The Geography of Food and Health

Zeyu Hu

The Geography of Food and
Health
Health
Variations in Health
Describe the variations in health as reflected by changes in
life expectancy at national and global scales since 1950.
Global average life expectancy rose from 46 years in 1950 to 70 years today. In
Thailand, the life expectancy is 74.
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Medical advances and increase in public health care (e.g. Cuba and
Vietnam)

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Improved food production/access to fresh water

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Healthier lifestyles - less smoking, more exercise, improved nutrition/water
(e.g. Japan - now more than 20% over 65)

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Poverty has a substantial impact on life expectancy, including within
countries.

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Fall in life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa because of AIDs and poverty.

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Life expectancy higher in urban areas compared to rural areas.

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Racial/ethnic differences

Explain the patterns and trends in terms of differences in
income and lifestyle.
Income
- Higher income – able to pay for more stuff
- Medicinal research – vaccinations and investments into health risks from
flue to chemotherapy
- Able to pay for education
- Able to pay for sanitation and safe plumbing
- Able to pay for natural foods
Lifestyle
- Food intake
- Wellbeing and knowledge
- Sleeping hours
- Intoxication and drug intake
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The Geography of Food and Health
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Stress and workload

Statistic
Present
ed
Infant
Deaths

Cancer
Deaths
Malaria
Deaths

HIV AIDS
Deaths
Nutrition
Deficienc
y Deaths
Diabetes
Prevalenc
e

Men
Smoking
Poor
Sanitatio
n
Poor
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Notes

Most prevalent in Africa and India. In territories the rate is over one
infant death for every 10 live births. All of these 22 territories are in
Sub Saharan Africa. The highest infant mortality rate in in Sierra
Leone where 16.5 babies die of every 100 born alive. But it’s going
down, everywhere.
Cancers caused 13% of all deaths worldwide in 2008, the majority in
low and middle income countries. 30% of these deaths could be
prevented.
There are about 250 million cases of malaria worldwide each year
and it causes 9.3% of all deaths in children aged 0-14 years
worldwide. Malaria deaths have fallen by 25% since 2000, and by a
third in Sub Saharan Africa – simply because of mosquito nets.
HIV/AIDS caused 5.1% of all deaths worldwide in 2002 or 469 deaths
per million people. This does not include deaths due to tuberculosis
in people who have HIV/AIDS.
Nutritional deficiencies are due to inadequate amounts of particular
categories of food and nutrients in what you have to eat and drink.
“Diabetes is responsible for over one million amputations each year.
It is a major cause of blindness. It is the largest cause of kidney
failure in developed countries and is responsible for huge dialysis
costs.” – Unite for Diabetes, 2006.
About 350 million people suffer from diabetes and its increasing.
The highest prevalence of diabetes in in North America, but 80% of
deaths from diabetes take place in low/middle income countries.
The largest single diabetic population in in China with 90 million,
overtaking India’s 50 million. The WHO estimates a 16% rate of
increase in China compared to 11% in the USA.
Worldwide there are 4 times more men that smoke than women.
About 80% of the world’s one billion smokers live in low/middle
income countries. Tobacco kills about 6 million people per year.
Of all the people in the world, 40% of us do not have access to basic
sanitation. This means living within walking distance of private of
shared (not public) latrines or toilets that effectively prevent human
and animal contact with excreta.
Drinking water is essential to live, but dirty drinking water is also a

The Geography of Food and Health
Water
Public
Health
Spending

Zeyu Hu

major cause of disease. Over a billion people do not have access to
safe drinking water.
Public health spending is all government spending on health care,
plus money from grants, social insurance and non-governmental
organizations. Public health spending reduces, or even eliminates,
the direct cost of health care to an individual. The highest public
health care spending per person in in Luxemborg, Norway and
Iceland.

Measuring Health
Evaluate life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR) and
child mortality, HALE (health-adjusted life expectancy),
calorie intake, access to safe water and access to health and
services as indicators of health.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years a person is expected to live.
Evaluation
- Considers only the length of life and overlooks the number of years spent
living in a state of ill health
- Provides an average impression of mortality in a country
- Unreliable data can make comparisons difficult
HALE (Health Adjusted Life Expectancy)
HALE is an indicator of the overall health of a population. Average number of
years that a person can expect to live in “full health” by taking into account
years of lived in less than full health due to disease and/ or injury.
Evaluation
- Not only measuring the quantity of life but also the quality of life
- Provides a broader spectrum of health status than life expectancy, and
draws attention to the growing influence of chronic illness on the quality of
life
- Lack of reliable data on mortality and morbidity (especially from lowincome countries) and lack of comparability of self-reported data from
health interviews
Infant/Child Mortality Rate
Death rate of a child of less than one year of age/ death rate of a child less than
five years of age (relative to a sample population)

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The Geography of Food and Health
Evaluation
- Reflects household income, nutrition, maternal age and education, housing
condition and sanitation
- Unreliable if collected by household survey, national birth and death
registration systems may be unreliable
- African country issues such as AIDS epidemic, civil war, migration
inaccuracy estimations
Calorie Intake
Number of calories ingested in a given period of time
Evaluation
- Not as reliable as an indicator of well-being and diet.
- It doesn’t take nutrient consumption into account, and it also needs to be
linked to calorie requirement for different people.
Access to Safe Water
Access to water that is affordable, at sufficient quantity and available without
excessive effort and time
Evaluation
- Depends on the area of the country
Access to Sanitation
Refers to the share of the population with at least adequate excreta disposal
facilities, effectively perverting human, animal, and sickness
Evaluation
- Alters at different places (urban and rural)
- Quality of sanitation must also be indicated, what is the minimum
accepted level?
Access to Health Services
Number of doctors, hospital beds or health expenditure per 10,000 people
Evaluation
- The number of doctors may be different depending on the area
- Population differs between countries

Prevention Relative to Treatment
Discuss the geographic factors that determine the relative
emphasis placed by policy-makers, in one country or region,
on prevention as opposed to treatment of disease.
Adfad

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The Geography of Food and Health

Zeyu Hu

Food
Global Availability of Food
Identify global patterns of calorie intake as one measure of
food availability.
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Largest calorie intake (>3500 p.p./day) in the USA/Canada and western
Europe (Portugal, Greece, France, Austria).
Generally high in Europe, North America, Australia, Northern Africa and
China.
Lowest (<2000 p.p./day) in sub-Saharan Africa (Congo, Sudan, Somalia,
Angola), Mongolia and Afghanistan.
Relatively low (2000-2500) in south Asia and parts of southern Africa
2500-3000 per day in most of South America, Eastern Europe and SouthEast Asia, this is moderate.
Anomalies can be observed, such as South Africa, which has a decent
calorie intake, while the remainder of southern Africa consists of much
lower average daily calorie intakes. Also, parts of Eastern Europe are quite
low.

