Structural Geology

Lecture Notes
Professor Andrew Hynes

Structural Geology
Lecture Notes

Professor Andrew Hynes


EVALUATION AND GRADING ..............................................................................................................................1
GENERAL TEXTS .....................................................................................................................................................1
GENERAL LABORATORY INSTRUCTIONS ......................................................................................................3
DESCRIPTIVE STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY ..........................................................................................................4
ATTITUDES OF PLANES .......................................................................................................................................4
ATTITUDES OF LINES...........................................................................................................................................5
APPARENT DIP.......................................................................................................................................................5
RELATIONSHIP OF APPARENT TO TRUE DIP ..................................................................................................6
TRUE DIP AND STRIKE FROM TWO APPARENT DIPS ....................................................................................8
THREE-POINT PROBLEMS .................................................................................................................................10
STRATIGRAPHIC THICKNESS ..........................................................................................................................11
STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS .....................................................................................................................14
PLANES AND TOPOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................................................21
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES ...........................................................................................................................23
BEDDING-PLANE STRUCTURES ......................................................................................................................24
UNCONFORMITIES .............................................................................................................................................25
SOFT-SEDIMENT FOLDS ....................................................................................................................................26
DIAPIRISM ...............................................................................................................................................................28
SEDIMENTARY FABRIC .......................................................................................................................................28
PRIMARY IGNEOUS FEATURES ........................................................................................................................30
PYROCLASTIC ROCKS .......................................................................................................................................32
INTRUSIVE BODIES ............................................................................................................................................33
TECTONIC FEATURES..........................................................................................................................................35
FAULTS .....................................................................................................................................................................36
SOLUTION OF FAULT PROBLEMS ....................................................................................................................39
FAULT SOLUTION ON MAPS .............................................................................................................................42
STRESS ......................................................................................................................................................................44
MOHR STRESS CIRCLE.......................................................................................................................................46
NAVIER-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION.....................................................................................................47
STRAIN ......................................................................................................................................................................49
DETERMINATION OF STRAIN ..........................................................................................................................53
PROGRESSIVE STRAIN ......................................................................................................................................58
BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIALS .............................................................................................................................64

..................................................108 RELATIVE AGES OF FABRIC ELEMENTS ..........................................................................................................89 FOLD MECHANISMS ................................................................................................................................68 (B) MANY SURFACES .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................119 .................................113 SHEAR-ZONE DEFORMATION ....................................................................101 POLYDEFORMATION ..85 CLEAVAGE AND FOLDING ............................................................99 CONTOURING ON A STEREOGRAM .................................................................................................86 FOLDS ON THE STEREOGRAM.................................................................................................................................................................................111 INTERFERENCE PATTERNS IN PLANAR SECTION ................................................................................................................68 (A) FOLDING OF A SINGLE SURFACE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................82 LINEATIONS ...........................................................96 CLEAVAGE & LINEATION ON A STEREOGRAM ..............................................................................................................................................................................ii EFFECT OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE..............................65 TIME-DEPENDENT STRAIN .................................................................................................................................................................................................................117 DEFORMATION MECHANISMS AND MICROFABRIC ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................70 FOLD PROJECTION ......................75 CLEAVAGE ................................................................................................................69 (D) FOLD STYLE ................................................................................................................................................................................92 JOINTING ....................................................105 POTENTIAL FOR CONICAL FOLDS .....................................69 (C) ATTITUDES OF FOLDS ......................65 FOLDS AND FOLDING ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................100 DRILL HOLE PROBLEMS.................................................................

Prentice-Hall Inc. and long-winded in places. None is suitable for everyone.. EVALUATION AND GRADING The grading system is as follows: Laboratories Theory Mid-term test (3-hour test in place of lab. Somewhat elementary. This is primarily because. Ragan is an alternative. For laboratory work. All those listed below are available in the library.mcgill. you should be able to follow this course using these course notes rather than a ) for more information). 1 COURSE NOTES NOTICES TO STUDENTS In accord with McGill University’s Charter of Students’ Rights. although you may wish to consult one or more of these books to supplement them. van der Pluijm and Marshak and Twiss and Moores provide the best theoretical treatments. Books by Davis. N. Suppe. McGill University values academic integrity. In general. plagiarism and other academic offences under the Code of Student Conduct and Disciplinary Procedures (see www. I do not recommend a text for the course. although many of the texts are very good. students in this course have the right to submit in English or in French any written work that is to be graded.EPSC 203 (2012) p. there is no one text that usefully combines the theoretical aspects of the subject with the laboratory aspects.J. Therefore all students must understand the meaning and consequences of cheating. The classic elementary text in structural geology. . the best text is that by Marshak and Mitra. Englewood Cliffs. Billings MP 1972 Structural geology. but very useful for students who are having problems.) Final examination (last lab session of term) Final examination (3-hour formal exam) 20% 40% 40% _____ 100% GENERAL TEXTS There are many general texts in introductory structural geology. 606 p.

Norton & Co. and contains a useful description of a variety of tectonic associations. Turner FJ and Weiss LE 1963 Structural analysis of metamorphic tectonites. Well illustrated and up-to-date. New York. Mathematical treatment of stress and strain. Ramsay JG 1968 Folding and fracturing of rocks. 532 p. Dennis JG 1972 Structural geology. 3rd Edition. BA and Marshak. Marshak S and Mitra G 1988 Basic methods of structural geology.. Good all-round text. Twiss RJ & Moores EM 1992 Structural Geology. 656p. Wiley. 393 p. Prentice Hall. 537 p. Advanced general text. McGraw-Hill. New York.. An introduction to structural geology and tectonics. 2nd edition. NY. Although sometimes obscurely written. H. Comprehensive text treating both basic structural geology and regional tectonics. Well-illustrated introductory text. Wiley. Includes a section on plate tectonics. especially for terminology. treatment of folds and cleavage in the later chapters. van der Pluijm. 568 p. McGraw-Hill. Detailed discussion of laboratory techniques. Includes useful chapters summarising the geology of the Appalachians and the Cordillera. and Williams PF 1976 An outline of structural geology. . This text is particularly strong in its treatment of microfabric. it remains one of the best descriptions of practical structural analysis. Means WD. Good all-round text. John Wiley. More advanced general text. Ronald Press Co. Very concise. 640 p. 571p. Freeman. 532p. W.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 446p. 776 p. 545 p. Ragan DM 1985 Structural geology: an introduction to geometrical techniques. Prentice-Hall. 2 Davis GH 1996 Structural geology of rocks and regions. S 2004 Earth Structure. Hobbs BE. Good Spencer EW 1977 Introduction to the structure of the earth. Suppe J 1985 Principles of structural geology. McGraw-Hill.

They will also be posted on the website (www. In certain instances. 3 GENERAL LABORATORY INSTRUCTIONS (a) Equipment Students should come to the first.mcgill.eps. You are strongly encouraged. sample problems will have been solved in class beforehand. but for this they must be received by the end of the subsequent laboratory session. and all subsequent. if necessary. (c) Completion and marking You are expected to work on the exercises during the laboratory and. however. . to make use of the demonstrators to monitor your on the Monday preceding the lab session. to complete the problems during your own time. They do not count towards your final mark in the course. The responsibility for gaining facility with the lab material thus rests squarely with you. (d) Website Lab exercises for each week will be available at the first lecture each week. laboratories equipped with the following: drafting compass semicircular (or circular) protractor ruler or scale triangle (approx.EPSC 203 (2012) p. You may submit completed solutions to be corrected by the demonstrators. The subjects of the exercises will have been treated in lectures before they are introduced in the laboratory. Students are encouraged to seek the assistance of the demonstrators during the laboratory hours. These solutions will be corrected. Solutions to the lab will be available at the subsequent lab session and will also be posted on the web. In all other cases the student should be able to devise a suitable method for the solution alone. but not graded. 15x7 cm) calculator with trig functions pencils: 2H and HB eraser colouring pencils plain paper tracing paper (or at least translucent paper) (b) Nature and complexity of exercises The laboratory exercises are designed to complement the lectures. or with help from one of the demonstrators.

e.. (c) Dip = angle between dip line and its horizontal projection. however. . only orientation. It is always a good idea to express a bearing as a 3-digit number (e. N20oW (= 340o). N o 30 ik str ine e-l o 0 03 horiz. e. ATTITUDES OF PLANES The attitude of a plane is commonly expressed by a "strike" and a "dip". N20oE (= 020o). where the number of degrees is measured clockwise. be expressed as a "bearing". because strike has no direction. the (approximate) direction of the dip line (always down-dip line) must also be given.. (b) Dip line = line perpendicular to strike. lying in the plane. Orientation is commonly expressed as a number between 0o and 360o.) It may also. such as dips (see below). a plane striking E may also be described as striking W. of dip dip ( 40 ) dip -lin e o o 0 21 Figure 1 To specify the attitude of a plane completely it is necessary to specify its strike and its dip and. (a) Strike = orientation (bearing) of a horizontal line in the plane.g. A strike of 060o is exactly equivalent to a strike of 240o.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 020 rather than 20) to avoid possible confusion of bearings of less than 100 with angles measured in the vertical plane. projn. south is 180o etc. Since all 3D structures may be considered to be arrangements of planes and lines in space this involves the specification of the attitudes and positions of planes and lines. beginning at north (thus east is 090o. Strike has no direction. i. 4 DESCRIPTIVE STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY The first stage of any structural analysis is a description of the structures observed. and so on.g.

plane shown on Fig. and the dip would be 40o. measured downwards from the horizontal.. Fig. 2) Figure 2 APPARENT DIP If a plane is cut in any fashion it will appear on the cut surface as a line. (d) Right-hand rule To avoid having to specify the direction of dip it is commonly assumed that the strike has a direction such that when the plane is viewed in that direction it is dipping off to the right. The dip bearing has a direction down the dip. 5 e. Thus. This is in fact the most concise way in which to describe a plane. (e) Dip/dip bearing Another unambiguous and brief shorthand is to describe the plane by means of its dip and "dip bearing". (f) Pole to a plane The attitude of a plane may also be specified uniquely by describing the attitude of its "pole". 1 would have a strike of 030o not 210o. 1 has a dip of 40o and a dip bearing of 120o. (The dip bearing is the trend of the dip line) (b) Plunge = angle between line and its horizontal projection.g. dips 40oSE. with a direction which is the direction in which the line goes downwards. and it is the most commonly used method in advanced structural work. ATTITUDES OF LINES The attitudes of lines are described by their "trend" and "plunge".EPSC 203 (2012) p. the plane of Fig. 1 (solid lines) strikes 030o. (The dip is the plunge of the dip line. (a) Trend = orientation of horizontal projection of line. dips 40oSE or strikes 210o. According to this "right-hand" rule the plane depicted on Fig. where the dip bearing is the orientation of the horizontal projection of the dip-line. unless the cut . the line that is normal to it.

the limiting case being the strike lines.  be the apparent dip (Fig. (a) Trigonometric relationship . 1 and 2 are apparent dips in two different directions. measured in the plane. i. 3). Its plunge is an "apparent dip" for the plane. Figure 4 RELATIONSHIP OF APPARENT TO TRUE DIP Let  be the true dip. (Another way of stating this is to say that the lines with the steepest plunge in a plane are all dip lines. The apparent dip cannot be larger than the true dip of the plane. and it is the same as the true dip only if the plane has been intersected along its dip line. 5). whose plunge is zero. the dip of the plane as it appears to be on the cut surface (Fig.) Figure 3 Plane (solid lines) showing apparent dips in two different directions. 4). This line is the "trace" of the plane on the cut surface. 6 is precisely parallel to the plane. which is the angle between the line and the strike line of the plane. occurring in planes.e.. and they have a plunge that equals the true dip. All other lines have shallower plunge.  is the true dip of the plane. PITCH OF LINE (IN A PLANE) It is sometimes convenient to specify the attitudes of lines.EPSC 203 (2012) p. in terms of their "pitch". The attitude of a line cannot be determined from its pitch unless the attitude of the plane in which the pitch was measured is also known (Fig.

PROCEDURE (assuming  is known. This is done by rotating each such plane about the horizontal line in it.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 7 ABCD is the plane of interest. 6) . = tan  sin  . Using these types of projection. An orthographic projection is a projection in which straight lines project as straight lines and angular relationships are preserved. See Fig. tan  =0.  = 0. 5 are represented on the horizontal plane. many of the planes in Fig. The apparent dip  in any direction AC. until the plane is horizontal. at angle  to the strike line is easily determined: tan  = h h l = . ABC'D' is horizontal. Figure 5 (b) Orthographic Relationship The problem above may also be solved by an orthographic method. d l d where  = 0.

Since this is already horizontal it is a simple rectangle. 3. if the strike and one apparent dip are known. = d h n tan  1 . and marking off a distance h on it. d n From  AE'D': l l d cos [  .(90 . constructing a line C'E perpendicular to AC'. . The method may easily be reversed to determine the true dip. we may now construct triangle AC'C by drawing AC'. tan  2 = . (a) Trigonometric method tan  1 = h h . 1. A B D’ C’ C1 C E Figure 6 TRUE DIP AND STRIKE FROM TWO APPARENT DIPS Consider the plane depicted on Fig.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 8 1.(90 . 7 by the solid lines ABCDE. 2 and  (on the horizontal plane) are known. C'C = h in the figure. )] = l d h sin  tan  2 . to give C (=C2). . knowing . Knowing h. n d n Therefore cos [  . and that angle BC'C is 90o. Construct ABC'D'. 2. Construct triangle BC'C. (Call this C C1). )] = = .  and  are unknowns. Angle C'AC2 = .

2. Construct the orthographic projection of triangle E'E.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Then h h d tan  1 tan  = = . 8) 1. o apart. B C’ A D’ C D E’ E Figure 7 (b) Orthographic Method (Fig. = l d l sin  from which  may be found. 9 cos [-(90-)] = cos  cos (90-) + sin  sin (90-) = cos  sin  + sin  cos  Therefore But cos  + sin  tan  2 = tan  tan  1 which may be solved for . Construct AC' and AE'. . by laying off AE' at 2 to AE' and dropping a perpendicular to AE' at E' with EE'=h (as in figure).

9. the top of a layer of limestone). the positions directly above B’ and C’ on the horizontal surface at the elevation of A are marked B and C. These two lengths allow the construction of a right-angled triangle from which the plunge of AB’ may be determined. THREE-POINT PROBLEMS A "three-point problem" is a problem in which the positions of three points on a plane are known. Note that the position of C' is determined by the fact that EE'=CC'=h. where angle AD'D = 90o and D'D=h. where B is the projection of B’. plunges at an angle which may be determined from the difference in elevation between A and B’ and the length of the horizontal projection of AB (measured on the map).EPSC 203 (2012) p. As an example. A three-point problem may be reduced to a problem in which two apparent dips for the plane are known. Line AB on the map is horizontal (as are all lines on a map). . A similar procedure may be used to determine the plunge of AC’. B’ and C’ are known to occur on the same surface (e. consider the problem in which the three points A.. so that AB is the projection of AB’ into the horizontal surface at A.g. either trigonometrically or orthographically (see Fig. All three points are in fact beneath the present land surface and their positions were determined through drilling. 10 Figure 8 3. We then have two apparent dips. C'E' is the strike line for the plane. Construct triangle AD'D. which may be solved as above. Triangles ABB’ and ACC’ are orthographic projections of vertical triangles beneath AB and AC. 4. and the attitude of the plane must be determined. Do the same for triangle ACC'. In Fig. Angle D'AD is . AB’ is the true slope distance). but the true line AB’. of which this is the horizontal projection. 9.

. The thickness of the stratum. Point P is now directly above a point on the plane that is at the same elevation as B’. 11 A more direct way of solving the problem graphically would be to determine the distance along the horizontal projection AC for which the surface had dropped to the elevation of B’.EPSC 203 (2012) p. This adjustment may be done by either graphical or trigonometric methods. Fig. bearing in mind that the dip bearing must be perpendicular to the strike (Fig. Any transect of the stratum in a direction other than parallel to the normal to the surface gives an apparent thickness that is greater than the true thickness. or "stratigraphic thickness" is the thickness of the layer measured perpendicular to the bounding surface. It must therefore be adjusted to the true thickness. 10). and may be used to determine the strike. and that from A to C’ is 300 m. The dip may then be determined by orthographic methods. Since the drop from A to B’ is 200 m. this distance is 2/3 of AC (point P. BP is therefore a strike line for the plane. Figure 9 Figure 10 STRATIGRAPHIC THICKNESS A stratum is a layer of rock of uniform character. 10). Strata are generally bounded by approximately plane surfaces parallel to each other.

the normal to the surface of the limestone. The perpendicular to the trace of a surface in an arbitrarily chosen plane (such as an outcrop surface or map projection) is not. The true normal to the surface may be determined from this perpendicular by construction of another section that contains it. the apparent thickness AB may be adjusted to the perpendicular thickness BP. Determination of the normal to a surface therefore in general involves two projections of the apparent thickness. either graphically or from: BP = AB sin 60 BP is not. and projecting the perpendicular into the position in which it is again perpendicular to the (new) trace of the surface in the (new) section. A vertical section containing BP reveals that BP is at 50o to the trace of the surface (Fig. however. in general the normal to that surface. 11). In map view. however.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 12). and has an apparent thickness of 120 m on the traverse (Fig. . consider a stratum of limestone that strikes at 030o and dips 50o to the SE. This limestone is transected in a traverse AB oriented due east. 12 The normal to a surface has the property that it is perpendicular to the trace of the surface in any plane that contains the normal. Figure 11 As an example.

13 This apparent thickness BP may be adjusted to the true thickness BQ. again graphically. or from: BQ = BP sin 50 The true thickness is therefore 120 sin 60 sin 50 = 80 m Figure 12 .EPSC 203 (2012) p.

