M e t r o p o l i ta n M u s e u m

Volu me 49 / 2014

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Koch Scientist in Charge. Designer Paul Booth. Managing Editor Bruce Campbell. Oceania. Inc. recording. European Paintings Julie Jones Curator Emeritus. Publisher and Editor in Chief Elizabeth L. and the Americas Luke Syson Iris and B. Mark Polizzotti. and the Americas Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser Alice Pratt Brown Curator of American Paintings and Sculpture D e n i s e P at r y L e i dy Curator. Paintings Conservation J oa n R . O.uchicago. back issue requests. Peluso. European Sculpture and Decorative Arts This publication is made possible by a gift from Assunta Sommella Peluso. Individual and institutional subscriptions are available worldwide. If you believe any material has been included improperly in this publication.org. and address changes to: University of Chicago Press.. Illinois Printed and bound by Puritan Capital. please contact the Editorial Department. Gerald Cantor Chairman. or any information storage or retrieval system. Copyright © 2014 by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Hollis. M e rt e n s Curator. Rockford. 1455–1532).S. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Arts of Africa. Ada Peluso. Journals Division. Box 37005. ca. page 34. USA. Phone: (877) 705-1878 (U. including photocopying. Please direct all subscription inquiries. electronic or mechanical. Greek and Roman Art J oa n n e P i l l s b u ry Andrall E. and Canada) or (773) 753-3347 (international).edu ISBN 978-0-226-21267-8 (University of Chicago Press) ISSN 0077-8958 (print) ISSN 2169-3072 (online) Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 68-28799 The Metropolitan Museum of Art endeavors to respect copyright in a manner consistent with its nonprofit educational mission. email: subscriptions@press. Manuscripts submitted for the Journal and all correspondence concerning them should be sent to journalsubmissions@metmuseum. New Hampshire Cover illustration: Detail of Tullio Lombardo (Italian. IL 60637-0005. P. ca. Masako Yoshida’s article was translated from the Japanese by Monica Bethe. 100 lb.edu. Separations by Professional Graphics. unless otherwise noted. and Romano I. New York All rights reserved. 1490–95. Block. The Editorial Board is especially grateful to Sarah McFadden for her assistance with this issue.journals. Asian Art Marco Leona David H. Adam. Image Acquisitions Associate Valeria Cafà’s article was translated from the Italian by Lawrence Jenkens. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.S. fax: (877) 705-1879 (U. in memory of Ignazio Peluso. Photographs of works in the Metropolitan Museum’s collection are by The Photograph Studio. and Canada) or (773) 753-0811 (international). Pearson Curator. The Metropolitan Museum Journal is published annually by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. See Figure 1. Chicago. Arts of Africa.E DITOR IAL BOAR D K at h a r i n e B a e t j e r Curator. . Production Manager Ling Hu. All other translations are by the authors. Cornelia Reiter’s article was translated from the German by Russell Stockman. Guidelines for contributors are given on page 6. Oceania. Scientific Research D o r ot h y M a h o n Conservator. Typeset in Optima LT Std Printed on Creator Silk.uchicago. without permission in writing from The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Published in association with the University of Chicago Press. website: www.

For Julie Jones A meticulous and probing reader who significantly broadened the Journal’s scope For Bruce C a mpbell An exceptional designer who lavished his talents on this publication .


