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Heterotrophic nutrition
The Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
 Tube that includes:
Mouth, Pharynx,
Oesophagus, Stomach,
Small intestine, Large
 Accessory organs:
teeth, tongue, salivary
glands, liver,
gallbladder, and
Overview of the activities
 Ingestion: eating

 Secretion: release of water, enzymes & buffers

 Mixing & propulsion: movement along GI tract

 Digestion: mechanical and chemical breakdown of


 Absorption: getting it into the body

 Defecation: dumping waste products = defecation

GI Wall Layers
4 layers present:
 Mucosa- epithelium, connective tissue the lamina
propria, glands, muscularis mucosae
 Submucosa- connective tissue, blood vessels,
lymphatic vessels, enteric nervous system
 Muscularis- circular layer, longitudinal layer
 Inmouth, pharynx & upper esophagus –skeletal muscle
 Also in external anal sphincter

 Serosa or Visceral peritoneum

The Oral/Buccal Cavity
 Formed by cheeks, hard
& soft palate & tongue

 Soft palate at back

includes a hanging
structure → uvula
 During swallowing uvula
prevents entry into nasal

 Tongue- muscular
accessory organ
 maneuvers food for
 Adjusts shape for speech
& swallowing
The Salivary Glands
 3 pairs of salivary glands whose ducts empty into
oral cavity

 Parotid - inferior & anterior to ears

 Submandibular - in floor of mouth, medial & inferior to


 Sublingual - beneath tongue and superior to submandibular

 Saliva contains 99.5% water, salivary amylase,

mucus and other solutes
 Dissolves food & starts digestion of starches
The Teeth
 Accessory organs in bony sockets of mandible &

 3 external regions:
 Crown- above gums
 Root- 1 or more parts embedded in socket
 Neck – between crown and root near gum line

 3 layers of material
 Enamel- covers crown
 Dentin- majority of interior of tooth
 Pulp cavity - nerve, blood vessel & lymphatics
Dental Formula
 Diphyodont: describing a type of
dentition that is characterised by two
successive sets of teeth: the
deciduous (milk) teeth followed by
the permanent (adult) teeth.
 Dental Formula of the permanent
i2/2 c1/1 pm2/2 m3/3
 the letter represents the type of tooth
 The numerator represents the number
of that type of tooth in one side of the
upper jaw
 The denominator represents the
number of that type of tooth in one
side of the lower jaw.
 Dental formula of the deciduous set:
i2/2 c1/1 m2/2
Digestion in the Mouth
 Mechanical breakdown- chewing

 Mixed with saliva by tongue

 Salivary amylase chemically breaks down

 Amylose  Maltose and Dextrin (oligosaccharides)
Continues in the stomach until acidified

 Rounds up food into a soft bolus for swallowing

Pharynx + Oesophagus
 On swallowing:
 Bolus of food  oropharynx
Laryngopharynx oesophagus
 Muscular contractions in pharynx help
 Upper oesophageal sphincter (UES)
 Skeletal muscle –controls entry to oesophagus
 Lower oesophageal sphincter (LES)
 Smooth muscle- regulates entry to stomach
The Swallowing Reflex
 Voluntary: bolus forced into oropharynx
 Triggers oropharyngeal stage

 Involuntary & breathing interrupted

 Soft palate move up-close nasopharynx

 Epiglottis seals off larynx

 Bolus moves into esophagus through UES

 Oesophageal stage peristalsis moves it

toward stomach
The Stomach
 J- shaped enlargement of tract
 Serves as mixing chamber and holding
 Very elastic & muscular
3 muscle layers: longitudinal, circular and oblique
 4 regions
 Cardia- surrounds upper opening
 Fundus- superior & to left of cardia
 Body – large central portion
 Pylorus- lower part leading to pyloric sphincter &
The Parietal Cells
Oxyntic Cells secrete 0.05% hydrochloric acid
pH = 1.5 to 2.5
 kills bacteria

 loosens cell masses

 converts pepsinogen to pepsin; pro-rennin to rennin

 coagulates caseinogen

 facilitates uptake of Ca2+, Fe3+ salts

 starts conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose

 NUCLEOPROTEINS to Nucleic acids and protein

Argentaffine Cells Secrete a glycoprotein

 (INTRINSIC FACTOR) which binds with Vit. B12 for protection
The Chief Cells secrete zymogen
Zymogen: An inactive form of a digestive enzyme secreted into the lumen of the
gut where enzymes (proteases) or other substances (like HCl) snip off parts to form
the active enzyme
Endoenzymes vs Exoenzymes