14 STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS Stereographic projection provides a convenient means by which to represent the attitudes of lines and planes in space. P: where line hits lower with the lower hemisphere of the hemisphere. APB: Intersection of plane with lower hemisphere. regardless of their positions in space. E and W in the usual way. As a result. the top of which represents the up-direction. Q: projection of P into equatorial plane. The stereogram is prepared by projecting every feature onto the equatorial plane of the sphere in a two-stage procedure: Figure 13 AB: strike line of plane. The intersection of the feature plane onto equatorial plane. The stereographic projection reduces all the three-dimensional data into a two-dimensional diagram or "stereogram" in which all lines plot as points. The position and orientation of the line or plane within the sphere are now fully specified. it is commonly necessary to use stereographic projections in conjunction with scaled two-dimensional sections or with sketches from which trigonometric relationships may be extracted. In the case of a plane this is half a great circle. The lower hemisphere intersection is projected back towards the point at the top of the . The only major disadvantage of the technique is that only attitude may be represented on a stereographic projection. 2. Stereographic projections. In the case of a line this is a point.EPSC 203 (2012) p. position cannot be shown. provide by far the quickest means by which to determine angular relationships within the desired two-dimensional section. S. In the stereographic projection. all attitudes are considered with reference to a sphere. however. and is widely used in structural geology. The line or plane which is to be projected is considered to pass through the centre of the sphere (it is because of this that its position is no longer characteristic). sphere is determined. The equatorial plane of the sphere is divided into 360o with N. Two lines with the same attitude plot at the same place on the projection. It is a powerful technique. and all planes plot as parts of circles. AQB: projection of 1.

It is equally possible to project the feature upwards to the upper hemisphere. 13 is a "lower hemisphere" projection. 15 sphere until it intersects the equatorial plane. and then project it downwards toward the lower point of the sphere. This is the kind commonly used in structural geology. and the position on the radius is determined by its plunge. cf. lines plot as points. Lines with shallow plunge plot close to the perimeter of the stereogram (known as the "primitive"). The radius on which the line lies is determined by the trend of the line. Figure 14 . Q is a line plunging P at 120. Note that the projection depicted on Fig. In Figure 14. Figure 13.EPSC 203 (2012) p. lines with steep plunge plot close to the centre. This "upper hemisphere" projection is the one commonly used in crystallography. On the stereogram that results from this projection technique.

that lie on a cone) plot as points on a perfect circle. a set of lines lying on a cone appears as a distorted circle. "Schmidt" or "equal area" net.e. so that lines and planes may be plotted rapidly on overlays. On this net. If you are in the habit of using both Wulff and equal-area nets it is advisable also to identify which type of net is being used. two points representing lines 5o apart are much more widely separated if they have shallow plunge than if they have steep plunge). is prepared on exactly the principles described above.. It has the advantage that all lines that are equal angular distances from a given line (i. The orientation of the diameter is determined by the strike of the plane.. known as the "true stereographic projection" or "Wulff net". PLOTTING ON THE STEREOGRAM Stereograms are commonly prepared on translucent paper overlays on stereonets. The equal area net is the one most commonly used in structural geology. are available commercially. however. The first. the limiting case being that of a vertical plane for which the arc has no curvature and coincides with the diameter. These circular arcs are the projections of great circles on the reference sphere. although for most applications including all those discussed in the next few pages either could be used. 16 Figure 15 Planes plot as circular arcs that intersect the primitive on diameters of the sphere. These stereonets are of two kinds. LINES . The curvature of the arc is determined by its dip: shallowly-dipping planes have large curvature (small radius of curvature) reflecting the fact that all lines that lie in them have shallow plunge. Stereograms that are calibrated at 1o or 2o intervals.g. the disadvantage that angular distances appear much greater near the primitive than near the centre of the stereogram (e. Since it is necessary to rotate the overlay on the stereonet it is attached to the stereonet by a pin passing through the centres of both. known as "stereonets".EPSC 203 (2012) p. A net that has been distorted to compensate for this (rarefied near its centre and condensed near its primitive) so that angular distances are the same throughout the net is known as a "Lambert". Steeply dipping planes have small curvature. The intersection of the "north" radius with the primitive is marked on the overlay. and are referred to as "great circles". the limiting case being that of a horizontal plane for which the arc coincides with the primitive. It has.

by counting in from the primitive the number of degrees corresponding to the dip of the plane. This may be done by rotating the overlay until the section o is superimposed on any of the east-west or Figure 16 Projection of a line plunging 30 at north-south radii on the stereonet. PLANES A plane appears on the stereogram as part of a circle. In order to draw the great circle for the plane in question. each of which represents a vertical section with a strike corresponding to the azimuth of the radius. the possible forms of great circles corresponding to planes are drawn for a strike of 000o. The correct position of the line on the section (a point) may now be determined by counting in along the section from the primitive the number of degrees corresponding to the plunge of the line (Fig. To identify this section on the overlay. orient the overlay with its north radius coincident with that of the stereonet and mark on the overlay the position of the radius whose azimuth is that of the strike of the line (as seen on the stereonet underneath the overlay). are divided into degrees. The overlay may now be restored to its original position. . The radius at 050 corresponds to the these radii are marked on the stereonet. On the stereonet. the overlay must be rotated until the strike of the plane is oriented north on the stereonet. 17 The stereogram may be considered to have 360 radii. and the overlay restored to its Figure 17 Plane striking 050. The appropriate great circle may then be selected. The great circle may be drawn. 16). intersecting the primitive at two points on the same diameter. To determine where on this vertical section the line should plot it is necessary to calibrate the vertical section for plunge. dipping 60oNW. and the stereogram is complete. 17). original position (Fig. and may be found in a manner analogous to that for the trend of a line. A line must necessarily lie in the vertical section whose strike is the same as its trend.EPSC 203 (2012) p. and vertical section trending at 050. This diameter has the same azimuth as the strike of the plane in question. therefore. because 050.

. The magnitude of the plunge increases as distance from the primitive increases. representing a line with trend 90o from the strike of the plane. reflecting the fact that the strike has orientation but no direction. . 18). represented by a line on the stereogram. Angles in this plane may be measured by once again rotating the overlay until the great circle is superimposed on one of those drawn on the stereonet. e. The apparent dip of the line is its plunge. Points on the great circle that do not lie on the primitive have finite plunge. reaching a maximum at the point Figure 18 Plane striking 120.g. and determining its plunge. which is the plane itself. The angle between the dip line and the strike line is 90o as expected (Fig. APPARENT DIP As noted above. Note that the strike line might be represented by either of the two such points (at the two ends of the diameter). We wish to determine the apparent dip of that plane in a vertical section striking at 060o. The angle between the strike-line and the dip line must be measured in the plane common to both of them. at which position the great circle is calibrated for degrees.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Consider a plane striking 025o and dipping 50o to the ESE. This point represents the dip line for the plane. A point on the great circle that is also on the primitive has zero plunge. contains an infinite number of lines. any line that lies on a plane appears as a point on the great circle corresponding to the plane on a stereographic projection. Each point on the great circle that represents a plane therefore corresponds to a line within the plane. dipping 65oSW. and therefore represents the strike line for the plane. Determination of the apparent dip of a line with a given trend in a plane therefore reduces to the problem of locating the point corresponding to that line in the projection of the plane. 18 A plane. represented by points on the stereogram.

2. This is then the projection of the plane. the attitude of the plane may be determined by plotting the projections of the two lines (as points) and finding the great circle that contains both points. Plot the vertical section. by two apparent dips). 3. Plot the projection of the plane (Fig.. The apparent dip is the line that is common to both planes. 19 1. by rotating the overlay until the line lies on one of the calibrated vertical sections of the stereonet and counting in the plunge from the primitive. On the stereogram.g. the attitude of a plane is uniquely determined by the attitudes of two lines that lie within it (e. (Apparent dip is 34o) Figure 19 PLANE FROM TWO APPARENT DIPS As we have seen. . 19). Determine the plunge of the line.EPSC 203 (2012) p.

g. A plane has an apparent dip of 50oNE in a vertical section striking at 040o. The pitch of a line in a plane is the angle between the line and the strike of the plane.. e. 4. (Answer : strike 006o. 1. 3. 21) A line trending at 220o in a plane striking 010o and dipping 50oW plunges 32o and pitches 43oS. dip 65oE) Figure 20 PITCH The pitch of a line in a plane is measured in the plane itself. Figure 21 .g. and mark on them the points corresponding to the two apparent dips (Fig. Read off the dip of the plane corresponding to the great circle. and an apparent dip of 30oS in a vertical section striking at 170o. Rotate the overlay back to the reference position and read off the strike of the great circle.. (Fig. and mark that great circle on the overlay. Since the great circles on the stereonet are calibrated in degrees. 2. 20). Plot both vertical sections. 20 e.EPSC 203 (2012) p. it is possible to determine the angular relationships within a plane by rotating the overlay until the plane overlies a great circle on the stereonet and reading off the angle in that great circle. Rotate the overlay until both points fall on the same great circle on the stereonet. Determine its attitude.

Strike lines drawn in this way are structure contours on the surface of the layer. For vertical layering the traces are straight lines parallel to the strike of the layering. o . 22). In this case the traces are the strikes of the layering. the traces is more complex. 21 PLANES AND TOPOGRAPHY Any flat plane intersects any other flat plane in a straight line. If there is topographic relief.lines parallel to the strike of the layering . even a completely planar set of layering will have traces on a map that are not straight. For horizontal layering these traces are parallel to the topographic contours. Their spacing may be determined by a simple trigonometric calculation if the dip of the layering and the scale of the map are known. the trace of a layer on a map may be used to identify the bearing and spacing of strike lines and hence the attitude of the layering (Fig. They are closely spaced when the dip is steep and widely spaced when it is shallow. For layering with dips other than 0o or Figure 22 Horizontal bedding. 24).the traces of the layering on the horizontal plane . plane layering will appear as straight lines . On a map. Alternatively. points where the layer and the erosion surface intersect may be identified. 90 the relationship between topography and Limestone/sandstone contact at 400 m. the attitude of which may be determined from a stereogram. however.spaced at equal intervals reflecting elevations of the layer that are the same as those of the contour intervals.provided there is no topographic relief. analyzed by the use of strike lines . 23). Using the strike lines. These traces are lines joining points at which the erosion surface and the layer are at the same elevation. It is most simply sandstone/shale contact at 250 m. they are unaffected by topography (Fig. The line that marks the intersection is known as a "trace" (of the second plane in the first or the first plane in the second).EPSC 203 (2012) p. so that the contacts of the layers follow the contours exactly (Fig. and joined to produce the trace of the layer on the map.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. the straight lines labelled '200'. 22 Figure 23 Vertical bedding Figure 24 Strike lines on a sandstone/shale contact dipping 30o towards the SSW. '300' and '400' are strike lines at those . In this figure.

catastrophic effects (storms. never on its lower side (Fig.EPSC 203 (2012) p.e. It is due to the more rapid settling of coarse grains as a result of their relatively low surface-area/volume ratio. but it may be produced in a number of environments: . followed by a change in flow regime that results in the deposit of a new (horizontal) bed on top (Fig. Graded beds are commonly produced by a sudden influx of poorly sorted (variable grain size) material into a depositional basin. Its structural significance is that it approximates the paleo-horizontal. it indicates which way up the beds are (after deformation). speed or both). Cross-bedding is an extremely useful "facing" (younging) criterion. Change to the new flow regime is commonly accompanied by some erosion of Figure 25 Formation of cross-bedding. i. They are generally recognised by the sharp lithological boundary at their bases and by the colour contrast within them (usually pale at the base and darker at the top). source area disturbances. "Lamination" = layering with thickness < 1 cm. 26a). (a) stratification (bedding) = layering parallel to the surface of deposition. compensation level changes etc. except in the case of cross-bedding. Stratification is caused by one or more of: seasonal changes. This results in truncation of the cross-bed set on its upper side. as distinct from those produced in sedimentary rocks by deformation after consolidation. Cross-bedding is produced by deposition of material on prograding slopes such as those of dunes and ripples. (c) graded bedding = variation in grain size from bottom to top of bed. 23 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES Sedimentary structures are those produced by the processes of sedimentation and lithification. current changes (directional. "Reverse" grading is not a common feature.). 25a). "Normal" grading is that in which the coarsest grains are at the base. Their value as a facing criterion is self-evident (Fig. 25b). (b) cross-stratification (cross-bedding) = two or more sets of stratification with different attitudes. already deposited material. mud-slides etc. They provide the most widely used indicators of the way-up or "facing" directions of sedimentary successions.

when travelling slowly it drops everything.EPSC 203 (2012) p. as a result of the gradual speeding up of a sediment. Grading should not be used as a facing criterion in sedimentary environments in which reverse grading might be expected. Figure 26 a Normally graded beds. this is rarely a problem. beds. of which the most common are: (i) Flute casts: fillings (casts) of the depressions excavated in the surface of an unconsolidated sediment by current eddies.e. 24 (i) on beaches. 26b). (ii) Scour marks (casts): fillings of grooves due to the dragging of a large fragment across unconsolidated sediments. BEDDING-PLANE STRUCTURES (a) Sole marks Sole marks are structures observed in the sole (base) of a bed due to the filling of an irregularity in the bed beneath. In practice. especially since it may be seen even after quite extensive metamorphic recrystallization. the configuration is not exactly the inverse of normal grading. and grading is the most valuable facing criterion. as it speeds up it drops only the coarser fraction. i. The result is that. b Reversely graded because the "finer" part of the bed contains some coarse clasts (Fig. . due to the sieving effect when beach-sands are reworked by waves.charged current of water.. although the mean grain size increases up-bed. (ii) in fluviatile environments. There are many different kinds.

Figure 27 Formation of load structures (a) and sandstone balls (b). in some cases. . 25 (iii) Load casts: bulbous protrusions on the underside of a bed. 27a). Ripples may be symmetric or asymmetric ripples. when unconsolidated mud is exposed to the air. Sandstone balls are isolated balls of sandstone in an underlying mud. This is an extreme case of load casts (Fig. Since the layers above are bound to be parallel to the unconformity this results in an angular discordance. depending upon the current scheme that generated them. (d) Mudcracks. which may tend to reduce the angular discordance. They may be preserved when the mud is then covered by a new depositional unit.EPSC 203 (2012) p. and may also be confused with faults (see below). current directions. Angular unconformities are easily recognized in undeformed terrains. 27b). They are a useful facing criterion. (iv) Animal tracks. but are difficult to use as facing criteria. (c) Ripples. Sole marks provide clear and unambiguous facing criteria and. UNCONFORMITIES Unconformities are depositional surfaces representing a (time) gap in the depositional history. but may be obscured by deformation. due to differential sinking of the sediment in the bed into the layer below (Fig. All three of the above are most commonly observed in the bases of graded beds (or sand beds) where they overlie much finer-grained mudstones. Mudcracks are cracks produced by shrinkage during drying. Three types are commonly distinguished: (a) Angular unconformity: layers below the unconformity are not parallel to the unconformity. (b) Disconformity (parallel unconformity): layers above and below are parallel. (b) Sandstone balls.

Soils. i. although this may not always be the case. This criterion. Under favourable circumstances this will indicate clearly that the overlying rocks are substantially younger than those beneath.e. Commonly these fragments are derived from the rocks that underlie the unconformity. are commonly very thin due to compaction. also applies to many faults. (iv) Contrasts in structural and/or metamorphic history. because soft-sediment folds may be developed as a result of tectonic events (such as the riding of a thrust sheet over and within unconsolidated sediments). 26 (c) Non-conformity: the rocks beneath the unconformity are metamorphic or igneous (but the contact is depositional).EPSC 203 (2012) p. The beginning of a new phase of deposition following prolonged periods of erosion is commonly marked by conglomerates coarse-grained sedimentary rocks consisting of generally rounded fragments. if preserved. with the younger rocks having a generally simpler history. however. Care must be exercised in the use of this criterion. The term "non-tectonic" folds is sometimes used. (iii) Weathering of underlying material (and soil horizons). but is not favoured. SOFT-SEDIMENT FOLDS The term "soft-sediment folds" refers to folds produced in sedimentary rocks before they were consolidated. The following are some useful characteristics: (i) Basal conglomerates (but beware of fault breccias). before they were lithified by the cementation processes occurring during diagenesis. there may have been soils and subsoils developed on the old surface. It is rare for conglomerates to occur everywhere at the basal contact they fill depressions in the surface on which the new sequence is deposited. but a deep weathering profile may be preserved with close to its original thickness. Recognition of unconformities A major problem is to distinguish unconformities from tectonic (faulted) contacts. (ii) Radiometric or paleontological dating. (a) Compaction folds . If there was prolonged erosion before deposition of the younger succession. because it is possible that juxtaposition of two chemically different sequences by faulting will give rise to alteration at the contact during metamorphism. This may be expected at an unconformity.

and are commonly accentuated by initial draping effects. The recognition of slump folds. The recognition of convolute folds is not a problem since they have a very characteristic style. . The most useful criteria for their recognition are: (i) The presence of primary features exhibiting little evidence of the degree of deformation evidenced by the folds. and they are confined to certain horizons in the sedimentary succession. There is little doubt that these types of fold are produced during the Figure 29 Convolute folds developed in a dewatering process associated with lower sand layer in a graded bed. They need not.g.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The recognition of compaction folds is generally not a serious problem. (b) Convolute folds Convolute folds are folds in which amplitude increases upwards from a flat basal layer. lithification. They mark the pathways by which water moved upwards out of the rock body.. Slumping may be initiated by such things as earthquakes. and their distinction from "hard-rock" folds may be extremely difficult. and because of their irregular development (spacing & wavelength). e. or simply by the building up of the sedimentary succession into an unstable configuration. It is probable that the sites at which convolute folds develop are determined by initial irregularities such as ripples (Fig. 28). Where such features exist it is commonly possible to argue that hard-rock deformation of an intensity sufficient to produce the observed folds would not have allowed preservation of the features in such an undeformed state. e. necessarily be "non-tectonic" folds. 27 Compaction folds are folds produced by differential compaction of sediment during lithification (Fig.. This type of origin is supported by the existence of breached convolute folds in some instances. but are sufficiently compacted to maintain their cohesion during the slumping process. (c) Slump folds Slump folds are produced by the slumping of sediments that are not consolidated. 29). regional uplifts. such things as undeformed animal burrows or undeformed fossils. then.g. Such folds occur quite commonly on submarine slopes on which the rate of sedimentation is high. Figure 28 sediment-water interfaces dip away from structures such as reefs. Some slump folds are believed to have been generated in unconsolidated sediments which were themselves moving as large masses down submarine slopes. because of their clear relationship to the structures responsible for their existence.

