The Massachusetts Review, Inc.

The Impossible Life of Frantz Fanon
Author(s): Albert Memmi, Thomas Cassirer, G. Michael Twomey
Source: The Massachusetts Review, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Winter, 1973), pp. 9-39
Published by: The Massachusetts Review, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25088315 .
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Albert Memtni
Life
Impossible
of Frantz Fanon

The

and Notes

Translation
Thomas

African

north
The

two

produced

struggle

The

Wretched
involved

sonally
siders

to

two

the

a native

though

and

background;
selves

outsiders

equally

cultural

Tunisian,
as colonials

and

of

a different
the French

among

with

education

their

within

whom

they

the Moslem

such

from

divergent
perspectives
tween
and
oppressor
conflict

by

denying

similar
on

Memmi

experiences
the conflict

between

While
oppressed.
and
transcending

like

(Memmi,

Christian

Fanon,

was

in France).

and Fanon
colonizer
sought

to

widely
developed
be
and
colonized,
in the
himself
involve

the

identity
imposed
to combine
involvement

tried

Memmi

historical

Fanon

of

them
they found
a common
shared

educated in French schools and studied philosophy and psychology
Starting

per
out

since Memmi,

Indian

origin

were

both

own,

aWest

"racial"

were

authors

a sense

their

between

conflict

by Albert Memmi

Both

in
yet
outsiders

were
camps. They
cause
whose
they made
was
a
and Fanon
Jew

through

background

Fanon.

Frantz

by

struggle

Africa

the

and the Colonized

liberation

colonialism

French

of

formulations

the Earth

contesting

in North

majority

of
the

in

Twomey
from

liberation

for

significant

universally

colonized and colonizer: The Colonizer
and

by

and G. Michael

Cassirer

him
upon
by
in the struggle
the diverse
ele

circumstances,
and exploration
of
with
the affirmation
oppression
Memmi
is a writer
has
who
that
constitute
his historical
identity.
Pillar
The
back and forth
between
works
moved
of fiction
(
of Salt, Strangers,
and
Colonizer
the Colo
treatises
and socio-psychological
Le
{The
scorpion)
The
Liberation
in
Portrait
nized,
of the Jezvy Dominated
of a Jew,
Man1)
against
ments

first

north
1
All

N.Y.

Le

serial

American

scorfion

rights,

of Memmi's

translations

English

is published

The
works

by Gallimard,

Massachusetts
are

Review>>

published
Paris. Memmi

by Orion
has also

1973.
Press,
edited

two anthologies of North African writing in French: Anthologie des ?crivains
maghr?bins d'expression fran?aise (1965) and Anthologie des ?crivains fran
?ais du Maghreb
(1969), both published by Pr?sence Africaine, Paris, as
well

as

Bibliographie

1945-1962;

de

la

Paris: Mouton,

litt?rature

nord-africaine

1965. (Translators' note)
9

dy

expression

fran?aise,

The
an
attempt
Man."
His

Massachusetts

to construct

'Reviens)

a

of what
to call "Dominated
he has come
typology
form
of autobiographical
while
fiction
his theoret
ical works
convert
of his experience
elements
into more
abstract,
impersonal
All
us fragments
his books,
to the same
of an answer
insights.
however,
give

recurring

secuted,

the

manner
In what
or
does
the phenomenon
of oppression,
and cultural
of the
shape the psychological
personality
oppressed?
are the
in which
the oppressed,
the colonized,
ways
possible
per
can
dominated
out
break
individual
the
of
circle
of
oppression
to

substance

give

As

Memmi

Tunis,

where

child

take

questions:

domination,
And
what

and

novels

the

indicates
Memmi

psychology
at

psychiatrist
on
drawn

at
a local

ideal
in

worked
the

time

hospital.

a universal

of

this

he

essay,

humanism?
and

Fanon

knew

each

in

other

as

and director
of an institute
psychologist
was
when
Fanon
editor
of El Moudjahid
fifteen
almost
Now,
later, Memmi
years

of
and
has

the many
of contact
to give
between
and Fanon
himself
points
us an
one
at
same
a
that
and
to
is
the
time
Fanon
essay
personal
testimony
and an evaluation
as one
of Fanon's
viewed
for
the
model
career,
possible
dominated
revolt
individual's
the conditions
of his oppression.
This
against

us one
it is one of the sad consequences
side of a dialogue;
essay brings
Fanon's
we
can
never
death
that
to read the essay on Memmi
early
hope
Fanon might
have written
in
?T. C.
reply.

his

short

Frantz
Fanon
life,
a
Born
failures.
French
in

In serious
himself
French
he made

capital
he was West

and White.

at least

experienced
department,
to
he went

When

the painful
discovery
Indian and Black.

that

of
that

three

he believed

in the
study
in the mother
country

nor
he decided
that he would
be neither French
were
not
but
the
North
like
Indian,
Algerian:
Africans,
the dupes and the victims
of this same mother
himself,
country?
But the solidarity
of the oppressed
is another
illusion:
by what
was
without
his
skin
and
all
memory,
miracle,
changing
losing
Infuriated,

West

he going

to transform

himself

into a white

Arab,

and Moslem

to boot when he was Christian by birth?
Thereupon,
of
frontiers

he decided

to construct

skin and cultural
prejudice
even a Black West
and where
Indian
were
most
those
who
tunately,
directly

Africans,

Black

or White,

a United
would
would

where
Africa,
no longer
count
Unfor
belong.

concerned,

Fetishist, Moslem

one preoccupied
with
constructing
were
as
as
far
from
universe,
possible
each

10

his nation

that

is to say,

or Christian,

and his
such a communion.

own

Even his school friends. was not if him resolve his personal what left for predicament. until well after Fanon set foot on Motherland 2 Fanon. meters. in the armed forces of in today certain West Indians.Fanon of Frantz Life Impossible to to complete In order in order this forward movement. too long a time the West For Indians believed they were be nized like authentic having lower-middle classes was that everything in the middle and Frenchmen. Brittany when to General DeGaulle the West Indies any case. more left frantz young identification his with native France island for the first was still absolute. of Fanon. the movement violence of the inverse The with Fanon. 1968. All published cherished quite The he discovered that the soil. translations . than was true of most of the colo so. What is that the identifica tion continued until quite late in his life. still speak of their France. a totally recon to propose in a totally man. unprecedented Such was in fact the ultimate structed world? thesis of his last written work: "For we for ourselves and a new beginning. willing Wretched subsequent by Grove of references Press. the swing of the pendulum. 11 the will Earth."2 Apocalypse thought. especially to which true Fanon And is it belonged. try to create a new man. departments. appealed to defend the Motherland to it was quite natural for Fanon with together enlist. thanks the unbelievable fiction that these West Indian juridical islands. in the French is in part at what This Empire. I When Much his time. especially the older generation. assuredly. explains. to make to done them believe it. wider the more painful is the break. where to have Black upon children. has not been so well understood. Europe. 255. Free France. the was Frantz. be New to York: the American Grove Press. are indeed the ultimate reconstruction way out for humanity. rest the from of France several thousand kilo separated by are or French like In Alsace. p. least. new develop and universal such a total of despair. make must comrades.