a n d R o n a l d S t r e e t A New Analysis of Major Greek Sculptures in the Metropolitan Museum: Petrological and Stylistic Lorenzo Lazzarini and Clemente Marconi 117 Hellenistic Etruscan Cremation Urns from Chiusi Theresa Huntsman 141 Redeeming Pieter Coecke van Aelst’s Gluttony Tapestry: Learning from Scientific Analysis F e d e r i c o C a r ò . J a c k S o u lta n i a n . G e o r g e  W h e e l e r . M i c h a e l M o r r i s . a n d N o b u k o S h i b aya m a 151 Trade Stories: Chinese Export Embroideries in the Metropolitan Museum M a s a k o Y o s h i da 165 A Greek Inscription in a Portrait by Salvator Rosa Michael Zellmann-Rohrer 187 Honoré de Balzac and Natoire’s The Expulsion from Paradise193 C a r o l S a n to l e r i Another Brother for Goya’s “Red Boy”: Agustín Esteve’s Portrait of Francisco Xavier Osorio. G i u l i a C h i o s t r i n i . L aw r e n c e B e c k e r . Conde de Trastámara201 X av i e r F.Contents Adam by Tullio Lombardo Adam by Tullio Lombardo L u k e S y s o n a n d V a l e r i a C a fà 9 Ancient Sources for Tullio Lombardo’s Adam33 V a l e r i a C a fà The Treatment of Tullio Lombardo’s Adam: A New Approach to the Conservation of Monumental Marble Sculpture49 C a r o ly n R i c ca r d e l l i . S a l o m o n Nature as Ideal: Drawings by Joseph Anton Koch and Johann Christian Reinhart Cornelia Reiter 207 A Buddhist Source for a Stoneware “Basket” Designed by Georges Hoentschel D e n i s e P at r y L e i dy 225 . E l i z a b e t h C l e l a n d .

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M e t r o p o l i ta n M u s e u m Journal Volume 49 / 2014 .

 1656) at Monterufoli as “the Garden of Hesperides” and a “little Parnassus.15 In a continuation of the pattern of classicizing selfidentification. referring to Plutarch as the source for the subjects of Pan and Pindar.12 These also appear in the letters Rosa wrote to Ricciardi. a noted physicist and mathematician. 1671).” and casts himself and his colleagues as Greek philosophers.23 Rosa’s paintings and drawings provide further testament to his interest in and acquaintance with classical languages. there is noticeable Metropolitan Museum Journal 49 © 2014 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Born in Arenella. including one titled “Encomium of the Golden Age” by Evangelista Torricelli (1608 – 1647).17 while casting himself as Boethius (after the late ancient philosopher). His satires bristle with classical allusions from a wide range of genres. three inscriptions appear in the composition. Rosa calls Ricciardi “Horace” (after the Roman poet)16 and later “my wise and refined Metrodorus” (after the Greek philosopher Metrodorus of Lampsacus. which praises Rosa as the “Demosthenes of painting.18 On the topic of a set of engravings.9 and a poetic composition by Niccolò Simonelli (d. and Pythagoras on the seashore liberating a net full of fish. the philologists and classical scholars Carlo Roberto Dati (1619 – 1676).A Greek Inscription in a Portrait by Salvator Rosa Michael Zellmann-Rohrer University of California. known for his ability to locate and acquire copies of classical and other texts of interest to the literary elite of Tuscany. and Rosa occasionally served as his agent in this enterprise. near Naples.20 He writes about a depiction of the Catilinarian Conspiracy. becoming an adept himself. 1697). while in Florence. and Valerio Chimentelli (1620 – 1668). among other intellectuals. and the commentary on Homer by Eustathius of Thessalonike. including direct citations in the original Latin11 and broader textual reminiscences.3 A few years later. In 1651.22 Ricciardi in turn offered recommendations for suitable classical subjects. Rosa traveled to Rome as a young man.13 in which Rosa quotes Ovid in the original14 and Aristotle in a Latin translation.”10 Rosa’s own literary production.19 Rosa discusses classical texts that inspired his paintings. depicting a man holding a human skull (Figure 1). particularly its source texts from classical Greece and Rome. Andrea Cavalcanti (1610 – ​1672). as Rosa describes the villa of his friend Giulio Maffei (d.5 In Florence. who would guide Rosa in that discipline. which Rosa founded with Lorenzo Lippi (1606 – ​ 1665) about 1643. over the course of a long friendship.4 Ricciardi was a bibliophile. Rosa exclaims.6 The group included. Aethra and Theseus.2 In fact. including a depiction of Diogenes the Cynic. New York self-­identification with classical antiquity among