Distinguish between malnutrition, temporary hunger, chronic
hunger and famine.
Malnutrition
Malnutrition refers to a diet lacking in nutrition required by the body.
Temporary Hunger
Temporary hunger refers to a short term decline in the availability of food.
Chronic Hunger
Chronic hunger refers to long term decline in food availability (long term hunger).
Famine
Famine refers to a larger scale, long term decline in food availability in a region.

Discuss the concept of food security.
Food security refers to the existence of necessary conditions for people to have
physical and economical access to safe, nutritious food (under socially accepted
conditions) that can help them to live under prosperity.
Food security alters around the world; in some places, accessibility to safe,
nutritious food is plentiful. However, there are various social, political,
environmental and economic factors that can affect food security.
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Food deficiencies caused by local shortages due to physical factors
(such as drought or flood) can affect security.
War and political unrest can cause for the need to seek refuge, or the
severe decline in resources for cooking/consumption readily available.

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The Geography of Food and Health
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Hunger can be found in areas where food is not only available, but
production is still increasing - as in India, Ethiopia and Sudan. Even though
food production increases, such harms can be difficult to further prevent
Additionally, access to food may be severely limited by barriers such as
its rising costs relative to wages
Finally, physical and environmental factors such as precipitation and
environmental degradation as potential triggers of famine and loss of food
security.

Areas of Food Sufficiency and Deficiency
Explain how changes in agricultural systems, scientific and
technological innovations, and the expansion of the area
under agriculture and the growth of agribusiness have
increased the availability of food in some areas, starting
with the Green Revolution and continuing since.
Scientific Innovation
- Technological innovations - more productive.
- Improved knowledge - good agricultural techniques.
- Fertilizers and pesticides.
- Mass production and monoculture by 'agribusinesses' (TNCs).
- Improved transportation - ability to move it/distribute it, and store it.
- Farm subsidies - subsidizing farmers to produce.
- More land cultivated - can apply techniques and knowledge to rejuvenate
land (but some land is also being destroyed, and fertility is gone!).
- Invention of agriculture - first great revolution 10,000 years ago.
- Our principle daily concern is to feed ourselves.
- When water becomes insufficient, we struggle for food production.
- Most widespread occupation - more than half of the world involved in
agriculture.
- 75% still harvest/work by hand.
- It is a tradition spread by ancestors - pre requisite of survival.
- In the last 50-60 years, more than 2 billion have become urban and now,
population has tripled.
- 3000 skyscrapers = last 20 years.
- America = 1st to harness power of black gold (oil).
o 1 liter of oil = 100 people in 24 hours, in terms of energy.
o In USA, only 3 million farmers left, producing enough grain for 2
billion people.
o Most of the grain is not used to feed people though, but
transformed to biofuel or livestock fuel.
- Global water consumption by agriculture = 70%.
- Lots of chemicals in food, but we are ignorant.
o Then came fertilizers, producing many results on land, ignored
though.
o Last few years, 75% of food varieties have disappeared.
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The Geography of Food and Health

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Zeyu Hu

More developing nations = more animals needed for meat demand.
o Manufacturing meat faster than the animal is regular.
o They feed the animals steroids, so they are much bigger also.
o 4000 liters = 1 kilo of rice, 13000 liters of water = 1 kilo of meat.
We are now totally dependent on oil.

The Green Revolution (1960s to 1970s)
The Green Revolution refers to technological developments that started in
Mexico in the 1940s to increase crop production.
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-

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High-yielding (plant) varieties (HYVs)
o Genetically engineered varieties of staple crops such as wheat,
maize and rice. Productivity per hectare is higher and HYVs allow
several harvests per year.
o 55% of India’s crops are HYVs - India feeds twice as many people as
Africa on just 13% of the land area.
o 85% of crops in the Philippines are HYVs, only 13% of Thailand’s.
Fertilizers
o Nitrates and phosphates maintain the yield of high-yielding and
normal varieties.
o Can leach into water table and directly runoff into water sources
and cause eutrophication.
Pesticides
o Destroy competitors such as insects’ slugs, fungi and weeds.
o Manufactured to be safe for consumption, however societal
disapproval of produce sprayed with pesticides has fuelled the
“organic” (pesticide-free) market in MEDCs.
o Causes imbalances in natural ecosystem, animals that feed off
competitive pests are devoid of a food source and population
numbers decrease.
 This spoils the food chain.

Case Study – India
- India's population went down by half in beginning 20 th
o famine, high demand for food
- It changed in 1960s as India turned to science to feed
- Green revolution changed everything
- Intensive farming techniques
- Relying on Punjab, which makes up 2% of India’s land mass, to produce
20% of India's food
- 200% increase in food
o "we can not only feed India, we can feed the world"
o 1965 farmer in Punjab could feed 12.5 people on 2.5 acres of land,
by 2007, could feed 30 people with the same amount of land >>
almost 300% increase in productivity >> money and then invest to
make things better
o 1960 India led the world in this new form of food production >>
served as a model for other countries
- In Britain there was a 40% increase in food productivity between 1960 and
1970
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The Geography of Food and Health

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Farming Heritage, Surinder Singh, predicts this system is coming to an end
>> not sustainable >> lost biodiversity, ground water, soil deteriorates
Spector of famine is still there among the experts so they continue to
follow on heavily industrialized form of agriculture and still promoting and
advocating it
Nowadays, wheat yields are decreasing
Short term - it works, long term - not really.

Agricultural systems
- Intensive growth
o Increased inputs (seeds, energy, fertilizers), more effective and
efficient farming techniques (machinery, economies of scale)
produces more outputs from the same amount of land (food, waste)
- Irrigation
o Allows agriculture to take place in arid and semi-arid areas
o Such as the North Sinai Canal development, which runs from the
River Nile Delta to the Sinai Peninsula, irrigates 62,000km 2 of
deserts
- Now, although there is an imbalance, availability has generally increased
for people because mass production has just been incredible.

Examine the environmental, demographic, political, social
and economic factors that have caused areas of food
deficiency and food insecurity.
Demographic and Social
Low education
- People do not have the knowledge to purchase, or the knowledge to work
in an adequate paying job, which leads to less income and food deficiency
Women/gender inequality
- When there is gender inequality, tasks are unevenly distributed amongst
communities, and can affect the population structure. And if something
happens inconveniently, there is no response.
Poor health
- Poor productivity in work/agriculture, not enough food, not enough energy
Diseases
- Affects population structure immensely and imbalance of tasks with lack of
education can only have negative effects.
Political
Civil war/political unrest
- With war, infrastructure is destroyed, food supply cuts in areas, and
production of food slows down in areas.

