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Fall
2009

Thursday,
September
17,
2009

&
Tuesday,
September
19,
2009

Chapter
3:
Mo?on
in
Two
and
Three

Dimensions

**Displacement, Velocity and
**

Acceleration

Displacement describes the location of

a particle

Velocity is rate of change of

displacement

Acceleration is rate of change of

velocity

In more than one dimension, displacement,

velocity, and acceleration are all vectors.

3-D Kinematics

x = x(t)

y = y(t)

z = z(t)

dx

vx =

dt

dy

vy =

dt

dz

vz =

dt

dvx d 2 x

ax =

= 2

dt

dt

r = r (t )

d2y

ay =

= 2

dt

dt

dvy

dr

v=

dt

dvz d 2 z

az =

= 2

dt

dt

d r

a= 2

dt

2

3-D Kinematics

x = x(t)

dx

v=

dt

dv d 2 x

a=

= 2

dt dt

Displacement of a particle in two dimensions

r = r = x2 + y 2

θ

€

x = x cos θ

y = r sin θ

Change of displacement of a moving particle average velocity is € Δr v = Δt .

Magnitude of velocity vector: 2 x v = v +v 2 y Direction of velocity vector described by θ: € vy θ = tan vx −1 y vy θ vx € x .

Average velocity over time interval Δt: Δr v =v= Δt Instantaneous velocity: € € lim Δ r d r v (t) = = Δt → 0 Δt dt .

Relative velocity • Velocity is defined relative to a frame of reference. vx = 0 vx ≠ 0 .

What direction should he point? .Example 3-2: Flying plane in wind Wind blows east (along x) with velocity v AG = 90 km/h € Pilot of plane that flies 200 km/h wishes to fly due north.

0.47 radians x (360 degrees)/(2π radians) = 27° W of N] .Example 3-2: Flying plane in wind Wind blows east (along x) with velocity v AG = 90 km/h € Pilot of plane that flies 200 km/h wishes to fly due north. What direction should he point? Velocity of plane in x-direction = vAG-vpAsinθ. this component of the velocity must be zero: sinθ = vAG/vpA = (90 km/hr)/(200 km/hr) sinθ = 0. in degrees.47 radians from N [ or. To go due north.45 θ = 0.

Relative to the water.Question Three swimmers can swim equally fast relative to the water. Which swimmer wins the race? A) Ann B) Beth C) Carly . They have a race to see who can swim across a river in the least time. Ann (A) swims upstream. Beth (C) swims perpendicular to the flow. and Carly (C) swims downstream.

Ann (A) swims upstream. Which swimmer wins the race? A) Ann B) Beth C) Carly correct Time to get across = width of river/perpendicular component of velocity. Beth (B) swims perpendicular to the flow. .Question Three swimmers can swim equally fast relative to the water. Relative to the water. and Carly (C) swims downstream. Beth has the largest perpendicular component of velocity. They have a race to see who can swim across a river in the least time.

Question (seagull) A seagull flies through the air with a velocity of 10 m/s in the absence of wind. Assume it can only make the same effort while flying in wind. a. c. It is not possible to calculate this. The round-trip time is always longer with the wind. Compare the time is takes for the seagull to fly on a calm day to the time it takes when the wind is blowing constantly towards the shore at 5 m/s. The round-trip time is the same with and without the wind b. . It makes a daily round-trip to an island one km from shore.

c. In the presence of wind. so the total time in the presence of wind is 267 s. a. Total round trip time in the absence of wind is 2×(1000 m)/(10 m/s) = 200 s.Question (seagull) A seagull flies through the air with a velocity of 10 m/s in the absence of wind. the seagull’s speed going towards shore is 15 m/s and away from shore is 5 m/s. Assume it can only make the same effort while flying in wind. It makes a daily round-trip to an island one km from shore. Compare the time is takes for the seagull to fly on a calm day to the time it takes when the wind is blowing constantly towards the shore at 5 m/s. The round-trip time is the same with and without the wind b. and the time to return is (1000 m)/(15 m/s) = 67 s. It is not possible to calculate this. The round-trip time is always longer with the wind. The time to go out to the island is (1000 m)/(5 m/s) = 200 s. .

