# Theorems, Conjectures, & Postulates

Triangle Theorems
Triangle Sum Theorem- The sum of the measures of the angles in every triangle is 180˚
Exterior Angle Theorem- The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent
interior angles.
Corollary to the Triangle Sum Theorem- In a right triangle, the acute angles are complementary.
Base Angles Theorem – If two sides of a triangle are congruent, then the angles opposite them are congruent.
Converse of Base Angles Theorem – If two angles of a triangle are congruent, the sides opposite them are congruent.
Corollary to the Base Angle Theorem – If a triangle is equilateral, then it’s equiangular.
Corollary to the Converse of Base Angles Theorem- If a triangle is equiangular, then it is equilateral.
Isosceles Triangle Theorem - if a triangle is isosceles then the base angles are congruent.
Triangle Inequality Theorem – The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is longer than the length of the 3rd side
Parallel/Proportionality Conjecture - If a line parallel to the side of a triangle passes through the other two sides, then it divides the
other two sides proportionally. If a line cuts 2 sides of a triangle proportionally, then it’s parallel to the third side.
Extended Parallel/Proportionality Conjecture- If two or more lines pass through two sides of a triangle parallel to the third side,
then they divide the two sides proportionally.
Different Types of Triangles
Scalene Triangle- No sides are congruent
Isosceles Triangle- At least 2 sides are congruent
Acute Triangle- All 3 angles are congruent
Right Triangle- 1 right angle
Obtuse Triangle- 1 obtuse angle
Equiangular Triangle- All 3 angles are congruent

Triangle Congruence Postulates and Theorems
* CONVERSE of
SSS (Side Side Side) – All three sides are congruent
theorems.
SAS (Side Angle Side) – Two sides and the included angle are congruent
ASA (Angle Side Angle) – Two angles and the include side are congruent
AAS (Angle Angle Side) – Two angles and not included side are congruent
*** AAA and ASS doesn’t work
Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent (CPCTC) - Two triangles are congruent if only if the corresponding
parts are congruent

Angles
Corresponding Angles Postulate – If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the corresponding angles are congruent
Converse of the Corresponding Angles Postulate – If two lines are cut my a transversal and the corresponding angles are congruent,
then the lines are parallel.
Alternate Interior Angles Postulate – If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the alternate interior angles are congruent

Perpendicular Postulate – Given a segment or line and a point NOT on the line. Kite Diagonals Conjecture: The diagonals of a kite are congruent. then the triangle is isosceles Side Angle Inequality – In a triangle if one side is longer than another size. exterior angles are congruent then the lines are parallel. the sum of the measures of a set of exterior angles is 360. Kite Angle Bisector Conjecture: The vertex angles of a kite are bisected by a diagonal. Isosceles Trapezoid Conjecture: The base angles of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent. Perpendicular Bisector Theorem – If a point is on the perpendicular bisector of a segment. then it is equidistant from the sides of the angle Parallel Postulate – If there’s a line and a point not on the line. Trapezoid Consecutive Angles Conjecture: The consecutive angles between the bases of a trapezoid are supplementary. there is EXACTLY one line through the point perpendicular to that point. Equiangular Polygon Conjecture: You can find the measure of each interior angle of an equiangular n-gon by using the formula (180n-360)/n. Polygons Polygon Angle Sums Theorem: 180n-360 Exterior Angle Sum Theorem: For any polygon. Kite Diagonal Bisector Conjecture: The diagonal connecting the vertex angles of a kite is the perpendicular of the other diagonal. the there’s exactly 1 line through the point parallel to the give line. Vertex Angle Bisector Theorem – In an isosceles triangle. Exterior Angles Postulate – If two lines are cut by a transversal and the alt. then it is equidistant (equally distant) from the endpoint Converse of the Perpendicular Bisector Theorem – If a point in equidistant from the endpoints of a segment. Interior Angles Postulate: If two lines are cut by a transversal and the alt. Alternate Exterior Angles Postulate – If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Kite Angles Conjecture: The non vertex angles of a kite are congruent. then the alternate exterior angles are congruent Converse of the Alt. . then it is on the bisector of the segment Shortest Distance Theorem – The shortest distance from a point to a line is measured along the perpendicular from the point to the line Base Angles Theorem . Angle Bisector Theorem – If a point is on the bisector of an angle. then the angle opposite the larger side is larger than the angle opposite the shorter side. Converse of Base Angles Theorem – If the base angles are congruent.Converse of the Alt. Isosceles Trapezoid Diagonals Conjecture: The diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent. the bisector of the vertex angle is also the median and the altitude. interior angles are congruent the lines are parallel.If a triangle is isosceles then the base angles are congruent.