between metropolitan replied na of Black of Negro "What is this business people. 1956. the importance of every admitted. the stupidities and the spitefulness of his fellow White-skinned in Fanon's words putting I am citizens. Critics have taken note to the minister sentences in the letter he sent important measures taken the the par against concerning of the ticipants in the strike of July 5. he left to take up his position at the Blida-Joinville But this did Fanon Algerian: still not mean that he considered himself considered himself a Frenchman even an in Algeria. Arab. firmly: French the French civilization. In Black a study on discrimination while Skin. But even then. What sufficiently humanism here by noted is that he made his has not been in the name of protest in general. the respect due humanity represented as an outsider. forget or finally Fanon discovered. a firm answer or more to those intellectuals less timidly who. included. and bitterness Then his memories day took shape. Masks. people" {Black Skin} White p. 203). discussing that had appeared in the review Presence Fanon gave Africaine. White Masks. pretend her color. and in good faith. White alluded to French and differences possible Fanon the Blacks. it was as a Frenchman and by right and the many affirmation that he viewed discrimination petty all which aggressions Paris or Lyon. the French. After a brief interval he resigned (yet it took three years: he was appointed in 1953 and resigned in 1956). and of France and differences is closer than about. returned and racism. He still protested the Algerian and 12 . of to exposed the delusions. Then hospital. tionality? culture. It is true that he came to defend in the heat communion of battle scarcely thought that time in speaking It was only when at said Us Fanon ever. He returned peace came him every it brought was a Black-skinned day on the sidewalks Frenchman.The condition that to notice their that are Massachusetts Review herself would everyone. More not and strove to and the French so to that far deliver those who from them. read him merely neither mouth: all nor inventing anything one has to do is not to in the light of his Algerian period. am am I I interested in French French.

Nor has there been much questioning of this extraordinary adven the profound significance a ac as if the political correctness of line of conduct as if it went without its motivations. is foreign even to him.Impossible specifically a French take precedence linen in public. When for Algeria. At from if one the most counts lasted eight tion as a French form about ture. 52-54). nothing friendships? prepared he began his practice in Paris. that saying some day become an intellectual could Indian a self-sacrifice so absolute with that he would Algerian patriot. The Algerian the all period of his life really began only at this work yet it lasted only It was to be decisive for Fanon's point. stay Tunisia. including the dates to the USSR of letter and to America . This him African the oppor gave ally treated North a to in the short review tunity study Esprit. validity African as he explained that his "duty to "must This obligation resign. he found himself a doctor exotic and to his patients. when entirely con even he was passionately up by his profession. in his travels his five years. he occasion workers. counted years. But position appeared of suggested of a doctor who how was lost and foreign that is the point. Did Fanon interest for a Black West was he to disposed former such On a choice by previous affinities. he died in 1961. civil the this period of his of gesta he seemed taken servant. obliged over any desire not to launder French family can find any No pseudo-national mystification as a French citizen" Fanon of Frantz Life citizen: him in face of the exigencies of thought" He pp. Certainly publish he the Algerians in front defended guished they were civilization. the by him contrary. to spare his meager die from it. le Ministre" Revolution "Monsieur {Toward his concludes by as The least letter of his high esteem. He them with regards who 13 while an to their in the they the nuance . suring one can say is that his commitment to revolution and above was still to Algeria incomplete. of his own comrades-in-arms. refusing declining strength. in Africa. in spite of the objurgations at least have a particular in the Algerians. though to re in his care and endeavored the population cerned with life three years the hospital system. resignation 1956.

the break curve the fragile not ask us jealous of our do anything. All a part.The Massachusetts of disorientation even a "progressive" which anxiety. by reality of bicots. the African French the New Certainly Algeria deemed But just. he Toward used by Fanon. who "What them conceal are who concealed under attributes social the selves. What are they in truth. on was he decided because where that why Algeria: probably a he was offered position. who dreams. "All men these emerald our of all these smiles. only on contact did he not belong with North African workers. later he not for political for the land curiosity author. African especially are . terms Peter. and of Black Africa a certain nor do not know why he ultimately did not go to Black Africa. and perhaps investigated sciously a more did he reasons. See etc. purposely emphasized so or North Fanon considered himself Afri unlike an Algerian can that he utilized the French collective Not pronoun. but it seems that Fanon sought played primarily convenient in a better equipped field of research. welling apprehension of thought in order longer felt at ease. Bicots. are they?" ask strange questions. 3?4. contact these strange with upon people and European experiences from a distant land. he first He Algeria. We center. leaving to work elsewhere. when of the North speaking York: The 14 Dial Press. he went he thought and further Revolution^ pp. men facing who fear. I have with them from up When he even experienced his unconscious. Black An American his who works. Peter Geismer. that Fanon had to help. derogatory Arabs. psy also a position with better pay. but of whom we Review us cause who who upset us."3 sidi. z'ami. these creatures. bougnoules. mon arabes. or sentimental Africa for Fanon's of chiatric not even no thought choose and ad enthusiasm great asked himself this question uncon these reasons perhaps shows has the subject. 59-60. pp. neither was it out of ancestors. Frantz. Then why Algeria was and the Algerians? in a war engaged that as a militant 3 Fanon. 1970.4 miration and where France. 4 Geismar. the us and our of the text.

of Fanon's This first and decisive split contains tragedy. and Dominated the Colonized 15 when Man.the center of Algeria made Fanon of Frantz Life Impossible of his of his existence. his teacher . and thought did he believe it necessary to join so totally of his work.5 Fanon connection with the colonized as a child he happened to be particularly that when unbearable. He was not alone in this: the West in general made fun of the Senegalese Indians because the West and other African Indians did not savages White Masks his consider the germ That Martinique 5 In The themselves Black. iswhy it came as such a thunderbolt (and scandal) for and Colonizer the adolescent and Fanon as well." {Ibid. Why that he struggle and consented Algerian in the into himself transformed thought to die for Algeria? an II identification White The him. into the tingly at length I described in mechanism which of self-rejection. nation of which contains can inevitably the former enslaved a subtle Black slave with the then apparently adopted the success of the poison: and one the that of success?demands speak as Black. for the "Black is not a man" ger. it is not up assimilation to the takes to the dominant. the dominated from the dominated ever to the dominating in the inverse culture hardly culture. a Black also brings about a war of the Black himself. the rise in Now of social of results partners war the the White this unnatural the by against waged effort. for what appears as one a as status. 191). sense. And throughout or not tried not to play the "nig Fanon unconsciously life. I shall not go further carried on from within. against even more war that is perhaps for it is unremit destructive. powerful place from is understandable: more to become like the weak. renounce that It must be admitted himself to the White man's consented time the Black himself operation?if Black man for a long monstrous This demand. to both in any case. own his mother told him not "to act like a nigger" {Black Skiny no doubt henceforth y p. Such is the price.). recounts and the Jew.