DIAPIRISM Diapirism is the gravity-induced piercing of an overlying rock unit by a less dense one that underlies it. In this discussion we are concerned only with the microscopic fabric. . As a result it compacts little during lithification and becomes less dense than the overlying sediments (siltstones. etc. The site at which flow begins is probably determined by irregularities on the salt surface.EPSC 203 (2012) p. no necessity that slump folds have very variable attitudes. and may in some cases break the surface. There is. leading ultimately to the detachment of the limbs of folds. if these folds are of hard-rock origin. sandstones. If the density contrasts become sufficient to overcome the strength of the overlying rocks. This criterion has to be used with great care since a multiply deformed terrain will also yield folds with different attitudes but of the same age. It may occur purely as a result of the history of sedimentation. Where present. reflecting a regional slope attitude.). because salt has a very low porosity when formed. however. 28 (ii) The presence of folds with very different attitudes. The term is used to describe geometric elements on the field. The resulting intrusives of salt may be circular or oval in plan. or are completely broken up. the salt begins to flow up through the overlying rock. but in some slumped terrains limbs have moved a long way since detachment. Figure 30 SEDIMENTARY FABRIC Fabric = the general configuration of geometric elements in a rock. 30). Local detachment of limbs does occur during hard-rock deformation. a common feature in the first set of folds. this feature is one of the best indicators of soft-rock deformation. The phenomenon is particularly commonly observed with salt layers. This is because under hard-rock conditions it is unlikely that the mechanical contrasts between two lithological types could be sufficiently large that one type (the limb) could be undergoing brittle failure while the other (represented by the material around the limb) was sufficiently weak to be able to flow in to fill the space created. For example. (iii) Evidence of brittle failure. however. the fabric could consist of randomly oriented grain boundaries or boundaries with a general (statistical) preferred orientation. many examples exist in which their attitudes are consistent over large regions. The "grain boundary" is one example of a "fabric element". The structures they produce are extremely important as oil traps in many petroleum-producing regions (Fig. hand-specimen or microscopic scale. deforming it in the process. This is not.

platy minerals are stacked so that they dip up-current = "current imbrication". 29 Sediments almost always have some preferred orientation of their fabric elements. and are rotated into the horizontal during compaction. .EPSC 203 (2012) p. Common examples are: (i) platy minerals settle parallel to the paleohorizontal. (iii) under some circumstances. (ii) elongate mineral grains may be oriented parallel to the current direction.

(ii) Breccia. 30 PRIMARY IGNEOUS FEATURES (a) Lava flows Lava flows are tabular to lensoid in form. on its way from the vent to where it is. generally glassy surfaces which are thrown into folds and wrinkles by the moving lava underneath them. the rubble being pieces of the lava flow that have broken up due to the flow.develop chilled rinds that constrain their flow. Commonly the broken pieces are themselves volcanic. where the efficient chilling characteristics of water produce a strong chilled margin to the still molten flow. even the flows with lowest viscosity . amygdales). Many so-called "pillow lavas" are actually flow tubes. and on the configuration of the substrate onto which they are extruded. It is due to shrinkage during cooling of the flow. There is. (iv) Pillow lavas = lavas with the morphology of pillows. Amygdules = crystal-filled gas bubbles. These are two terms applied to the surface features of subaerial lava flows. and they may originate from the same magma as the matrix. Such jointing is common in thicker flows.EPSC 203 (2012) p. lavas poor in SiO2 (such as basalt) are less viscous than those rich in SiO2 (such as rhyolite) so that they have more tendency to form tabular flows.e. (iii) Vesicles & amygdules (var. with low SiO2 and low gas content . i. Alternatively the blocks may be exotic. Ropy lavas have smooth. Generally. some departure from perfect orthogonality in places where fluids have gained access to the flows via fissures. They are generally regarded as forming only underwater. at least near their extremities. (v) Columnar jointing = regularly distributed prismatic jointing which allows the rock to be broken out into columns. The attitudes of the columns may provide a direct measure of the attitudes of the poles to the surfaces of lava flows. depending on their viscosity. . Some pillows are hollow and carry internally layered flows. picked up by the lava flow on the way up.those extruded at high temperature. Ropy-lava flows can be observed to change into blocky flows with increasing flow rate. so that the flows are markedly convex upwards. However. A volcanic breccia is any rock that consists of broken pieces in a volcanic matrix. Blocky lava flows have a rubble-strewn surface. however. they may fill valleys. or thrown into the flow by explosive eruptions. Pillows commonly exhibit radial cracks and pronounced differences between core and rims. They may be up to 100 m thick and may cover areas of up to several hundred km2. Small-scale features (i) Ropy lava (pahöehöe) and blocky lava (äa).. Vesicles = unfilled gas bubbles in lavas. so that some care must be exercised in using this method.

Since they are produced by settling. Cumulate layers are produced by the settling of early-formed mineral grains to the base of the still-molten lava flow. Again it may provide a measure of flow attitudes. they may be treated like sedimentary strata. 33) Figure 33 Flow overlain by sandstone. Flow banding is compositional banding in a flow. due to the segregation of particular mineral species or grain sizes by fluid-dynamic processes. Figure 31 (ii) Distribution of vesicles/amygdules: concentrated towards the top of the flow (Fig. (iv) Differential chilling of the top and bottom of the flow. tongues protruding from bases (Fig. and displacement of the coarsest-grained part of the flow towards the base of the flow. Facing criteria: The following are the most useful facing criteria in ancient lava-flows: (i) Form of pillow lavas: convex upwards. . (vii) Cumulate layering. 32).EPSC 203 (2012) p. 31). Figure 32 (iii) Filling of fissures in the top of a flow by overlying sediments or another flow (Fig. 31 (vi) Flow banding. providing a direct indication of the paleo-horizontal.

or individual crystals. although it is also variously used to refer to volcanic conglomerates and volcanic breccias. Figure 34 PYROCLASTIC ROCKS Pyroclastic rocks are sedimentary rocks produced by explosive volcanic eruptions. (c) ash. with diameter > 32 mm.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The "clasts" produced by volcanic eruptions are classified according to grain size into : (a) bombs and blocks. "Blocks" are angular fragments of rock. d < 4 mm Some terms used for pyroclastic rocks: "tephra" = any ejecta of pyroclastic origin "agglomerate" = a deposit of volcanic bombs. 32 (v) Location of cumulate zones (Fig. 34). "Bombs" were molten when ejected and consequently have twisted or aerodynamically compatible forms. which were solid before the eruption. "ignimbrite" = deposit from a pyroclastic flow "welded tuff" = sub-aerial tuff in which the fragments were still sufficiently warm when they settled to weld together and form a single cooling unit like that of a flow. and should be defined in context. Lapilli may be fragments of rock or glass. (b) lapilli. d 4-32 mm. They may have such features as columnar jointing. A general term for the products of pyroclastic eruption is "tephra". . "tuff" = lithified ash "lapilli tuff" = lithified lapilli-bearing pyroclastic deposit "hyaloclastite" = "aquagene tuff" = clastic rock produced by the fragmentation of (glassy) volcanic rocks on contact with water.

however.EPSC 203 (2012) p. It is worth noting. Sills may exhibit internal layering for the same reasons. 33 Facing criteria for pyroclastic rocks are like those for clastic sediments. convergent downwards "ring-dykes" = sheets with circular-cylindrical form.reflecting the slope of the surface on which they were deposited. "laccoliths" = sills with upper contacts that are convex upwards "lopoliths" = sills with lower contacts that are convex downwards (b) Domal bodies .and underlying rocks (iii) apophyses of intrusive material in the overlying rock (iv) imperfect concordance Special tabular forms: "cone-sheets" = conical sheets. usually symmetrical about their centres. that air-fall deposits. may exhibit far from normal grading characteristics. may exhibit bedding attitudes that are far from horizontal . INTRUSIVE BODIES (a) Tabular Bodies "dykes" (dikes) = cross-cutting (discordant) tabular bodies "sills" = concordant tabular bodies Dykes may exhibit layering and compositional zoning parallel to their walls. and commonly have well-developed cumulate layering. because of the marked density contrasts between the mineral species that comprise them. crystal tuffs. Criteria to distinguish sills from flows: (i) symmetrical character of chilling features in sills (ii) "baking" of over. and even the deposits from some ignimbrites. or conical with a mild downward divergence. In addition. Some of the larger sills and dykes also exhibit other sedimentary features such as cross bedding. due to fluid-dynamic sorting during intrusion and/or multiple phases of intrusion.

This latter mode is more important at greater depths. and the igneous intrusives. The tops of batholiths may display evidence of the mode of intrusion of the pluton. but all three modes may occur together in a given intrusion. Some batholiths at higher levels. or by gradual transformation of the country rock into a rock that resembles the intrusive material. raise the temperatures of the country rocks to such a degree that they have an appearance very similar to that of the intrusive itself. where temperatures are high. Consequently the overall form of most batholiths is unknown. . and perhaps even undefinable. however. are known to have planar. since many "stocks" are connected to "batholiths" at depth. This mode may be by "stoping" ( = the breaking off and assimilation of pieces of country rock). They have spread out along horizons in the crust. horizontal bases. This is because the depth. To some extent this classification is dependent on the depth of erosion. They are then in a sense huge laccoliths. forcible intrusion ( = the bending of country rock out of the way).EPSC 203 (2012) p. and "batholiths" if they are larger. If batholiths are traced to depth in the crust it becomes very difficult to distinguish them from the "country rocks" into which they were intruded. 34 Domal intrusive bodies are distinguished as "stocks" if their area in horizontal section is less than about 100 km2.

whether a feature is penetrative is dependent on the scale of the observation "slaty cleavage" = penetrative (on hand-specimen scale) cleavage in a rock whose grain size is too small for individual grains to be seen with the unaided eye "schistosity" = penetrative cleavage in rock with coarser grain size "fracture cleavage" or "spaced cleavage" = non-penetrative cleavage .EPSC 203 (2012) p. 35 TECTONIC FEATURES "folds" = undulations in previously plane surfaces "joints" = discrete planar fractures along which there has been little or no relative movement "faults" = planar fractures along which there has been appreciable movement "foliation" = (a) any planar feature (b) any planar feature of tectonic origin (c) compositional banding of tectonic origin "lineation" = any linear feature "cleavage" = tendency of a rock to break along preferred planes "penetrative" = developed on a sufficiently fine scale that there are no domains visible in which the feature is not present.

The movement results in offset of features that were previously continuous across the fault. A more precise way of specifying the effect of a fault on a previously continuous . 36 FAULTS Faults are discrete planar features along which there has been movement. The amount of offset of a particular feature is referred to as the displacement of the fault. HS = horizontal separation in dip-bearing direction. It is. used in only a colloquial sense.EPSC 203 (2012) p. since it is dependent on the attitude of the feature displaced. and on the attitude of the section (map or outcrop) in which the displacement is observed. Figure 35. DS = dip separation. therefore. relative to the attitude of the fault. Perspective view of fault cutting bedding plane. SS = strike separation. The displacement is not a fundamental feature of the fault.

if the attitude of the feature being offset is known. The separation of a feature.g. Figure 36. The net slip may be resolved into two components on the fault plane. with an orientation and a magnitude. It is a line. The fundamental feature of the fault is its slip which is the actual motion on the fault plane. is also not a fundamental feature of the fault. The strike separation is the separation along the strike of the fault. 35). SS2 are shown for each plane. lying in the fault plane. Note that.. It is dependent on the relative attitudes of the fault and the feature offset. . AB is the net slip on the fault plane. Perspective view of a fault offsetting two planes. One may therefore define several displacements for a given feature. 36. only one separation is necessary fully to specify the effect that the fault has on the feature (Fig. such as the "strike slip" and the "dip slip" (Fig. 37). a vertical separation.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The strike separations (SS1. is the distance in that direction that separates the feature on one side of the fault from its equivalent on the other side. e. 37 feature is to describe the separation of the feature by the fault. in a given direction. however. a horizontal north-south separation. The separation.

A fault in which the hanging wall has moved downwards relative to the Figure 38. 38 Figure 37. and that beneath it is referred to as the "footwall". viewed along their strike lines. Dip-slip: The fault block that lies above the fault-plane is referred to as the "hanging wall". One in which the faults. DS is the dip slip. 38).EPSC 203 (2012) p. Sketch in the fault-plane surface of Fig. SS is the strike slip. 36. . NS is the net slip. hanging wall has moved relatively upwards is known as a reverse fault (Fig. Normal (a) and reverse (b) dip-slip footwall is a normal fault. Faults are classified according to the sense of the strike-slip and dip-slip components.

e. i. (c) If only one structure was displaced it is immediately clear that there is no unique solution for the net slip. the point at which this line of intersection pierces the fault plane) of two structures.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The line joining these two piercing points is the net slip. Dextral (a) and sinistral (b) strikeslip faults. a section in the fault plane.e. (b) Draw a plan of the fault plane. If more than one structure was displaced. Note that the information you must use to do this is the pitches of the various structural elements in the fault plane. A fault in which the block on the opposite side has moved to the left is a sinistral or left-lateral fault (Fig.e. SOLUTION OF FAULT PROBLEMS A recommended method for the solution of fault problems is as follows: (a) Project all structures displaced by the fault into the plane of the fault... as a wrench fault. i. Many faults have either an overwhelming strike-slip or an overwhelming dipslip component. determine the piercing point for the line of intersection (i. determine the attitudes of their intersections with the fault plane and their relative positions in the fault plane. . in plan view. The former type is known Figure 39. for the block on each side of the fault plane.. 39). 39 Strike-slip: A fault in which the block on the opposite side from the observer has moved to the right is a dextral or right-lateral fault.

Figure 40. From this.EPSC 203 (2012) p. consider the fault whose surface relationships are shown in Fig. 41). 40 As an example. 40 may be used to prepare a stereogram (Fig. the pitch of the bed and the dyke in the fault surface may be determined. . 40. The plan diagram of Fig. Map of east-striking fault cutting a bedding contact striking 060 and a dyke striking 140.

bedding and dyke from Fig. PQ is the net slip. The magnitude of PQ may be measured directly. The pitch of PQ may be converted into a trend and plunge on a stereogram. The pitch of bedding in the fault is 1 (= 20oW). The pitch of the dyke in the fault is 2 (= 102oW). Figure 41.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Figure 42. 41 These pitch angles may be used to construct a view in the fault plane (Fig. 40. . 42). Sketch in fault plane of Fig. 40. Stereogram of fault.

Structure contours. are contour lines that depict the structure of a surface. In Figure 43. As we have seen. structure-contour maps consist of equally-spaced lines parallel to the strike of the surface ('strike lines'). For planar. must pass through the intersections of strike lines for the sedimentary contact and the dyke that are at the same elevation. "Sinistral fault" = block away from you has moved to the left. This is therefore a reverse fault. This provides a much clearer visualization of the problems than can be derived from extraction of the data onto stereograms. and may be used to determine the net slip on the fault. for example. The simplest way to treat the data directly on the map is through the preparation of structure-contour maps of each of the planar features represented on the map. "Reverse fault" = hanging-wall up The dip component of slip on this fault (RQ) has moved the hanging wall up. undistorted surfaces. S-D. Strike Slip "Dextral fault" = block away from you has moved to the right.EPSC 203 (2012) p. for each fault block. the intersection of these three lines is the point at which the line of intersection between the sedimentary contact and the dyke meets the fault. it is desirable to solve the problems directly on the maps. The strike component of slip (PR) displaces the footwall to the left. . in the same way that topographic contours depict the relief of Earth's surface. such as those we have discussed so far. steeply-dipping surfaces have closely-spaced strike lines. This is therefore a sinistral fault. shallowly-dipping surfaces have more broadly-spaced strike lines. We are viewing the fault plane from the south (hanging wall). strike lines have been used to construct the horizontal projections of lines of intersection of the sedimentary contact with the fault (S-F). as the name implies. 42 Dip Slip "Normal fault" = hanging-wall down. the dyke with the fault (D-F) and the sedimentary contact with the dyke (S-D). the three were constructed to provide a check. For each fault block. FAULT SOLUTION ON MAPS When working with representations of faults on maps. These strike lines may be used to construct complete subsurface (and supersurface) maps of regions of great complexity. These points are shown as A and B on the figure. Note that in fact only two of these lines of intersection were needed to locate A and B.

Strike lines are shown for all planar features (solid lines). . Map of a fault offsetting a sandstone/shale contact and a dyke. 43 Figure 43.EPSC 203 (2012) p. as well as the horizontal projections of the lines of intersection between features (dashed lines).