the Percossi. “Oh.7 This milieu would certainly have provided a suitable setting for Rosa to become conversant in Greek and Roman literature and culture.8 Their banquets often concluded with orations. Rosa acquired for Ricciardi in Rome three Greek texts: the Adversus mathematicos by Sextus Empiricus. Indeed. executed in close accord with the description of the Roman historian Sallust.” and mentions Latin dedicatory inscriptions for the engravings. Ricciardi participated in the Accademia dei Percossi. from 1638 he received training in poetry and satire from the court poet Antonio Abate (d. situated in this context. which borrowed heavily from classical texts. bears out his familiarity with classical works. and one of them. which Rosa welcomed. in addition to painting.21 and refers to a painting of his on the “calling of Protagoras to philosophy. some rather obscure. There. composed in classical Greek.” taken from the work of the Roman author Aulus Gellius. owing to an inscription. a future professor of philosophy. 187 . who had contacts with major centers for the study of antiquity in Rome and at the University of Pisa. how much in debt we are to the Stoic School. an important early patron of Rosa’s work. has previously been misinterpreted. Rosa first encountered Ricciardi. the Bibliotheca by Photius.1 though the work can be securely set in the context of the friendship between Rosa and Giovanni Battista Ricciardi (1623 – 1686). The identity of the sitter has been disputed. Berkeley I n the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art is a painting most often identified as a self-portrait by Salvator Rosa (1615 – 1673). one of the founders of Epicureanism).

105).1 x 79. 1615 – 1673). 1647. 39 x 31 1⁄4 in. Harrison. (99. Photograph: Juan Trujillo. Self-Portrait. 1921 (21. Bequest of Mary L. MMA 188 . Oil on canvas.4 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art.1. ca. The Photograph Studio. Salvator Rosa (Italian.

is going) A Greek Inscription in a Portrait by Salvator Rosa  189 . we. the stroke with which the sitter is eternally occupied in Rosa’s depiction.”29 The inscription should not be read as two independent interrogatives (whither? when?) but as an interrogative followed by an indefinite (whither. however. depicts a young man inscribing a rock in Latin with a line adapted from the Roman poet Statius. which previous translations have rendered correctly. Numerous discussions of the painting have mentioned this inscription and offered a transcription and translation. as in English. An important practical implication of the accent system is its ability to distinguish between homographs. mankind. potev. poi`. the circumstances are otherwise. The latter situation pertains to the Greek inscription in the painting. rendered in English along the lines of. As accented by Rosa. “Behold. among them the class of adverbs that can function as either interrogatives or indefinites. Whither? When?”28 While these translations capture the semantic value of the first and sec­ ond words correctly. poi` kai. when governed by a verb denoting questioning or. with pen in midstroke. in which a man holds a tablet inscribed “Aut tace aut loquere meliora silentio” (Either keep quiet or say something better than silence). Interrogatives in classical Greek. povqen. depending on their accentuation. When written orthotone. sometime). whither (I.27 They universally construe the text as three syntactically independent words. in contrast to its descendant.26 and not in the ver­ nacular of the gift inscription but in classical Greek. with the passage of time suggested by the skull. Detail of Figure 1. should not be read in isolation from the interrogative but rather as governing it. specifically as an end or goal of motion. A useful parallel is a formulaic question put to travelers met in transit in the classical world.30 literally “Whither and whence?” but clearly with some form of a verb of motion implied: “Whither (are you going) and whence (are you coming)?” Just such a verb can readily be supplied here. Classical Greek is generally agreed to have had a pitch accent. this cannot be correct: his adverb has the enclitic form. which connotes both literal sight and metaphorical contemplation. which appear as: hjniv poi` potev (Figure 2). but an indefinite force if written without an accent (enclitic): hence poi` means “whither?” while poi means “somewhither. image rotated Aside from his predilection for subjects