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Water Level Indicator

A water level indicator can be fitted to the over head tank in your
building. It helps to detect if the water is filled up in the tank and
automatically switch the motor off or indicate with an alarm to
manually switch the motor off.

Connect the circuit as shown and the conducting wires at A, B, C,
D, E, and F. Keep the wires inside a tank. The lowest level is F and
the highest level where the water is just enough to spill out is
detected by E.

Precautions to be taken while connecting a circuit
 Always make sure all the negative terminals are grounded.
 Carefully connect all the components as shown in the circuit.
 Make sure that the components are connected in series and

 Always test a circuit on the breadboard and build it
on a PCB.
 Solder each joint carefully and make sure they don’t
short the others.

Resistance and a resistor
A resistor is an electronic component which has a
constant resistance value that can drop a constant
current and a voltage across it.
More than one resistor connected end to end (series)
add up to give an equivalent resistance which can be
replaced by one resistor of the equivalent resistance
For e.g.: R1=1ohm and R2=2ohm
When R1 and R2 are connected in series the total
RS = R1+R2
More than one resistor connected in a way that all
the starting points of resistors are connected
together and all the other ends are connected
together. Then the equivalent resistance is equal to
the sum of the reciprocals of their respective
For e.g.: If R1 and R2 are connected in parallel then
the total resistance is
RP= R1 + R2

A resistance of a resistor can be calculated either by
color coding or by connecting the ends to a


B-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Black
B-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Brown
R-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Red
O-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Orange
Y-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Yellow
G-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Green
B-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Blue
V-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Violet
G-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Grey

W------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- White

Inductor and Inductance
An Inductor is an electronic component which is made by winding
a wire into a coil where the number of turns increases the amount
of flux induced.