playwright coined fays the natal (Translators' expression (1939)." Indian poet. and the West to which the oppressed is a solution only few among are now we recourse. while tragedy particular never to he returned his former again colonizer. with the well have had acquainted By to his condition: the op of the oppressed responses principal or or the either accepts accepts himself. itinerary and to according the historical and political leader from Martinique who au d^un retour Cahier in his famous poem. that the can glimpse his a domi When emerges specific destiny and intellectual ultimate personality. to com all the more painful because he had believed in it and made it a part of himself.Review The Massachusetts a recognized West hero Aim? already C?saire. proportions. rejects rejects pressed are and affirmation Most colonial model. this people transfiguring as I have and with for people. excessive vigor. he with broke France and the French with all the passion of which his fiery was temperament bat this first love. to get ahead mask? Did In the West in order this White should to engage in battle and his own? decide their to wear he had mask. But what a new era of this mark to assimilation to his people. to tear He would it out have henceforth a violence with of him. rejection intertwined intimately moment the particular in variable in the hero's 6Aim? C?sa?re: poet. indicated. into French Indians similating West citizens. capable. He not?) 16 . He would have to battle France in order to fight this aspect it was Yet he hated N?gritude This himself." marked of the end of the "White proclamation and Indian permission finally to take off hisWhite gave theWest he believed which dian replace self-affirmation? liberation Should together It is at his with this moment that one and of Fanon sometimes. proclaimed day that "Black a It Illusion.6 long-time one This is beautiful. political of the impossibility nated man has understood returns to himself. this past to the point of creating the fraud of as finally discovered When Fanon counter-myths. he generally to his past. frequently. become and ultimately of his personality henceforth Fanon's that. the dominator. Indies. in the world. N?gritude at the lyc?e was Fanon's in Fort teacher de France.

gather took in Fort place to I went their dead. constabu . of the French colonial weeks later The de France. our Algeria turn out to have been the whore that will these Algeria.R. Thereupon into N?gritude. a French him: of of the French and a member intellectual university of the French affirmed himself asWest communist graduates surrealists He also re party.R. and work." is to a riot them Let jubilant: the Compagnie (Translators' tragic disturbances killed several that actually R?publicaine note) 17 took islanders. striking or three the problems instances he never discussed of his na tive island. was not the solu but then he took the position that N?gritude tion and that in resisting the Black mirage. a the political For of his brief time country. He took a teaching position in Fort de France and became country. His still recall friends scornful today with what to to he used his refer former when fellow countrymen irony to the fact to speak he happened them. his throughout sides terms to error. of "When I met him inTunis in 1958. possible. It Fanon that there exists a third indeed. he greeted me coldly. He was C. "Several 7 The reference 1958.7 see him.situation. we must not yield we see him firing red-hot broad most it in the radical condemning the white Nor has enough attention been ever set he that in Mar foot paid scarcely again It is even more that with the exception of two tinique.S. identification Aim? C?saire proclaimed When and of Frantz Life Impossible then with launched Senghor that "Black is beautiful" the of N?gritude. C. returned to his Indian and Black. that life illustrates it: one might suppose an the took of unattainable Algeria place is quite that Fanon's way and identification with with Martinique. representative Fanon for the daring felt enthusiasm of his former teacher. empire. France will give you a kick in the ass that owe it to You will you to seize your independence. Well are you still politicking in theWest Indies and Guiana? One of will force days.: in lary force. concept he did not merely reject what his long stay in Paris had made out and one of the elite an intimate of the system. dis not 1959.S. in December place a French de S?curit?.

your. bolic protest outburst this out call them let have and They'll on open to the people: look them take do motions. even while and the Indies of the West So it appears that his rejection It is striking them. poisoned But in conscious of his condition. . of Black in the dialectic tude is only the weak phase to the end of was strongly Fanon right by Sartre. they. . psychological make love with a shadow. . neither West that he his was Indians now and categoric final. even when to a group. attempted Orpheus. all over town the colonialists at what vote sym of the sort. color. p. This has rejection a long history. You a little dreams. You to normal. . 138. Despite reaction derive "In no way conclusions: Sartre's he accepted the peoples from the of basic my past purpose 8Juminer.S. ." Pr?sence I should of Africaine. They'll nothing in poverty. his people.R.Review The Massachusetts them embowel done. "Homage to Frantz 1962. return to self to fight cides reduce N?gritude Jewishness to its negativity to a pure look). scorns. We did not occur. he incites them to demonstrate. has become individual who a colo we where the at ourselves find fact stage subsequent for what it is and the colonized nizer's role is revealed rejects the when the moment is usually the colonial This relation."8 says. nor his independence politics were murdered who not he does these victims consider by the he nor does he feel part of the crowd which C. impressed as French intellectuals he was condemning his life. you. Why? of orientation this change might that N?gri who declared here Sartre influence of the mention liberation. 40. Fanon (as he had tried to reduce was and consternated had this the feeling he had been deprived of his identity. Sartre in Black And when. and go on rotting Actually a reassures It's simply the colonialists. and his as de individual the colonized takes place. You no all returns soil your bed. when It is clear that for Fanon for and with his people. to be sure: it is still the same denial of himself in his soul Fanon's Frantz which poisoned people colonized soul of the it has every young youth. No. But think about longer the next day it. 18 Fanon. . Bert?ne. erotic certain like release. he is not one of are involved. of anger trucks .

