Functions and Anatomy of Human

Body - GK Notes in PDF
A number of complex processes and systems together form the human body. Zillions
of cells and many organs work in coordination in the body to enable us to perform
everyday functions. The human anatomy can be a complicated subject to revise and
remember. Therefore, we have come up with this list containing all the facts related
to the human body. This list will help you memorize all the important body parts and
their functions, for your exam. Make sure you download this list as a PDF to keep it
within reach during your preparation.

Organs and Organ Systems of the Human Body
Musculoskeletal system
Human skeleton

270 bones at birth, 206 in adults.

Longest bone – Femur (thighbone).

Smallest bone – Stapes (in the ear).

Other bones – Humerus (upper arm), Fibula (lower leg), Tibia (shinbone).

Joints

Connection between bones in the body.

Ligaments

Connective tissue between bones.

Made of collagen.

Muscular system

Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.

Largest muscle – Gluteus Maximus (buttock).

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32 adult (permanent) teeth.  Parotid glands. Submandibular glands. upper is called maxilla. Salivary glands  Exocrine glands (glands with ducts).  Made of enamel. Sublingual glands. Teeth  20 baby (or milk) teeth.  Incisors (8).  During swallowing. Tendons  Connective tissue between muscle and bone. Von Ibner glands etc. Oropharynx. Canines (4). Laryngopharynx. Molars (12). Pharynx  Nasopharynx.  First portion of the alimentary canal.  Important part of Digestive system. Stomach 2|Page . Digestive system Mouth  Lower Jawbone is called mandible. epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going into lungs.  Produce saliva from amylase etc.  Made of collagen. Vocalization Esophagus  Aka Food pipe or gullet. Respiratory System. Premolars or Bicuspids (8). Smallest muscle – Stapedius (in the ear).

somatostatin. Ascending Colon. Jejunum. Liver  Largest internal organ in human body. body. Sigmoid Colon. Anal Canal. 3|Page . Small intestine  Three parts – Duodenum.  Average length in adult human male is 6.  Chief among these hormones are insulin. Gallbladder  Stores bile before being released into small intestine.  Located in upper right quadrant of abdominal cavity.  Can survive without gall bladder. neck. Transverse Colon.  Parts – Cecum. Pancreas  An endocrine gland that produces several important hormones.  Average length is about 1.  Pyloric Sphincter controls passage of partially digested food into duodenum.5 m. glucagon.  Can be fractured. pancreatic polypeptide.9 m. Ileum  Duodenum receives bile and pancreatic juice.  Three parts – fundus.  Has four lobes.  Secretes the enzyme – bile. Rectum. Descending Colon.  Largest gland in human body. Secretes digestive enzymes. Large intestine  Also known as bowels. Can be regenerated from part.

 Two lungs (left and right) – each divided into two lobes.  No gas exchange takes place in bronchi.  These branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi. Bronchi  Airway in respiratory tract that allows air into lungs. manipulating pitch and volume of sound.  Right lung is bigger than left lung.  Primary bronchus – right and left.  Cartilaginous tube that connects larynx and pharynx to the lungs.  Thyroid Cartilage is called Adam’s apple.  Divided into two by vertical fin called nasal septum. Diaphragm 4|Page .  Insulin is produced from near the area called Islets of Langerhans). They release carbon dioxide from bloodstream into atmosphere. Respiratory system Nasal cavity  Aka nasal fossa.  Protected by the ribcage.  Involved in protecting trachea. Lungs  Primary respiratory organs. It also secretes digestive enzymes called pancreatic juices. Larynx  Commonly called Voice box.  They extract oxygen from atmosphere and transfer to the bloodstream. Trachea  Aka Windpipe.

 Also produce hormones – renin. Ureters  Tubes that take urine from kidneys to bladder.  Two bean shaped organs made up of cells called nephrons. Urinary system Kidneys  Regulates balance of electrolytes in blood.  It helps in removal of fluids from the body. Primary muscle that drives breathing. calcitriol and erythropoietin.  Typical capacity of bladder is between 300 and 500 ml. Bladder  Hollow muscle that collects urine from kidneys before urination.  Also maintains pH homeostasis.  Also removes excessive organic molecules from blood. Thus it removes waste products of metabolism.  They secrete estrogen. Urethra  Tube that connects urinary bladder to urinary meatus. progesterone. Fallopian tubes  5|Page Aka Uterine tubes. Reproductive organs .  They are both gonads and endocrine glands.Female reproductive system Ovaries  Produces and periodically releases eggs in the female body.  Separates thoracic cavity (containing heart and lungs) from abdominal cavity. testosterone. .

