ECONOMIC MINERAL - I

ET- 3202
Nurcahyo I. Basuki

Mineral / Material Industri
Industrial Minerals / Materials

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End Uses 7.Economic Value 2 .Berzelian 2.Alphabetical 3.(Barker and McLemore.Geologic Processes 4. 2005) Classification of Industrial Minerals 1.Important Properties 6.Tectonic Models 5.

the presence or absence of water or the hydroxyl anion.g. It categorizes mineral species according to the main anion group  chemically similar Mineral classes may then be further subdivided according to: physical features.Berzelian (Mineral Classification System) It is named in honor of the Swedish chemist and mineralogist Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848). brines. but not industrial mineral/materials (only for some siliceous and calcareous minerals e. types of cation.Classification of Industrial Minerals 1. The classification did not cover waste materials.Berzelian (Mineral Classification System) This system was used for non-metallics and also hydrocarbons. or internal structure. or most manufactured products because many of these were yet to be recognized as important raw materials or products (at that time) 3 . under silica and calcium carbonate). Classification of Industrial Minerals 1.

and industrial minerals and rocks The dominant divisions: igneous. similar properties they possess.Classification of Industrial Minerals 2. sedimentary.Alphabetical The simplest approach. metamorphic. and certainly the most intuitive It works reasonably well for industrial minerals. and surficially altered minerals and rocks (Harben and Bates 1984). It has exploration relevance  a commodity may be found again in other places where these processes occur Waste and processed materials were not specifically addressed 4 .Geologic Processes Based on many processes responsible for the formation of all minerals and rocks. e. or their applications/uses Classification of Industrial Minerals 3.g. but requires a degree of clarification and consistency because subdivisions are often necessary This classification obscures many important links between commodities. geological processes that led to their formation.

brightness.Classification of Industrial Minerals 4. and metallurgical industries) 2) physical minerals  physical properties such as particlesize distribution. abrasives.g. as well as geological relationship between different industrial minerals. Including construction materials. for fertilizer. and fillers 5 .Tectonic Models Development of the geological process classifications Major advantage: allowing analysis of the potential spatial. Ideal one for industrial minerals exploration and parallels the earlier work for metal/ore deposits Classification of Industrial Minerals 5.Important Properties Industrial minerals and rocks  each commodity is used based on significant composition or property Kline (1970) devised a simple two-fold division: 1) chemical minerals  as source of important elements (e. gems. chemical. and surface area are important. ceramics. mineral composition does not change during use.

Classification of Industrial Minerals 6. gypsum. kyanite. and treatment. On the other hand. location.End Use “Exploration begins with markets” (Coope 1982)  mineral or rock has value only if there is a customer willing and able to pay for it One specific minerals can many different end uses e. potash. some consuming industries require different industrial minerals. and salt 3. beryl. limestone can provide more than 100 separate products used in very different applications.g. and talc Each group can have a number of common features in terms of their deposit size. and common clay 2. mining methods.g. distribution. 6 . High price–low volume: barite. each of which alone would not meet the needs of the manufacturing process. mica. e. High price–high volume: borates. Low price–large volume: materials used in construction such as aggregates. cement industry Classification of Industrial Minerals 7.Economic Value Wright and Burnett (1962) proposed a threefold “commercial” classification based on unit price and production volumes: 1.

distribution and geological processes . garnet. place value .processing complexity His conclusion: .Economic Value Bates (1969) developed two-fold subdivision based on combined factors. barite.Classification of Industrial Minerals 7.high and low unit-value commodities . sillimanite group.imports and exports . Principal physical and chemical minerals—feldspar and zeolite 5. Mixed-application physical minerals—silica. mica.Other Classification Smith (1999) developed a classification based on the relative importance of physical and chemical applications or a combination. clay. and sulfur 7. gypsum. pumice 2. fluorspar. 1. and graphite 3. chromite. magnesite. Principal fillers—wollastonite. and talc 6. such as: .industrial rocks mainly fell in the low unit-value group Classification of Industrial Minerals 8. alumina.most industrial minerals fell into the high unit-value group . and limestone 7 . salt. Principal abrasives —diamond. Principal refractories—pyrophyllite. perlite. and iron oxide 4. Mixed-application physical and chemical minerals—olivine. titanium minerals.the bulk. Principal chemical minerals —phosphate.

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Rubber 4. Ceramics and Glass 9 . Adhesives and sealants 5. Plastics technology 6. Pharmaceutical 7. Paints and coatings.Major Use of Industrial Minerals Eight consuming industries (Ciullo. Paper 3. 1996): 1. Agricultural Pesticide 8. 2.