drawn from classical literature.25 It is an arresting feature of the painting at the Metropolitan that the sitter not only holds and contemplates the skull but also writes upon it with pen and ink. now in a private collection in Karlsruhe. poi`. has interrogative force if written with an accent (orthotone). and is therefore indefinite. and the word has interrogative force (when?). Both the second and third words of this inscription belong to this class. etc. that of the third has been misunderstood. The key lies in the accent written on its final letter — ​indeed. The base adverb pote denotes time. adding an accent to the last of the three Greek words. you. meaning “sometime. later spreading to the Greek-literate scholars of the Italian Renaissance and beyond. povte. a line reminiscent of two Greek aphorisms collected by the anthologist Stobaeus. A drawing by Rosa from his time in Florence.24 Also worth mentioning is a painting of Rosa’s now in the National Gallery in London. On the back of the drawing is a letter likely written by Ricciardi to a mutual friend. With the third word. The interjection hjjniv. Rosa captures the sitter in the act of inscribing. the accent falls as an acute on the first syllable. can introduce not only direct questions but also so-called indirect questions. Rosa quotes the original texts themselves as inscriptions. with the same base semantic value. the object of the sitter’s contemplation. What is missing is a finite verb for the resulting indirect question clause. Ascanio della Penna.. relating to the pitch of the voice used to pronounce the accented syllable.” Rosa has clearly written the orthotone form. quoting the same passage. and inscription: “Behold. which employ a stress accent. to become modern scholarly practice. but it can be easily supplied from the context. the first as an interjection and the sec­ ond and third as interrogative adverbs. modern Greek. more broadly.2. an adverb denoting place. A system for marking these accents in writing was not developed until after the classical period and only came into full use in manuscripts produced by the Byzantines. any informative or thinking process whose object could be a question. which is how Rosa’s inscription previously has been interpreted. and many other Indo-European languages.

” a notorious courtesan in classical Greece mentioned by Diogenes Laertius.) 20. La pittura. Roworth 1988. Rosa. 24.1 – 8 (see Shackleton Bailey 2001). Horace. cf. 1650 (Festa and Borrelli 2003. p. p.1 (see Mueller 1995). 114). 137).3. 14. 10. containing the Calling of Protagoras to philosophy. in a letter of June 19. p. cf.” Death. Letter of January 5. 38. Langdon 2010. p. Letter of December 19. p. which has taught us an effective medicine for any human difficulty! The dedications. Batt. 1654 (ibid. and Ovid. 28. 1664 (ibid. 144). Letter of September 9. “Behold whither. 2. 161. as does Timocles with the same. see Rosa. p. Letter of October 21. p. p. with all this I will try to satisfy you). no. La musica. 326. 1652 (ibid. For more. “Dell’Istoria della Conciura di Catelina. no. and “Quando Ethra mostra a Teseo suo figliolo il sasso ove erano ­nascoste le scarpe e la spada di Egeo suo genitore. among others (“Eppure non posso riscaldarmi. At Pisa. Carmina 1. no. no. p. 198): “Per Dio Ricciardi che giornalmente conosco che Luciano l’ha intesa meglio d’ogn’altro. Rosa apologizes for a brief letter (August 27. who knew Greek well. 375). every day I’m coming to know that Lucian understood it better than anyone else. which refers specifically to the Greek inscription to argue for identifying Rosa’s friend Ricciardi as the sitter as opposed to Rosa (p. 153. 18. 16. 49 – 50. and that his Cyniscus remonstrates very well with Jupiter. the work of an anonymous translator. Ricciardi / ​ suo Amico (Salvatore Rosa painted [this] in the solitude of the ­wilderness and gave [it] to Giovanni Battista Ricciardi. since you can look in Aulus Gellius). such that he could not warm himself by “the torch of Cupid. 316. con tutto ciò procurerò di sodisfarvi” (Oh.. no. 9. and Rosa. s’incomincia. . p. 39. 1663 (ibid. which I do not recount. see letter of September 8. 1662 (ibid. Ricciardi also introduced Rosa to Paganino Gaudenzio (1595 – 1649). lines 272 – 73 (see Romei 1995). Latin or vernacular. figured by the skull.31 The Greek is neat in its pithiness. Given the importance of classical culture and ­literature to the group.  224. Ars amatoria 1. eventually. 