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The Geography of Food and Health

Zeyu Hu

Government policies
- Priorities and funding for the wrong things that backstab such
governments and inhabitants.
- For example Mao Zedong and his giant leap forward policy that lead to
famine.
- Focus on rapid industrialization meant that middle, lower class and rural
dwellers were often overlooked and harsh weather conditions were
eventually very harmful.
Economic
- Low technology equipment and facilities, especially in poorer and rural
areas, so food production and distribution is uneven in places, causing
unfortunate things to happen.
Unfair trade
- Poor countries have to pay taxes for rich countries, and are not given
chance to trade freely, therefore making less money, having a domino
effect on other factors such as hunger
- Cash crops (like flowers, cotton etc.) instead of food crops.
- Example: Naivasha rift valley, Kenya - green beans sold for European
market instead of Kenyans.
Land grabs
Contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large
pieces of land in developing countries, by domestic and transnational companies,
governments, and individuals.
These countries have to find a way to get their food - so they go to poor
countries, tell the government (like Kenya) that they have many people that can
improve their infrastructure if they get a piece of land in exchange for growing
food, obtaining oil, or anything they require.
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China is number 1 grabber. Middle East also quite prevalent.
For example, 175 million Indians are fed from aquifers, and that often
leads to fluctuating quantities of drinkable water causing periods of
extreme starvation. This is because of land grabs kicking the natives out
of their lands.

Causes
- 4 factors that affect land grabbing: food price volatility and unreliable
markets; the energy crisis and interest in agro-energy/biofuels; the global
financial crisis (ECONOMIC)
- Land is being switched from food production to grow crops for biofuels
- The amount of food consumed as fuels by G8 countries annually could
have fed more than 441 million people for a year, more than seven times
the population of the UK (Social)
- Water Over-pumping (Environmental)
- Demand for food increases (Economic)
- Soil Mismanagement, Soil Erosion (Environmental)
- Increase CO2 emissions (Environmental)
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The Geography of Food and Health
Consequences
- Farmers in countries which have been land grabbed, are often kicked out
of their areas (human and social aspects of the deals are never taken into
account) [SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC]
- Populations are forced to be completely reliant on aquifers (Underground
water)
- With over 175 million Indians and 130 million Chinese reliant on aquifers
[Social]
- Price of food is increasing astronomically (Economic)
- For every 1 degree Celsius rise in temperature above the growing season
optimum, farms can expect a 10% decline in grain yields.
- Most of the land bought up by the World Bank will be used to produce
biofuel and industrial crops, with only 37% of the land used for food crops.
- 870 million people going hungry globally (Social)
- By 2020 EU biofuels targets could push up the agricultural price of
vegetable oils by much as 36%, cereals by as much as 22% and oilseeds
by as much as 20% (Economic)
- Senegal, as much as 20% if the population suffers from acute malnutrition,
while in other region up to 30% of children suffer stunted growth because
of a sustained lack of food (Social)
- Until 2020 in the EU, biofuels consumption could add an additional 56
million tonnes of CO2 emissions by 2020 (Environmental)
- Rising poverty levels among the elderly and the unemployed in the world's
third-biggest economyy of Japan
- Japan is struggling to address rising rates of poverty, particularly among
the elderly and disabled, a growing number of who die in complete
isolation
Food prices
- All connected with oil prices.
- Price of oil increases, price of tractors/agricultural
technology/fertilizers/transport increases, price of food increases.
- Biofuel growth instead of growing food - 125m out of 400m tons of grain
produced in the US in 2010 went for fuel production instead of food.
Environmental
- Pests
o Such as locusts in Sub-Saharan Africa which can kill everybody's
crops very quickly.
- Poor irrigation (salinization).
- Soil degradation/mismanagement
o 1400km2 of northern china is already permanently desertification
due to soil mismanagement.
- Drought vs. flood
o Climate change.
- Weather conditions
o 1 degree average increase in temp could reduce yields by 510%.Case Study

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Case Study
Examine the variety of causes responsible for a recent
famine.
Economic
- Rise in global food prices
o The price of maize doubled and wheat went up 40% in 2 years
o After crops failed again in 2009, families became unable to buy
staple foods
- Poverty
o Low income
o Lack of assets (exchange entitlements)
o Debt
 Hunger - disease - low energy - not productive with work
- Terms of trade
o Economy based in agriculture - 50% of GDP, 85% of exports, 80% of
total employment.
o So when there was a struggle for market competition, so many
people were doomed.
o Main export crop =coffee (35% of foreign exchange earnings).
Coffee earnings are down 65% on a decade ago due to a slump in
coffee prices in the mid-90s
o International Monetary Fund and World Bank liberalization policies
(making less strict policies) have devastated the Ethiopian coffee
industry by exposing it to unfair competition (e.g. large-scale agroindustrial production).
Demographic
- Shortage of land
o Rapid population growth
o Subdivision and redistribution of land holdings to an inadequate size
o Little incentive for farmers to improve small plots that they do not
own
o Overcrowded, under-resourced camps.
- Population growth
o Total population of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia is massive.
o Population has doubled in the last 25 years (Malthusian increase)
o Later UN assessments foresee an additional 50 million people by
2025
o Average fertility rate is one of the highest in the world: 6
children/Ethiopian woman
o 2010: 6.2 million people were threatened by hunger and
malnutrition, requiring urgent food assistance
 The population structure is therefore at an imbalance
Political

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Food aid
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o Mostly emergency aid rather than assistance aid
o USA is the largest donor - mostly sacks of grain, leading to

-

dependency
o Grain undercuts local farmers and reduces their income
o Cash rather than food aid would allow the people to buy what is
most appropriate for them, and invigorate the economy
o Food rations are not necessarily suited to nutritional needs
o Emergency food aid is visible and costly, and eats into other forms
of international aid
 Ethiopia has one of the world’s largest food aid programs, but
the lowest rate of official aid per capita in sub-Saharan Africa
o Al Shabaab, an Islamist terrorist group, were also culprits in the
matter that they attempted to prevent food aid from entering in
some places.
Political conflict
o Ongoing conflict between the Somali region and Eritrea
o This was the initial cause of how they originally separated into 2
countries.
o Disrupts infrastructure and access to markets
o Reduced agricultural productivity, and hence famine
o Diverted national government money away from agricultural
programs that provide relief to areas of food shortage