EPSC 203 (2012) p. The system of forces is the "stress system". A "vector" is a "first-rank tensor". in which all but the . Stress is an example of a "second-rank tensor" or. 44 STRESS Figure 44 A body in equilibrium under a system of forces is said to be in a "state of stress". the ratio of the force to the area on which it is acting remains a finite quantity. 44). perpendicular to the surface on which they act. the values of which change according to a specific set of rules if the coordinate system in which they are described is changed. For any tensor. and they are defined at a point as the stress field at that point. in which the minute cube becomes infinitesimally small. It consists of "normal" forces (fii). In this case the forces too become vanishingly small. it is a variable array with two subscripts and nine components. "Strain" is the response of a body to a system of stress. and "tangential" or "shear" forces. They are symbolised by ij rather than fij. a "tensor". and more specifically for the stress tensor. parallel to the surface on which they act (Fig. One may consider the limiting case. The stress field therefore has 9 components at any given point. The system of forces acting on a minute cube in a body may be depicted as shown. it is always possible to choose a Cartesian coordinate system in which to describe the tensor. and the magnitudes of the components are determined by the orientation of the Cartesian coordinate system in which the stress field is being described. more commonly. It is the ratios that are referred to as the stress components. That is. However.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. which is a stress tensor in which the magnitudes of all principal stresses are the same:  0 0     0  0    0 0  In addition. to give the "deviatoric stress tensor": . The "mean" stress is given by: + +  = 1 2 3 3 Using this mean stress we may define an "isotropic" stress tensor. The axes of this coordinate system are referred to as the "principal axes" for the stress. we may subtract this isotropic tensor from our original tensor. where a compressive stress is positive and a tensional stress is negative. 45 normal components of stress disappear (compare with vectors. for which one may always find a coordinate system in which all but one of the components disappears). Note that. there are no shearing stresses on planes that are parallel to the principal stress axes. By convention they are generally chosen so that 1 > 2 > 3. any plane at an angle to the principal stress axes will experience shearing stress. This does not mean that there are no shearing stresses in the system. because of our choice of coordinate system. In this coordinate system the stress tensor may be given as  1 0 0     0  2 0    0 0   3  rather than   11  12  13      21  22  23       31  32  33  i are the "principal stresses".

e. and to externally applied or internally generated stresses. MOHR STRESS CIRCLE As mentioned above. 45). and sin  is an adjustment for the increase in area over which the force is acting (i. 46 (  1 . not for changes in their shape. The Mohr stress circle is a mathematical gimmick by which the magnitudes of these stresses may be evaluated if the principal stresses are known. normal stress:  = 1 sin  sin  where 1 sin  is the component of 1 normal to the plane of interest. It is therefore responsible only for changes in the volume of rocks. we are interested in force/unit area. and treat it in the same way. although probably not a great deal. This mean stress is a result both of the burden of rocks overlying those under consideration. stresses are the same in all directions and there is no shearing stress in any direction. stresses into normal and shear normal to 1. and leaves the clearest evidence of its existence in the form of structures. tangential stress:  = 1 cos  sin  Figure 45. which gives rise to a "lithostatic pressure". a plane oriented at any angle to the principal stress axes will experience shearing stress. It is derived from expressions for the normal and tangential stress on any plane at an angle  to 1 (Fig. Resolution of principal If we then add another principal stress. 2. It may therefore differ in magnitude from the lithostatic pressure. The deviatoric stress is responsible for the change in shape of rocks in a stress field. ) 0 0     0 ( 2 - ) 0     0 0 (  3 . not force itself). we arrive stresses on an arbitrarily oriented plane.EPSC 203 (2012) p. )   The isotropic stress tensor is similar in character to a hydrostatic pressure . at the expressions:  = 1 sin2  + 2 cos2  .

and the angle of internal friction. and S Figure 47. at angles  to 1. we get: =½(1+2)-½(1-2)cos 2 =½(1-2) sin 2 These are the equations of the Mohr circle (Fig. Mohr stress circle. 46). The criterion may be stated: "When ( . cos 2 = cos2  . 3 It may be written:  = S +  tan ß where ß is the angle of internal friction. Navier-Coulomb failure criterion. showing relationship compressive stress was between normal stress and shear stress on planes oriented defined as positive.sin2 . sin2  + cos2  = 1. This is because Figure 46. the material will fail . tan ß) exceeds S on any plane. the shear strength of the material. Note that the angles are measured from 2 on the circle. in terms of the normal and shearing stresses on the plane. and Mohr circle.EPSC 203 (2012) p. NAVIER-COULOMB FAILURE CRITERION The NavierCoulomb failure criterion is a criterion for failure of a material on a given plane. whereas in the rock they are measured from 1. is the shear strength. 47  = (1-2) sin  cos  substituting sin 2 = 2 sin  cos .

ß. if the planes have lower internal friction. and therefore represents planes that contain the axis 2. where  is the angle at which failure occurs. failure will occur on that plane rather than at the theoretically predicted angle on some new plane cutting through the rock. The plane of failure is therefore generally likely to contain the axis 2 if the rock is isotropic. representing a particular homogeneous stress field. . 47). i. since on that plane:  . Orientations of planes for which failure will occur at deviatoric stresses lower than those for the failure criterion of the rock.e. 48 on that plane". If the plane of weakness is oriented at any angle within the shaded area. 48. = 45o-ß/2. Note that on Figure 47 the Mohr circle depicted has intercepts 1 and 3. Figure 48. A Plane of Weakness A plane of weakness in the rock will be represented by a failure criterion with different parameters: lower ß in most cases. For the circle shown. tan ß = S From the geometry of the diagram it is clear that 2 = 90o .EPSC 203 (2012) p. On the Mohr circle the new failure criterion will appear as on Fig. This is because planes containing axis 2 always have the largest shear stresses for a given value of the normal stress. the failure criterion appears as a line (Fig. On a Mohr circle. failure will occur on a plane oriented at  to 1.

since it involves an assumption of an (arbitrary) reference frame. Consider a point (x1.EPSC 203 (2012) p. x3'. we may break the strain tensor into a rotational and an irrotational part: strain rotational irrotational 0  12 . Strain at a point in a body may be described in terms of nine components. x2. 12 0  23 . and the irrotational strain tensor becomes: 0 0   11    0  22 0    0 0  33   which is normally simplified to: . The rotation is removed. x1' = x1 + 11x1 + 12x2 + 13x3 . 31   2  11  12 +  21  13 +  31    11  12  13         2  21  22  23  =   21 . Each xi' is a function of all xi. x2'.. 49 STRAIN Strain is the response of a body to a stress. where ij are the components of strain. Thus. Bulk translations are usually excluded from the definition. as for stress.g. e. This response consists of a volume change and/or a change in shape. After strain this same point has new co-ordinates x1'. choose a set of Cartesian coordinates so that all off-diagonal components disappear. just like the stress. 32  +   21 +  12 2  22  23 +  32             0 + + 2  33   31  32  33    31  13  32  23    31  13  32  23 When treating strain it is generally necessary to consider only the irrotational part. Thus we have the strain tensor:   11  12  13      21  22  23       31  32  33  The condition for irrotational strain is that ij = ji when i  j. We may. x3). 21  13 .

i. and it provides the simplest representation of the nature of strain. This ellipsoid is the strain ellipsoid. Any strain may be considered homogeneous if a sufficiently small element of the body is considered.e. Homogeneous strain = strain for which i are constant throughout the body. . xi = xi 1+  i Thus. This is a very important property. consider the sphere x12 + x22 + x32 = 1 (sphere of unit radius) During strain xi  xi' where xi' = xi + ixi = (1+i) xi ! i.e. (b) Circles are transformed to ellipses.e.EPSC 203 (2012) p. we normally treat only homogeneous strain mathematically. an ellipsoid with semi-axes (1+1). Conventionally. 1 > 2 > 3.. (1+2). Thus planes remain planar. the equation for the body the sphere has become is: !2 !2 !2 x1 + x 2 2 + x3 2 = 1 2 (1+  1 ) (1+  2 ) (1+  3 ) i. (1+3). Spheres are transformed to ellipsoids. 50  1 0 0     0 2 0   0 0   3  The axes so chosen are the "principal axes of strain".. Properties of homogeneous strain The following properties of homogeneous strain may all be proved quite simply: (a) Straight lines are converted to straight lines. Isotropic strain = strain for which all i are equal. Thus.

51 (c) There are always three orthogonal lines that remain orthogonal after the strain. (90-BOA') is the "angular shear strain" in plane BOA. and the shear strains are depicted for that direction. has length (1+) where  is the longitudinal strain or "stretch" in that direction. OA. 49). OB and OC were orthogonal. so that all changes are measured relative to it.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Shear strain is more commonly quoted as  = tan . measured perpendicular to each other (Fig. The shear strain is given by the angle  = change in a right-angle (OA and PQ were perpendicular before deformation). Strain may always be treated as irrotational. Longitudinal strain = the change in length of a unit length in that direction. one of whose sides is the direction in which the strain is being measured. in which case the strain is "rotational". B has been kept fixed. or they may remain in fixed orientations. 50). at a given point. Shear strain = the change in a right-angle. while remaining orthogonal. Angle BOA is now < 90o. Figure 49 Two-Dimensional Strain In two dimensions a circle is transformed into an ellipse during a homogeneous strain (Fig. For a given direction in a body there are two tangential strains. The radius of the ellipse. in any direction. Longitudinal and Tangential (Shear) Strain Both types of strain may be defined for a given direction in a material. in which case the strain is "irrotational". . In Figure 49. simply by regarding the strain of a body from a rotating reference frame. They may rotate during the deformation.

used in the same way as the stress circle (Fig.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 52 Figure 50 Note that  is zero parallel to either of the principal axes. ' = 1/. no tangential stress in principal planes of stress). which are the "reciprocal quadratic strains" (longitudinal and shear respectively). ' = (2' . Thus there is no shear strain in the principal planes of strain (cf. ' = / it may be shown (using straightforward trigonometry) that ' and '. obey the following relationships: ' = 1' cos2 + 2' sin2.1') sin  cos  These may be used to set up a Mohr strain circle. 51). . Reciprocal Quadratic Strain If we establish the following definitions:  = (1+)2.

. the strain in a given body may be exactly determined by measuring the two-dimensional strain in three mutually orthogonal sections.EPSC 203 (2012) p. DETERMINATION OF STRAIN Although strain is a three-dimensional feature. The determination of strain is therefore a two-dimensional problem.1. and is approximately 1 + 2 + 3. This is known as the dilatation. 53 Figure 51 Strain & Volume Change The volume of an ellipsoid is given by 4abc/3. that of a sphere is 4/3. The change in volume of a unit volume is therefore given by (1+1)(1+2)(1+3) . There are many different methods available: (a) Ramsay and Dunnet's method for deformed pebbles. with volume 4/3 therefore becomes an ellipsoid with volume 4(1+1)(1+2)(1+3)/3. A unit sphere.

with the same eccentricities. by measuring the angle at which the eccentricities are greatest. The orientation and ratios of the strain ellipse may be read off directly. If all the pebbles were ellipsoidal to begin with. It is possible to show that the relationship between the orientation of the long axis of the final ellipse and its eccentricity (axial ratio) has the form shown on Fig. but were randomly oriented. Pebbles oriented at some angle to the ellipse of strain will develop intermediate eccentricities. then the strain will convert all the pebbles into ellipsoids. 53. then the pebbles whose long axes coincide with the long axis of strain will develop extreme Figure 52 eccentricities. but with the same axes (Fig. Although this is clearly a simplification. with the same initial axial ratio. The pebbles oriented with their long axes perpendicular to that of the strain will develop much smaller eccentricities. the direction and ratios of the strain ellipse may be determined. the assumption can be checked (see below under Robin's method). On this figure: Ri = initial ratio of pebbles RS = ratio for the strain  = angle between long axis of deformed pebble and an arbitrary reference direction. Figure 53 A diagram such as this may be prepared for any set of randomly oriented pebbles. If all the pebbles were spherical before strain. with long axes oriented at some angle to those of the strain. From it. and all with their long axes parallel (assuming all pebbles have the same mechanical properties). and measuring . 52). 54 This method is based on the assumption that the pebbles were randomly oriented before the strain.EPSC 203 (2012) p.

(b) Wellman's method. subjected to strain. since it determines only the scale and position of the ellipse (Fig. Wellman's method relies on the recognition of original (before strain) right-angles in the deformed rock. all of which are subtended on an ellipse. It is unlikely that in practice all pebbles would have had the same initial ratios. especially if the conglomerate in which they occur is polymictic. It is also of course of relatively limited utility. The method can therefore yield only a minimum estimate of the strain. Unlike Wellman's method. The Mohr circle method is also based on the recognition of original right-angles in the deformed rock. If we consider a set of such subtended right-angles. It uses the geometric property that the angle subtended by the diameter of a circle on its circumference is a right-angle. Figure 54 The problem therefore reduces to the recognition of the previous right-angles and constructing the ellipse on which the apex of each of these angles lies when subtended from a common line. pebbles with smaller initial ratios will plot within the field outlined by those with the largest initial ratios on the graph. The principal problems with the method are the assumption of random initial orientation (see below) and the likelihood that the pebbles will have experienced less strain than the (weaker) matrix in which they lie. 54). It has however been used successfully in many conglomerates and oolitic limestones. . provided they are oriented differently. they are converted into angles other than 90o. 55 the maximum and minimum eccentricities. The choice of the line is somewhat arbitrary. which has the same attitudes and ratios as the strain ellipse (Fig. since it requires the presence of initially ellipsoidal markers. 55). however. If there is a range of initial ratios.EPSC 203 (2012) p. only two such (former) right-angles need be known. Figure 55 (c) Mohr-circle method.

the orientation and ratios of the Mohr circle may be determined uniquely. Note that the sense of angular shear is dependent on which arm of the former right angle is chosen as the reference direction (Fig. The angular shear may be identified as the change in angle of a former right-angle.' graph. and the sense of shear is considered positive for a clockwise rotation of the other arm of the former right angle. offset by the appropriate angular shear angles from the ' axis (Fig.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 57). These two sets of reference-direction + angular shear data may now be used to construct two lines emanating from the origin of a ' . the heavy lines are those used as references. and a Mohr circle (so far unattached to the axes . . 56 The problem is approached by constructing the Mohr circle for the strain. 59) on which are superimposed two radii. with respect to the reference arm. 56). 57. 58).on a separate sheet of paper. Fig. separated by twice the angle of separation of the reference directions (since directions are doubled on the Mohr circle). hence the importance of the recognition of former right-angles. determine the values of their angular shear. Procedure : Figure 57 Identify two former right-angles. and the sense of angular shear. In Fig. If the angular shear in two different directions can be Figure 56 determined. by using the property of the Mohr strain circle that the angle between the ' axis and the line joining the origin to a point with given values for ' and ' (which represents a line in the strained rock with a particular direction) is equal to the angular shear strain in that direction (Fig.

The two diagrams may now be superimposed to provide a unique fit compatible with the data contained on each (Fig. .EPSC 203 (2012) p. N) should also be included. Assuming a random orientation. perpendicular "diameters" of a large number of markers will sum geometrically to 1.. Figure 59 Figure 60 (d) Robin's method This last method has the advantage of being useful for strain markers of any shape. 57 Figure 58 A reference direction related to some external frame (e.g. From this superimposed diagram both the orientation and ratios of the strain ellipse may be determined. whether or not they have a preferred orientation or non-equant shapes to begin with. before deformation. 60).

. there was a random orientation of markers with different initial ratios. The strain path. which is the sequence of infinitesimal strain ellipsoids experienced by the rock. These directions are not known initially. .e. in which the directions for which the geometric sum is maximized are determined. (see Ramsay and Dunnet's method) plot may be generated for the principal strains calculated. but may be determined by an iterative process. 58 i.. each represented by an infinitesimally eccentric strain ellipsoid. for which the strain is referred to as non-coaxial. n a1 a 2 a (1 +  1 ) x x . PROGRESSIVE STRAIN The strain we observe in a rock is the total strain that has been experienced by the rock during the deformation history.. coaxial strain is referred to as pure shear..e. a1 a 2 a x x .. For strain in two dimensions only (i.. After strain. The geometric sum then gives the value of (1 +  1 )n (1 +  2 )n To test for randomness of initial orientation.EPSC 203 (2012) p. is commonly indeterminate. there was a preferred orientation of the markers. A major distinction may be drawn between progressive strain paths for which the principal axes of infinitesimal strain remain parallel to the same material lines within the body throughout the deformation. It may be considered to result from the superposition of an infinite number of stages of infinitesimal strain. for which the strain is referred to as coaxial. x n = n b1 b2 bn (1 +  2 ) provided the "diameters" were measured in the principal strain directions. If only segments of the field are occupied. strain for which there is no stretching or shortening of lines in one direction in space. so that the strain may be fully described by viewing it just in the plane containing the other two orthogonal directions in space). If the "tear-drop" field is fully occupied. x n = 1 b1 b2 bn where n is large. an Rf . and progressive strain paths in which the material lines that are parallel to the infinitesimal principal strain axes change as the deformation progresses. which is known as plane strain.

The total strain is the result of many successive applications of infinitesimal strains like that of Fig. and lines within 45o of (1+2) are shortening (Fig. or progressive contraction. in the case of lines parallel to the long axis of the ellipse. The sphere and the infinitesimal strain ellipse (exaggerated eccentricity) derived from it. Such a stress field is not common in nature. contraction parallel to the short axis. 61). during the deformation: Figure 62 Figure 61. such a stress field would also produce a coaxial strain. lines within 45o of (1+1) are lengthening. either progressive elongation. It is easy to show that material lines in a body subjected to a progressive strain of this type may undergo an initial shortening. Because the principal axes remain parallel to specific material lines within the body. so pure shear is also not common in nature. in the case of lines parallel to the short axis. For a homogeneous rock. these lines experience a simple strain history. 61). Each progressive strain increment produces extension parallel to the long axis of the strain ellipse. followed by lengthening. depending on the magnitude of 3.or pancake-shaped body (a 'flattening' strain ellipsoid). 61.EPSC 203 (2012) p. A reasonably common irrotational stress field is. At any given time during the deformation. Consider a pure shear. no extension at 45° to the principal axes. however. 59 Pure shear results from the progressive superposition of infinitesimal strain ellipses all of which are oriented in the same way with respect to the body being deformed. The net effect of the progressive strain . Pure shear is the kind of progressive strain that would be experienced in a homogeneous body subjected to an irrotational stress field with 2=0. and smooth variations of the longitudinal strain in directions intermediate between these directions (Fig. transforming a sphere into a hamburger. one in which 2=3.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 60
is, however, to rotate all material lines towards (1+1). This can be shown as follows:
Consider a line at an angle  to (1+2) before strain.
tan  = a/b
During strain: a  (1+1)a, b  (1+2)b
The situation before strain is as in Fig. 62.
After the strain (Fig. 63)  has become ', where:

tan   =

(1+  1 ) a (1+  1 )
. =
. tan 
(1+  2 ) b (1+  2 )


(1+  1 )
(1+  2 )
(by definition), it follows that '>.
Thus, a material line that
began life by contracting (within
45o of 1+2) will rotate into an
extensional field.

Figure 63
We may divide the ellipse into fields in which lines have had different histories (Fig.
64). Similar divisions of material space would apply to sections through a flattening ellipsoid,
provided the strain was coaxial. The only difference would be that the angle 45° would be
replaced in the figure by the smaller angle 26.6° (which is the angle between the short axis of
the strain ellipsoid and the lines of no elongation for an infinitesimal perfect flattening ellipse;
1+2 = 1+3) and the boundary between fields B and C would move correspondingly. The
progressive strain history could be much more complex for a non-coaxial flattening strain.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 61

Figure 64. In Field A, lines have contracted throughout their history.
In Field B they first contracted, then extended. In Field C they have
always extended.