201). Petronius Satyricon 100. vi prego a compatirmi se fra questo mentre sarò breve nello scrivervi. cf.. only the time of arrival is uncertain. The inscription is painted on the crumpled sheet of paper depicted on the lower left. then he never gets it to stop). Carmina 43. giuro a Bacco!” In a letter of January 26. 103 – 4. See Perelli 2006. so to speak. 296). 176). line 304. no. as the same Plutarch recounts at the beginning of his Life). see letter of July 29.. his friend). 349. but it would not necessarily demand mastery of the classical idiom to produce.. and Aristotle. no. p. 36. conforme il medesimo Plutarco narra nel principio della sua vita” (When Aethra shows to her son Theseus the stone where the shoes and the sword of his father Aegeus were hidden. Salvatore Rosa dipinse nell’Eremo / e dono a Gio. 196. / vedi per tutto il quidlibet audendi [italics in this edition]” (When you want to find “enough already. see Langdon 2010. no. line 129 (see Romei 1995). Letter of October 9. 8. p. La poesia. pp. 21. 305). no. i quali ci hanno insegnata un’efficace medicina per alcune humane difficultà! “Le dedicatorie. 6. “Oh quanto siamo tenuti alla scuola degli Stoici. 57n5. potendola voi vedere in Aulo Gelio)” (A [painting] 10 palms [high] and seven wide. no. The manuscript text is preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale. pp. Rosa. 1652. full of “slaughter and rumor. 19. or even the embraces of Phryne. no. 1666 (ibid. attesoché ho la capa così piena di straggi e rumori che sembro sia Alletto. p. Hoare 2010. 126. because his head is. Rosa. 1651 (ibid. 22. is the universal endpoint. p. né mi riscalderiano né le faci di Cupido né gl’abracciamenti di Frine!”). p. 311.8 (see Mynors 1958). Festa and Borrelli 2003. pp. 393. “E per farla cantar si suda e stenta.” such that he resembles the mythological Fury Allecto: “Però.. how much in debt we are to the Stoic School. Sermones 1. quoting Horace. 5. Catullus. Also “Sotto ogni ciel padre commune è ’l sole” (Under every sky the sun is the common father). 220 – 21. 4.349 – 50 (see Kenney 1995).” you see everywhere “[capacity for] daring anything at all”). con dentro la Vocazione di Protagora alla filosofia (la quale non raconto.” (By God. respectively (see Shackleton Bailey 2001). and Scott 1995. La poesia. 328). p. 27. 190 15. 1656 (ibid. 272). Florence.. 294. p.. no. 12.. Letter of March 27. 3. ci deveno importar poco. 70). For example. Letter of July 6.2. is printed in Academia Regia Borussica 1831. 13. N OT E S 1. should ­matter little to us. the motive was certainly present. o latine o volgari. Juppiter ­confutatus and Juppiter tragoedus.. 291). amico. Letter of November 9. 45. respectively: “In una tela grande ho dipinto il dio Pane in atto di discorrere con Pindaro poeta e di compiacersi delle sue poesie conforme accenna Plutarco nella Vita di Numa” (On a large canvas I painted the god Pan in the act of speaking with the poet Pindar and taking delight in his poetry. but. Ricciardi. see Scott 1995. Rosa derived the subject of a painting of Pythagoras from Plutarch (“Motivo tolto da un’opuscolo di Plutarco”). p. 623.” Or more concisely. On Ricciardi and his close connection with Rosa. Eudemian Ethics 1245b. the Life of Numa and Life of Theseus. A source for the Greek inscription in Rosa’s painting in a classical or later Greek text has not been located. La poesia 500 – 501 (see Romei 1995). pp. if it starts.2.at some point in time. 1656 (Festa and Borrelli 2003. e ch’el suo Cinisco dichi molto bene il fatto suo con Iupiter. 7. Rosa complains of the cold. poi mai la finisce” (And to make it sing he sweats and struggles.. 46). See. See the various commentaries in Romei 1995. see Volpi and Paliaga 2012. Sermones 1. The translation. cf.. espressa per l’appunto conforme la descrive Salustio” (Of the story of the conspiracy of Catiline. and from whose writings Rosa borrowed in his painting. for example. esp. e col medesimo Timocles. 1670 (ibid.8. / ma. as Plutarch intimates in the Life of Numa). 23 – 63. p. Ibid. Horace. Hoare 2010. no.1 and Ars poetica 10. 11. p. line 405. Rosa also praises the surpassing wisdom of the Greek dialogues of Lucian. “Mentre il iam satis ritrovar vorresti. The subjects of two paintings were drawn from two works of Plutarch. Perelli 2006. 17. expressed exactly as Sallust describes it). 1663 (ibid. but it is entirely possible that it was produced in the circle of Rosa and Ricciardi. “Uno [quadro] di palmi 10 e largo sette.

