Session 13


Review of U
bolt Assembly


Tolerance is the total amount dimension may vary.
It is defined as the difference between the upper and lower limits.

It is impossible to make parts to an exact size. The tolerance, or
accuracy required, will depend on the function of the part and the
particular feature being dimensioned. Therefore, the range of
permissible size, or tolerance, must be specified for all dimensions on
a drawing, by the designer/draftsperson.
General Tolerances:
In ISO metric, general tolerances are specified in a note, usually in
the title block, typically of the form: "General tolerances ±.25 unless
otherwise stated".
In English Units , the decimal place indicates the general tolerance
given in the title block notes, typically:
Fractions = ±1/16, .X = ±.03, .XX = ±.01, .XXX = ±.005, .XXXX =
Note: Fractions and this type of general tolerance is not permissible
in ISO metric standards.

Fits Between Mating Parts

Fit is the term for the range of tightness or looseness resulting
from the allowances and tolerances in mating parts

1. Clearance Fit
2. Interference Fit
3. Transition Fit

1- Clearance Fit
The largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the
smallest hole







1- Clearance Fit

2- Interference Fit
The minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than
the maximum diameter of the hole


Max Min
Hole Hole

Max Min
Shaft Shaft Interference

2- Interference Fit

3- Transition Fit
The diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the
smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft

or clearance

Max Min
Hole Hole

Max Min
Shaft Shaft

3- Transition Fit

Definitions for Size Designation

Nominal size – used for general identification and usually
expressed in decimals
Basic size (basic dimension) – the theoretically exact size from
which limits of size are determined

Actual size – the measured size of a finished part

Allowance – the minimum clearance or maximum interference
specified to achieve a fit between two mating parts

Basic Hole System

Toleranced dimensions are commonly determined using the basic
hole system in which the minimum hole size is taken as the basic

Basic Shaft System

In this system, the maximum shaft is taken as the basic size and is used
only in specific circumstances

Specifying Tolerances
• The primary ways to indicate tolerances in a
drawing are:
– A general tolerance note
– A note providing a tolerance for a specific dimension
– A reference on the drawing to another document that
specifies the required tolerances

General Tolerance Notes

Limit Tolerances

Plus-or-Minus Tolerances

40 - 0.04
Bilateral Tolerance


Unilateral Tolerance

Limit Dimensions

Limits are the maximum and minimum sizes
permitted by the tolerance.
All of the above methods show that the dimension
a Lower Limit = 39.96 mm
an Upper Limit = 40.04 mm
a Tolerance = 0.08 mm

Tolerance Stacking

Geometric Tolerancing

Geometric tolerances state the maximum allowable variations of a
form or its position from the perfect geometry implied in the drawing
– The term “geometric” refers to forms such as planes, cylinders,
squares, etc.

Tolerances of form and position (or location) control such
characteristics as:
– Straightness
– Flatness
– Parallelism
– Perpendicularity (squareness)
– Concentricity
– Roundness
– Angular displacement, etc.

Geometric Characteristics Symbols

Symbols for Tolerances of Position
and Form

Datum Surfaces and Features

Datum surfaces and features are used as references to control
other features

Tolerances of Angles

Bilateral tolerances have traditionally been given on angles

Exercise 1
Interpret the meaning of the geometrical tolerances shown in the figure.