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End of Chapter Checklist

You should now be able to:

✓✓ recall the general plan of the circulation system, including the blood vessels to and from the heart,
lungs, liver and kidneys

✓✓ describe the structure and function of the heart
✓✓ explain why the heart rate changes during exercise and under the influence of adrenaline
✓✓ recall the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries and understand their roles, including the

Chapter 4: Blood and Circulation

nature of the pulse

✓✓ explain how tissue fluid is formed and recall its role
✓✓ recall the composition of the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma
✓✓ understand the role of plasma in the transport of carbon dioxide, digested food, urea, hormones
and heat energy

✓✓ explain the adaptations of red blood cells for the transport of oxygen, including shape, structure
and the presence of haemoglobin

✓✓ understand the role of white blood cells in preventing disease, by phagocytosis and antibody

production
Questions

✓✓ understand the functions of blood clotting, and the role of platelets in this
✓✓ understand the problems associated with transplants, including the need to avoid rejection
a) Questions EOCC.
✓✓ understand the nature of ABO blood groups and their importance in blood transfusions
✓✓ explain the causes of heart attacks
✓✓ understand the effects of exercise and the benefits of regular exercise on the circulatory system.

Questions EOCC intor
1

Questions
1 The circulation system carries nutrients, oxygen and carbon
dioxide around the body.
lungs

pulmonary
artery
vena cava

X

Y
C
D
heart

hepatic
artery

liver
hepatic
portal
vein

E
direction of blood flow

mesenteric
artery

kidney
oxygenated blood

a) Write down the correct labels for A to E.

b) Give two differences between the blood vessels at
point X and point Y.

c) Which blood vessel contains the highest concentration
of urea?

A
B

hepatic
vein

2 Blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide around the
body. Oxygen is transported by the red blood cells.

a) Give three ways in which a red blood cell is adapted to
its function of transporting oxygen.

b) Describe how oxygen:

i) enters a red blood cell from the alveoli in the lungs

ii) passes from a red blood cell to an actively respiring
muscle cell.

c) Describe how carbon dioxide is transported around
the body.

renal artery
deoxygenated blood

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