. My life should In no way justly not I dedicate should Negro unrecognized to drawing be devoted values" myself civilization up the {Black Skin. Fanon. that blood. become as he has not been aware enough is positivity (just even when of the importance these of a people's affirmations.of Frantz Life Impossible Fanon to the revival . in a exiles. "I am an Algerian ceaselessly: down the on principle. 226-229).. . thesis.. was or aware whether he of it that. every in the long march of a people stage counts misfortune. or obfuscated are very humble and myths). by hallucinations In any case. vague opposition settled with resentful of his atti so irritated can the West Indians. though he ended up by resigning himself to it because itmet his need. lem Fanon therefore 5 but he Europe could not have order to engage. though him by the round-about for repeating propensity we Algerian which patriots. aware and that even negativity is that he is not sufficiently However may perhaps in a way flesh and they are lived. traced not. in Normandy. when to disdain towards its liberation and it is quite meaningless one or the other of these stages by calling it negative. to tear himself loose to other the last fiber and eradicate what had constituted his life up to had enlisted the young man who in the ranks of point: the Free French. that Sartre agree with a up relatively negative N?gritude?like Jewishness?marks to live this phase before beat in the dialectic. in the end irritated tude. the student at the medical in Lyon. I have of an un no wish to be the victim of the Fraud of the Black world." be back to the fact he had no expectation in his own people. aid of several He had for people and rupture 5 he in example. school the that 19 . to his prob of finding the solution with the French France. not be content with a verbal broke could and the younger rediscovered generation of Africa and revolution? His way . it is still necessary on to the next one 3 and the fact that it is lived gives passing a error as always it very heavy weight Sartre's of positiveness. White Masks. even foresaw this weakness in Sartre's incidentally. even if we balance sheet of Negro pp. Why did Fanon end by refusing to commit himself to own his were who people.

that he had never a true been child of his Like country. and France. 40. to the only homeland of which he could sure. which its social conditions the it tolerates culture. . Europe. its own and historical remedy of Martinique is also the sign of failure liberation immediately its powerless revolt." ity: he is said work from a little known borrowed this theory psychological no mention of the colonized that makes by Germaine Guex. Black to ex of the colonized disturbance plain the psychological personal Fanon to Frantz be stricken with "abandonitis. to aid Fanon. as reported by to speak. mind. Other all and say to ourselves have nothing that no is liberation wise. remained alone with his who a curious attempt White Masks contains Skin. Worse himself yet. are just so many must We instruments of domination. furnishing him with the psychological to his The tragic to undertake ness situation. Europe against and to the leaders identify of his the revolt immediately comes to is what that of his people? That with one of were not ready In a for revolt. diplomas. henceforth father 9Fanon's No. betrayal frightful forsaken. p. every colonized individual he would gladly have turned to his native land with all his demands. Bert?ne 139. his own people Only certain manner it was the West Indies that betrayed of speaking itself of revealed it was his country which incapable Fanon. possible.The Massachusetts doctor who practiced woman (here in French Review the hospitals. husband a of the signifi again critics scarcely mention "I say the hell with Its this marriage). a great deal. Provided. of be words 1962. junk it we to lose."9 not the best solution for him have been to return Would French cance of home to the West revolt to become Indies. he realized that he had always been forsaken. One borrows but seems to have Fanon impressed one needs: Fanon had enough only what experience personal to make of the with this feeling it the pivot of abandonment colonized's conduct. so and motherland. 20 course. that provided Juminer it could that in Presence be both it might Africaine. by the White mother Once the he discovered he felt country.

found West Indians he in which not could do."10 recovers When the colonized finally is That wrote been have iso lated to find his the psychological the against combat construct to acknowledge identity. 133. precisely and what of mythical past Martinique. Fanon Aim?. in neither of these en his For could help Fanon least. in thought an extraordinary we meet as well Here that is present difficulty in certain other situations where the dominated has individual so completely been subjected and for such a long time. that Fanon has been who by Black Americans needed In short. found "The Indian this West doubtless Fanon of Frantz Life Impossible himself. Martinique separa scan tion from France. . 40." best suffer understood and from another Pr?sence domination a third way. tragedy. p. 10C?saire. Beyond past and to have a at the time being. No. to fight not being a very good mother. clear vision of his future. original patrimony own as the inhabitants their and draw could claim language from to face Creole lacks strength pressor? a country's the whole the range and spiritual entire the op especially can that support expression intellectual life. among his people. Martinique department too much to view in its integration into the French community did not even dare imagine it as an outsider. and armed seemed Revolt struggle even though was suspected the mother of dalously matricidal. 21 Fanon. Was Fanon then going alone? was even the other hand." not would have and would of his stature. Africaine.the abandonment remedy just what Martinique "is that C?saire. that he cultural does not even have an autonomous and is personality all unsure of the content of his liberty even while he fights for it. It is no accident taken up most of this sort. And worst of and world of it is so intermingled with French that the colonizer would in any case be present soul the and of the colonized. resources to in succeed and material to re this he needs oppressor. "Homage to Frantz 1962. Martinique nor positive to free neither in the negative effort deavors. what On the cultural. As still believed of France. a himself. his or less more he needs his identity.

Maghreb or aMoroccan who shares the same 22 language. scarcely decides within ALGERIAN a rather brief has never span in a country this people will that be his people. Towards the end of 1956 or the beginning settled inTunis with the staff of El Moudjahid. Revolution. Revolution. . is that he now identified himself with Algeria did with he formerly and never France could with Martinique. this country his country until death." 1958. 57?63). for of 1957. nationalist In September.What and disturbing and total went far Fanon justice to his Critics have done for Algeria. identification addressed the Tunisians to the Tunisian for that worse. the other peoples of the and set himself apart from gerian a was now to Tunisian He the Algerians than closer Maghreb. the same culture. he the Algerian the first to time in speaking of the Algerians (Cf. 95). he wrote We 1957. etc. specific and lowing words: "We for better together He say and is sufficiently own this In February. and made nation. out pointed how sufficiently of course. nor its civilization neither he knows its language to dies for this ties He it. political seems unusual it. . the African This was less than pp. one year after he first took on expressly responsibili political as if ties. . Ill EXTRAORDINARY life THE has PHASE of FruntZ as a matter been accepted A man who believable. my knowledge. commitment. of deeper and as significance. he it more in the that we people the blood of fol are the the African Al himself generous (Toward now a he considered In word p. have at marvelled to me. newspaper. particular eventually buried inAlgerian Nor has it been in this feeling it is Yet set foot time of Fanon's course.solution which The Massachusetts Review was nor Martinique. neither he discovered point France At this Algeria. In the same text he spoke of "National Territory" Toward it were took the of his territory another towards step exclusive. . of even though has no and cause is and soil.

development he assured Here belonged by the Algerian people (among whom to exert and asked the West Indians self) His principal 11 this of pathy to opposed war effort note) 23 reference. as an Algerian of the Earth. slogan . (Translators' more. a Tunisian he was accused of our that he was us note Let than he whom politician. 1958. pp. a few months the African Farce in "The That Sides" {Toward Changes be "We Algerians. with civilization prised by this: henceforth an off-hand remark nor Fanon of Frantz Life Impossible not be should was This sur neither later. We he was an Algerian. to help the Al incidental. 30. Toward the African Revo {El Moudjahid. ring No. his last work. Coast. he spoke tween Tunisia the 16th of April and Morocco.11 the development compromised African of "having for many years country at this time no more of an or a Moroccan. to come. most astonishing in "Addresse found lution. Jan. p. he wrote pp. Houphouet-Boigny Revolution. of relatively foreign Algerian speaking the people of the Ivory It was as an outsider that he exhorted as he was. published 1958. Memmi d'une nation?" has been be refer may El Moudjahid. . In October of the year. Cf. while the Algerians and yet they were Black. the or Ivoreans the same: fraternal he been article spoke his Indians. The be people to whom of expression aux Antilles. 135-143). again: Revolution. to verify able "Aux this naissance Antilles." against a "Letter to he wrote In May diplomacy. African 1960." made the accusations rejected He was an to the youth countries. Whether of birth was objective benefit Any he to the were language patriot." On of "our "our and diplomacy" sharp-edged the Youth a war-time in which he attacked a leading African of Africa" Houphouet-Boigny. In The Wretched Toward President 12 We the of have to Fanon's 16. 96-98). same were white."12 he gerians. Coast since (Translators' note) Ivory not the was the West he can sym him counted themselves to persuade them the West Indians the addressed his attitude. he just as violently because they were gradualists to support not want the Algerian attacked the African violence and did Oct. 117.the same an Algerian.