Paints and coatings . the purposes are to protect surface and hold pigments . Solvents (volatile). fluorescent paint) 10 . Additives (to modify some property of pigments and binder) Binders + solvent = medium (vehicle) . fine particle size materials . to impart color It consists of insoluble.Some of the uses for paint: Art works Decoration (residential paints) Protection of a surface (rust inhibiting auto paints) Warnings (reflective paint.1.Pigment is usually mixture of inorganic metal salts. Binders (resinous materials).Constituents of paints: Pigments.PAINT: A suspension of pigment in a film former (also called vehicle) .Film former is usually organic polymer(s).

fine particle sized clays. covering the full pH range from acid to neutral to alkaline. “Pitch” is any organic materials that are unwanted in the system. synthetic silicas and aluminas. structured kaolin pigments. titanium dioxide. In the pulp mill. 11 . bentonite. These materials are found throughout the pulp mill and papermill and often are not of wood origin. zinc oxide. talc. titanium dioxide. calcium carbonate. Paper Making Paper filling pigments are added primarily to reduce the cost of the paper. calcium carbonate. Of course. plastic pigment. talc. except for titanium dioxide (TiO2) are less expensive than fiber and therefore reduce the cost of the paper. calcined clays. whether or not they are used to affect color. satin white. Paper Making Wood pulp is made by several processes ranging from mechanical to semichemical to fully chemical methods.2. usually consisting of resin acids. Approximately one fifth of the fine papers produced are pigment coated. Each pulping process produces a pulp with properties unique to itself. including improvements in brightness. smoothness. Pigment coatings improve printing properties of the sheet. This is the fastest growing segment of the paper industry.and each pulp type lends itself to a different end use. mineral raw materials are traditionally called “pigments”. 2) Paper Coating: kaolins. 3) Pitch Control: talc. pitch refers to unsaponifiable matter from the pulping process. many other benefits are obtained from these minerals. Mineral fillers in general. In the pulp and paper industry. opacity. The use of mineral pigments : 1) Paper Filling: kaolins. 5) Micro Particle Retention: bentonite 2. blanc fixe. 4) Deinking of Recycled Papers: talc. Pitch control. depending on the type of wood used. print quality and economy. kaolin.

problems similar to those encountered in pitch control must be countered. Magazine paper must be both deinked and the coating pigments and binders removed. 2. Magazine paper must be both deinked and the coating pigments and binders removed. Disposal of solid waste (esp. Recycling paper is a rather complex chemical process that varies depending on the type of paper being recycled. Advantages reported for microparticle retention include increased water removal. and in some cases. Each of these papers. increased machine speed. Paper Making Deinking of Recycled Papers. paper from newspaper) is a major concern. Each of these papers. plus many others. problems similar to those encountered in pitch control must be countered. 12 . Paper Making Deinking of Recycled Papers. Newsprint must be deinked. plus many others. Disposal of solid waste (esp. Copier papers present a real challenge in removing the toner from the fiber. paper from newspaper) is a major concern. Micro Particle Retention is a relatively new innovation in the retention and drainage processes used in the wet end of paper machines. decreased steam usage from higher consistency sheet entering the driers. Copier papers present a real challenge in removing the toner from the fiber. has its own unique deinking scheme and chemical requirements. Recycling paper is a rather complex chemical process that varies depending on the type of paper being recycled. Because most deinking processes include the removal of organic substances besides ink. Newsprint must be deinked. has its own unique deinking scheme and chemical requirements. Because most deinking processes include the removal of organic substances besides ink.2. increased first pass retention.

fabric. The surfaces bonded together can be metal. Rubber There is a wide variety of rubber polymers. They hold in or hold out air or other gases. extrusion. In most cases. and cavities between materials. when mixed together. film. 4.3. 13 . crosslinking chemicals. glass etc. or solids. Mixing is followed by forming operations such as milling. The primary markets for adhesives and sealants may be divided into packaging/converting/disposables. These lead to the final processing step of vulcanization or curing in which the compound changes from a thermoplastic to a thermoset or crosslinked state. Adhesives and sealants must be able form good adhesive bonds with adjacent surfaces to be effective. and calendering. will provide a compound with the desired properties and performance. and each offered with modifications designed to enhance one or more of those attributes. Compounding is the means by which elastomer and additives are combined to ensure efficient manufacture of the best possible product. plastic. filler (reinforcing or extending). Sealants are used to fill joints. wood. each with its characteristic attributes. and transportation. and combinations of these materials. the elastomer by itself lacks one or more necessary property. stone. construction. Adhesive and Sealants Adhesives are materials that are capable of binding other substances together by surface attachments. A number of materials must be added to make it commercially useful. and various additives which. Most adhesives and sealants are liquids or pastes when applied to ensure that they wet the adherend surface. The compounding of rubber products starts with the choice of elastomer. gaps. liquids (most commonly water)..

requiring high temperatures in their processing or manufacture. Refractories Glass  a supercooled liquid. These materials can be divided into categories as follows: 1. hardness and rigidity at ordinary temperatures. a randomly structured material. characterized by its transparency. and capacity for plastic working at elevated temperatures Ceramic materials have relatively high melting temperature and are brittle  strain hardening cannot be applied 14 . Glass 2. or a non-crystalline solid (amorphous solid with nondirectional properties).4. Whitewares. Adhesive and Sealants 8. usually inorganic. Ceramics and Glass The broad term “ceramics” is comonly taken to mean any of a large family of materials. including artware and structural ceramics. 3.

Classification and Application of Ceramics Ceramic Materials Glasses Clay products -optical -whiteware -composite -structural reinforce -containers/ household Refractories Abrasives bricks and tile -sandpaper for high T -cutting (furnaces) -polishing Cements -composites -structural Advanced ceramics -engine rotors valves bearings -sensors Major constituents • • • • • • • • Silica sand Soda ash Lime stone Dolomite Feldspathic materials Lead oxide Boric acid Crushed glass 15 .