Environmental
- Drought
o Dry season usually extends from October to May, but in 2008 and
2009 it was prolonged
o Rain was late to arrive and low in quantity
o Communities are resilient and cope with drought by building up food
reserves in a good year, but recurrent and prolonged drought
increases the threat of famine
- Flood
o A lot of the area experiences the ‘Kiremt’ wet season from mid-June
to mid-September
o During this season, more than 3/4 of the land is the subject or rain
fall.
o Flooding, sometimes due to El Nino, results in soil erosion and crop
damage
o Can contaminate water sources, further reducing health and
agricultural productivity
- Land degradation/poor agricultural techniques
o Overgrazing
o Over-cultivation
o Soil exposure leading to soil degradation
o Wind and water erosion
 28% of Ethiopian land is degraded or severely degraded
(FAO)
 In the uplands, 50-100 tons of topsoil are eroded every year
(est.)
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o Only

Zeyu Hu

In some areas, up to 40 sheep are grazed on 0.1 hectares of
land
Traditionally, soil structure and fertility were maintained
through leaving land fallow and applying animal dung as
fertilizer
Now, a lack of fuel wood means animal dung has to be used
for fuel
Unfertilized soil particles lack cohesion and are easily eroded
3% of agricultural land is irrigated

Ethiopia Famine in 1984 – 1985
Effected Countries
- Djibouti
- Kenya
- Somalia
- Ethiopia
- Eritrea
- Uganda
Causes
- Droughts in earlier years had wiped out harvests.
- Civil war as Eritrea (originally a province in Ethiopia) and Tigray provinces
fought for independence.
- Corruption by Mengistu's military government, withholding aid to rebel
areas.
- Lack of response from the West despite enormous food surpluses.
o Because of the cold war
- Lack of infrastructure, technology
- The worst drought in over half a century has hit parts of East Africa
affecting more than 10 million people (drought affects more people than
any other natural hazard).
- Thousands of families have travelled for days across scorched scrubland
from Somalia to Kenya, including barefoot children with no food or water
their crops and livestock were destroyed by drought.
o Because Kenya's government/economic situation is better than
Somalia.
o AID agencies - they don't go to Somalia because of unstable Political
situation.
- Drought crop failure  livestock die  famine.
o Results in poverty.
o Subsistence farmers - don’t have any 'spare', no infrastructure have barely enough to JUST survive. Very risky.
- Malnutrition has reached 37% in some parts of North East Kenya and child
refugees from Somalia are dying of causes related to malnutrition either
during the journey or very shortly after arrival at aid camps.
- Drought possibly caused (or made worst) because of climate change.

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Effects

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Nearly 1 million
died in Northern
provinces of Wollo, Tigray
and
Eritrea.
- One in three
was severely
malnourished.
- 2000 a day fled
to neighboring
Sudan as

environmental

-

refugees.
Problems with distribution of aid to worst hit areas, shortage of trucks etc.
Eventually, Mengistu was forced out of power.

Production and Markets
Examine the impacts at a variety of scales of trade barriers,
agricultural subsidies, bilateral and multilateral agreements,
and transnational corporations (TNCs) on the production and
availability.
Trade barriers/trade blocs
- Trading barriers are an arrangement among a number of countries to allow
free trade among member nations, but to impose (large) tariffs on other
countries that may wish to trade with them
- e.g. the European Union (EU) has a major impact on global food production
and trade. It prevents countries outside the barrier from trading due to the
high tariffs they must pay. Denies access to markets for LEDCs as MEDCs

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are more likely to form barriers and this is tough because the LEDCs have
to find other business, and they cannot make enough money.
Agricultural subsidies
- A governmental subsidy paid to farmers and agribusiness to supplement
their income, manage the supply, and influence the cost and supply.
- Can have benefits, but often, people are sacrificed, especially when
subsidies are given to large scale businesses and LEDC farmers cannot
make any money.
o Western farm support schemes cost LEDC farmers $100 billion per
year in lost income
Bilateral/multilateral agreements
- Multilateral: when a number of countries agree to import goods from a
number of other countries
o e.g. the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific nations) arranged
through the 1975 Lome Convention to give ACP farmers preferential
access to the entire EU for banana distribution.
 However, Caribbean bananas accounted for only 7-9% of EU
banana imports, because TNCs in Central America produced
cheaper and larger amounts of bananas, which were
subsequently used instead.
- Bilateral: when one consumer enters an agreement with one producer
o e.g. Thailand has a bilateral trade agreement with Australia, New
Zealand and Japan in an effort to compete against the likes of
Vietnam on frozen seafood and processed fish products.
TNCs
- Dominance of a few large agribusinesses and TNCs can reduce
competition and alter prices at the regional, national and international
scale.
- When LEDC farmer income decreases due to the absence of a competitive
market, the farmer increases production to try and make more money.
o This leads to overproduction, such as in the 1980s and early 1990s,
and furthers the cycle of decreasing market prices
- TNCs are more concerned with lessening production costs than with the
jobs of their workers, and will move jobs domestically and offshore, often
causing massive job losses (outsourcing).
- Increased concentration of market power = increased influence over
legislators and governments, which often leads to lower taxes and higher
incomes for the most wealthy end of the TNC body
o e.g. Genetically Modified crop companies like Monsanto is a TNC
preventing locals to farm themselves.
Case
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Study – Haiti
Rice is the staple food
Until 1990's one in four Haitian made a living by farming rice
Then cheap subsidized rice from USA came
Haitians began buying imported rice

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Haitian farmers had to lower price to compete and eventually farmers
couldn't make a living out of farming rice no matter how hard they worked
Many farmers had to abandon farms and families and look for jobs in city
but couldn't find
Haiti is the poorest city in Latin America
Cheap rice arrived in Haiti because government was forced to lower tariff
from 35% to 3%