 It allows for nutrient uptake. The other end. waste elimination and gas exchange via mother’s blood supply.  One end connects to the fallopian tubes. Vagina  It is the opening of the female genital tract.  It allows for sexual intercourse. Clitoris  It is a female sex organ. They allow passage of eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.  Organ that connects developing foetus to the uterine wall. Vulva  This is the external genital organ of the woman. thermoregulation to the foetus. opens into the vagina. the cervix. childbirth and channels menstrual flow. Reproductive organs .  They are also endocrine glands producing androgens. and the fetus is developed.Male reproductive system Testes  They are the male gonads producing sperms. Prostate 6|Page .  It is a hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ in females. Uterus  Aka womb.  Typically there are two.  It is within the uterus that the egg is fertilized. Placenta  Aka afterbirth. primarily testosterone.

 It is found at the base of the brain.  It is found in the neck.  It consists of a pair of suspended sacs.  It is an endocrine gland. and some aspects of pregnancy.  It resembles a tiny pine cone. Scrotum  It is the male reproductive organ. the size of a pea. blood pressure. between the two hemispheres.  It consists of two connected lobes. Penis  It is the external male sexual organ. certain functions of sex organs. childbirth nursing etc. It is an exocrine gland in males. pain relief.  It produces a white fluid that constitutes 30% of the seminal fluid. temperature regulation. Pineal gland  Aka conarium or epiphysis cerebri. 7|Page . thyroid glands. Endocrine glands Pituitary gland  Aka hypophysis.  It also serves as the urinal duct.  It secretes hormones that regulate growth.  Small endocrine gland found near the center of the brain. Thyroid gland  One of the largest endocrine glands in the body. metabolism.

 Hormonal output is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).  Blood low in oxygen enters right atrium from superior and inferior venae cavae.Cardiovascular system Heart  Muscular organ that pumps blood through blood vessels to entire body.  Divided into 4 chambers – Left atrium (top). which prevent backflow.  Enclosed by a protective sac called pericardium.  They are found above the kidneys. Controls rate of use of energy sources.  From here it passes to right ventricle.  In healthy heart. right atrium (top). Parathyroid glands  Small endocrine glands in the neck. where it receives oxygen and gives off CO2. and controls body’s sensitivity to other hormones. Circulatory system .  These include adrenaline and the steroids cortisol and aldosterone.  Wall of heart made up of – epicardium. endocardium. Adrenal glands  Aka suprarenal glands. protein synthesis. left ventricle (bottom). 8|Page .  From here it is sent to the lungs.  T3 and T4 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine. myocardium.  It produces parathyroid hormone.  It also produces calcitonin which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. right ventricle (bottom).  Endocrine glands that produce many hormones.  They help regulate growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. blood flows one way through heart due to heart valves.

 It is slightly offset to the left.Lymphatic system Lymphatic vessel  Thin walled.  Lymph is a fluid that lies between body tissues.  Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical arteries.  Less muscular than arteries and closer to skin. Arteries  Blood vessels that carry blood away from heart. The left heart is stronger so heartbeats felt more strongly on the left. other nutrients and waste substances between blood and tissues. CO2. 9|Page .  Most carry deoxygenated blood from tissues.  Lymph capillaries drain lymph from lymph vessels.  From here it leaves heart through aorta.  Make up microcirculation.  Valves in veins prevent backflow. Circulatory system .  Help enable exchange of O2. Oxygenated blood returns to left atrium and passes to left ventricle. valved structures that carry lymph.  They connect arterioles and venules. Veins  Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart.  Heart is a fist-sized organ that is placed in the middle of the chest cavity. Capillaries  Smallest of body’s blood vessels.  Most carry oxygenated blood.  Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical veins.

