End of Chapter Checklist

You should now be able to:

✓✓ recall the basic plan of the central nervous system
✓✓ recall that there are receptors which respond to heat, chemical, mechanical, sound and
light energy

✓✓ recall the structures and functions of motor, sensory and relay neurones
✓✓ understand the initiation of the nerve impulse in receptors and direction of movement
along a neurone

✓✓ recall the structure and function of the eye as a receptor
✓✓ explain the function of the eye in focusing on near and distant objects, and in responding to
changes in light intensity

Chapter 5: Coordination

✓✓ understand the functions of stereoscopic vision
✓✓ recall the structure of the ear, and describe its functions in balance and hearing
✓✓ describe the structure of the reflex arc
✓✓ recall spinal reflexes, including the withdrawal reflex and the knee-jerk reflex
✓✓ understand the transfer of impulses across a synapse
✓✓ recall the main areas of the brain and an outline of their functions, including the cerebral
hemispheres, cerebellum, medulla, pituitary gland and hypothalamus

✓✓ describe the effects of excess alcohol on the nervous system and behaviour

1 A cataract is an eye problem suffered by some people,
especially the elderly. The lens of the eye becomes opaque
(cloudy) which blocks the passage of light. It can lead to
blindness. Cataracts can be treated by a simple eye operation,
where a surgeon removes the lens. After the operation, the
patient is able to see again, but the eye is unable to carry out
accommodation, and the patient will probably need to wear

a) Explain why the eye can still form an image after the lens
has been removed.

b) What is meant by ‘accommodation’? Why is this not
possible after a cataract operation?

2 The diagram shows a section through a human eye.







c) Will the patient need glasses to see nearby or distant
objects clearly? Explain your answer.

a) The table (on the next page) lists the functions of some of
parts A to H. Copy the table and write the letters of the
correct parts in the boxes.

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