Addressing Imbalances
Evaluate the relative importance of food aid, free trade and
fair trade in alleviating food shortages.
Free Trade
Trade liberalization
- Removal or reduction of barriers to international trade in goods and
services - this promotes free trade.
Free trade
- International trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other
restrictions.
Examples
- Hunger has already been seen in Haiti, Egypt and Ivory Coast (expensive
energy, bad weather and trade)
- Rice is one major food product that is protected ( only about 5-7% is
traded across borders) when price goes up many varieties go up in price
- UN FAO ( estimated that global rice production increased by 1% last year
- therefore prices should not be DECLINING by 3% ( because of restrictions
on rice exports by India, Indonesia, Vietnam, China, Cambodia and Egypt)
- If demand for rice rises, in Vietnam framers cannot respond immediately
to price because they do not even have the liberty of shipping and trading
rice in their own country
- Ability to grow rice also depends on the institutions, for example, Burma
was once the leading world rice exporter and now people go hungry in
Burma
- Spain and Italy aided by EU subsidized their rice farmers (so does USA)
- Many people in the Global South who typically spend more than 50% of
their income on food are now facing a major crisis
- In Ghana, food imports have demoralized small scale farmers - by
producing corn, rice, soybeans, rabbit, sheep and goats, farmers can’t
obtain economic prices for them, even in village markets. Cheap imports
mean that domestic food production is placed in a quagmire.
- In Benin, government incentives led to an increase in land under cotton;
cotton exports have increased to the detriment of food production and
security.
- In Mexico, winners of trade liberalization are concentrated in country's
fruit/vegetable growing areas where production is on large scale irrigated
farms only. Poorer produces lose the market.
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British farmers increased their market share from 40 per cent to a peak of
70 per cent in the 1970s. This was achieved behind protectionist barriers,
first national and then European.
In Mexico, 700,000 - 800,000 livelihoods will be lost as corn prices fall,
representing 15% of the economically active population in agriculture. In
India, the jobs of 3 million edible oil processors were lost. In Sri Lanka,
300,000 jobs were lost following the drop in production of onions and
potatoes.
Over the 2000s Australia's ratios of exports and imports to GDP have
each risen every year. Australia is an open economy, the size of its
import and export sectors being greater than 20% of Gross Domestic
Product. Australia is one of the countries that have benefitted most from
rising international trade. It bought imported goods more cheaply than
they could be made in Australia and sold exports overseas that
commanded rising prices because they were in international demand.
Whilst the manufacturing base in Australia has narrowed, manufacturing
output has actually increased by 40% and exports have risen by 400%,
according to DFAT.
Export growth has been essential to economic growth and job creation in
Australia. For example, over 400 000 jobs were created between 1983–
84 and 1993-94. By 2010, one in four jobs in Australia was related
to exports.
Reducing tariffs has resulted in savings estimated to be at least $1000 per
year to the average Australian family. For example, without the reductions
in tariffs on motor vehicles, Australians would pay around $10,000
extra on a $30,000 car.

Advantages
- If free trade is fair trade – fair trade standards include a minimum price
which covers costs of sustainable production
- Fair trade provides a safety net during times of low prices
- Enables rural women to engage in micro/small enterprises
- Increase production and efficiency
- Foreign exchange gain
- Economic growth
- Unemployment often resolved
- Self-sufficiency and sovereignty
- Traders gain - In a number of countries, the liberalization of markets has
increase participation by private firms and individuals in the trade of food
commodities, unlike in the past when public institutions dominated the
trade. In theory, this could lead to increased employment opportunities,
which would be a positive move. But this does not seem to be happening.
Liberalisation has certainly increased the number and power of traders.
- Consumer Satisfaction
- Increased innovations. As free trade expands, competition also expands.
To stay competitive, companies must seek ways to create the comparative
advantage. This leads to increased innovation that improves products.
- Foreign Exchange Gains and Decreased Poverty
- Increased Export
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Minimizes War

Disadvantages
Cheap imports
Majority of people in developing countries live in families, and most farmers are
small scale. Due to cheap imports (made possible by trade liberalization),
competition is putting farmers in developing countries out of business. Such
imports are coming through both commercial channels and through surplus
dumping - food sold below the cost of production to dispose of surpluses, and
usually cheaper than commercial imports and more damaging. Liberalization has
led to the increase in farm input prices, so local farmers are forced to pay more
for inputs, so they receive less than what they pay to produce.
More priority for export crops
Liberalization means more food imports, reducing the priority that governments
give to their food crop sector, while increasing the priority they accord to crops
for export. Trade liberalization has led to more land and resources being devoted
to export crops rather than for food security, and to meet the domestic benefits.
Although governments are generally according more priority to the export crop
sector, this does not necessarily mean that farmers are receiving better crop
prices; world prices for many are declining as traders are mostly buying these
crops, the price they offer the farmer will related to the world price. The trader's
power means that the price to farmers is far below the world price.
Transnational Companies (TNCs)
Trade liberalizations proving beneficial to TNCs and large entities, but not to
small scale farming nations like India, Uruguay and Cambodia. It helps TNCs at
the expense of the poor. The food and agriculture organization (FAO) says the
process is leading to concentrations of farms in a wide cross section of countries,
and to the marginalization of small producers, adding to unemployment and
poverty.
Women
The studies on Kenya, Ghana, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Mexico, Jamaica and the
Philippines all show how trade liberalisation is impacting heavily on women and
accentuating gender inequality. Women are often faced with a very heavy
workload which gives them little time to go to the local market to sell their
produce. If they sell their produce in the village, they will get lower prices.
Women, who produce 60-75% of food in most African countries, have been
affected disproportionately by the elimination of subsidies, the drying up of
credit and the surge of food import as a result of trade liberalisation. Women
have the responsibility for putting food on the family table; but prices of farm
inputs have risen under liberalisation, and incomes of farming families have
come under serious pressure. As a result, many have been forced to cut back on
the quality and frequency of their meals.