The simplest type of non-coaxial strain is known as simple shear (Fig. 65). Simple
shear is also a plane strain (no strain in the third dimension; strain may be fully represented
by a strain ellipse in two dimensions). Strain is in response to a shear couple. There is no
deformation in the plane parallel to the shear couple. The strain pattern for simple shear may
be illustrated with the strain experienced by a deck of cards (Fig. 65c) . During the
deformation, the distance from edge to edge of the card deck remains the same (Fig. 65b);
the same is true of simple shear. The infinitesimal strain ellipse for simple shear always has
a long axis at 45° to the plane of the shear couple (Fig. 65a). In Figure 65a, a circle and the
strain ellipse after finite simple shear are shown. Note that the material line that was parallel
to the direction of infinitesimal maximum elongation at the start of the deformation (AA') has
now rotated towards the shear plane so that it is now no longer parallel to the direction of
maximum infinitesimal elongation. This is the defining characteristic of a non-coaxial strain.
The only material line that does not rotate during simple shear is the line DD', parallel to the
plane of the shear couple. This line also does not experience any elongation. The plane of
the shear couple, commonly called the flow plane, does not experience any deformation,
because there is no strain in the third dimension. With progressive strain, the total strain
ellipse becomes more eccentric, and its long axis rotates towards the flow plane. The amount
of strain in simple shear is commonly monitored through the angle  (Fig. 65b).

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 62
Simple shear provides a reasonable first approximation to the strain history in many ductile
shear zones.

i ain nfi e l ni t lip se C' B' lo e s ng im a x a l is str .B lo e s ng im a x al is s tr . 63 C' 45° D D' D D' strain ellipse a A A B C C  b c card-deck analogue Figure 65. Simple Shear B' A' .i a i n nf i e l n itlip se EPSC 203 (2012) p.

If the material were stressed again. "Ideal" plastic materials exhibit no Figure 67 work hardening (slope = 0). and a plastic segment.EPSC 203 (2012) p. as distinct from viscous strain (see below). where k is a constant. . exhibit a stress . Real materials generally have a small positive slope. Thus. This is known as "WORK HARDENING". it would experience no plastic strain until the threshold stress Y2 was exceeded.strain dependence is generally written as  = k. the yield point has increased. 67) if the stress is released the elastic strain is lost and the final.instantaneous strain curve as in Fig. 66. ELASTIC: (i)    (linear relationship) (ii) strain is recoverable PLASTIC: (i) strain is not recoverable (ii) there is a larger strain for a given stress increase than in the elastic domain. This can serve as a general (colloquial) definition of "plastic" behaviour. however. not Y1 as before. Note that the plastic strain curve still has a slope > 0. In practice. Elastic constants The stress . deformed by a deviatoric stress. 64 BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIALS Instantaneous Deformation Solids. the term "plastic" is used to refer to time-dependent strain that occurs only above a yield point. It may be divided into an elastic segment. in a stress history producing the strain 1 (Fig. Thus. however. Figure 66 Y = YIELD POINT = the stress value marking the boundary between elastic and plastic strain. permanent strain is 2. so that the amount of strain that can be produced at a given stress is finite.

only the two moduli (or two equivalent moduli) are needed to provide a complete description of the elastic response of a body. It is sometimes defined as the percentage of strain before rupture. Typical curves for the effect of increase in pressure are like those of Fig. (b) Temperature Increasing T lowers the yield point very effectively. Thus. 68.e. It has a major effect on the ULTIMATE STRENGTH (= maximum deviatoric stress a material can sustain without failure). Failure Loss of cohesion (breakage) of the material could occur before the yield point was exceeded (i. EFFECT OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE (a) Pressure Increasing P can produce a minor increase in the yield point. and the failure it experiences is "BRITTLE FAILURE". 65 For normal stress and longitudinal strain:  = E. In this case the material is "BRITTLE". For shear stress and shear strain:  = G. at lower stress). but is more commonly used in a colloquial sense. Typical geotherms exhibit both increasing P and T. Generally. where G is the Shear or Rigidity modulus. where E is Young's modulus. and the failure is "DUCTILE". "DUCTILITY" is simply the tendency of a material to exhibit permanent strain without loss of cohesion. TIME-DEPENDENT STRAIN Figure 68 . a brittle rock could become ductile with increase in confining pressure. If loss of cohesion occurs in the plastic domain there is some permanent strain before failure.EPSC 203 (2012) p. All materials therefore become more ductile with increasing depth in Earth. It also raises the ultimate strength..

II is the are that it is linear.EPSC 203 (2012) p. i = instantaneous strain.. 66 If stress operates for a long period. 69. In rare cases it is accelerating. secondary or "pseudo-viscous" creep and III is the tertiary creep. Its defining characteristics Figure 69. Tertiary or accelerating creep is simply the precursor to rupture. temperature and pressure is shown on Fig. Its defining characteristic is that it is recoverable. or a fault developed in a fold during the folding. and is not recoverable. The typical creep curve for a material deformed at a given deviatoric stress. and will not occur in materials that are being deformed at stresses significantly less than their ultimate strength. Time-dependent strain is known as creep. The geological expression of failure on the creep curve is a ductile fault. Even materials that are elastic under the given conditions ( < Y) will exhibit permanent.e. Equivalent Viscosity For the pseudo-viscous creep we may write the expression  =  t . because a large degree of strain can be achieved by it if the stresses are operating for long periods of time. On this figure. I is the primary creep. that it is not an increase in stress that produces the rupture here. Primary creep is generally decelerating. the material will develop more permanent strain than its instantaneous plastic strain. the strain rate is decreasing with time. "Ultimate strength" cannot therefore be rigorously defined when creep is considered. which may be elastic or elastic + plastic. Note. Rather it is a result of the material's having experienced too much strain. however. although the return to unstrained state takes time. i. Pseudo-viscous or secondary creep is geologically the most significant. time-dependent strain.

and for a fluid that is strictly "Newtonian"  is independent of  (but not of T).. This gives an exponentially decreasing viscosity with increasing temperature. but the viscosity is a function of the stress applied. For this creep the equivalent viscosity is k-n and is strongly dependent on the stress. Viscosity may decrease by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude for a 100o temperature increase.e. and therefore approximately Newtonian. 67 since  is constant for a given . i. This equation may be rewritten:  1 n+1 =  t k Creep obeying this relationship is known as "Power-law" or "Weertman" creep.  is constant for a given . and k0 are constant for the material and Tm is its melting temperature in Kelvin degrees.EPSC 203 (2012) p. which is dependent mainly on temperature and grain size. for both power-law and quasi-Newtonian creep is of the form k = k 0 exp CT m T where C. The actual flow law obeyed by rocks varies with the microscopic strain mechanism. The viscosity is also strongly temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of viscosity. . where  is the VISCOSITY. For rocks this is generally not the case. t This is the flow law for a Newtonian viscous fluid. At low temperatures the viscosity may be essentially independent of stress. and k is a constant. but at higher temperatures ( > 400oC) the flow law for materials is generally of the form: = k   n t where n is between 2 and 4.

and if they are not they can be divided into domains that are approximately so. Figure 70 The attitude of the line common to all planes on the fold is referred to as the attitude of the FOLD AXIS. at which the curvature is a maximum (Fig. Within the fold profile one may define a CREST and a TROUGH for a fold.see below). Many folds are approximately cylindrical. These features are. a "fold" is the region between two .g. Strictly speaking any line with that attitude is a fold axis. in which the surface may be generated by moving a line parallel to itself through space. one may define INFLECTION POINTS on the profile. although the term is generally used for a specific line (the hinge line . One may also define a crest line and a trough line parallel to the axis. however. they are not intrinsic features of the fold (Fig. 68 FOLDS AND FOLDING (a) Folding of a Single Surface The simplest type of folding of a surface is cylindrical folding. The geometry of the fold is then most simply represented in the plane perpendicular to the fold axis. Conventionally. These are the lowest and highest points on the fold. from left-curving to right-curving) and HINGES. 70b). at which the curvature is zero and the sense of curvature is changing (e.EPSC 203 (2012) p. An alternative way in which to define a cylindrical fold would be to say that it is a fold for which all planes tangent to the fold surface contain a common linear (which has the same attitude as the line used to generate the fold in the first definition). Thus. it is conventional to treat them as if they are. which is referred to as the PROFILE PLANE. dependent on the external reference frame. Although many naturally formed folds are not cylindrical. 70a). The intrinsic features of the fold are based on its curvature..

Most folds have only one hinge between two adjacent inflection points. SYNFORMS if they close downwards. Under these conditions a SYNCLINE is a fold in which the layering faces inwards towards the fold nose and an ANTICLINE is a fold in which the layering faces outwards from the fold nose. The line passing through the hinge parallel to the axis is the HINGE LINE. 71). an antiform or a neutral fold (Fig. (b) Many Surfaces Hinge lines may be defined on each adjacent surface in a fold consisting of more than one surface. The latter terms may be used only if both: the surface being folded is bedding or volcanic layering and the facing direction of the surface is known. Figure 72 A fold with a planar axial surface is a PLANE fold. These terms should not be Figure 71 confused with the terms "anticline" and "syncline" (although they commonly are). 69 adjacent inflection points on the surface. 72). (c) Attitudes of Folds The attitude of a fold is fully specified only when both the attitude of the fold axis and the axial surface are given. although there are folds with many hinges (see below under "fold style"). The following are general terms used to describe the attitudes of folds: (i) Based on the dip of the axial surface: . Non-plane folds may be treated by considering domains within them that are themselves approximately planar. The surface that contains the hinge lines from all adjacent surfaces is the HINGE SURFACE (or AXIAL SURFACE) of the fold (Fig. Either might be a synform. and NEUTRAL FOLDS if they close sideways. Folds are referred to as ANTIFORMS if they close upwards. The relatively straight domains between inflection points and the hinge are referred to as the FOLD LIMBS and the region of high curvature around the hinge is referred to as the HINGE ZONE or the NOSE of the fold.EPSC 203 (2012) p.

in which case the folds are referred to as PARALLEL folds.. measured across the axial surface. always horizontal. perfect . (d) Fold Style Several features contribute to the "style" of a fold: (i) Interlimb angle. Although folds are generally described as either "similar" or "parallel". e. "inclined.g. in which the pitch of the fold axis on the axial surface is greater than about 75o. Layers in a fold may keep a constant orthogonal thickness around a fold. An idealized example of the latter situation is that in which adjacent folded layers have identical (congruent) forms. A fold in which the interlimb angle is zero (limbs parallel) is an ISOCLINAL fold. and vertical folds are always upright. and have the additional property that the "thickness" measured parallel to the axial surface is constant around the fold (Fig.e. plunging". 73). of course. Such folds are known as SIMILAR folds. Recumbent folds are. "moderately open" and "closed" have been used with specific meanings. in describing a fold one may use two terms. generally becoming thicker in the noses than Figure 73 on the limbs. or they may vary in orthogonal thickness.. but it is probably better to give the range of interlimb angles. This is the angle between the two limbs of the fold. 70 UPRIGHT fold (dip greater than 75o) INCLINED fold (dip 15 . i. A special term RECLINED is used to describe a fold that plunges down the dip of its axial surface. Terms such as "open".750) HORIZONTAL fold (plunge less than 15o) (The divisions given are only a guide) Thus.EPSC 203 (2012) p. since the fold axis must lie in the axial surface. (ii) Change in layer thickness around the fold.75o) RECUMBENT fold (dip less than 15o) (ii) Based on the plunge of the fold axis: VERTICAL fold (plunge greater than 75o) PLUNGING fold (plunge 15 .

It is readily apparent that these are just two special cases. Isogon patterns for parallel and similar folds. Thus. 71 examples of the idealized types are rare. Folds approximating the idealized parallel type are common in terrains of low-grade metamorphism. parallel folds have isogon patterns that are convergent towards the noses of the folds ("convergent" isogon patterns) and similar folds have parallel isogon patterns.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 75). The full spectrum of possibilities involves five classes of isogon pattern (Fig. Figure 75 . particularly in the case of similar folds. A more complete description of the changes in layer thickness around folds is provided by a description of their "isogon" patterns. An ISOGON is a line joining points with the same attitudes on adjacent layers in the profile of a fold (Fig. Figure 74. 74).

76a). and layers exhibiting marked thickening into the noses. Although mechanical contrasts are diminished at higher temperatures they are rarely completely eliminated (Fig. at a given temperature. In a layered sequence the relatively strong rock will consequently display less of a tendency to flow into the noses than the weaker rock. with interlimb angles around 60o. 72 Figure 75 The major control on the constancy of layer thickness around a fold is the competency (resistance to flow) of the rock. and the result is a rock that consists of alternations of layers with small changes in thickness around folds. Asymmetric folds of this style are referred to as KINK FOLDS. strong rocks maintain broadly constant layer thicknesses. producing parallel folds. a Isogon patterns in a fold in rock consisting at low temperatures are commonly of alternating strong (resistant to flow) and weak layers. However. with weakly convergent isogon patterns. . approximately parallel. some rocks are always stronger than others. temperatures rocks become weaker and tend to flow towards the noses. This characteristic gives rise to a number of special terms used to describe particular types of fold: CHEVRON FOLD: A fold with a very sharp nose and straight limbs. Most "similar" folds are like this. The term is commonly restricted to folds that are essentially symmetrical. Thus. It is because rocks are strong at low temperatures that folds produced Figure 76.EPSC 203 (2012) p. At higher b Chevron fold. (iii) Development and character of fold nose. with divergent isogon patterns. In both cases the folds require the existence of a layered sequence in which relatively strong layers are separated by weak inter-layer surfaces (Fig. To produce a true similar fold would require that there be no mechanical difference whatsoever between adjacent layers. 76b).

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 73
KINK BANDS are kink folds in which
the short limbs are repeated in a regular
fashion for large distances parallel to the
axial surface. The term is commonly
reserved for structures with wavelengths
less than about 20 cm (Fig. 77).

Figure 78. Ptygmatic folding.

Figure 77. Kink band.

PTYGMATIC FOLDS : Folds that demonstrate
extreme thickening in the noses and "negative"
interlimb angles. They resemble the loops of
an intestine. They are produced in isolated
layers of relatively competent rock that have
been constrained to shorten a great deal
because of the weakness of the rocks around

them (Fig. 78).
tight folds preserved between
layers in a foliated rock. Such
folds are a result of extreme
transposed the limbs of the folds
parallel to the foliation. Large
amounts of movement on the
limbs then leave the original
closures isolated (Fig. 79).

Figure 79. Intrafolial folds.

MULTIPLE HINGE FOLDS: folds in which
there is more than one curvature maximum
between inflexion points. Commonly there
are two and such a fold is referred to as a
BOX FOLD. They are formed in conditions
similar to those responsible for the formation
of kink folds and kink bands and are
commonly associated with them (Fig. 80).
Figure 80. Box fold.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 74
(iv) Degree of cleavage development. Whether there is an axial-plane cleavage, whether it is
fanned, what type of cleavage it is and how intense it is all contribute to the "style" of a fold.

The importance of fold style is partly in the description of folds, but more importantly in
the correlation of folds of a particular folding event. Since it may reasonably be assumed that
rocks in a given area undergoing a given deformation event were under approximately the
same physical conditions, they may be expected to exhibit similar styles of folding. This is
because the style of the folding is ultimately controlled by the physical conditions under which
the deformation occurred. However there are some cautionary notes to bear in mind:
1. The style is governed as much by the lithologies involved as by the physical
conditions. Style may be compared only between folds in the same lithological type.
Furthermore, since the other lithologies with which it is associated also control its
behaviour (e.g., it may be the strongest or the weakest lithology in a given layered
sequence) it is important also to take account of the associated rocks.
2. The style is also governed by the intensity of the deformation, and this may vary
markedly through the area in a given event. This is a harder problem to avoid, and can
lead to a great deal of confusion in the correlation of folds of different events.
Notwithstanding these caveats, fold style is one of the most powerful methods by
which folds of a given event are correlated. Following a correlation, a systematic treatment of
the variation in attitudes of the folds over a region may then indicate whether or not the initial
correlation was sound. In practice, style and attitude are used in tandem in unravelling the
structural evolution of a region.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 75
We may wish to know how a fold, observed at the surface, would appear on a vertical
section at some depth. Alternatively, we may wish to provide a stylistically valid impression of
the fold, by viewing it in its profile plane. In order to do this we must project the fold, using the
information available at the surface, onto the surface on which we wish to study it.
The commonest, and most universally applicable, method is to project the fold down
its plunge (or up its plunge) onto the surface of interest. In essence, various points on the fold
are traced down the plunge until they intersect the target surface, and are then joined to
produce the fold on the target surface. The only assumption inherent in this procedure is that
the fold is cylindrical.
There are two simple ways in which to prepare a down-plunge projection:
(a) Grid Superposition
This method is the most rapid, but may be used only when there is no significant
topographic interference with the fold's appearance at the surface.

Consider a fold exposed on a flat
surface. The surface is in general not
perpendicular to the plunge of the fold.
We wish to project this fold onto a
vertical section with strike perpendicular
to the trend of the fold. In this projection
process, consider a horizontal line
perpendicular to the trend of the fold. It
may be projected down the plunge
without any distortion or length change
(Fig. 81).

Figure 81. Projection of a line AB, that is
perpendicular to the plunge line, in the downplunge direction. AB projects to A'B', where

Now consider a horizontal line that is parallel to the trend of the fold. In the projection
process it remains straight, but is shortened (Fig. 82).

In this way we may reconstruct the appearance of the fold in the section (Fig. AB projects to A'B'. Down-plunge projection by gridding. 76 Figure 82. the fold should also suffer a similar homogeneous transformation. Points on the fold that occupied a particular position in a particular grid square will project to points that occupy analogous positions in the transformed grid square. Since the transformation we have effected is homogeneous.EPSC 203 (2012) p. we may redraw the grid according to the changes in length of the grid elements as defined above. Projection of a line that is parallel to the fold trend. where A'B'=AB tan . in the down-plunge direction. Consequently. . 83). Figure 83. (b) Projection of individual points. This method. if we impose a grid on the fold at the surface. although slower than using a grid. with lattice lines parallel and perpendicular to fold trend. may be applied to folds in which the surface topography has substantial effect on the appearance of the fold.