Reflections Across Parallel Lines Conjecture – A composition of two reflections across two parallel lines is equivalent to a single translation. Rhombus Diagonals Theorem: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular and they bisect each other. Double Edged Straightedge Conjecture: If two parallel lines are intersected by a second pair of parallel lines that are the same distance apart as the first pair. Triangle Midsegment Conjecture: A midsegment of a triangle is parallel to the third side and twice the length of the first side. Parallelogram Opposite Angles Theorem: The opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent.y)  (-x.y) reflection.x) reflection (y=x) Minimal Path Conjecture – If points A and B are on ne side of line l. In addition. Perpendicular to a Chord Conjecture: The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord is the bisector of the chord.y)  (-x. Trapezoid Midsegment Conjecture: The midsegment of a trapezoid is parallel to the bases and is equal in length to the average of the lengths of the bases. Parallelogram Opposite Sides Theorem: The opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent.The Three Midsegment Conjectures: The three midsegments of a triangle divide it into 4 congruent triangles. perpendicular. -y) reflection – x axis (x. and bisect each other. The angle of rotation is twice the acute angle between the parts of intersection reflection lines. Parallelogram Consecutive Angles Theorem: The consecutive angles of a parallelogram are 180. line of reflection  y axis (x. Parallelogram Diagonals Theorem: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Rectangle Diagonals Theorem: The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent and bisect each other.y)  (y. the distance from any point to its second image under the two reflections is 2x the distance between the parallel lines. Chord Distance to Center Conjecture: Two congruent chords in a circle are equidistant from the center of the circle. Composition of 2 transition – when you transform one figure using one rule then transform the new figure using a 2nd rule Conjectures: Tangent Conjecture: a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangent.0) 180˚ (x. then the parallelogram formed is a rhombus. Rhombus Angles Theorem: The diagonals of a rhombus bisect the angles of the rhombus. then the minimal path from point A to line l to point B is found by reflecting point B over the line and drawing AB and where Point C is where AB intersects line l. Reflections across Intersection Lines Conjecture – A composition of two reflections across a pair of intersecting lines is equivalent to a single rotation. . Transformation Line of Reflection Conjecture – line of reflection is perpendicular bisector of all parallel segments connecting in the original image with its corresponding point in the reflection. Square Diagonals Theorem: The diagonals of a square are congruent. Tangent Segments Conjecture: Tangents segments to a circle from one point outside the circle are congruent.-y) rotation – (0. Coordinate Transformation Conjecture (x.y)  (x.

then they divide the two sides proportionally. Tangent Secant Conjecture: The measure of the angle formed by an intersecting tangent and secant to a circle is half the different between the intercepted arcs. Formulas: Surface Area of Cone: ∏r (r+l) Volume of a Pyramid/Cone: 1/3 (area of base) height SAS Triangle Area Formula: ½ cb (sinA) .secent (sec) -> 1/cos theta (hypot/adj) . then it divides the other two sides proportionally. secant= hypotenuse/adjacent. then it's parallel to the third side Extended parallel/proportionality Conjecture: If two or more lines pass through two sides of a triangle parallel to the third side. then their intercepted arcs are congruent. then the determine two central angles that are congruent. Inscribed Angles Intercepting Arcs Conjecture: Inscribed angles that intercept the same arc are congruent.If two or more lines pass through two sides of a triangle parallel to the third side. then the triangles are similar Parallel/Proportionality Conjecture: If a line parallel to one side of a triangle passes through the other two sides. then they divide the two sides proportionally Parallel/Proportionality Conjecture. Extended Parallel/Proportionality Conjecture. then the two triangles are similar. sinA=cosB Cosine= adjacent/hypotenuse. B. then it’s parallel to the third side. and C and sides of lengths a. SAS: If two dies of one triangle are proportional to two sides of another triangle and the included angles are congruent. Parallel Lines Intercepted Arcs Conjecture: Parallel lines intercept congruent arcs on a circle. Inscribed Angle Conjecture: The measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is half the measure of the intercepted arcs. and then it divides the other two sides proportionally. b opposite B. Sine= opposite/hypotenuse. (sinA/a) = (sinB/b) = (sinC/c). Cyclic Quadrilateral Conjecture: The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. cotangent= adjacent/opposite. b. cosecant= hypotenuse/opposite. Intersecting Chord Conjecture: The measure of the angle formed by two intersecting chord is half the measure of the sum of the intercepted arcs.If a line parallel to the side of a triangle passes through the other two sides. secA=cscB Tangent= opposite/adjacent. Intersecting Secants Conjecture: The measure of an angle formed by two secants that intersect outside a circle is half the measure of the difference of the intercepted arcs. Chords Arcs Conjecture: if two chords in a circle are congruent.Perpendicular Bisector of a Chord Conjecture: The perpendicular bisector of a chord interest at the center. Intersecting Tangents Conjecture: The measure of the angle formed by two intersecting tangents to a circle is supplementary to the center angle.cotangent (cot) -> 1/tan theta (adj/oppo) Area of triangle: base (height) (1/2) Area of Parallelogram: Base (height) Area of Trapezoid: (h/2) (base 1 + base 2) Distance formula: Area of any polygon: [(base)(height)]/2 (# of triangles) Area of a sector = x/360 (pi (r)squared Law of cosine Law of Sines: For a triangle with angles A. tanA=cotB the sine of theta: opposite leg/hypotenuse the cosine of theta: adjacent leg/hypotenuse the tangent of theta: opposite/adjacent cofunctions: . and c (a opposite A. SSS: If the three sides of one triangle are proportional to the three sides of another triangle. Chord Central Angles Conjecture: If two chords in a circle are congruent. then the triangles are similar. and c opposite C). Angles Inscribed in a Semicircle Conjecture: Angles inscribed in a semicircle is 90 degrees. If a line cuts 2 sides of a triangle proportionally.cosecant (csc) -> 1/sin theta (hypot/oppo) . Tangent Chord Conjecture: The measure of an angle formed by tangent and chord is half the measure of the intercepted arc. If a line cuts 2 sides of a triangle proportionally. Dilation Similarity Conjecture: if one polygon is a dilated image of another polygon then the polygons are similar AA Similarity Conjecture: If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle.