against "Our Fathers if in the end he the Gauls" after came up with One could different fictitious ancestors!13 other In is no need. leaders and at his suggestion to be followed I Sahara for the arms route towards Wilayas and IV. he went His even was by then so complete that it extended identification as was the sense of revolting. were same French and in the had colleagues. shared the revolting Does anyone enemy. into myth. He the political contacted by the southern supplies a base was set up in the inMali. is It March. texts of used cultural in elementary note) (Translators' in . the Algerians and many spoke French of them had Their Fanon's in France. but there give examples. discovered Africa.14 But even though he undertook this trip as the envoy a decisive of Algeria. Gauls" about was and Morocco. school by 14Wilaya: Fathers the schools. their study ancestors. He was bound to Algeria in battle. As if by French culture miracle Fanon discovered We men with who were whom he in part a common memory. a he him had what lacked for gave Clearly Algeria and the conditions cultural patrimony for battle. gral part of theMother 13 at least their of "Gallic the standard children. he experienced he change of perspective: come to this in a moment. steeped diplomas a as he. Like Memmi learning fighting to refers all French-speaking and Fanon began unit an inte considered Country and split up into departments. lived intellectuals.The Massachusetts Review so far as to write "Our Fathers"! his death. 1960. into the past. by the com by the ties of comradeship tion with mitment giance factors rash the Algerians to his patients and by the profound alle of a doctor an a cause. so long." the Algerian note) 24 army history irrespective of history (Translators' of liberation. We will Fanon came to this new phase out of a total and absolute identifica in their struggle for independence. to ambassador Accra. from Tunisia distinction ?Our all French background. he was appointed true he went to study the possibilities there of transporting route. same well-loved against previously in still remember that today Algeria. What we all did. to of But all these intellectual just political must context: it does not seem too be seen in a larger to say that Algeria should add that took the place of Martinique.

Impossible Fanon of Frantz Life an extraordinary encounter in a like Martinique? What a to Fanon's land neurosis: suited part of the world uniquely one was France. back. content with the newspaper of the Algerian help rebels." although and was now colonized of no better think could from French the Tunisian a free citizen to injure his way to call him than colony was himself formerly of a recently liberated It is true that he called him "the nigger" behind his country. was an ex was well to me. against or re sooner whatever later it any may be. country where when but in retaliation tested could kill them. Martinique was the embellished rather Algeria of his lost home substitute just the people were tortured by the French. Fanon realized that this was no different from what had happened to him with his French colleagues in Algeria. came to Tunisia. It enterprising director was and he had He was quite normal that the head of the hospital would not be too happy. doctor who The Tunisian of Tunis. to practice he was granted his his profession. Yet. at the arrival of this young not too pleased colleague who was more and who had the up to date on new techniques this young man was required degrees. a French colony. Algeria him down the positive let which had for . in and pleasant His tremely jovial training psychiatry was limited to what he had been taught by the former French he continued had to wait many years for his promotion. substitute. A veals both When its inadequacy and fragility. Manouba Fanon's pp. maintains not merely make but also denounced did 25 An American that the head sarcastic critic of remarks the "Black Doctor" the about to . reality. or sense. nothing kept and certainly there were many who took pleasure in people letting Fanon know. can secret a but in such be small country. land. where where hate could French but spoken was precisely in the negative and the right substitute. he was not Fanon ing edit El Moudjahid. to care for the patients in the psychiatric of request hospital a suburb la Manouba. new he but colleague another "the nigger. extremely the established and intent on upsetting routine. was still 129-134) hospital skin color. He the hospital known headed man. which (Geismar. Moreover.

The Massachusetts Review the authorities as a possible I can spy and ally of the Jews. admit that such European ready opinions not affect the intellectuals who were Fanon's close friends The comrades in the struggle. 216.15 not vouch for the accuracy of this statement. In order of a one must an was share its convictions: yet Fanon people. de Beau Simone Memoirs him that this made of current between the political distrust peoples the Sahara originates in these differences. I. never I have seen Christian the It fact mentioned is true background. This man was a moderate with socialist It is not sympathies. Bennabi. The Blacks were formerly as of the of the Arabs and the Europeans. Malek could write about Fanon: when "We wrong Fanon Bennabi. less so among the country.. alg?rien. among the common of North one and the situation certainly right."16 were and the Tunisian in agreement with Algerian am I to doctors." consider it on the whole a mass of as if class. Perspectives mouvement r?formiste p. 64. 16 26 p. as much formed the mass in her well-known and she was the differences settled. alg?riennes. Le . to play a political role in the North where every was but he not Black and everyday reality would and South Fanon tried is white. we make as him the theoretician of the Algerian revolution. They behave ruling no took heed of religion and con the 15 Israel. (Translators' note) Malek. Nadir. sympathetic of it and gion of no ception of superstitions "the people." importance. some have to speak the language tried to do. quoted by A. are Arabs and Blacks far from being slaves between Much not and even who people states voir this was But the did of let him forget it. religion: that was that Fanon he himself of never spoke are revolutionaries of his work reli consequently they consider a to Socialists have tend serious miscon they by exploited "the masses. that all the exegetes or to revolution. the rank-and-file militants suffer. Atheist.e. a man that of who still surprising right wing sympathies plays an important in Algerian role cultural quite affairs.