Acceleration vectors Average acceleration over time interval Δt: Δv a =a= Δt Instantaneous acceleration: € € lim Δv dv a(t) = = Δt → 0 Δt dt .

Final velocity has same magnitude v and points due north.Example 3-4 Acceleration for uniform circular motion. Initial velocity has magnitude v and points due east. Velocity has changed particle is accelerating! Δv average acceleration = Δt .

3-D problems can be reduced to 2-D problems: Choose y axis to be along direction of acceleration.2-D Kinematics Often. Example: Throwing a baseball (neglecting air resistance) • Acceleration is constant (gravity) • Choose y axis up: ay = -g • Choose x axis along the ground in the direction of the throw y x . Choose x axis to be along the “other” direction of motion.

.3-2 Projectile motion For projectile motion: Horizontal acceleration is zero (horizontal velocity is constant) Vertical acceleration is -g (magnitude g. except that the object stops moving both horizontally and vertically at the instant it hits the ground (or some other object). directed downward) The horizontal and vertical motions are uncoupled.

C. an object dropped from a plane flying at constant speed in a straight line will A. Move ahead of the plane. Quickly lag behind the plane. . Remain vertically under the plane.Without air resistance. B.

so its speed downwards increases. Move ahead of the plane. There is no acceleration in the horizontal direction – object continues to travel with the same horizontal velocity (same as the plane). C. Remain vertically under the plane. Quickly lag behind the plane.Without air resistance. the object accelerates downward. an object dropped from a plane flying at constant speed in a straight line will A. B. . Due to gravitational acceleration.

Fig 3-12 .Vertical and horizontal motions are independent The vertical positions of these two balls are the same at each time. vertical motion and horizontal motion are independent. For projectile motion.

. The horizontal range is then v0xT = (v0cosθ)(2v0sinθ/g) = v02sin(2θ)/g.Horizontal range of a projectile The horizontal range is the product of the horizontal speed (x component of the velocity) and the total time that the projectile is in the air. then T. is determined by finding when it reaches height y=0 again: The two solutions of this equation are T=0 (as expected) and T=2v0y/g=2v0sinθ/g. If object starts at height y=0. the time in the air.

Ball 2 has twice the initial speed of ball 1. Both are thrown at an angle of 30° above the horizontal. If ball 1 is caught a distance D1 from the thrower. how far away from the thrower D2 will the receiver of ball 2 be when he catches it? (a) D2 = 2D1 (b) D2 = 4D1 (c) D2 = 8D1 .Problem: projectile motion in 2D Two footballs are thrown from the same point on a flat field.

range = v02sin(2θ)/g . how far away from the thrower D2 will the receiver of ball 2 be when he catches it? (a) D2 = 2D1 (b) D2 = 4D1 (c) D2 = 8D1 Initial speed doubled time in the air and horizontal velocity both double.Problem: projectile motion in 2D Two footballs are thrown from the same point on a flat field. If ball 1 is caught a distance D1 from the thrower. So horizontal distance traveled goes up by a factor of 4. Ball 2 has twice the initial speed of ball 1. Both are thrown at an angle of 30° above the horizontal.

range = v02sin(2θ)/g fig 3-17 .The range of a projectile depends on initial angle. Starting at ground level (y=0). the range is maximized for θ=45°.

the maximum horizontal displacement is achieved when the projection angle is somewhat less than 45°. fig 3-18 .If a projectile lands at an elevation lower than the initial elevation.

Ship B 3. If the shells follow the parabolic trajectories shown.A battleship simultaneously fires two shells at enemy ships from identical cannons. Both at the same time A B . Ship A 2. which ship gets hit first? 1.

B . Ship A 2. the longer the flight takes. Ship B 3.A battleship simultaneously fires two shells at enemy ships from identical cannons. which ship gets hit first? 1. If the shells follow the parabolic trajectories shown. Both at the same time A The higher the shell flies.

and the monkey lets go of branch at the same time that the ranger shoots. Does the ranger hit the monkey? fig 3-20 (a) Yes (b) No .Example 3-10: ranger and monkey Ranger aims at monkey. Assume the dart comes out fast enough to reach the monkey while it is in the air.