Endoenzyme Exoenzyme

 Hydrolyses internal  Hydrolyses terminal

bonds – within a bonds of a polymer
Digestion in the Stomach
 Food entry stretch & rise in pH
 Nerve impulses  secretion & mixing waves Food mixed
with juice Chyme
 Small amount pushed through pyloric sphincter = gastric
 Entry in duodenum feedback inhibition of stomach activity

 Pepsinogen is first activated by HCl and the active

enzyme Pepsin digests protein shorter polypeptides
 Zymogen to prevent autodigestion
 Activation by autocatalysis

 Prorennin is activated to Rennin which coagulated milk

protein to facilitate it’s digestion
The Small Intestine
 3 parts: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
 Where most of the digestion occurs
 Essentially all of the nutrient absorption
 Ends in ileocecal sphincter
Intestinal Wall Structure
 Same 4 layers
 Epithelial- simple columnar

 Absorptive cells with microvilli

 Goblet cells- secrete mucus

 Intestinal glands- intestinal juice & hormones

 Secretin, Cholecystokinin-Pancreozymin (CCK-PZ),
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)
 Lymphatic tissue- defense
Intestinal Wall Structure (cont)
 Duodenal glands- alkaline mucus
 Helps neutralize stomach acid
 Circular folds- increase surface area
 Villi- finger like projections of mucosa
 Increase surface area for absorption
 Include lacteals for lipid absorption
The Pancreas
 Behind stomach-
 Producespancreatic juice in acinar cells
 to duodenum via pancreatic duct
 NaHCO3 solution (pH 7.1-8.2)– 1000ml/day
 Neutralize stomach acid and dilutes chyme
 Panceas- digestive enzymes
 Proteases: chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen, and
 Activated by entreokinase from intestine
 Starch digesting- Pancreatic Amylase
 Pancreatic lipase
 Nucleotidases – RNAase & DNAase
The Gall Bladder and Bile
 Gall bladder a Pear-shaped organ on the front of the liver (stores

 Bicarbonate, bile salts, bile pigments, mineral ions and water – 1000

 Important for emulsifying fats

 Increases surface area for digestion

 Pigment is bilirubin- from broken-down heme during RBC recycling

 Digested to strecobilin- brown color

 Bile salts reabsorbed at end of small intestine (ileum)

 recycled to liver in portal circulation
Emulsification and Lipid Digestion
Digestion in the Small Intestine
 By diffusion, facilitated
diffusion, osmosis &
active transport
 Via portal system to liver
 Proteins (jejunum &
ileum) amino acids
 Via portal system to liver
 Lipids reformed to
 Packaged in chlyomicrons
with protein
 Via lacteals  lymphatics
Absorption [cont…]
 Water & salt
 Primarily osmotic movement along with other nutrients
 Fat soluble absorbed with fat
 Water soluble with simple diffusion

 B12 combines with intrinsic factor & absorbed by active

transport in ileum
The Large Intestine

 Cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal

 Ileocecal canal large intestine
 Below is caecum with appendix
 Colon- ascending, transverse, descending & sigmoid
  rectum anal canal
 Standard 4 layers with mucus secretion
 Few folds , little specialization for absorption
 Muscularis: circular + bands of longitudinal muscle
The Large Intestine [cont…]
 Slow emptying of ileum
 Slow peristalsis

 Mass peristalsis with food in stomach

 Moves from middle of colon  rectum
 Bacterial digestion
 Produce some B-vitamins & Vit. K
 Produce gases= flatus

 Colon absorbs salt & water

Control and Regulation
 Rule: activate forward and inhibit behind
 three phases: Cephalic, gastric, intestinal

 Cephalic- smell, sight, thought of food

 Neural signals stimulates salivary glands & gastric
 Gastric- stretching, pH of stomach
 Gastrin activates stomach & LES & relaxes pyloric
 Neural signals + gastrin signal satiety (fullness)
Control and Regulation [cont…]
 Intestinal- responses to food entering
 neural & endocrine
 CCK-PZ stimulated by AA & fats
 Pancreaticenzyme release
 Gall bladder contraction
 Contraction of pyloric sphincter
 Acid stimulates secretin
 Stimulates HCO3- ions in pancreatic juice
 Inhibits gastrin action in stomach
Slows movement
and emptying of

Release of GIP by
intestinal mucosa