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Indirect Effects
Economic sectors, other than agriculture, have an impact on food security. These
effects foster instability in the market for staple foods and threaten the food
entitlements of the poor.
Migration
When trade barriers are lowered, many small-scale farmers are unable to
compete with cheaper imports and leave their land to head for the cities and
towns, adding to pressures on urban services.
Government Services
Liberalization goes hand in hand with a reduction in government support for
farmers, such as investment in agricultural research and extension, controlled
pricing and marketing, and subsidies on inputs. Governments withdraw and
leave people to the free play of economic forces. People with money may
survive, but the poor could be stranded.
Environment
The cultivation of cash crops for export imposes considerable environmental
costs. Liberalisation encourages producers to abandon traditional and
ecologically sound agricultural practices in favour of export monocropping. Also,
the encouragement of agri-based exports in special development zones creates
massive colonisation of critical watersheds and the depletion of water resources
in irrigated areas, previously planted to food crops.
Food Aid
Food that is given as aid, it is split into three different types.
Emergency Food Aid
Emergency food aid is distributed for free, usually by the UN or by NGO's. It
makes up the majority of all food aid (60%)
Project Food Aid
Another quarter (25%) is split into Project food aid. Project food aid is donated to
support specific activities and projects, such as feeding children at school and
nutrition centres
Program Food Aid
Program food aid is the least common type of food aid, and is usually between a
donor government and a low-income government. Program food aid from the
Unites States is usually sold to generate cash
Advantages
- Makes it possible for people to devote more time and energy to
development opportunities (e.g. setting up a business, improving
irrigation of farmland, and going to school)
- Emergency food aid = FREE
- Food aid can be a profit-making business for High Income Countries
- Can be used as a political weapon within the recipient country >> for
example, President Mengistu used food as a bargaining tool to gain
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support from people in rebel territory in Eritrea and Wollo provinces in the
north of Ethiopia during the 1980s
Can have a political motive >> useful way of securing allies rather than
helping those most in need >> example: during the Cold War, both the
USA and the USSR distributed vast amounts of food aid to support friendly
governments. After the Cold War in 1998-99, the USA made massive
shipments of food aid to Russia to support the Russian government of the
time.
1.3 million People would have vital food for the next 3months
Devote more time and energy to development opportunities, like setting
up a business, improving irrigation of farmland, or going to school.
Food aid is provided to meet the needs of hungry people who are unable
to feed themselves and their families, such as the refugees from Somalia
on the Kenyan border.
It can delay the onset of AIDS-related illness and improve the quality of life
for someone living with HIV. e.g. in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the number
of people living with HIV is high
Political motive – it can be a useful way of securing allies rather than
helping those most in need.
Food aid can be a profit-making business for high income countries. US
law mandates that 75% of all food aid transport must be handled by
American shipping companies carrying the US flag

Disadvantages
- Shipments of food aid can take up to 5 months to reach its destination >>
slow
- E.g. the Asian Tsunami - nearly half the World Food Programme's budget of
$210 million was spent on shipping and storing food
- Long-term reliance distort local diets because people get used to
imported foodstuffs (e.g. wheat) instead of locally produced maize
- Can undermine the livelihoods of poor farmers by flooding markets (e.g.
"surplus dumping" of American rice in Haiti) and depressing prices
- Large amounts of food aid over time can discourage local food production
>> creating a dependence on foreign food imports in the long-term
- UN
humanitarian says that not even 50% of the fund requested
had
been paid to Kenya and Somalia and only 30% in Djibouti
- Political weapon within the recipient country. For example, President
Mengistu used food as a bargaining tool to gain support from people in
rebel territory in Ethiopia
- Large amounts of food aid over time can discourage local food production,
creating a dependence on foreign food imports in the long-term.
Fair Trade
Fair trade is an organized social movement that aims to help producers in
developing countries to make better trading conditions and promote
sustainability.

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Examples
- Spice and nut farmers in Kerala, India
- Banana Farmers in St. Lucia
- Economic crisis for agriculture in Kerala causing all prices to fall.
- Crops exported from developing countries such as coffee, cocoa, and rice
have increasing prices on the global market, but not all of the extra money
richest the farmers
- Fair trade encourages farmers to receive fair and stable prices rather than
selling through traders
Advantages
- Prices do not change throughout the season
- Provides better prices, decent working conditions, local sustainability and
fair terms of trade for farmers and workers in the developing world
- Individual farmers can find out what is taking place in the market and have
close links to retailers
- Prices do not change throughout the season
- Allows farmers to make a living
- Helps farmers from developing countries compete with other companies
- Farmers have closer links to retailers >> they tell farmers if they have
problems and farmers try to fix them
- Addresses the injustices of conventional trade (which leaves the poorest,
weakest producers earning less than it costs them to grow their crops)
- Provides better prices for poor farmers who cannot compete with heavily
subsidized industrial nations with the guarantee that these farmers are
actually receiving a fair price.
- Local sustainability is also more or less guaranteed as farmers have more
money to spend on health and education.
- This also means that price increases will directly go to farmers (in the
past, increases in prices would only mean bigger profits for the traders not
the farmers) – this way stability is ensured even in seasons where the
prices will change a lot.
Disadvantages
- Distorts markets
- Exaggerates its claims
- Prices out the poorest farmers
- Perpetuates inefficient modes of production
- No clear evidence to suggest that farmers themselves actually receive
higher price under fair trade
- Some farmers cannot afford the fees
- There is no actual evidence to support the theory that farmers are actually
receiving high prices for what they produce.
- Could it be that these companies are just charging higher prices with the
knowledge that consumers will pay more for these products?
- Also, there is no guarantee that are consumers are willing and able to
purchase fair trade products (why would someone purchase a fair trade
products when they could buy two or three free trade products)

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Sustainable Agriculture
Examine the concept of sustainable agriculture in terms of
energy efficiency ratios and sustainable yields.
Sustainable agriculture
Refers to the ability of a farm to produce food indefinitely, without causing
irreversible damage to ecosystems.

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Conserves resources and reduces or prevents environmental degradation
Ensures farm profitability and a prosperous farming community
Sustainable farming practices maintain or enhance:
o Economic viability of agricultural production
o Environment’s natural resources
o Other ecosystems that are influenced by agricultural activities

Energy efficiency ratios
A measure of the amount of energy input into a system compared with the
output
Inputs

-

Solar
Water
Nutrients
Minerals

Outputs
- Food like grains, eggs, milk, meat etc.
- CO2,
- Nutrient leaching,
- Raw material like cocoa beans
- Agricultural runoff.

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Traditional agroforestry system has low inputs compared to intensive
pastoral (sheep and cattle farms) farming or greenhouse cultivation, which
have high energy subsidies (sources of energy not directly received from
the sun, e.g. fossil fuels).
By looking at such ratios, decisions can be made if whether farms are
being productive in their objective, and how further action can be
implemented.
o E.g. in Nairobi, women have been seen growing vertical gardens in
sacks - the space is limited, the resources used are limited, and food
can be consumed, families often rejuvenated, and waste limited
since small scale is so much easier to handle.

Sustainable yields
The amount of food (yield) that can be taken from the land without reducing the
ability of the land to produce the same amount of goods in the future, without
any additional inputs.
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If the production of palm oil reduces the nutrient availability or moisture
content in the soil, it is not sustainable
If a particular type of farming leads to salinization or eutrophication, the
type of farming is not sustainable
Can also be applied to fishing: tonnage of fish removed from the ocean
p.a. is the amount that allows fish stocks to recover and produce the same
yield in years to come

Examine the concept of food miles as an indicator of
environmental impact.
Food Miles
Refer to the distance that food travels from where it is produced to where it is
consumed, measured in units of distance covered.