84). The lateral position on the target section may be determined from the plan view (Fig. 77 (i) Without topography The method consists of projecting individual points on the fold. This is done on an orthographic projection of the vertical section containing the fold-plunge. until they intersect the target surface. Figure 84 .EPSC 203 (2012) p. from which the distance down the target section may be determined. parallel to fold plunge.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. since topographic height may be included on the orthographic projection (Fig. 85). 78 This method may readily be adjusted for topography. Figure 85 .

similar arcs. such as ideal similar folding or ideal parallel folding. constructed with the same centres. a procedure that is commonly used in foreland-fold-and. 86).EPSC 203 (2012) p. Figure 87 . assuming parallel folding. In this way a complete set of circular arcs may be constructed and. These arcs may be constructed by identifying their centres as the points of intersection of lines passing Figure 86 through each of two adjacent measurements. may be added at greater depth. The commonest method for such reconstructions is that due to Busk. perpendicular to the traces of the bedding at each point (Fig. We shall concern ourselves only with the extrapolation of parallel folds.thrust belts like that of the Canadian Rockies. Extrapolation to depth ultimately gives rise to problems in the form of geologically unreasonable cuspate structures (Fig. 79 Projection in Directions Other Than Plunge Such projections may be performed only under conditions in which a particular style for the folding may be assumed. Low temperature deformation may produce folds that are nearly ideally parallel. in which the folds are built up from successive segments of concentric folds. collected on a traverse of the profile plane of a fold in an area of parallel folding. but ideal similar folds are rare. The folding may be reconstructed from these measurements by considering the folds to be made up of a series of circular arcs passing through all the measured data. Consider a set of measurements. 87).

beyond Z Find D on BC. 89).EPSC 203 (2012) p. Cross sections adjusted in this way are "balanced". all measurements were joined to produce a structure. 88). a dip may be interpolated between two adjacent measurements. In circumstances in which the same bed is identifiable at two different places on the traverse. at A and B. find their intersection (C). such that BD = AO Find P. without considering whether they had been collected on the same bed. or by disharmonic folding (Fig. in order to force the fold to join points at which the same bed was observed: Consider two adjacent bedding measurements. and extend the normals beyond it. That is. the principle that is generally used is that the lengths of adjacent beds between locations of zero slip (such as the noses of open folds) should be constant. The method described above for the reconstruction of folds makes no allowance for the possibility that the beds whose attitudes were measured may have been at different stratigraphic positions. Construct the normals to the dips at each. Construct the perpendicular bisector of AB. at the intersection of the perpendicular bisector of line DO with BD Figure 89 . where the dip is greater at B than at A (Fig. Figure 88 In constructing such compensating structures in cross sections. 80 In the practical situation these structures are compensated for either by faulting in the noses of the folds. to intersect AC at Z Place a point O on the normal AC.

90). However. balancing the section may still require faulting within the structure (Fig. The styles of the folds so produced conform more closely to those observed in many foreland fold-and-thrust belts. In this method the profile plane is divided into regions of approximately constant dip. Adjacent domains of different dip are considered to be Figure 90 related by a kink.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The assumption of symmetry in the kink is not critical. instead of building up folds as additions of adjacent circular arcs. Another method that has been used to reconstruct parallel folds is due to Suppe. the axial surface for which bisects the angle between the dips of the two domains. Because the method produces kink-folds it does not produce the same geometrical problems when extrapolated to depth . the data from the middle domain are ignored. . and a new axial surface attitude is defined from the two outer domains. In this way a complete section at depth may be constructed. This method.kink-folds may be extrapolated an unlimited distance. by inspection. considers them to consist of long straight segments separated by kinks. and may be relaxed if stratigraphic information requires it. Where two axial surfaces defined in this way intersect. 81 O and P are the centres of two tangent arcs that define the curve required to force the fold through both A and B.

the amount of strain experienced. which do not generally contain large amounts of a type of foliation produced in rocks during strain. and "schistosities" when the grains responsible for the cleavage are visible. Thus. Thus. In practice. at least for mica-rich rocks.EPSC 203 (2012) p. whereas metasandstones. mica-rich metasediments. when unqualified. although it is in some cases enhanced by compositional banding as well. depending upon whether domains that are free of the cleavage are present. The common mineral species with high aspect ratios are micas (plates) and amphiboles (needles or prisms). the term "penetrative" refers to "naked-eye" observations on a hand specimen. or as more rigid bodies moving in a weaker medium. (b) Amount of Strain & Mechanism Cleavage is for the most part a reflection of the preferred orientation of the long axes of grains with high aspect ratios. Penetrative cleavages are referred to as "slaty cleavages" when the grain-size is too fine to be seen. (The latter model probably corresponds more closely to the true situation. The type of cleavage developed in a rock is a function of the rock type. simply by rotation during strain. the best cleavages are developed in rocks that contain significant proportions of minerals that have high aspect ratios (long-dimension to short-dimension ratios). operating independently or in concert: (i) Bulk rotation of high-aspect-ratio grains during strain Homogeneous strain produces the rotation of almost all lines in a body towards the plane of flattening. The distinction is commonly made between "penetrative" and "non-penetrative" cleavage. there are few cleavages that are truly penetrative on a microscopic scale. and the (grain-scale) mechanisms by which the strain was achieved. or of the long axes of needles on the plane of flattening. a homogeneous strain could effect a preferred orientation of platy minerals on the plane of flattening. It is common for slaty cleavage in deformed fine-grained sediments to pass into spaced cleavage in adjacent sandstones. do not. since the matrix quartz grains will . 82 CLEAVAGE Cleavage . (a) Rock Type In general. This distinction is dependent on the scale of the observation. It is possible to show that this should occur whether the grains act as simply passive markers in the rock.the tendency of a rock to break along closely spaced planes . Non-penetrative cleavages are referred to as "spaced cleavages" or "fracture cleavages" (the former term is preferred). This preferred orientation may be brought about by three different mechanisms. which are generally derived from fine-grained (clay-rich) sediments. even if they are deformed under the same conditions and have experienced the same amount of strain. have well-developed cleavage.

however. at low temperatures. the assumption is usually that the cleavage surfaces are approximately parallel to the surface of flattening for the strain. and even overprinting of two cleavages of slightly different attitudes in some cases. Thus. Mechanism (iii) will produce cleavages dictated by the stress field. grains that are kinked because of their unfavourable orientations may recrystallize into two grains (the two limbs of the kink) each of which has an orientation more favorable to that of the bulk strain. the differences may be small. Criteria by which the relative importance of these three mechanisms may be determined are difficult to devise. resulting in a net increase in the proportion of favourably oriented grains. Note. small departures of the cleavage plane from the plane of flattening may be expected. where crystallization is slow. at least until a level of strain is reached at which the cleavage is essentially perfect. Mechanisms (i) and (ii) will tend to produce cleavages that are parallel to the plane of flattening. depending on the rate at which the cleavage can keep up with the rotation of the plane of flattening. For example. Since the strain in fold limbs is generally rotational. 83 generally deform more easily than the micas. (iii) Stress-induced neocrystallization If new mineral grains are growing during the deformation ('neocrystallization'. . For all three mechanisms the quality of the cleavage should reflect the degree of strain. resulting in the development of new grains all of which have a well developed preferred orientation. It is probable that all are important to varying degrees in different conditions. and there are also other possibilities. which may not exactly correspond to the strain field (if the rock is anisotropic). as distinct from the recrystallization of existing grains) only those grains favourably oriented with respect to the stress field will tend to grow. (ii) Strain-induced recrystallization During strain. and may be reduced if the existing cleavage is rotated towards the plane of flattening by continuing strain. Alternatively. rather than for the total strain. However. (i) may be paramount.EPSC 203 (2012) p. whereas a rock deformed at high temperatures under conditions far removed from those at which the mineral assemblage of the rock is in equilibrium may be dominated by (iii). grains that are unfavourably oriented with respect to the bulk strain axes (for example micas whose basal planes are at a high angle to the flattening plane) may experience greater internal strain (of their lattices) making them favourable grains for degradation by transfer of their components along grain boundaries towards more favourably oriented grains.) Some well-developed slaty cleavages may be developed entirely by this mechanism. that if the strain is rotational the cleavage may reflect only the attitude of the plane of flattening for the last part of the strain.

usually penetrative. Even a slaty cleavage may exhibit such domains on a microscopic scale.(or long-limb-) regions much poorer in micas. . which are experiencing greater stress. Crenulation cleavages are very common in regions that have been deformed at relatively low temperature after a major phase of deformation in which a penetrative cleavage was produced. In extreme cases the limb regions may become fractures. Crenulation cleavage in pre-existing. Crenulation cleavages are developed from the limbs of microfolds ('crenulations') Figure 91. 84 Cleavage defined by compositional domains Although almost all cleavage reflects a preferred orientation. for example. This compositional banding induced by metamorphic differentiation may be mistaken for bedding-inherited banding in rocks that subsequently experience a high-grade recrystallization which conceals the crenulation-related origin. For a spaced cleavage this is reflected in the concentration of micas. The best developed compositional banding is associated with crenulations. cleavages. in the planes that define the cleavage.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Development of the microfolds is commonly accompanied by migration of quartzofeldspathic material out of the limb regions. separating nose. it is common for cleavage to be accompanied by oriented domains of different composition. entirely filled with micas. leading to an apparent enrichment of the limb-regions in micas. in 'crenulation cleavages' (Fig. 91).

They may be of primary origin. such as the preferred orientation of the long axes of detrital quartz grains parallel to a current direction in sediments. since they may be seen as. for example. such as bedding and cleavage. . or of tectonic origin. Intersection Lineations Intersection lineations are lineations produced by the intersection of two planar features.EPSC 203 (2012) p. the trace of bedding on a cleavage surface or the trace of cleavage on a bedding surface. Mineral Lineations Mineral lineations are lineations reflecting the preferred orientation of the long axes of mineral grains or of aggregates of mineral grains with high aspect ratios. They are readily observable and measurable in the field. They may be produced by any or all of the mechanisms discussed above for the development of cleavage and are consequently commonly parallel or nearly parallel to the long axes of the strain ellipsoid. 85 LINEATIONS Lineations are simply linear features in a rock.

thereby developing convergent cleavage fans. the fold axis develops along or close to the line of intersection of the plane of flattening and the plane of the layering. 86 CLEAVAGE AND FOLDING The growth of folds is a response to layer-parallel shortening of competent layers in an incompetent medium. Cleavage fans Significant departures from perfect parallelism of cleavage with the axial planes of folds are common. These local distributions arise because of competence contrasts between adjacent layers. Cleavages are commonly fanned about the fold axis. however. the axial surface is approximately parallel to the plane of flattening for the bulk strain. In the general case. The fold will generally grow initially orthogonal to the layering. Competent layers tend to experience strain whose axes are locally at high angles to the layer boundaries.EPSC 203 (2012) p. the attitude of cleavage in an area may provide an indication of bedding attitude provided the type and attitude of the fan for the lithology in . Given the considerations above. Figure 92. In general. 93). which experience large amounts of shear imposed by their neighbours. Adjacent incompetent layers. In the absence of bedding data. it may therefore be expected that the cleavage will also parallel the axial plane. In the hinge surface they are parallel to the axial surface (Fig. then. once the fold develops significant amplitude its axial surface will rotate towards the plane of flattening. so that its axial surface will not develop parallel to the plane of flattening except in special cases. The change in cleavage attitude as a layer boundary is crossed is known as 'cleavage refraction'. in which the principal compressional stress responsible for this shortening does not lie in the plane of the layering. 92). exhibit divergent fans (Fig. with attitudes to either side of that of the fold axis on adjacent limbs of the fold. This relationship is commonly observed. The fanning of cleavage is a reflection of local strain distributions in the rock in which the planes of flattening are not parallel to that of the bulk strain. and such a cleavage is an 'axial plane cleavage'. However.

although in the hinge-surface region it will always be parallel to it. B is the fold axis. Cleavage refraction in folds and determining the attitude of the plane that contains this trace and the fold axis (Fig. Since the cleavage. 87 which the cleavage is observed is known. . contains the fold axis. Likewise. the attitude of cleavage may be used to provide an indication of the attitude of the axial surface. the line of intersection between bedding and cleavage is parallel to the fold axis (all bedding contains the fold axis). its attitude may depart from that of the axial surface by as much as 30o in the limbs of folds. even when it is fanned. A more direct and reliable measure of the axial surface attitude is provided by measuring the trace of the axial surface on an exposure in which the fold can be seen.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Figure 93. On the stereogram. Equation of the attitude of the cleavage with the axialsurface attitude must therefore be done with care. If the cleavage is fanned. This intersection lineation between the bedding and the cleavage is therefore a simple and accurate measure of the attitude of the fold axis in a cylindrically folded terrain and is very widely used. Figure 94. 94). Note that it may be used even if the folds themselves are never observed. Use of axial trace and fold axis to determine the attitude of the axial surface.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 88 .

and the poles trace out a great circle . and its pole is the fold axis. Figure 95 Pi Plot If many data are available for the fold. A plot of this kind is known as a 'pi plot' (Fig. A diagram of this kind.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The data may more simply be plotted as poles to the planes. the intersection of their great-circle traces on a stereogram is the fold axis. 89 FOLDS ON THE STEREOGRAM Beta Plot If the attitudes of two limbs of a fold are known.the plane perpendicular to the fold axis. This plane. 96). the intersections of the several great circles give rise to a confusing number of points. and the corresponding fold axis is 'beta' (Fig. since every plane contains the fold axis. is known as a "beta plot". 95). In this case. in which fold limbs are drawn as great circles. the pole of every plane must be perpendicular to the fold axis.  Figure 96 . may be identified. the 'profile plane'.

Figure 98 . Figure 97 Cleavage in a fold occupies the region not occupied by the bedding. For a divergent fan the cleavage in a given limb is displaced from the axial surface attitude towards the limb in which it is measured. where the axial surface lies. The region between the two limbs. The interlimb angle for the fold may be measured either between the poles to the two limb clusters across the unoccupied region. and will be distributed on the profile plane if it is fanned. or between the intersections with the profile plane of the two great circles representing the fold limbs (across the great circle representing the axial surface) (Fig. reflecting the two relatively straight limbs. would be reflected in an unoccupied region on the profile plane.EPSC 203 (2012) p. For a convergent fan the opposite is true (Fig. the extent of the distribution reflecting the extent of the fanning. 90 Interlimb Angle If bedding data were collected completely randomly around a fold and plotted on a pi diagram the poles would be distributed on the profile plane in two clusters. 97). and a broad rarefied distribution of points representing bedding data measured around the hinge of the fold. 98).

a mineral lineation may develop in the direction of the fold axis. There are. Mullions Mullions are cylindrical bodies of material of the same composition as the rock as a whole.e. e. and it provides a useful estimate of the attitudes of fold axes in intensely deformed terrains. They may develop during folding due to the opening of cavities in the noses of the folds between adjacent competent beds. as previously discussed.very broad on the surface convex towards a relatively incompetent layer and very sharp on the other. b Fold Mullion ornaments on the surface of the competent layer. Cleavage mullions are prismatic. the lineations would generally be expected to vary in attitude around the fold. however. bounded by surfaces of some kind. other possibilities. and both are generally parallel to the fold axis: Rods Rods are cylindrical bodies of a material other than that making up the rock as a whole. In particular.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 91 Lineations in Folds Since fold axes commonly develop perpendicular to the shortening line in the layering (i. This is the commonest relationship observed. vein quartz. and bounded by a bedding-parallel jointing and an axial-plane cleavage. Fold mullions are minor folds with distinctly different forms on their convex and concave surfaces . it is possible that local strain within the fold may develop a stretching direction that is at a high angle to the fold axis (for example due to shearing of incompetent material on each limb).. and are due to disharmonic buckling during the folding process (Fig. The cavities are then filled with material deposited from intergranular fluids. 99). close to the plane of flattening for the bulk strain) there is generally extension parallel to the fold axis in the layering. so that a careful examination of the structural data should reveal the relationship. Intersection lineations. In cases such as this. should in general be parallel to the fold axis. They are commonly seen as Figure 99 a Cleavage Mullion. Two other kinds of mesoscopic lineation are common in association with folds. . or within competent layers at the noses due to extensional failure there.g. Thus.

Figure 101 Coherently deformed domains within flexural-slip folds commonly exhibit an approximation to these conditions. on which there is no deformation. on the other hand. and the deformation is distributed throughout the rock. known as "tangential longitudinal strain". The simplest type of such strain would be that in which principal strain axes were everywhere parallel or orthogonal to the layering. IDEALIZED MECHANISMS (a) Flexural folding Flexural folding is folding in which the directions of movement within the rock are parallel to the layer being folded (Fig. 92 FOLD MECHANISMS One must distinguish between idealized fold mechanisms. there are no discrete planes of weakness. and the actual mechanisms by which most folds grow. In flexural-slip folding the nature of the (relatively small) strain that occurs between the planes of weakness is not specified. 101): Figure 100 (a) stretching on the outer part (extrados) of the fold (b) flattening on the inner parts (intrados) (c) the existence of a neutral surface. 100). illustrates some typical properties of flexuralslip folding (Fig. although .EPSC 203 (2012) p. Flexural folding may be considered as "flexural-slip" folding if the majority of the movement takes place on preferred planes of weakness parallel to the layering. In "flexural-flow" folding. Such a strain distribution.