consider differences them of no In any case. neither and he surely considered religious But did the Algerians of no importance. whom Jean Amrouche. argued. the Algerian gerians were was will be calls itself Arab it and Moslem. Christians Fanon. it becomes clear that however. he have had re was that religion overly simplistic explanation in power? And how would the peo being exploited by people a to have reacted Black of Christian ple origin who challenged the religion of an almost Or would totally Moslem country? so many he have kept quiet? Could he have protested against evils a voice in so loud In portant point? tion for Fanon. I also knew well. independence.17 in my he was my professor of literature last year at the was too in Tunis. tip fingers. Chants . 17 Jean Amrouche of Algeria. He of Christian and a French lyc?e origin to the of his who the great loved intellectual. He put all this aside for the duration war. would What were naturalized have been and and Uncompromising he have felt in this new would course Fanon's situation? But notice. Algerian independence was going an to confront him with choice. escaped impassioned State? Would to that Fanon Some was as how he was. with this point At socialists lose patience own and blame them instead of their The Al people myopia. are far more the relations subtle between mankind and religion the and tenacious.they do not make of reconstruction sequently projected Fanon of Frantz Life Impossible for any allowance the society of religion the future. During a moment state today and still are Moslems. Like impossible eve on he the died of Fanon. He (1906?1962): is best berb?res de Kabylie known (1939). for poet and essayist from the Kabyle region his translations (Translators' note) 27 of Berber poetry. the course of history has importance? to have been wrong: Fanon the new post-independence state where is a Moslem is inscribed in the religion shown Algeria constitution. since French of the poets. one nor the other. that of destiny: truth had he silent on such an im see a satisfactory solu to mind another brings and then kept I cannot really This lived. After so many of years struggle. in the the process there is inevitably of building socialism when of discovery. Fanon.

simply language. repeat my question: to learn Arabic. have become but at what It would have price? to a people with whom.The Massachusetts Review an outsider remained in his country of in the country he had adopted. he was too ready Likewise was began language of without woman "No. him whether?". can an individual do 28 quest last. that the hospital gerian line yoke. painful not be the stage would on discovering that he the Algerian identity. ever mentioned. to understand in he would time. He did not even speak the language. internships In Fanon reality or rather adoption. once and all for is a people's He of Algeria. Yet. an Algerian. when not could into account the particular human taking to believe of Algeria. one cannot shed his identity not get rid of his N?gritude nor it a mirage: by calling can anyone his cultural. ?" It is true that Fanon did you. . a a tool. exactly . to interpret what the interpreter had trying was desperately as he questioned an already understood confused patient. I various witnessed three-sided many consultations. But I have said it often before: never soul. taken him a long time to adjust out of to identify. IV it was for Thus What foreseeable that in this long. as too is hardly That at least profession it was an unimportant detail. A Black man In short. historical and social singu exchange a even act for of will?not in the another. hardly a people so quickly. Perhaps. he wanted personal be otherwise: it could so easily. cannot . where the European with the best of intentions psychiatrist. need. he discovered. importance During psychiatrist. was often mistaken Fanon it is a reservoir in his admitted this on several openly for example. "What did he say to you?". though a to this crucial is of my ally. larity by simple does service of a revolutionary ethic. view occasions: reforms "Ask liberated from be applied environment that the Al the mascu one cannot learn Yet.

carried out who were most probably working with the political by Algerians leadership. the only reality. on the other hand. have been too great a leap. was due in great measure to his sure.of Frantz Life Impossible Fanon nor erase of it in the minds of his singularity. In March. during the pro the last any on the universalist decided solution. just learned most the world's universal that Marx blended to be is declared well length are individuals that messianism in the universalist of no that there is doubt case. development to a uni To pass from the particularist commitment Algerian a a in New Man the vision reconciled versalist of vision. the It is so common this attitude! among at wrote I them. He This needed would was the role of Africa. his relief in brothers But bring adopted enthusiasm is aroused one the discovery of what a veritable experienced upheaval an African. stage of his life Fanon not take place This did however. immediately and its unexpected of Africa by the vastness potential. became any case. world. ambassador 1960. immediately. he was appointed move: Two have been for this suggested plausible explanations or perhaps to it was either at his request the Algerians wanted remove scene. his enthusiasm had the idea of the In an of the Algerian extraordinary widening struggle to arms. step outside next The to the point of being adopted others them? step by all those accursed to the utmost is to deny all singularities. him from the immediate Fanon had political been very upset and troubled of certainly by the assassination one of the military was which leaders of the FLN. only to find. a mediator. All the universal How I know and oppressed about so then letariat. of for many tempting with the Jews. between men differences which stand in the way of communion one from being human other hu and prevent among simply mans. to Accra. he seems to have been the one who of edge fascinated To be foreseeing that could such creating military supply bases at the he Sahara. As I write these to be the Gypsies also claim to We need recall scarcely people. it in connection believed In into the universal and the only ethic. I have lines. But. He already expected in his outlook: he became 29 by .

Algeria? (Toward cause enable him to would to African certainly solidarity appealing the Guineans. He to create the continent" {Ibid. For has already of his horizon nationalist 18 El Moudjahid.. which first used expression "We Africans. our detained militants "to protect that it is necessary still writes name But "our the of the in and enemy" people. dazzled Africa eyes. Toward 169. henceforth pleted out of its immobility and to col I chose to do was to stir Africa to revolutionary in its refashioning laborate principles. No. bring it. greater importance: meant it only as a more probably a part of Africa also of Africa. . he. a new now was in he carried impetus along by Undoubtedly. a as he made it and of reality living whole." speaks by a notable widening taken place. identify as a task to be understood and com historical identification.18 soon would acquire much . in any case. or C?saire. 167 ." But at that time he was term. . 180-181). but he did abandon the Algerian he In The Wretched of the Earth point of view. He did not abandon Algeria. pp. to to deny the desert. physical.It was Review Massachusetts The months several a new earlier. therefore for in the world. "What took it upon himself. since to forget Not him exactly. the of Fanon its full. obtain the aid of the Malians. together. pp. 30 the African Revolution. . the Senegalese. Indian poet. like to deaden I would desert. 177-178). new to his revealed of the world spired by the dimensions the physical and geo discovered Africa. Cf. according In a word I decided of a continent" Did this movement to take part in the coordinated the African Revolution. the primordial of all the Blacks mother Africa. It did not refer merely Later it stood meaning: unity and Frantz that he in January I960. great ship trunklines. Africa. the expression he gave precise and economic the creation of the political to mythical continent. graphical on own in this his bone with tired his every exhausting body to his physical break have contributed well which may trip across the "I wish canals for great down. pp. Algeria inclusive a part of Algeria. the West with which Black Americans a saw as social and Fanon it themselves. 58.