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On average, food travels between 2,500 to 4,000 km every time that it is
delivered to the consumer.
Provides an indication of the environmental impact of the food we eat
(greater food miles =greater transport energy required and pollution
produced)
o Food distribution accounts for 30% of all UK road freight
Food system is completely dependent on crude oil - supplies are
inefficient, vulnerable and unsustainable
o There are other factors that must be considered with this concept of
food miles, however, if it is a concept that accurately determines
the environmental impact of food production, distribution and
consumption.
 Even though the food is going halfway around the world from
one place compared to the other which goes just a couple
hundred miles, by the time it reaches the plate, it is far more
efficient with a smaller carbon footprint.
 This is because food miles do not consider the concept of
carbon footprint and how the production of the food matters
when talking about sustainability.
 Nevertheless, it could be a good example to explain the
extent as to how far the ingredients and how much
production is required for food to be put on the plate.

Disease
Global Patterns of Disease
Explain the global distribution of diseases of affluence and
poverty.
Global disease varies in its patterns of prevalence (number of cases per 10,000
people) and incidence (number of confirmed cases annually).

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Infectious of Communicable Diseases (of Poverty)
People in poverty get these diseases because of poor living conditions, but for
affluent people, they can treat such diseases.
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May be contagious and transmitted through close human contact or
vectors (such as insects).
Spread rapidly in unsanitary conditions associated with poverty.
Examples include malaria, diarrhea, HIV AIDS.

Non Communicable Diseases (of Affluence)
- May be degenerative diseases associated with old age.
- Also related to lifestyle factors such as diet, level of exercise, smoking,
alcohol consumption etc.
- Examples include heart disease, cancer, strokes
The Epidemiological Transition
As countries develop their standard of living and food supply improve and
infectious diseases subside. People begin to adopt the habits of the more affluent
world. In time these lifestyle changes because detrimental and results in more
chronic and degenerative diseases.

The Spread of Disease
Explain how the geographic concepts of diffusion by
relocation and by expansion apply to the spread of diseases.
Expansion
The disease develops in a source area and spreads out from there while
remaining strong in the source area. These types of diffusion take place in areas
that have a stable, fixed population, and they have ‘distance-decay’
characteristics.
Contagious
The disease spreads out in several directions
from the source, affecting individuals that come
contact with it (even if they don’t show the
symptoms). This type of diffusion is therefore
heavily influenced by distance.
Hierarchical
The disease is spread over distances in an ordered
sequence of places or classes of people, such as
from a large city to smaller towns then villages, or
being channelled through specific vulnerable

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The Geography of Food and Health
Mixed
This type of diffusion combines types of expansion
diffusion as it spreads through human contact and
spread further when vulnerable groups mix with
other groups thus spreading the disease further.

Zeyu Hu

may

Relocation
This kind of diffusion involves the movement of
individuals who carry the disease to new locations.
This way, the disease can leave the original source
area and follow the individuals that carry it.
Network
The disease spreads along transport routes or
connections within a social system.

Examine the application of the concept of barriers in
attempts to limit the spread of diseases.
Adfad

Describe the factors that have enabled reduction in
incidence of a disease.
Adfad

Geographic Factors and Impacts
Examine the geographic factors responsible for the
incidence and spread of two diseases.
HIV/AIDS
World Wide
- The impacts are greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa due to poverty and lack of
access to healthcare
 Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 70% of new infections
WORLDWIDE in 2012
- The impacts are least in Europe (see Europe section for more detail) and
North America due to access to healthcare and awareness of how to
prevent infection
- New infections rising in the Middle East and Northern Africa
- Higher rates of infection amongst men in middle classes – more likely to
use sex workers
- The two main causes of HIV infection are sex and injection drug use
- Difficult for the vulnerable groups to even be reached as it is either
regarded as illegal activity or is politically unpopular
- Often these groups go underground because of the stigma attached to
their behavior and/or are unable to get treatment
- 60% of countries have laws/regulations that block HIV care to vulnerable
groups
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ARTs produced by pharmaceutical TNCs are expensive for Low Income
countries
Generic medication (copies) have the exact same effect, strength, dosage
as branded medication, they are just significantly cheaper and
therefore give Low/Middle Income countries able to afford treatment
India produces more than 80% of the world’s generic ARTs and provides
most of the developing world with this essential medication

Europe
- New HIV infections have been on the rise in Eastern Europe (especially in
Russia) mainly due to the lack of intervention with Injection Drug Users
(IDU)
- UK/Netherlands has adopted needle exchange programs which is now a
part of public healthcare. These programs have had a positive effect on
reducing HIV rates amongst IDUs which demonstrates that attempting to
make risky behavior safer is a strategy that works.
Asia
Concentration of HIV infection in cities – Bangkok accounts for 25% of Thailand’s
new infections
-

-

Thailand and Myanmar are on track to meet the target to eliminate new
infections although Thailand is the only SE Asian country with an infection
rate of more than 1% of the population
Indonesia is not on track to meet this target, with an increasing trend of
new infections
India has almost 50% of people living with HIV in the region

Evaluate the geographic impact of these two diseases at the
local, national and international scales.
HIV/AIDS
Social Factors
Relative openness towards HIV problem since policies (such as enforced condom
use in brothels, condom campaign) led by Khun Mechai in 1990s which led to:

Thailand being a success story in terms of HIV prevention among sex
workers
HIV prevention messages on primetime TV targeting men who were the
clients of the sex workers enabled a fall of half the number of men visiting
sex workers.
Thailand being the only country in the region to provide HIV treatment to
migrants.

Negative
- Growth of social networking for dating makes prevention increasingly
difficult, especially amongst MSM and young people.
- 1 in 3 men who have sex with men in Bangkok are HIV positive - services
are not reaching MSM with the right information.
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Infection rates amongst young people is now 1 in 5
Despite ART/counseling clinics, there is still a stigma surrounding people
living with HIV

Economic
Thailand sets an example for the Asia-Pacific region because most HIV funding
comes from domestic sources: they are not relying on foreign money –
government goal to end HIV infection by 2030.
Negative
- The cost of the ART treatment program is very high (7,000 baht/month
privately; 4,300 publically)
- Thailand spends about 8 times as much on treatment than prevention
Environmental
Seas around Thailand and mountainous areas in the North make it difficult to
access vulnerable groups to prevent infection – migrant fishermen, hill-tribe
groups.
Political
Thailand is providing ARTs through public health insurance schemes and is
planning to scale up ART treatment coverage especially amongst pregnant
women living with HIV.
The government supports widespread availability of post-exposure prophylaxis
(PEP) – strong but effective ARV treatment so long as treatment starts within 48
hours of exposure.
Negative
- The ‘patchwork’ distribution of infection rate incidence across Thailand
makes it difficult to target prevention measures. 70% of new HIV infections
are in 33 provinces.
- Problems in managing cross-border mobility of migrants in the region –
Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, South China – taking part in sex or construction
work, injecting drugs in northern Thailand
- Prevention of infection via injection drug users more difficult to manage
because of the punitive approach to drug use - people who inject drugs
just go underground as they fear jail or even the death penalty. Some
positive developments with the beginning of needle distribution and
exchange programs.
Case Study – HIV/AIDS in China
Social
Research shows that
migrants are at a
greater risk of
Nearly half of all
becoming infected
Chinese people now
with and transmitting
live in towns or cities
HIV than nonmigrants
HIV infection rates
Many Chinese