For planes of slip that are sufficiently closely spaced this gives rise to a smooth fold (Fig. with maintenance of a constant angular relationship between the lineation and the fold axis.EPSC 203 (2012) p. are common. . on the intrados of the fold. and the distribution is not precisely that of a small circle (see dashed line. and deformation within the fold is like that along a neutral surface. Flexural-flow folding is essentially the limiting case of flexural-slip folding. like those of a parallel fold (Class IB). a lineation that was present within a neutral surface in the coherent domain of the rock would experience a simple rigid-body rotation. Fig. 102). By the same token. Note that in no case is the entire small circle occupied. maintaining a constant angular relationship to the fold axis. also known as "passive folding" is folding in which the Figure 102 movement takes place at some angle to the plane being folded. 102). Thus. it would be distributed on part of a small circle about the fold axis (filled circles. the features of the extrados and the intrados of a coherent domain become very similar to each other. Fig. in particular in the form of extra flattening onto the axial surface. the angle between the fold axis and the lineation increases in the hinge zone. 103). in which the domains exhibiting coherent deformation have become vanishingly thin. The isogons of a fold that has experienced tangential longitudinal strain are convergent. In consequence. On the extrados of the fold. in the axial plane of the fold. For the common case. 93 modifications to the tangential longitudinal strain condition. Flexural-slip folding leads to the redistribution of any pre-existing lineations. however. because of the stretching perpendicular to the fold axis. the angle between the lineation and the fold axis decreases in the hinge zone. (b) Shear folding Shear folding. in which the preexisting lineation lies in the layer being folded.

SOME GENERALIZATIONS FROM MODELLING The following generalizations are based on the experimental buckling of strong layers in a weaker matrix. Thus. Figure 103 REAL FOLD MECHANISMS Real folds generally have isogon patterns of Class III (divergent) or Class IC (less convergent than true parallel folds). . Most folding is now thought to be flexural. (a) Buckling occurs only after a certain amount of homogeneous shortening. (b) There is a dominant wavelength for buckling. but have experienced additional flattening onto the axial surface. Class IC isogons can be produced by adding a component of homogeneous flattening onto the axial plane to the simple flexural models given above. In addition. containing the original lineation direction and the vector of slip. FOLD MECHANISMS . It would appear therefore that shear folding is not an important mechanism in general. on the other hand. are equivalent to the preferred planes of weakness in the flexural-slip model. In addition. great-circle distributions of lineations due to refolding are rarely observed except in ductile shear zones. 94 Such folding should give rise to isogon patterns that are parallel (Class II). Their Class III isogons are constrained by the geometry of the layers around them. it is because similar folds are much in evidence in the field. and on mathematical modelling. Indeed. dependent on the viscosity and the thickness of the layer. The weaker layers. There is more shortening for lower viscosity contrasts.EPSC 203 (2012) p. and to perfect similar folds. at least in its initial stages. shear folding should redistribute a pre-existing lineation on a great circle. and because of the widespread evidence of slip on axial-plane cleavages that such folding has been thought to be important. one may view folding in rocks consisting of layers of alternating competence as being of the flexural-slip type. in which the stronger layers are equivalent to the coherent domains of the flexural slip model.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 95 1  1  3  = 2t   6 2  large thickness produces high wavelength high viscosity contrast produces long wavelength (c) Additional homogeneous strain is developed during and after buckling. .

Unless minor displacement is visible across joints. A small deviatoric stress will give rise to extensional joints whereas a larger one will give rise to shear joints (Fig. Whether an extensional or a shear joint will be produced in a given environment depends on the size of the deviatoric stress relative to the Mohr envelope for failure. they may not be classified in this way without recourse to some indirect reasoning. They will give rise to extensional joints when the rocks have been unroofed sufficiently for the extensional strength of the rock to be overcome. In general. In general. classified on a genetic basis: "extensional" and "shear" joints. this dissipation of the stress field is achieved because the stress field is a result of internal stresses developed in the rock. In the case of igneous Circle B illustrates the stress condition leading to extensional rocks.. it may reflect cooling during the erosional exhumation that brings the rocks to the surface. 96 JOINTING Mechanics Joints were defined earlier as discrete fractures across which there has been little or no movement. Faults result from failure of a rock under an externally applied stress field. cool. They are distinct from (brittle) faults only in that the amount of movement is small.e. In the case of metamorphic rocks. Circle A reflects the developed in them as they stress conditions for conjugate joints a dihedral angle  apart. deviatoric stresses induced by cooling are small.EPSC 203 (2012) p. in an effectively extensional environment) in which case the fracture will open perpendicular to its walls. and (ii) on planes on which there is a high resolved shear stress (usually planes containing the intermediate principal stress direction) in which case there is slippage parallel to the walls. rather than external ones. because of the relatively low thermal expansibility of rocks. They reflect failure of a rock under a stress field that is sufficient to break the rock. Failure conditions for joints. so that they do not give rise to shear joints. Many joints are produced in rocks as a result of the extensional stresses Figure 104. result of the long-term dissipation of magmatic heat. but which may then be dissipated by a small amount of movement on the joint surface. Failure of a rock in a stress field may occur in one of two ways: (i) perpendicular to the least compressional stress (i. . this cooling is simply a failure. This gives rise to two types of joint. 104).

their orientations allow estimation of the configuration of the stress field. be simple relationships between the orientations of joint sets and the orientations of stress systems that produced folding. the stored elastic stress is simply the equivalent of the "elastic" strain and the "primary" creep discussed in connection with rheology. The elastic stress remains as a deviatoric stress (represented by the circle on Fig. then. With Figure 105 unroofing. and the smaller dihedral angle between them spans the greatest compressional stress axis. or they may be residues of the stress fields that gave rise to observable ductile deformation such as folding. or to stresses developed at shallow crustal levels. At the depth at which ductile flow occurred the Mohr envelope was narrow (Fig. the Mohr envelope widens. 97 At that stage. since the conjugate sets both contain the intermediate stress axis. These stresses might be produced by a small deformation event at depth. 105). as the confining pressure is released the Mohr circle migrates to lower stress. commonly orthogonal to the first.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Continued cooling or exhumation will then allow stress release in another direction. as in the case of conjugate fault sets . In the latter case. If shear joints occur in conjugate sets. and its width is a measure of the magnitude of the stored elastic stress. There may. although the folds and the joints may have been produced at very different depths and times. and ultimately intersects the Mohr envelope at shallow depth. that gave rise to no ductile deformation. giving rise to (commonly conjugate) shear joints. These elastic strains are equivalent to internal stresses. Such processes give rise to the commonly observed orthogonal joint sets in granitic terrains. With unroofing. extensional failure will relax the internal stress in one direction. Shear joints reflect the response of rocks to stored elastic deviatoric stresses of greater magnitude than those that produce extensional joints. 105).

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 98
Shear joints may be classified
according to their relationships to fold
geometry, as "longitudinal" (Fig. 106) or
"cross" joints (Fig. 107). The differences
between these two configurations of joint
sets reflect the different possible orientations
of the stress field relative to the fold.
commonly developed in folded terrains
perpendicular to the fold axes. Such joints
are known as "a-c" joints after an old
geometric terminology for folds in which the
fold axis is "b" and the other two orthogonal
axes are "a" and "c".

Figure 106. Longitudinal joints

Because joints reflect stored elastic
stress and the response of rock to this
stress, in a homogeneous rock they are
commonly uniformly distributed, and have
different spacings for different rock types.
Because motion on faults may disturb a
pre-existing stored stress, by imposing a
new one, joint concentrations and attitudes
in given rock types may change markedly as
faults are approached. This provides a
powerful means for inferring faults in poorly
exposed terrains.

Figure 107. Cross joints

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 99

Being a planar feature, cleavage can be treated in much the same way as bedding.
Two apparent dips are combined on a stereogram, to give the attitude of the cleavage plane.

Lineations are observed in a rock only if the surface of observation is at a relatively
shallow angle to the attitude of the lineation. i.e., sections through a rock at a high angle to
the lineation will reveal no apparent fabric. This feature alone is sufficient to distinguish
lineations from foliations.




Figure 108
The attitude of a lineation may be determined if the lineation is observed in two
differently oriented sections through the rock. This is because the lineation lies in the plane
that contains:
(a) the apparent lineation L, as observed in the surface.
(b) the normal to the surface of observation, because L is the projection of L onto the surface
(Fig. 108).
Thus, the attitude of the lineation may be determined from a beta plot, if two differently
oriented outcrop surfaces, each carrying an apparent lineation, are observed. If several data
sets are available, an equivalent pi plot may be prepared, in which the poles to (n-L) planes
are plotted, rather than the planes themselves.

EPSC 203 (2012) p. 100
When large amounts (>30) of structural data are available they are commonly
presented not as a pi plot, but as a "contoured" plot, in which the distribution of pi poles has
been contoured on an equal-area net.
In order to be able to contour a net, a value must be assigned to every grid point on
the net. These values are assigned by counting the number of data points within a specified
distance of the grid point. Commonly, the specified distance is chosen so that the area being
sampled around the grid point is equal to 1% of the total area of the net. Clearly this method
would have obscure significance if a Wulff net were used. Contouring is always done on an
equal area net. Once a number has been assigned to each grid point the net may be
contoured, using contour intervals of e.g., 5 data points or 5% of total data points.

The size of grid used, i.e., the number of
grid points, determines only the smoothness of
the contour lines. Normally it is chosen so that
a grid square is significantly smaller than the
sample area. The only limitation on grid points
is the time available for contouring.
Contouring may be done by hand, by
moving a template with a circular hole in it the
size of the sample area over each grid point
and counting the data points visible within the
hole (Fig. 109a), but this is time-consuming and
cumbersome. Most contouring is done by
A line with very shallow plunge, although
it plots near to the primitive on only one side of
the stereogram, should be considered as a
member of the data set on the diametrically
opposed side of the stereogram. In computer
programs this is ensured by adding an extra
ring of data around the outside of the primitive
before assigning counts to the grid points.
When contouring is done by hand it is ensured
by using a special template, consisting of two
counting circles separated by a distance equal
to the diameter of the stereogram (Fig. 109b).

Figure 109

110). the angle between the feature and the drill tangent to the cone. 101 DRILL HOLE PROBLEMS This section concerns the representation of possible attitudes for a planar feature intersected by a drill. These poles may be represented on a stereogram as a small circle about the axis of the drill hole. It is simpler to monitor possible attitudes of the feature using the poles rather than the planar attitudes. from drill-hole data. hole (Fig. and all possible poles to the feature also lie on a cone centred about the drill hole. PLOTTING THE SMALL CIRCLE (i) Compass-and-Wulff-net method Using the fact that small circles plot as true circles on the true stereographic or Wulff net. The verticial angle of the cone is Figure 110. If the angle between the drill hole and the planar feature is . Possible attitudes for planes.EPSC 203 (2012) p. This cone has the verticial angle (90-). on a stereonet. Given the attitude of a drill hole. Under these circumstances the entire small circle lies within the primitive. all of which are tangential to a cone about the drill direction. This is by far the quickest method if (90-) is much less than 900 and also less than the plunge of the drill hole. and the angle between the drill hole and the planar feature intersected (which can be determined from examination of the drill core) the planar feature is known to have one of several possible attitudes. The small circle is the locus of all lines that are a constant angular distance from the drill hole. . the small circle can be constructed rapidly with a compass. then the angle between the drill hole and the pole to the planar feature is (90-).

(c) Draw the circle whose centre lies in the vertical section. (b) Determine the attitudes of the two extremities of the circle. although the method may become quite cumbersome. So does the primitive. In general. passing through the top . Thin lines are those used for construction of the stereographic projection. It must therefore be represented as two separate circular arcs. then the complete small circle does not lie within the primitive. Note that the measurement performed on the stereogram gives DA < DB so that D is not the centre of the circle on the stereogram. Figure 111 Figure 112. These two circular arcs may still be constructed using a compass. 111): (a) Plot the drill hole. 112). AB and small circles 1 and 2 lie on the horizontal plane. the second method would be preferred in this case. by measuring off (90-) inwards and outwards from the drill hole along the vertical section containing the drill hole. 102 Procedure (Fig. in stereographic projection. or if (90-) is greater than the plunge of the drill hole.EPSC 203 (2012) p. although it represents the geometric centre of the cone. If the plunge of the drill hole is shallow. and which passes through both extremities. Perspective diagram of the two small circles for a cone. each lying within the primitive (Fig.

103 pole of the 3D sphere.Wulffnet method the position of the second segment must be determined using an accurate (generally scaled) diagram of the vertical plane containing the drill hole (Fig.and . (ii) Stepwise construction . is replaced by the thick-line segment RST of circle 2. which lies outside the primitive.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Figure 113 Figure 114 The resulting complete locus has one of three forms (Fig. The thin-line segment OPQ on circle 1. Using the compass. 114). 113).

104 Using the fact that all lines on the cone are a constant angular distance from the centre of the cone (the drill hole) the small circle may be constructed from a series of points representing such lines on the stereogram (Fig. especially if it falls near the primitive. Procedure: Figure 115 (a) Choose a succession of great circles passing through the drill hole. 115a). In the latter case the small circle produced is slightly distorted. count out the distance (90-) in both directions from the drill hole and mark the points. (c) Join all points to produce a small circle.EPSC 203 (2012) p. This method has great advantages in cases in which the small circle intersects the primitive. This method may be used on either the Wulff or Equal-area net. . (b) On each great circle. 115b). because the location of the second segment may be determined directly using the same method (Fig. although it is still smooth.

When monitoring planes it is possible.e. or. not cylindrically folded in a new deformation event. This results in a conical fold in the plane. we monitor the pole to it.e. rigid-body rotations about axes. the fold axis lies in the plane being folded. In practice. accompanying the rotation. Fabric elements to be rotated may be planes or lines.. in which case the plane may be treated as a line. Just because a surface is active during a deformation event it does not follow that it will be cylindrically folded. rigid-body rotation is an important component of much folding and the ability to perform rotations is an essential part of structural analysis. It is special because the fold axis is 900 from the pole. rather than the plane. a fold axis is unlikely to lie in a preexisting foliation unless that foliation is mechanically active during deformation. so that angular relationships that existed within a body before the rotation persist after it. In the more general case.. cylindrical folding is the special case in which folding of a pole distributes the pole on a great circle. however. but. in the absence of an explicit model for the nature of internal deformation it is the only model possible. For a general rotation then. It is important to bear in mind that most deformation involves more than simple. Rigid-body rotation is simply bulk rotation of a body about an axis. i. Nonetheless. not true. Thus. In particular. The converse is. We need therefore concern ourselves only with the rotation of lines. in which the fold axis does not lie in the plane being folded (the fold axis is at less than 900 to the pole to the plane) the pole to the plane is distributed on a small circle. as usual. rather than a cylindrical one. The term "rigid-body" refers to the lack of internal deformation of the body. REFOLDING A FOLIATION/BEDDING We may treat a foliation like a lineation if. a line that must be rotated about . Note that if the new fold axis is parallel to the old lineation the latter is not redistributed. to determine the attitude that element would have if the effect of a rotation were removed. it may still be folded about some axis that does not lie within it. In analyzing complexly deformed terrains it is commonly necessary to predict the form which will be taken by one structural element following rotation to various degrees about an axis. to monitor the pole to the plane. so that any inactive surface will most probably be conically. conversely. i. deformation commonly includes a component of homogeneous strain. but distorted by stretching or flattening during flexing. 105 POLYDEFORMATION REFOLDING A LINEATION This generally gives something approximating a small-circle distribution. This is clearly an oversimplification for many deformation events. and by flattening onto the axial plane.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Note also that if the two are perpendicular the small circle has a verticial angle of 900 and is therefore a great circle. instead of monitoring the plane. we have a rotational axis.

(b) Draw the plane that is common to them. Thus. For simplicity we shall treat only one here (that which is. in this plane.EPSC 203 (2012) p. the degree of rotation. and the direction of rotation (clockwise or anticlockwise viewed down the plunge of the axis). and measure. 117). . a rotation may be performed in the following steps: Figure 116 (a) Plot the rotational axis and the line/pole-to-plane that is to be rotated. the angle between the axis and the line (Angle  on Fig. (b) Within this plane. This technique relies on two properties of a rigid-body rotation: (a) Consider the plane that contains both the rotational axis and the line to be rotated. 106 that axis. the angle between the axis and the line after the rotation is the same as before the rotation (Fig. the new position of the line lies in this plane after it has been rotated through the angle . easiest to visualize). For a rotation of angle . in my opinion. 116). Many different techniques exist for performing rotations on stereograms.

to become Q. of angle . Note that this is simply done: since the axis lies in the plane. which we shall call the normal plane. This determines the attitude of one line on the plane in its new position. the new position of the plane must also contain the axis. 118). T before deformation. Note 1: Any rigid-body rotation rotates a line on a cone. Q and the rotational axis supply the new position of the plane. in the correct direction. It therefore appears as a small circle about the axis. Thus. to determine the new position of the line. The trace of the plane on this normal plane. is rotated through angle  on the normal plane (i. measure off the angle  from the rotational axis.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Note 2: If the rotation is such that the plane passes through the horizontal. Another line on the plane in its new position may be obtained in the plane perpendicular to the axis. the new position of the line is on the small circle arc on the opposite side of the normal plane from its original position (Fig. 107 (c) Rotate the plane through the angle  about the axis. Figure 117 (d) In the new position of the plane.e. . the angle is calibrated on the normal plane) by the rotation..

after the first phase of folding there are at least two attitudes for the bedding. 108 POTENTIAL FOR CONICAL FOLDS Less work is generally required to fold a mechanically-active surface cylindrically than to fold it conically. or both. it is normal for first phase folding of an active surface to produce cylindrical folds. In consequence. If there is little or no mechanical coupling between the two limbs of the F1 fold. All transitions between these two situations are possible (Fig. In this case each limb is likely to be cylindrically folded. we get cylindrical folds on one limb and conical folds on the other.EPSC 203 (2012) p. The other limb is constrained to fold about the same axis as the first limb which. but the axes for the two new folds will be different. both with the same axis. Second-phase folding of a mechanically-active surface may produce either conical or cylindrical folds. cylindrical folding is favoured. Passive planar features folded in the same event will be conically folded. However. . they may deform independently. each lying at the intersection of the second axial surface with the respective F1 limb. 119). Given the energy demands. If there is strong mechanical coupling between the two F1 limbs (no weak material in the nose) then it Figure 118 is probable that only one of the F1 limbs will be cylindrically folded. produces conical folds. In this case. since it does not lie in the second limb. then.

but any deformation of this intensity would probably result in full flattening onto the axial surface. (b) The full small circle for the poles to the bedding is never traced out. cylindrically. Limb 2 may fold conically about A. for two principal reasons: (a) Sections through them. Stereograms generated from conical folds therefore generally look like those of Figs 120 & 121. as observed in the field. are indistinguishable from those of cylindrical folds. (c) Both limbs may fold conically about C. 109 (a) Limbs 1 & 2 may fold independently. about A and B. Under conditions of extreme deformation half of the small circle could be generated.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Figure 120 . (b) Limb 1 may fold cylindrically about A. Figure 119 RECOGNITION AND DESCRIPTION OF CONICAL FOLDS Conical folds are seldom recognized.