Does the ranger hit the monkey? fig 3-20 (a) Yes (b) No There is one time T at which the horizontal position of the dart is the same as that of the monkey. Assume the dart comes out fast enough to reach the monkey while it is in the air. . If you find the vertical positions of the dart and the monkey at that time. and the monkey lets go of branch at the same time that the ranger shoots. they are also the same. So the dart hits the monkey.Example 3-10: ranger and monkey (demo) Ranger aims at monkey.

Special case 2: Circular motion An object undergoes circular motion when it is always a constant distance from a fixed point. .

so circular motion involves constant acceleration (whether or not the speed is changing). . the velocity is always changing direction.Ex. 3-11. fig 3-22 Along a circular path. A swinging pendulum.

Tangential acceleration: acceleration directed parallel to the velocity – results in a change of the speed of the particle.Acceleration along a circular path Centripetal acceleration: acceleration that is perpendicular to the velocity (directed towards center of circle). 3-23 . fig.

Uniform circular motion Uniform circular motion is circular motion at constant speed (no tangential acceleration). There is still centripetal acceleration! .

What is uniform circular motion? y v R Motion in a circle with: • Constant radius R • Constant speed |v| • Velocity is NOT constant (direction is changing) • There is acceleration! x .

angular velocity] In uniform circular motion: R is constant (hence vR=0) ω (angular velocity) is constant ⇒ Polar coordinates are a natural way to describe uniform circular motion! x . θ) [position] • (vR. one coordinate system is as good as any other: y v • Cartesian: • (x.How can we describe uniform circular motion? In general. ω) [radial velocity. y) [position] • (vx. vy) [velocity] θ R • Polar: • (R.

Polar coordinates The arc length s (distance along the circumference) is related to the angle via: y s = Rθ. v The units of θ are radians. (x. where θ is the angular displacement.y) For one complete revolution: 2πR = Rθcomplete θcomplete= 2π 1 revolution = 2π radians X = R cos θ y = R sin θ θ R x .

⇒ ω has units of radians/second. angular velocity dθ/dt = ω. ⇒ θ = ωt.Polar coordinates In Cartesian coordinates. Since s = Rθ = Rωt. Distance traveled by particle s = vt. y v ⇒ x = vxt In polar coordinates. we say velocity dx/dt=vx. we have v = ωR R θ=ωt s x .

Find acceleration during uniform circular motion Δv Δr € € Δv v = Δr r Δr v Δr = Δt r Δt v2 a= r acceleration is directed towards center of circle € .

Tangential acceleration If the speed along a circular path is changing. € . the tangential acceleration is at = dv dt The tangential acceleration is the time-derivative of the speed.

3-7 The velocity of a particle is directed towards the east while the acceleration is directed toward the northwest. The particle is: (a) speeding up and turning toward the north (b) speeding up and turning toward the south (c) slowing down and turning toward the north (e) maintaining constant speed and turning toward the south . as shown.Prob.

The particle is: (a) speeding up and turning toward the north (b) speeding up and turning toward the south (c) slowing down and turning toward the north (e) maintaining constant speed and turning toward the south . 3-7 The velocity of a particle is directed towards the east while the acceleration is directed toward the northwest. as shown.Prob.

3-26 Initial and final velocities of a particle are as shown.Prob. mostly down . What is the direction of the average acceleration? a. mostly up b.

3-26 Initial and final velocities of a particle are as shown. What is the direction of the average acceleration? a.Prob. mostly up b. mostly down .

x=50 m.2 m above the ground. .Problem 3-75 – hitting the monkey What is the minimum initial speed of the dart if it is to hit the monkey before the monkey hits the ground? Monkey is d=11. Note that tanθ=h/x. h=10 m.

Amount of time it takes for the monkey to hit the ground is Δt = 2d/ g = 2 × 11.2 / 9.2 m above the ground.5 s Because dart must move a distance x horizontally in this amount of time. or x x h2 + x 2 (10m)2 + (50m)2 v0 ≥ = = = 34m / s Δt cos θ Δt x (1. x=50 m. need x/(v0 cos θ)≤Δt.Problem 3-75 – hitting the monkey What is the minimum initial speed of the dart if it is to hit the monkey before the monkey hits the ground? Monkey is d=11.8 = 1. Note that tanθ=h/x. h=10 m.5s) .