Economic
There is only one HIV
testing laboratory for
every 3 million
people
The region along the

Political
China’s first TV adver
to promote the use of
condoms was taken
off air after 2 days as
it violated a ban on
advertising sex
products
Chinese government

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have rapidly spread
along drug trafficking
routes since early
1990s

migrants miss out on
education on health
matters

Local officials are
often reluctant to
admit that there is a
sex or drugs trade in
their province

200 million people
migrate to the cities
in search of work 
“floating people” 
many are young,
single and have to
spend long time away
from friends and
families

Sharing dirty needles
amongst intravenous
drug users is a
common cause of
infection of HIV

The lowest incidence
of HIV-AIDS is
amongst China’s
ethnic minorities who
tend to have more
conservative attitudes
towards sex than
other groups

People living with HIVAIDS are often forced
to leave their homes
and seek a new life
and identity in one of
China’s cities

Mekong where
Burma, Laos and
Thailand meet (“the
golden triangle”)
used to be one of the
world’s centres for
the heroin trade

controls what goes on
the media an tries to
hide the illegal blood
trade as well as sex
industry

Selling blood is a
common way for
poorer people to
make money

Rapid economic
growth in china’s
cities has attracted
many young women.
Some become sex
workers to make
money quickly before
returning home to
start their own
business.
On the black market,
blood is collected
illegally and pooled
together before it is
sold.

Malaria
Social
- Most of the world's malaria deaths occur at home, in private clinics, or in
informal health centres, data from government records dramatically underreports the human cost of the disease.
- Over 90% of the cases go unreported. It is mostly due to the data systems
being weakest in the places where malaria is the most common.
- Experts say that the medical effects of artemisinin-based compounds,
being used to treat people around the Burma/Thailand border, are
weakening. The medicine once proved to have brought miraculous
recoveries of children artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) are now less
effective due to the children growing immune to it.
- Many are not aware of how malaria interacts with other infectious
diseases, particularly HIV. In parts of the world where both Malaria and HIV
are widespread, people can easily become co-infected with both diseases.
It creates a bigger risk and dangerous situation since HIV positive people
are far more vulnerable to developing infections or more severe forms of
malaria as their weak immune system simply cannot respond to the
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disease effectively. Symptoms last much longer than in people who do not
carry HIV, and can also have harmful effects on the accelerated
progression of HIV.
Lack of use of insecticide-treated nets causes an increase in infections
In 2012, malaria killed an estimated 482 000 children under five years of
age. That is 1300 children every day or one child almost every minute.
About 40% of malaria deaths occur in just two countries: Nigeria and the
Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In 2012, 135 million people (4% of the global population at risk of malaria)
were protected by indoor residual spraying worldwide.

Economic
- Malnourished people, due to not having enough money to buy food, can
be easy targets for malaria.
- Not enough money spent on health care therefore a lot of people die at
home instead of being treated.
- Funding remains inadequate. In 2012, the global total of international and
domestic funding for malaria was US$ 2.5 billion – less than half of what
was needed.
- Rural areas that cannot afford water and sanitation systems often utilize
streams/ponds for daily water needs. This could produce stagnant (no flow
or current) of water and has a high chance of becoming a location for
development of mosquito larvae.
Environmental
- Resistant strains of malaria found on border of Thailand and Burma,
therefore efforts of eliminating malaria is seriously compromised.
- Plasmodium falciparum parasites are proven to infect patients more than
500 miles away on the border between Thailand and Burma are growing
steadily more resistant.
- The vast majority of Malaria cases and malaria-related deaths occur in
sub-Saharan Africa.
- There were 200 million suspected malaria cases in 2009, nearly half of
which were recorded in South-East Asia.
- Meanwhile, there were 80 million "probable and confirmed" malaria cases
in 2009, the vast majority of which were recorded in Africa.
- Uganda and Kenya were the countries with the highest absolute numbers
of probable and confirmed malaria cases in 2009, with 9.8 million and 8.1
million, respectively.
- Almost half the world’s population – an estimated three billion – live in
areas where malaria is transmitted.
- Mosquitoes are found in hot, tropical areas, where a lot of the poorer
countries are, therefore have a larger impact.
Political
- Because of the political situation Burma did not get the same levels of
funding for malaria control as other countries.

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Politically unstable countries generally have lower quality health care
systems, therefore in areas prone to malaria (usually in LEDCs), if people
cannot access health care, the problem becomes much larger.

Social Impacts
Local
- Mortality rates increase
- As more and more people are dying of malaria, it may cause families to be
broken
- Grief
- Increases school absenteeism can cause a decrease in education
National
-

People in the country who can help would try and do so (such as scientists,
doctors, etc)

International
- Decrease in tourism (due to reputation in jeopardy) can lead to less
globalization (knowledge between cultures)
Economic Impacts
Local
- Families who lose a member who is the main source of income would
suffer financially
National
- Decrease in the GDP as local people are more sick and are unable to work
- Increase in government funding for research
International
- Decrease in workforce causes decrease in supply, decrease in supply will
then result in decrease in exports
Environmental Impacts
Local
- The area in which people live in will affect the chances of them getting
malaria
- Therefore hot tropical countries such as Thailand would cause locals to be
more prone to the disease
National
- The hotter the region (around the equator), the higher chances of people
getting malaria
International
- Does not seem to affect people much on the international scale

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Political Impacts
Local
- Bad governing may lead to poverty, thus increasing the risk of getting
malaria and mortality rates due to bad health care
National
- Can improve public image
International
- Government may ask for international aid or help, can lead to debts

Evaluate the management strategies that have been applied
in any one country or region for one of these diseases.
Malaria
- 36% of the risk population was covered by insecticide treated mosquito
nets by 2010
- Only 124 indigenous cases found in 2011
- 32.6 million dollars of funding was given by the Global Fund
- Malaria incidence decreased by 99% since 1999 since the introduction of
indoor residual sparing
- The CDC developed new drugs to prevent malaria threat
- ACT treatment
HIV/AIDS

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