Vitae ­p hilosophorum 6. which he labels Study for a Self-portrait). 298. 1. and a complex set of rules determines the placement of an accent on one or both. 1935.metmuseum​ . See Epigrammata 4. p. in the Greek Anthology 6. attributed to the tragedian Dionysius. quoting this line in the entry cited in the following paragraph.” Langdon 2010. 133 – 34.” But the phrase could also have been suggested by another aphorism in the same section of Stobaeus’s work.34. such that it could be available for use in this inscription. to which he responds in the present poem. are close enough to Rosa’s inscription that they could plausibly have served as an aid in its composition (“Aut tace aut loquere meliora silentio”). however. The far more common means of expressing the same thought (“behold”) would have been with ijdouv. see Scott 1995. Marquand. aut sile” (Either say something better than silence.3 (Meschini 1976). 49. and so asks for another recommendation. having simply located the word in a lexicon and copied it down without applying the rules for accent. would thus violate that rule (the contonation unit falls two morae from the end of the word). The Suda. itself not particularly common. Pythagoras. modern editors print hjnivde (a compound of h[n and i[de. As happens here. 114.  61. Rosa had recently read the Life of Apollonius by Philostratus.34. “Haec aeui mihi prima dies” (This is the first day of my life).13 (see Courtney 1992). This may well be the same Adolph Cotton who received a Master’s degree in archaeology from Princeton University in 1934 and served as assistant curator at the British Museum before his presumed death at sea in 1935. Dwrikw`ı. who published a Latin translation of Stobaeus’s anthology.7). or the circumflex accent as rise and fall in pitch combined in a single syllable) may not fall more than one mora (a syllable containing a short vowel. and Paliaga 2009. Among subsequent translators.e. no. elided to h[n j ijdouv (see Dübner 1877). 104. 30.4. Diogenes Laertius. hjniv is used twice in the epigrams of Janos Ryndakenos Laskaris (1445 – 1535). 474. and we could make the case for the painter. points to an underlying hjni. active as a scholar and teacher of Greek in Italy and France. In this ­particular case. hence an additional accent. 1935. the two are pronounced essentially as a single word. For example. no. From a theoretical perspective. hjniv. 119).   28. 159. 31. Rosa and Ricciardi deliberately altered the Latin to fit the intended context. 277). perhaps in an effort to find a more exotic expression. vol.59. searched in Rome on Ricciardi’s behalf for the works of the Swiss philologist Konrad Gesner. The MMA digital catalogue record suggests that this translation appeared as early as 1935: “Eleanor C. poi`pote. vol. in this idyllic scene] is the first day of my life). Sloane. National Gallery. It may have arisen through misreading of earlier texts by scholars in late antiquity and Byzantium. the acute.” Suda. along with Cosimo Brunetti. “H j ni (is used) instead of ijdouv in the Doric dialect. however. a syllable containing a long vowel or diphthong counts as two morae) from the end of the word. 17. “Unde et quo Catius” (Whence and whither [goes] Catius?). and considerable variation on points such as this appears in medieval manuscripts and early printed editions. h. of h[n. and none entertains the alternative. The relevant entry in Stobaeus (3.3 (see Beckby 1965 – ). but the m ­ edieval Suda. the line of Statius in fact runs. see Wilson 1992. See Statius. on which he has received an invitation to a state banquet from the emperor Domitian. 1. 1652 (Festa and Borrelli 2003. not as Langdon translates. A Greek Inscription in a Portrait by Salvator Rosa  191 .. 1. 5). 24. Plato. see letter of January 14. 