the time first and ruins" (Ibid. was in spite of the bonds enemies inevitable that he made so important. as a whole" it must progress (Ibid. was to have a similar idea . p. expressed mined as determined opponents. an American. his flights in anyone and except during were as rare his which became writings politicized. increasingly the nature of his daily relations with he scarcely ever revealed confided nor told us who were his friends and especially his comrades. bourgeois nationalist. should never the nationalist that who maintained phase sians. for them this does all probability visionary leaders not their for perhaps have imply position sincerity. 31 the the taken again destruction is essentially same rea complex up the idea of African of the African nation tactical and thus far . through passing its cortege of wars phase. 187)." and Tuni the Algerians tainly not to his comrades-in-arms.Fanon of Frantz Life Impossible as a "African he states unequivocally: unity to we propose gives us the starting point from which principle the without create the United States of Africa. states. Like a large body that refuses to let itself be mutilated. responsible not out that of it the suited the Whites.. La Patrice have Blacks many antagonized certainly he may met mumba 19 unity. to forge such seldom Fanon of lyricism. wrote Whom does we refer to? Cer He "We propose.19 A little later in The Wretched I the "national criticized parties. Another Black man. that he must have had deter it so uncompromisingly. even be bypassed.. Yet being tension." severely him. when he stated: and his comrades-in-arms] one region at longer progress therefore "Africa Algeria [and must understand that it can no a time. is but question as well. it in such a state of permanent his enemies. It has never who was state of affairs This for his assassination. the Algerian then. 192). mistrust that this aroused much against provisionally the Earth he of would The suspect leaders of these a collective tool parties for mass had worked action and too hard combat. from Since But In Fanon's the same fate. with chauvinist. as he himself. and he thesis was His created by the struggle. have to be X also concluded Malcolm that any solution would been quite clear African and even Afro-Asian. p.

the journey. a so to recent to test. bond the put least. in the first not and place. it 5 now he wanted or even of Africa. African I suspect that Fanon's and intransigent sudden shared have ism roused new hostility him. now was Fanon and he became role come ers a universalist of in France. today to know its Take in detail . of Negroes. 3 they considered to be The wheel come had full in the name another to the name was which this too was not but of Africa. Arabs. permitted so late in the making to say the it was Algerian imprudent. the final to choose he had Now in embodied he attacked stage. To quote concluding again It was save final and for ourselves Europe. try to create a new man. he did so not merely in the name of "the sweat and Orientals. em then him failure in The Wretched Europe humanism at his back Indian identity of this effort caused an Algerian patriot." Indians." work: comrades. of are for setting out is it really useful 32 in than historical in terms of Fanon One could as argue long as importance held up as an example mat What individuals. had refused his West point of departure. a new we must make beginning. When of the Earth. this time universalism. thought. new develop V might It of terest the that his whether it is of more the work and conduct his existence. a matter of Algeria but longer the the entire world. the reason or Marx. "For and of Man of lines for no his humanity.Review The Massachusetts sons. The another still But Africa. drama motives private outward manifestations their the admiring before ters be asked to interpret fundamental is the stages Freud or of can little be eyes of countless of the end point result. bodied circle. He in and cadav Soon there to after he found himself both attacking Europe and wanting to save all of humanity. He might against the fate of those Jewish themselves who declare intellectuals and even and are suspected universalists of cosmopolitanism treason are not members sufficiently legitimate an of the community For such aloofness.

The must the mark?hidden therefore bear at every moment or overt?of this man. is merely of his work. work illuminates more It is obvious. the success of a the genius of an author. was political: in which after a long period he tried to respond to it on the psychological and existential level. of Frantz that he was to know Fanon of Jewish background and probably had a special relationship with Judaism and the Jewish be Is there after denominator all any common community? tween such a narrow and in base and the extraordinary range fluence of the work? I think there is. the extraor explains. Not that genetic exegesis in any way deals exhaustively with all the dimensions of a finished work. a remained of his coefficient vision of the future of evitably mankind. even more on the integration into of the work to modify and on its potential that reality. his initial orientation toward psychology immo relations and his a role until of specialist in the human psyche. the ethic of his family and of his childhood. ultimately with all of humanity. and revolutionary of the language into secular persistent and ever unfulfilled great hope of the Jewish ethic. profession played the end in everything he undertook. and in including politics. his life's journey. But them that whatever depends human reality every work also represents the individual's response to the prob lems raised for him by that world and by his inner life. or even over. and his work completed that Fanon's their final and with himself.Life Impossible Marx the man. since significance. This dinary osmosis passion work. bilized by death. that drives him and con of the passion fers on his work I am both its strength and its vulnerability. convinced in the case of Marx that one of the most fascinating work and questionable the transposition facets his messianism. that Yet is how I am they were convinced is what That gives his image. then with the Third and World. he gradually identified his own destiny with Algeria. to his own predicament in the end Fanon's response True. latent despair that permeate Fanon's had suffered too much 33 from his N?gritude not to . He probably and the at least in part. in their entirety.

Review Masks Skin. of a culture. Blackness universalism or Arabness) in (or Jewishness. a cause that was national and concerned It is true that the Algerian country.The Massachusetts be exasperated by it. Universal and they could be dispensed are men culture after all made and up of particular cultures. ment the Algerian revolution. It should however out that such an outlook be pointed of false on universalism and abstract humanism is based all neglecting This specific though nor how universal particular all and social intervening particularities. however. of self. being decided. man with. conception. identity it is hard The best proof of this can be found in Fanon himself: rejected defended his N?gritude in the name of universalism. Black read from this perspective. This were from who far sympathizers of Algeria contact with have was believed and he then a particular their move called patriots could deceive wholehearted the scene where the destiny in daily lived Fanon. adherence and the positive to a collective The disdainful future. to see why these are necessarily contemptible. He into short poems of bitterness could have fellow that pro break up concluded with his misfortune to confront and trying it identifying in to order transform it. contribute to of abandonment the name decisive of of to a group. conception N?gritude than the mere consciousness of misfortune and to a vanquished is also It and group. end that is what he chose to do. the leaders of the struggle: how could he seriously a national movement? that this was not primarily 34 . recognition it is protest. man rests on a mis and universal is not the place to go into a thorough critique. Or he have evaded could directly it. subsequent and very of N?gritude. a and to his sentences which pels gives lyrical quality or rage. an alternative common to many reaction and in the oppressed. by This choice work. White In this work he be should speaks at re times directly about himself and then again describes the behavior of his but it is always his own suffering citizens. The questionable implies more of belonging affirmation at least of decision had first these was consequences his totally for his negative After all. reconstruction its potential.