length. it is a biconditional statement. then B. A biconditional statement contains the phrase “if and only if”. It’s straight.. Line segments have length. If b. height. Midpoints – to find the midpoint of a line segment with endpoints (x1. y1) and (x2. It is represented with a dot and capital letter. If A. no width. equidistant to the sides of a triangle .has a location but no width. Chord – any segment that touches both ends of a circle Diameter – a chord that goes through the center point Tangent – any lives that touches the circle on the outside Arc – a piece of the circle ( half a circle – semicircle ) Minor Arc – less that 1/2 the circle named with only 2 endpoints. infinitely long and has two directions. It is represented as a segment with 2 arrows. or depth. Lines – has a length.y2). Equilateral polygon – a figure that has all congruent sides and no closing and is not concave. Circumcenter – the concurrent point of the perpendicular bisectors of any triangle . Angle: two rays that project or start at the same point Diagonal: a line segment that connects two vertices that are not consecutive. Plane – infinite length or width and has no height. Law of Syllogism – If A. then C. Convex: one diagonal that is outside Equiangular polygon – a figure with all congruent vertices Regular Polygon – a figure with all congruent sides and vertices. recognizing patterns and making generalizations about those patterns Conjecture – a generalization based on inductive reasoning The converse of the conditional statement reverses the hypothesis The inverse of the conditional statement negates both the hypothesis and conclusion The contrapositive of the statement both reverses and negates they hypothesis and conclusion Bioconditional statement – when a conditional statement and its converse is true. Law of Detachment –the hypothesis of a true conditional statement then the conclusion is true. It is represent as a 4 sided figure and named with cursive capital letters. no height.Volume of Sphere: 4/3 ∏r3 Surface Area of Sphere: 4∏r2 Arc Length: measure/360 (circumference) Volume of any prism: Base of area (height) 45-45-90: DEFINITIONS Point . then C. equidistance to the vertices Intcenter – point of concurrence of angle bisectors of a triangle. Major Arc – more than ½ a circle named with the endpoints and one middle letter Inductive Reasoning – the process of observing date.

B=A) Transitive Property (A=B and B=C. Centroid – the point of concurrence of the medians of the triangle aka center of gravity Properties of Equalities Reflexive Property (AB = AB) Symmetric Property (A=B.Orthocenter – the point of concurrence of the altitude of a triangle. then A=C) Triangle Congruence – Two triangles are congruent if only if the corresponding parts are congruent Linear Pair of Angles. if if the rotation is clockwise or counter clockwise Reflections – mirror image/line where the mirror is placed is the called the ‘line of reflection Rhombus – a parallelogram with all congruent sides Parallelogram – a quadrilateral that has 2 pair of parallel sides Quadrilateral – a 4 sided polygon Rectangle – a parallelogram with 90˚ angles Square – a rhombus with 90˚ angles Trapezoid – a quadrilateral that has one pair of parallel lines Kite – A quadrilateral with 2 pair of consecutive congruent sides Circle – all points that are a given radius from the center point . then the same number of degrees about a fixed center point/ defined by center point .2 or more angles that make 1 or more straight line(s) Median Triangle – Connects a vertex wit the midpoint of the opposite side Mid Segment – connects the midpoints of two sides of a triangle Translation – whole figure is moved along parallel paths and same distance/each point is equidistance/ has a magnitude (translation vector) Rotations – all points in original figure rotate. # of degree.