29. Modern editors consistently print h]n ijdouv. When an enclitic follows an orthotone word.” which is of course attractive.. further. tou` ijdouv. is placed on the final syllable. while missing the precise sense of the Greek (she gives “Behold. no. 1. The absence of published evidence from the intervening period renders as pure conjecture hypotheses about the text’s subsequent use. the writing poi` potev is more correct. “Either say some­thing better than silence or keep silent.3 and 45. It may be more than a coincidence that Rosa. Gesner’s translation of the relevant passages. 1662 (ibid. Helen Langdon. or a classicist friend who advised him on the text. or keep silent). but a late ancient commentary ad loc. Phaedrus 227a 1. See. or alternate spelling. when”). to which we journey. consisting of orthotone plus enclitic. 27. February 13. p. 23. modern scholarly convention would prefer the writing poi` pote. and enjoyed it. no. notes that the Greek scholar Adolph Cotton translates the words on the skull as ‘Behold. divides it into hjni. siga`n h] kreivssona sigh`~ levgein. but with a different one than it would have had in its orthotone form. The Frogs of Aristophanes has h]n ijdouv (1390). see Snell. p. See  “Former Student Disappears at Sea. is crh. The notional “word” envisaged here.2. whither. vol. under Pythagoras’s name. p. The fundamental rule of accent placement is that the “contonation unit” (acute accent as rise in pitch followed by an unmarked fall in pitch on the next s­ yllable.4. 1. In both drawing and letter the Latin reads: “Hic aeui mihi prima dies” (Here [i. 26. Letter to Margaret D. p. which Ricciardi recommended.” Stobaeus 3. The search is mentioned in a letter from Rosa and Brunetti to Ricciardi. 457 – 58. the poet counts as “barren” all days leading up to the present one. however. potev is also the conventional form for the enclitic written in isolation (the lexical form). A related drawing is discussed by Michael Mahoney (1977. Langdon 2010. no. whither. It was. In context. pp. Similarly. but had not found suitable subjects for painting as he had hoped. vol. 6). p. and a Latin equivalent in the Satires of Horace 2. It is possible to imagine that whoever composed the present text consulted this or some similar work.” Papers of Princeton. h] levge ti sigh`~ krei`tton h] sigh.n e[ce. Scott identifies “an aphorism translated from the Greek philosopher.1 (Dionysius frag. comes the closest to the correct interpretation in her commentary: “It exhorts the viewer to behold this symbol of death. p. “One should be silent or say something better than silence. dev. Kannicht. and Radt 1986 – 2004. pp. A blending of the two also seems possible. given Rosa’s interest in philosophy. 29nn135 – 37. “This day is my first. 25. when. ijdouv. on Laskaris’s career.org/Collections/search-the-collections/437508?rpp=20&pg=1&ao =on&ft=salvator+rosa&pos=1).1. represents a rare alternate form. The first word of the Greek inscription. though we know not when. the latter related to ijdouv). where the enclitic lacks a written accent. see Gesner 1557. no. Silvae 4. for more “unusual” subject matter. “Aut oportet silere aut afferre meliora silentio” (One should either keep silent or contribute something better than silence) and “Aut dic aliquid silentio melius. January 26. This drawing does not detail the text itself. Letter of September 16. taken up as a word in its own right by at least one later author.236. Significantly. with the semantic force unaffected. 98 – 100. pp. p. At any rate. but it seems worth noting that Laskaris would have been well placed to introduce this rare form from the Byzantine into the Italian intellectual milieu. specifically lists hjniv as a dialect variant for ijdouv: H j niv: ajnti.” As has not yet been emphasized. p. Not always correctly: for example. London (NG4680).’ but cannot identify a source for them” (www. 244. a postclassical Greek work combining encyclopedia and lexicon. hjniv poiv [sic] potev (Brigitte Daprà in Salvator Rosa: Tra mito e magia 2008. 385 (see Adler 1928 – 35). A reproduction of the drawing and the text of the letter are given in Ozzola 1909. an enclitic under some circumstances may be written with an accent.

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