Where does the projectile land? (Ignore air resistance.Problem 3-84. Its initial velocity is 60 m/s at 60° above the horizontal. A projectile is fired into the air from the top of a 200-m cliff above a valley.) .

A projectile is fired into the air from the top of a 200-m cliff above a valley.Problem 3-84. Where does the projectile land? (Ignore air resistance. Find the time when y(t)=0: 1 − gt 2 + (v 0 sinθ)t + h0 = 0 2 −v 0 sinθ ± v 02 sin2 θ + 2gh0 ⇒t= −g Positive root is v 02 sin2 θ + 2gh0 +€v 0 sinθ t* = g v 02 sin2 θ + 2gh0 + v 0 sinθ Horizontal position at time t* is v0t*cosθ = v 0 cos θ = 300m g € € .) Find time when projectile hits ground: Projectile elevation y(t) = h0+(v0sinθ)t-½gt2. Its initial velocity is 60 m/s at 60° above the horizontal.

) .Problem 3-97 A projectile is launched over level ground at an initial elevation angle of θ. An observer measures the height of the projectile at the point of its highest elevation and measures the angle ϕ shown in the figure. (Ignore air resistance. Show that tan ϕ = ½ tan θ.

At the point of maximum elevation. so the average vertical velocity over that interval is ½vsinθ. The angle ϕ thus satisfies 1 v sinθ 2 1 tan φ = = tanθ. the horizontal velocity is constant in time. the vertical velocity is zero. v cos θ 2 . Show that tan ϕ = ½ tan θ. but it will drop out of the final answer).Problem 3-97 A projectile is launched over level ground at an initial elevation angle of θ. so the average horizontal velocity over the interval is vcosθ. An observer measures the height of the projectile at the point of its highest elevation and measures the angle ϕ shown in the figure.) The initial velocity has a vertical component of vsinθ and a horizontal component of vcosθ (we don’t know v. (Ignore air resistance.

. 2 C. None of these is correct. the line in the graph that best represents the horizontal displacement of the projectile as a function of travel time is A. If air resistance is neglected. 4 E.A projectile is fired at an angle of 45º above the horizontal. 1 B. 3 D.

3 D. If air resistance is neglected. None of these is correct. . 4 E.A projectile is fired at an angle of 45º above the horizontal. 2 C. 1 B. the line in the graph that best represents the horizontal displacement of the projectile as a function of travel time is A.

1 B. 4 E. 5 . A graph of the acceleration of the ball versus the distance fallen could be represented by curve A.A ball is thrown horizontally from a cliff with a velocity v0. 3 D. 2 C.

2 C. 4 E.A ball is thrown horizontally from a cliff with a velocity v0. 1 B. A graph of the acceleration of the ball versus the distance fallen could be represented by curve A. 5 . 3 D.

its velocity is nonzero but its acceleration is zero. its velocity is zero but its acceleration is nonzero. its velocity and acceleration are both nonzero. B. When the ball is at the highest point of its flight. its velocity and acceleration are both zero. C. Insufficient information is given to answer correctly. E. . D.A golfer drives her ball from the tee down the fairway in a high arcing shot. A.

B. E. its velocity and acceleration are both nonzero. D. When the ball is at the highest point of its flight. Insufficient information is given to answer correctly. its velocity and acceleration are both zero. its velocity is zero but its acceleration is nonzero.A golfer drives her ball from the tee down the fairway in a high arcing shot. . A. C. its velocity is nonzero but its acceleration is zero.

Use the motion diagram to estimate the direction of the acceleration during the interval between points 1 and 3. E. A. C. B.The figure shows the motion diagram for a Human Cannonball on the descending portion of the flight. D. up down left right diagonal .

up down left right diagonal . B. C. E. A. D.The figure shows the motion diagram for a Human Cannonball on the descending portion of the flight. Use the motion diagram to estimate the direction of the acceleration during the interval between points 1 and 3.

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