121 you could fit a great circle to the data. the same feature . an interlimb angle of 450 reflects a rotation of probably the best measure of tightness and. . In Fig. 120 the distribution of poles is so small that you could fit almost anything to it. B is the new fold axis. and so on. the conical angle should be given. on the great circle. the tightest folds. An interlimb angle of 900 reflects a rotation of 900.extent of rotation about the axis . of course. are produced by rotation of the poles Figure 121 through 1800 about the axis. The interlimb angle may also be viewed as a measure of the extent of rotation of the poles about the great circle. For a conical fold. The shaded regions are those occupied by poles to bedding or whatever surface is being folded. The dotted line marks the small circle. the tightness is measured using an interlimb angle. In Fig. Thus. For cylindrical folds. without realizing there was a conical fold. 110 In these figures. with interlimb angles of 00.EPSC 203 (2012) p.

Figure 123 .. i. (b) S2 is the attenuated limbs of folds in In this case S2 may be S1. 123). The most important and useful criteria. for the stereogram pattern alone to provide unambiguous interpretations. 111 RELATIVE AGES OF FABRIC ELEMENTS It is possible to recognize the relative ages of fabric elements by their stereogram patterns in many cases. It is rare. considerably enhanced by metamorphic differentiation (Fig. careful observation of hand specimens (with a hand lens in many cases) reveals that individual S1 surfaces have been offset on S2 (Fig. which can generally be worked out with a little common sense alone. however. 122).EPSC 203 (2012) p. are: Figure 122 (a) S2 offsets S1.e. It is crucial to make observations in the field concerning the relative ages of fabric elements.

Figure 125 . criterion may require microscopic examination. 124). Figure 124 (d) Planar S2 cut microscopically folded S0 whose axial planes are S1 (Fig.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 125). 112 (c) S2 is defined by the preferred orientation of grains whose spatial This distribution determines S1. and therefore the collection of oriented specimens (Fig.

plus various combinations. and S1 is perpendicular to S2. 126). Three major types of pattern are possible. . Note that again this is the ideal pattern. since the axial surfaces of F2 folds are now folded. (a) ‘COAXIAL’ PATTERN ('Type 3' pattern of Ramsay) A Type 3 pattern is produced when B1 is parallel or nearly parallel to B2.EPSC 203 (2012) p. They may be observed on all scales. provided the section were cut at a shallow angle to the fold axes. and the angle between S1 and S2 as little as 450. The same style of pattern would be produced with the angle between B1 and B2 as little as 450. Ramsay's Type 3 Interference Pattern. and the angle between S1 and S2 as little as 450. Figure 126. and orthogonal S1 and S2 the same style of pattern may be produced with the angle between B1 and B2 as much as 450. They are simply sections through refolded folds. Note that although the ideal pattern is produced by perfectly parallel B1 and B2. The relative ages of the two fold sets are easily recognized. (b) DOME-AND-BASIN PATTERN ('Type 1' pattern of Ramsay) A dome-and-basin pattern is produced when B1 is perpendicular to B2. from several kilometres down to the microscopic. and the section is cut at a shallow angle to the fold axes (Fig. 127). provided the outcrop section is favourable. and the axial surfaces for the two sets of folds are orthogonal (Fig. 113 INTERFERENCE PATTERNS IN PLANAR SECTION Interference patterns provide one of the most powerful means of unravelling the deformation history of complexly deformed regions.

. Dome-and-basin interference pattern Figure 128. S1 must have lain at a shallow angle to the surface of the section. since one of the axial surfaces is refolded by the other. given a perfect dome-and-basin pattern. both fold axes will be distributed about great circles. as will carefully chosen domainal plots of bedding .EPSC 203 (2012) p. Examination in the field of the relative ages of S may provide the answer. Asymmetrical dome-and-basin pattern. Imperfect dome-and-basin patterns are easier to analyze. if B2 is not perpendicular to S1. (c) MUSHROOM PATTERN ('Type 2' pattern of Ramsay) A mushroom pattern is produced when the angle between B1 and B2 is high to moderate (usually > 450) and the angle between S1 and S2 is high. it is impossible to tell the relative ages of the two fold sets from the outcrop pattern alone. 114 From the diagram it is clear that. and the folding is visible in the hinge-surface trace (Fig.those closures formed in D2 will generally be conical. S1 is folded (conically) about B2. In addition. not cylindrical. In the case of a . Stereogram patterns for the refolded fold axis will not help. Figure 127. i. since neither axial surface is deformed.e. and most important. 128).

It follows that the type (style) of interference pattern is a function of the attitude of the exposure as much as the geometric relationships between the folds. To do this we need to know whether the F2 folds are antiformal or synformal. The four general types of mushroom pattern (they may be checked with paper models quite quickly) are the only ones possible. In addition. . simply from their senses of closure on the section. it is possible to tell in which direction the F1 folds closed before F2.EPSC 203 (2012) p. 130). except for the angle between S1 and the outcrop surface. Mushroom pattern. Note that the geometric conditions for a "mushroom" pattern are similar to those for a dome-and-basin pattern. 129). Once it is known which F2 traces are antiforms the direction of closure of F1 folds may be determined (Fig. which can be determined. if their general plunge direction is known. Figure 129. 115 horizontal section this means that F1 folds must have been near recumbent (Fig. The mushroom pattern may be analyzed quite simply: the nature of the pattern is such that F1 closures are easily distinguished from F2.

Various intermediate types. end-members. we can say in which direction the F1 folds were vergent before F2. It is important to emphasize that the geometric conditions specified for each type of interference pattern are not tightly constrained. a south-closing F1 anticline requires south vergent F1 folds. . 116 Figure 130. In addition.g. are possible given suitable geometry. they may be relaxed significantly while still maintaining the same style of pattern. etc. Schematic of the four possible combinations giving mushrooms. South-vergent folds. i. e.. 131).. and combinations of types. If we also know which F1 folds are anticlines.EPSC 203 (2012) p. (Fig. if we know the order of the stratigraphic succession. the anticlines close these three types are only southwards.e. it is important to realize that Figure 131.

i. tend to pass progressively out into undeformed rocks. such as the Figure 132 opening of fractures perpendicular to the maximum principal stretch or the development of cleavage perpendicular to the minimum stretch. At any given stage during the shearing. formed at high temperatures. where strain is generally greatest. whereas brittle shear zones may have sharper boundaries.. the instantaneous plane of flattening is at 450 to the boundary of the shear zone.ductile shear-zones. Some insight into the structures that may be expected in shear zones may be gained by considering the simplest possible type of shearing. This means that any response of the rock to that instantaneous strain. they having experienced greater rotation in the centre of the shear-zone. In homogeneous simple shear the body is subjected to a shearing couple. any early-formed features are rotated. and it passes outwards. homogeneous simple shear. This may result in a sigmoidal form to the features. 132). giving rise to progressive rotation and flattening (Fig. 117 SHEAR-ZONE DEFORMATION Deformation in shear zones is distinguished from regional-scale deformation by the fact that deformation is not homogeneous on a large scale. Whether the passage is discrete or progressive depends largely on the conditions under which the shearing occurred .e. and is perpendicular to the plane of extension. will be governed by this orientation. . 133).EPSC 203 (2012) p. either discretely or progressively. Under some circumstances. During the progressive strain that accompanies motion on the shear zone. however. into a zone of no strain. the shear zone itself is a high-strain zone. and lesser rotation near the edges. response to late-stage instantaneous strain may produce extensional fractures that transect earlier-formed fractures that have been rotated during the progressive shear (Fig.

Figure 134. with all the characteristics of classic shear folds..e. therefore. in a shear-zone environment. A further type of fold that has commonly been recognized in shear zones is a sheath fold. C-S Fabric . The mode of origin of sheath folds is uncertain. It is. and provide a reliable indication of the direction of motion on the shear-zone (Fig. Generally the long axes of the sheaths point in the direction of shear. It is thought.EPSC 203 (2012) p. It is possible that in some cases they form by the superposition of inhomogeneous strain on pre-existing folds. As illustrated above. S-C fabrics may be well developed in shear zones. flattening during progressive shear may produce a cleavage at roughly 450 to the plane of the shearing. This motion corresponds precisely to the mechanism of shear folding. that some sheath folds nucleate and develop entirely as a consequence of the shearing. The plane of the shearing may itself be represented by a surface of discontinuity. possible to Figure 133 produce ideal similar folds. perhaps by nucleating on the terminations of relatively unsheared lozenge-shaped blocks bounded by zones of high shearing strain. as is the case for conical folds. Sheath folds are folds with a broadly conical form. i.French for shearing). in a direction parallel to the shear. This gives rise to two intersecting planar fabrics. the S (for schistosité) and the C (for cisaillement . 134). 118 Deformation in shear zones involves the progressive displacement of tabular domains within the zone. they have the form of a cone (they resemble the sheaths of daggers) rather than being draped around a cone. however.

. Such a fabric is isotropic. e. e. SUBFABRIC: a fabric due to one fabric element only. Examples are: a single lineation lying in a foliation.g. Such a fabric element might exhibit a preferred orientation (anisotropic fabric) in the absence of any preferred orientation to the long axes of mineral grains. The term "fabric" may also be used to describe mesoscopic features such as cleavage. The "elementary parts" of the rock are the individual crystals. a rock with a . (d) Monoclinic: the fabric may be reflected through only one mirror plane. their spatial arrangement or mutual relationships constitute the fabric (or "microfabric"). This would be referred to as a "crystallographic preferred orientation" as distinct from a "dimensional preferred orientation". FABRIC SYMMETRY Fabrics may be described in terms of their "symmetry".g. two orthogonal foliations. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC FABRIC ELEMENT: a fabric element defined by crystallographic rather than dimensional characteristics of mineral species. in a system similar to that used in crystallography. 119 DEFORMATION MECHANISMS AND MICROFABRIC DEFINITIONS The following are definitions of some terms commonly used in the description of fabrics: FABRIC: The internal geometric configuration of the elementary parts of a rock. Thus. an intersection lineation (for a mesoscopic fabric).. occurring only in some igneous intrusions and hornfelses. the c-axes of quartz grains. The total fabric is the sum of all subfabrics.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Only five types of symmetry are important in fabric analysis: (a) Spherical: the fabric may be reflected through any mineral plane in any orientation. Examples of such a fabric are : a single lineation (axis is parallel to lineation) and a single foliation (axis parallel to pole to foliation). (c) Orthorhombic: the fabric may be reflected through only three orthogonal mirror planes. the orientation of mica platelets (for a microfabric).g.. all of which have a common axis. FABRIC ELEMENT: any individual geometric feature that constitutes a part of the fabric. e. (b) Axial: the fabric may be reflected through any of an infinite number of mirror planes. and is very rare. FABRIC DOMAIN: any domain in which the fabric is homogeneous.

may have much higher orders of symmetry. two non-orthogonal foliations. and the fabric is a "tectonite fabric". and crystal rotation during deformation. and a lineation not lying in it. (b) Mimetic = inherited from some primary or pre-existing fabric but preserved or enhanced during renewed mineral growth or re. (e) Triclinic: there are no mirror planes. so that the preferred orientation of micas mimics the original preferred orientation of the clay minerals. (c) Developed during deformation.EPSC 203 (2012) p. flow lineation in a sedimentary or igneous rock. the growth of micaceous minerals during metamorphism of a siltstone. A rock whose fabric is produced in this way is referred to as a "tectonite".. . 120 foliation.equilibration to a new mineral assemblage.g. It is obvious from the above that most natural fabrics in tectonites will be triclinic. The fabric is the result of recrystallization and/or neocrystallization. by nucleation of new micas on old clay grains. e. ORIGIN OF FABRIC Fabric may be: (a) Of primary origin. Most deformed rocks have tectonite fabrics. e..g. however. The subfabrics.

e. next page). It allows almost unlimited deformation of a mineral grain. The jumping of dislocations is known as dislocation climb. They take place by the movement of dislocations through the lattice. Body rotation may produce strong dimensional preferred orientations. which is a solid diffusion mechanism. the rotation of individual grains so that their long axes have a preferred orientation parallel to the long axis of the strain ellipse. It is known as Nabarro-Herring creep. but in this case the matrix must be recrystallizing at the same time. dislocation climb and Nabarro. under given physical conditions. because dislocations are able to jump up through the lattice and annihilate each other. MECHANISMS PRODUCING TECTONITE FABRICS The mechanisms producing tectonite fabric are the mechanisms by which the rock deforms on the grain-size scale. Movement on the glide planes (sinistral in this case) is accompanied by grain rotation (dextral in this case) so that the net effect is to rotate the pole to the glide plane towards 1. Generally. i. and it becomes harder to deform the grain with increasing strain ("work-hardening"). and is a very important mechanism producing preferred orientations. It may also be important in consolidated rocks. so that it dominates the deformation. When a solid rock is deformed.e. perhaps not available. 121 The figures for the rest are not scanned. in which there is no internal change in the grains. .. The control of physical conditions on the type of mechanism is commonly represented by "deformation maps". This is clearly important in the deformation of unconsolidated rocks. A. This is known as translocation gliding . and. As a result they "stack up" against each other. Diffusion of vacancies through a lattice. there must be grain-boundary diffusion.EPSC 203 (2012) p. adjustments within grains in response to an external stress field. which may or may not be crystallographic. and may lead to the development of cleavages in some slates. or by the diffusion of vacancies through the lattice. if it is accompanied by intergranular flow (because of impingement problems) (Fig. translation gliding. effecting dissolution of grain edges that impinge on one another. but changes in shape due to grain-boundary dissolution. however.Herring creep. is important only at high temperatures. one mechanism is much more effective than the others. if the grains are in contact with each other. for example. This effect is reduced at higher temperatures. (b) Intragranular flow. This strain mechanism. is sometimes known as "Coble Creep". i.. all mechanisms are active: Coble creep. Twin gliding is a special case of intragranular flow. At low temperatures (relative to the melting point of the mineral) dislocations can move only along certain crystallographic planes in a given mineral species. There are several such mechanisms: (a) Body rotation.

An increase in grain-size therefore expands the DC field. It may take place only at reasonably high temperatures (i. These processes lead to very strong crystallographic preferred orientations.e. without development of new mineral species. i. and commonly leads to the break-up of large. for a given mineral species at a certain grain-size. Again. in which: dashed lines are contours of DC = dislocation climb NH = Nabarro-Herring creep CC = Coble creep LT = Low temperature creep (too low for climb) Effect of grain size : Larger grains deform more rapidly by dislocation climb. T = temperature.. SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE In practice it is difficult to determine which mechanism or mechanisms have been dominant in the deformation of a rock. but they may be eliminated by the recovery process. "Recovery" is the removal of these imperfections. and shrinks the CC and NH fields. Grains that have unfavourable orientations with respect to the stress field. where  = deviatoric stress. are selectively removed. RECRYSTALLIZATION & NEOCRYSTALLIZATION (a) Recrystallization = adjustment of crystal size. strained grains into a mosaic of smaller grains with slightly different orientations. The new mineral species formed .g. It results in the development of "clean" grains.EPSC 203 (2012) p. Dislocation mechanisms may leave traces in the form of deformation lamellae. B of the next page. Tm = melting temperature for the mineral. the new nucleating grains will grow only if they are favourably oriented with respect to the stress field.e. maintaining existing mineral species.  = shear modulus. (b) Neocrystallization = recrystallization in which the new grains formed belong to a new mineral species. nucleating grains develop only in favourable orientations. e. The major part of deformation may take place during a metamorphic event. The general form of the map. Strain of mineral grains produces a build-up of dislocations and general lattice imperfections. but developing new mineral grains. New. is shown on Diag. 122 DEFORMATION MAPS The commonest type of deformation map is a plot of / versus T/Tm. in conditions of prograde metamorphism. above the LT field) where dislocations can climb.. shape etc. and are therefore undergoing strain. T/Tm is known as the "homologous" temperature.

. This could only be some aspect of the movement pattern. the change in shape from Diag.e. This is a "pure shear". B could be effected by a simple. . These are just two examples. in which case the componental movements would be of the form shown in Diag. progressive flattening. the change in shape could be effected by two superimposed simple shears (Fig.g. The movement pattern is the sum of all componental movements in the body. However. Hence we arrive at a contradiction. the character of the new fabric may indicate something about the character of the strain and stress. e. in the case of dislocation climb. In this case componental movements would have a very different form (Fig. using the following principles: (a) The symmetry of a fabric can be of no higher rank than the symmetry of the least symmetric of its subfabrics. For any given total strain there is an infinite number of possible movement patterns. (d) The fabric produced by a movement pattern will have a symmetry rank no lower than that of the movement pattern itself. Even without this understanding. quartzite and peridotite. rocks such as calcite-rich limestone (marble). next page). This is an important field of current research.. C (next page). This movement pattern has only monoclinic symmetry. which may be relatively minor. D. although there are not many probable ones.e.EPSC 203 (2012) p. and has orthorhombic symmetry. A (next page) to Diag. can be studied to determine which mechanisms were operative and. next page). 123 in this event may then record only the post-metamorphic deformation. i. which do not change their mineral assemblages during deformation under most reasonable physical conditions. (c) The symmetry of the fabric is a result of the pre-deformation symmetry and the symmetry of the movement pattern during deformation. the sum of the paths by which each particle moves during the change in shape. (b) If the subfabrics of a rock are not homotactic (i. In order for this not to be true there would have to be some mechanism for the introduction of asymmetry. E. Alternatively. do not have common axes) the symmetry of the fabric will be of lower rank than the symmetries of the subfabrics. which slip systems were operative.