# Transport Phenomena

Transport Coefficients
Expressions for the behaviour of these properties in low-density gases can be derived by using
two approaches:
1. The kinetic theory of gases
2. Use of molecular interactions (Chapman-Enskog theory).
In the first case the molecules are rigid, non-attracting, and spherical. They have
1. A mass m and a diameter d
2. A concentration n (molecules/unit volume)
3. A distance of separation that is many times d.
Chapman-Enskog Theory
This approach is valid for a dilute gas that is monatomic and non-polar. The following
expressions for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity were derived:
μ=

2

3
2

√ mKT ( Eq.1)
d2

Where K is the Boltzmann constant
k=

1
2
d

D AB=

K 3T
(Eq.2)
3
π m
3 1
2
3

( )(

2 K
3 π

1
1
+
2 m A 2 mB

3
2

1
2

) P dT+d (Eq .3)
( 2 )
2

A

B

Lennard-Jones Potential
Proposed by Sir John Edward Lennard-Jones, the Lennard-Jones potential describes the potential
energy of interaction between two non-bonding atoms or molecules based on their distance of
separation. The potential equation accounts for the difference between attractive forces (dipoledipole, dipole-induced dipole, and London interactions) and repulsive forces.
Lennard – Jones potential is given by the following equation:
∅ ( r )=4 ϵ

[( ) ( ) ]
σ
r

12

σ
r

6

(Eq.4 )

1

Table A-3-4). 2 .6 x 10-6 pascal-sec. and diffusivity using the Lennard-Jones potential are: Chapman-Enskog Equation for viscosity: MT μ=2. σ is the distance at which the intermolecular potential between the two particles is zero .3225 ×10−2 √ 2 (Eq .5) σ Ωμ Thermal Conductivity: T /M k =8. 2.7 psia. P is in atmospheres. 1 σ AB = ( σ A + σ B ) . ϵ is a measure of how strongly the two particles attract each other.6693 ×10−6 √ 2 ( Eq .∅ is the intermolecular potential between the two atoms or molecules. 2 ε AB = κ √( εA κ εB κ )( ) and Ω AB is a function of KT ε AB (see Appendix B. Compare this value to that calculated by the Chapman –Enskog equation.8583 ×10−7 √ T3 ( 1 1 + MA MB 2 P σ AB Ω AB ) (Eq . Calculate the diffusivity for the methane-ethane system at 104°F and 14.7) where DAB is in units of m2/s. Resulting equations for viscosity.6) σ Ωk Ωk =Ω μ Mass Diffusvity: D AB=1. thermal conductivity. Activity 1 1. The viscosity of isobutane at 23°C and atmospheric pressure is 7. r is the distance of separation between both particles (measured from the centre of one particle to the centre of the other particle).

486) and propane at atmospheric pressure and 100 oC? 6. Estimate the viscosities of n-hexane at 200°C and toluene at 270°C. 4. Compute a value for DAB for a system of argon (A) and oxygen (B) at 294°K and atmospheric pressure. 5. respectively.6). What is the thermal conductivity of a mixture of methane (mole fraction of 0. The gases are at low pressure. 2) and (Eq. 3 . Compare values of thermal conductivity for argon at atmospheric pressure and 100°C using equations (Eq.3.