Spleen  Similar in structure to large lymph node.  It produces lymphocytes that supports the body’s immune system. Nervous system Brain  Main organ of human central nervous system.  Bone marrow is a key component of the lymphatic system.  Present at multiple locations throughout body including armpits.  Located in head.  Act as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells.  It recycles iron.  Red blood cells produced by bone marrow in heads of long bones.  These are key to adaptive immune system. T cells or T lymphocytes mature. 10 | P a g e .  Acts as a blood filter.  It also synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp.  Consists of two identical lobes located in front of the heart.  Removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood.  Within thymus.  Important for proper functioning of immune system. protected by skull.Lymph node  Oval or kidney shaped organ. Bone marrow  Flexible tissue in the interior of bones. Thymus  Specialized primary lymphoid organ of immune system. neck and groin.

sleep/wake.  Dominant feature of human brain is the wrinkling of the cerebral cortex. hearing.  Consists of – Midbrain.  Medulla Oblongata is responsible for involuntary functions like sneezing. equilibrium. glial cells and blood vessels. midbrain and hindbrain. and brainstem. breathing. bladder control.  The mind is an emergent property of the brain.  Divided into three parts – forebrain. motor control. facial expressions and posture. Nerves 11 | P a g e . Composed neurons.  Brain and spinal cord together make up central nervous system.  Midbrain is associated with vision.  Extends from brainstem to pelvis. heart rate. Spinal cord  Long. Pons. temperature regulation.  Pons has a role in sleep and dreams.  There are two hemispheres in the brain – left and right. and Medulla Oblongata. Cerebellum  Important in motor control. The cerebral cortex is so large that it overshadows all other parts of the human brain. cerebellum (hindbrain). taste. hearing. Also deals with swallowing. thin. tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells.  Also regulates fear and pleasure responses. alertness. cognitive functions like language and attention.  Three parts of cerebral cortex – cerebrum (forebrain). eye movement. blood pressure etc. The brainstem  Posterior part of the brain.

efferent nerves (from CNS to muscle and glands) and mixed nerves (contains both signals).  Contains rod cells (for light perception) and cone cells (for colour perception). which is a hole that lets light in.  Innermost layer is the retina.  The iris controls the size and diameter of the pupil. ciliary body and iris.  The lens is suspended to the ciliary body by the suspensory ligament (Zonule of Zinn). 12 | P a g e .  Consists of three parts – outer ear. Sensory organs Eye  Eye is a sense organ. Ear  Ear is an organ for hearing and balance.  Outermost layer composed of cornea and sclera.  Made of three coats enclosing three transparent structures. and cranial nerves (connect directly to brain).  Categorized in two groups based on where they connect to CNS – spinal nerves (connect to spinal cord).  Part of the peripheral nervous system. Enclosed. middle ear and inner ear.  Within these coats are the aqueous humour (clear fluid). the vitreous body (clear jelly).  Middle layer consists of choroid. a light sensitive layer of tissue. It refracts light.  Categorized in three groups based on direction of signals – afferent nerves (from sensory neurons to central nervous system). cable-like bundles of axons (nerve fibres). and the flexible lens.  The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil.  Provides pathway for electrochemical nerve impulses to and from peripheral organs.

 Contains pigment melanin that gives skin its colour. dermis and hypodermis.  Middle ear contains three ossicles which transfer vibrations from ear drum to inner ear. sweet and umami. upper esophagus. Skin  Largest organ of the integumentary system. bitter. We hope you find this post on Functions and Anatomy of Human Body helpful.  Involved in smell and detecting odors. Tongue  Taste receptors or taste buds on different parts of the tongue. It gathers and focusses sound energy on to the eardrum.  They are involved in detecting five elements of taste perception – salty. Outer ear consists of auricle (visible part of the ear) and ear canal.  Ear drum is a membrane that separates external ear from middle ear. Integumentary system Mammary glands  It is an exocrine gland that produces milk.  Inner ear is a bony labyrinth.  Composed of three primary layers – epidermis. sour.  Taste buds are also found in the soft palate. cheek and epiglottis. It has two main functional parts – cochlea and vestibular system. Go through some more of our similar posts to enhance your general awareness: Deficiency Diseases and Malnutrition 13 | P a g e . Olfactory epithelium  Specialized epithelial tissue in the nasal cavity.

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