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Gas

Inhaled air %

Exhaled air %

78

79

nitrogen

deaths per 1000 people

5 The table shows the percentage of gases in inhaled and
exhaled air.

oxygen
carbon dioxide

Chapter 2: Breathing and Gas Exchange

other gases (mainly argon)

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1

a) Copy the table and fill in the gaps by choosing from the
following numbers:

b) Explain why the percentage of carbon dioxide is
so different.

c) Explain why exhaling is a form of excretion.

d) The following features can be seen in the lungs:

i) thin membranes between the alveoli and the
blood supply

ii) a good blood supply

iii) a large surface area.

In each case explain how the feature helps gas exchange
to happen quickly.

7 A long-term investigation was carried out into the link
between smoking and lung cancer. The smoking habits of
male doctors aged 35 or over were determined while they
were still alive, then the number and causes of deaths among
them were monitored over a number of years. (Note that this
survey was carried out in the 1950s – very few doctors smoke
these days!) The results are shown in the graph.

25+
per day

6

15–24
per day

5

1–14
per day

4

non
smokers

3
2
1
0

21     4     0.04      16

6 Explain the differences between the lung diseases bronchitis
and emphysema.

7

0 35–44

45–54
55–64
age (years)

65–74

a) Write a paragraph
to explain what the researchers found
Fig_0216_A
out from the investigation.

b) How many deaths from lung cancer would be expected
for men aged 55 who smoked 25 cigarettes a day up until
their death? How many deaths from lung cancer would
be expected for men in the same age group smoking 10
a day?

c) Table 2.2 (page 28) shows the findings of another study
linking lung cancer with smoking. Which do you think
is the more convincing evidence of the link, this
investigation or the findings illustrated in Table 2.2?

8 Design and make a hard-hitting leaflet explaining the link
between smoking and lung cancer. It should be aimed at
encouraging an adult smoker to give up the habit. You could
use a suitable computer software package to produce your
design. Include some smoking statistics, perhaps from an
Internet search. However, don’t use too many, or they may
put the person off reading the leaflet!

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