'The Tale of Igor's Campaign. Moscow:Prosveshchenie. Olga T. Eds. "The role of metaphorin defining Russian aspect.1. "Aspect and foregroundingin discourse.1980/1996. Chvany. Durst-Andersen. Grammaticheskii stroi russkogo iazyka v sopostavlenii s slovatskim -Chast' vtoraia:morfologiia. Vol. 1957/1971. and Modality in the Languages of the World. Martin. "Sistemaosnovnykhponiatii i terminovslavianskoiaspektologii. Women.and the Russianverb. A Cognitive Approach. Robert I. Jakobson. Janda.274-85. 1987. Columbus. Langacker. Haspelmath. 1987. Aspect. Moscow: Akademiia nauk SSSR. discoursesaliency. Isachenko. This content downloaded from 129. George. 1996. Stephen M.213-41. Grammaticheskaia kategoriia vida v sovremennom russkom iazyke. Galton. Revere Perkins. New York/Oxford: OxfordUP. Stanford. Moscow:MoscowState U. . "Shifters. 2001. Marina Iu. Glovinskaia.OH: Slavica. Vid glagola i semantika glagol'nogo slova. Herbert."' Selected Essays of Catherine V. 1997.286-99.CA: StanfordUP. Mazon.130-47."SelectedWritingsII. Comrie. "A metaphorin searchof a source domain:the categoriesof Slavicaspect"(under review). Foundationsof CognitiveGrammar. V. Binnick. Olga T. Dickey.PatriciaR. 1976.CatherineV. 1979.AleksandrV. Chvany. Munich:Otto Sagner. CA: CSLI Publications. 1982. The Main Functions of the Slavic VerbalAspect. Per. Lakoff. CA: Stanford UP. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Chvany. 1976. PERE-. Semanticheskie tipy vidovykh protivopostavlenii russkogo glagola. Maslov. TalmyGivon." Selected Essays of Catherine V. Hopper. Skopje: Macedonian Acad- emy of Sciencesand Arts. Kyril T. William. A Semantic Analysis of the Russian Verbal Prefixes ZA-. 1991. Parameters of Slavic Aspect. Laura A. Stanford. The Evolution of Grammar:Tense. New York:AcademicPress.Iurii S. and William Pagliuca. Andre."Slavicand East EuropeanJournal29.2000. Mental Grammar: Russian Aspect and Related Issues. Chertkova.RomanO. 1960. Yokoyama and EmilyKlenin. Columbus."Discourseand Syntax(= Syntax and Semantics12).217 on Tue. Holden.Aspect.1986.180. Munich:LINCOMEUROPA.Bratislava:Izd. Akademiinauk. Radical Construction Grammar. 1976. Vidi vremiarusskogoglagola. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar.1992. Croft. Cambridge:CambridgeUP.280 Slavic and East European Journal REFERENCES Avilova. Chaput.Leningrad:Leningradskiiuniversitet. and Dangerous Things.verbalcategories.Vol. OH: Slavica.OH: Slavica.

and Paratactic Conjunctions in Contemporary Standard Russian. Anna. Leonard. Toward a Cognitive Semantics.Anna. 2. Concept Structuring Systems. 1967.Vol. van. 1: The Cardinal Semantic Structure of Prepositions. Talmy.217 on Tue. Timberlake.Moscow:Iazykirusskoikul'tury.Russian Aspect at Your Fingertips 281 Mehlig. Cambridge. Cases. Stunova. "On the semanticsof the verbal aspect in Polish. Bloomington. A Contrastive Study of Russian and Czech Aspect: Invariance vs. MA: MIT Press. Moscow:Vysshaiashkola. Typology and Process in Concept Structuring. Semantic Transmutations:Prolegomena to a Calculus of Meaning. "Someanalogiesbetween the morphologyof nouns and the morphology of aspectin Russian.Ed. Paducheva.305-31.180. Univ. Wierzbicka.1996. Diss. Hans Robert. of California-Berkeley.of Amsterdam. Vol. Stoll. and Aleksei D.1982. III." To Honor Roman Jakobson. 2nd ed.2231-49. PaulHopper. Semanticheskie Schooneveld. Discourse.ViktorV. Vol.2000. Univ. "Invarianceand the syntax of Russian aspect. The Hague:Mouton.1. 2000. Cornelis H. Russkiiiazyk. Anna A. IN: Physsardt."Folia Linguistica30 (1996):87-109. Zalizniak.Amsterdam:JohnBenjamins. Sabine Erika." Tense-aspect:Between semanticsandpragmatics. Vinogradov.1993. 2001. Moscow: Iazykirusskoikul'tury. Diss. This content downloaded from 129. 03 Nov 2015 15:48:40 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Alan. Vvedenie v russkuiu aspektologiiu. issledovaniia. 1972. Shmelev. The Acquisitionof RussianAspect. 1.Elena V. Vol. 1978.