the name given to the prestigious film
awards presented each year by AMPAS (the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences, or simply 'The Academy'), a
professional honorary organization within the
industry, since 1927. The annual awards
show, in slang, is sometimes referred to as
a kudo-cast, see also Oscars


(1) any movement or series of events
(usually rehearsed) that take place before
the camera and propel the story forward
toward its conclusion; (2) the word called out
(by a megaphone) at the start of the
current take during filming to alert actors to
begin performing; (3) also refers to the main
component of action films - that often contain
significant amounts of violence


ad lib

A megaphone to call out the
word "ACTION"

the presentation of one art form through
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966) is
another medium; a film based upon, derived a very faithful rendering or adaptation of
from (or adapted from) a stage play (or from Edward Albee's play of the same name;
another medium such as a short story, book,
also, Gone With the Wind (1939) was
article, history, novel, video game, comic
adapted from Margaret Mitchell's novel,
strip/book, etc.) which basically preserves
and Apocalypse Now (1979) was taken
both the setting and dialogue of the original;
from Joseph Conrad's Heart of
can be in the form of a script (screenplay) or
a proposal treatment

a line of dialogue improvised by an actor
during a performance; can be either
unscripted or
deliberate;improvisation consists of ad-libbed
dialogue (and action) that is invented or
created by the performer

to provide a 'happy' ending. or the use of 1873 Colt Peacemakers in Red River (1948) . and of American Beauty (1999). the title card for Dr. Blade Runner (1982). aka anestablishing shot Examples: the hunting scene in Tom Jones (1963). of Polanski's Rosemary's Baby (1968). if the aerial shot is at the opening of a film. Strangelove. a variation on thecrane shot. the first feature 'film' elements are called film flubs shot using digital video cinematography. Little Shop of Horrors (1986). Or: (1964) (see above).a camera shot filmed in an exterior location from far overhead (from a bird's eye view). Kiss Me Deadly (1955). a U. Glory (1989). balloon. one of the kids in the film wears what appears to be a Swatch watch. blimp. or in Lawrence of Arabia (1962). plane. often anachronistic the Clones (2002). aerial shot ambiance ambient light anachronism the feeling or mood of a particular scene or setting the natural light (usually soft) or surrounding light around a subject in a scene.S. the shooting (or re-shooting) of a film's ending for its theatrical release. as from a helicopter (most common). or the opening aerial shot of Manhattan in West Side Story (1961). also see background lighting an element or artifact in a film that belongs to Example: Star Wars Episode II: Attack of another time or place. or kite. isn't really a film . See also director's cut Examples: The Magnificent Ambersons (1942). in the Civil War film. usually enforced by the studio for any number of lternate ending reasons (because of test audience preview results. Fatal Attraction (1987). anachronistic term in this case. Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956). Browning air-cooled machine gun is oddly featured before its time. and Army of Darkness (1993).). the helicopter raid in Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979). controversial or unpopular subject matter.

one of the earliest techniques of silent film Examples: Georges Melies' The Vanishing Lady (1896) (pictured). crescendo. or controversial 'blackface' tribute dance to climax. Example: the dizzying camera shot during the Carrie (1976) prom scene (pictured).when he simply waves his hand expected doesn't occur. dismissively and walks off stage. zenith. then restarting the camera to have an object magically disappear or appear. or Edwin S.anti-climax anything in a film. which can be adjusted to either let in more or less light a shot in which the subject(s) is photographed by an encircling or moving camera. usually following the film's Example: the end of Fred Astaire's high point. or the reunion scene and embrace at the airport in Obsession (1976) French word meaning 'halt' or 'stop'. Porter's The Great Train Robbery (1903) . refers to the in-camera trick technique of stopping the camera. apex. then removing or inserting an object. refers to the measurement of the opening in a camera lens that regulates the amount of light passing through and contacting the film. in which there is an unsatisfying and Bill "Bojangles" Robinson in Swing Time disappointing let-down of emotion. or what is (1936) .throwing a arc shot arret person/dummy off a train . aperture The red highlighted portion of the lens above is the aperture.

while 70mm formats have an AR of 2. began to appear in the 1950s and provided a distinct contrast to commercial films.2:1. Burton's Batman (1989). film's art department (responsible for set construction. at a ratio of 1. ceilings dressings. floors.85:1. non-mainstream (sometimes antiHollywood) films. and other underappreciated cinema of low mass appeal. from 1. a member of the Furst. newwidescreen formats and aspect ratios were introduced in the 1950s. and prop placement). Examples: La Cage Aux Folles (1978). and feel of a film's set. films. in which all the shots are arranged in script order. Our local Enzian cinema is an arthouse theater. independent art-house film films. films shown usually include foreign-language films. . letterboxed videos for widescreen TV's are frequently in 16:9 (or 1. Dancer in the Dark (2000). All An example of an aspect ratio of 16:9 (or 1. documentaries. explicitly-erotic films. a term for how the image appears on the screen based on how it was shot. the first stage of editing.Cinerama had a 2. interior design. goth moodiness and design. windows.77:1 aspect ratio. refers to the ratio of width (horizontal or top) to height (vertical or side) of a film frame. shorts. that are acknowledged as having artistic merit or aesthetic pretensions. and are shown in an arthouse theatre.35:1 AR. a motion picture theater that shows foreign or non-mainstream independent films. created by art furniture.77:1) AR. oppressive look of the set for Tim including the number and type of props. look.77:1). image or screen.65:1 and director arthouse refers to the individual responsible for the Example: the dark.33:1 (the same as 4:3 on a TV screen). CinemaScope (a trade name for a widescreen movie format used in the US from 1953 to 1967) and other anamorphic systems (such as Panavision) have a 2. often considered high-brow or 'art' films. the most common or standard aspect ratio in early films to the 1950s was called Academy Aperture (or ratio). The Sweet Hereafter (1997). normal 35mm films are shot at a ratio of 1. Any number of films to the 1950s could be examples. director Anton and all other set materials. aspect ratio assembly in general. often low budget or 'art' films.

a rain downpour. sometimes accidental. blinding light. aka lightning mix Examples: many examples in Citizen Kane (1941) and also inApocalypse Now (1979) . connects the two shots or scenes.the sound of helicopter blades are linked to the next scene of the spinning blades of an overhead fan . but sometimes intentional. the soundtrack. aka nonsynchronized atmosphere audio bridge Sam talking to a disoriented Frodo throughout LOTR. searing heat. Examples: spookiness. etc.refers to audio-track sounds that are mismatched or out of conjunction or unison asynchronous with the images in the visual frame (or (sound) screen). refers to any concrete or nebulous quality or feeling that contributes a dimensional tone to a film's action. refers to an outgoing sound (either dialogue or sound effects) in one scene that continues over into a new image or shot . not a visual this case. howling wind.