The This narrow is probably exposed condemned in Indian for West only situation the expression in which he once himself. Here on the "blessed of the latter's ambiguous remarks of violence" the proletariat. same can be said of his theory of violence.Life of Frantz believe it. a and battle country fight his native island. never be avoided. even he knew that it was have the Algerians In any and the Tunisians. needed Hence self the aid this paradoxical condemnation at the very time when he was and particularist. was building believe that Algeria socialism. Why Algerian. can one react to fear other an act of vio How than through lence which frees the militant from his fear-inspired paralysis? A hand raised against the colonizer per strips this all-powerful lence sonage is not is inevitable of his sacred to affect character. struggle than Algerian since socialism. of this affirmation are of violence also trans true in the is doubtful that a can be acceptable. as we now know. decided that was intimate desper theory and the conflict a situation to which he to move to a far-away neither his own the Marxist nor thesis that of that vio a purify in spite beyond was and necessary. In fact. He went he of the lived. not international socialism. solely the colonized. It only Impossible In fact he did not quite of The Wretched of all of the Earth with movements. Fanon was distraught of countering by the torture in both camps. ately trying to be a part of another particularism. as being of N?gritude. violence for exam through negotiation or a in the relative of the two ple through change strength one so affirm that any people that does camps? Can resolutely Can not liberate itself through violence will botch its revolution? 35 . ing force. problematical For what Indian and not Algerian? other reason that he needed except as he tude as much to shed his former to come to and his N?gri of Algeria. not a close its very detailed critique must He Fanon not socialism socialism. For him violence he clearly parts company with Marx. doubt these is why Violence the goal must statements but it situation. No context of a particular theoretical generalization form the That colonizer. and by the necessity torture aroused the fear which in the minds of the militants. national needs Martinique? Why even if it was more he was West reading to been alluding if he did case.

the western cialist model nor. to make It is enough sacrifices are followed by by such a rush for selfish enjoyment. groups would structures. same The timated the is true of short-run and the long-run on the other hand importance of importance the He of Africa. frequently brought of his patients. capitalist the initial in which about the manner thought scarcely take place. Thus regional of cultural the he had difficulty discerning life of and custom. Fanon attacked the national bourgeoisie the his feelings and could not foresee that in all probability since in or the military seize power. vision of Fanon's underes national the bourgeoisie while proletariat. of the tenacity particularism. Just as in Algeria the way of little distinction and mentality he made various continent. interests. He was against nearly sable for a take-off he that encountered. urban he overestimated of African at least for the immediate future. His perception or He made at was least in great part illusory premature.The Review Massachusetts and not without so many see how one angry to cause. contradictory him as much mistrust pathy and respect. man in this totally new world? Are we still in politics or in a 36 . He What so too said about and up showed of tradition It man saw him the of this immense his scorn as of is probable as resentment the new he he as well in Africa realities that make peoples. unity the so he wanted neither constructive proposals: only vague model. the play of that it did that Fanon out emerging thought were of this totally the characteristics this sym hoped of the new Third World. yet this is indispen would of wealth accumulation all of the economy. the social between states. was carried so much waste he But and childish away by vanity. the only relatively organized they were in these new coun the actual situation he mistook bourgeoisie new nations Ultimately tries. leaders and one-party the political systems a rather to replace them with have wished would He probably and the intellectuals the uncorrupted alliance between Utopian Fanon peasantry. could be Much and wished for. the role of the peasantry. to be sure. and nations he grew impatient. and national aspirations.

as I have said else rejection a is in any case. that such a is inspiring. behalf. is no solution satisfactory rarely and. that is true. It is true that Europe did not live am referring both to its ruling classes up to our expectations?I classes also prof and to its proletariat. This is part of Fanon's itself as a model tendency idea of the new man to engage His in messianic prophesying. but there is no indication an nor that the Third World man is inventing is emerging be social structure. conditions which under he might have from on fighting cannot distance tunity for have the other was have defined his thought to its outline substance given did not leave him Death its contradictions. have until man. be an end there must colonial countries. have maintained always even while he social reality to say that such This is not and be an advantage: it may offer the only oppor is also the high price one clear vision. of self. where. but . men humili who with the for all and he believed break once Consequently brothers. that we this mean methods and the too socialism all. must ated him in his childhood. This distance an situation with and for non-coincidence impossible The and oneself. should or formerly very deep. or of happiness the made guarantee growth. If Fanon had lived. would clearly.dream? We of Frantz Life Impossible find that the Third World Fanon must not only discover but also offer to its own social and political misery the solution to the world. unwilling always understand. we have defined social the economic. is European tools what sort of third economic and social way the Third World could nor can we discern the make-up adopted. Does off from the intellectual over to domination Our colonial went disappointment cut ourselves After to see by the Europeans? perfected a It is difficult invention. overcome on Perhaps his distance political emerge. The key to the idea can probably original once and for all. The European working some did not to therefore extent and colonialism from ited were to or perhaps that admit. he would more of this new and hand he would individuals their and time. to reject Europe in Fanon's desire found his chosen that his adopted country. Many Algerians pays others for same discovery: they almost believed 37 themselves French.

Black Skins. profitable break off and rush into the adventure In any of independence. or problem. to drive a people in trying than farther case. the reader himself. to be decided what had they they never Fanon to self. a or not to too in time being. leave be and find another people or the one who remained to live allowed I fear and work who elsewhere as well as in his own conventional this day is very far off. Anyone they willing people or more the path of progress must in them. cannot refrain from He rather adolescence. not to at has whether for the decided least yet tinique continue. with immediate his scorn for tactics and his impatience reality. White Masks with One it anymore. with less stay step or C?saire? was right. Today country. they have scarcely begun are unsure of their Mar and still of their identity destiny. is raised be the author. Fanon one who preferred to The Who his better effect could own the of his midst in peo wishes. are fueled inner fire by such an inextinguishable gradualism. reach that impetus is carried in an 38 . a more to the wisdom conduct attuned pragmatic prescribes immediate and specific reality of each nation. return to his people.The Massachusetts Review understood that they had never been French. French. along with to be cannot its goal. wavered from then his discussed a to attempt it once in and then did not concern himself thinking Aim? C?saire. there is no point on are to to who his lead wishes go. in the enthusiasm of has never C?saire rejected. with This the entailed? goes beyond question subject of this article. some day it will can hope become academic: We that perhaps on the day when man at home will be and will any anywhere. that in spite of all this. Fanon's paroxysmic politics. the purpose: categorically original It is true that the people did not immediately respond to his to be conscious revolutionary appeal -. whom he first followed his refused he of Fanon's first hero. solution but how to this to be West Indian. in this return accepted was nor to to neither Al how how be be actuality. alliance with France. they finally never ceased being: Algerians. ruses that this the compromises and even necessary ple. His true problem. And that yond yet. when gerian.

them: last 36. 39 . Bethesda hospital. among added.Life Impossible of Frantz Fanon and opens up and hesitations doubts sure. the Marxists the end of an impos of neither approbation nor the proletariat neither the And the peasants countries. by a by a lyrical fever. regenerate a fourth must be three failures. It was the kind of it was death typical of self-destruction. of the in the attitude of a prophet him This death froze a a fate which hero of decolonization. Paradoxically. They and real ethical demand that constantly confuses maniehaeism roman into revolutionary ity. can a a which and culture past they recognize ing to the tempta succumb When social despair is too great. it is his failure his far-reaching to his particular theses that here. romantic Third World. different fascinates which It is this so many young men It is not accidental today aspect movements. belief ticism. as in the rest or of itself that has become the source of influence. and so many revolutionary the a saint of the Black Panthers: he has become that patron one too is probably them of a for fundamental problem in reconstruct too experience troubled difficulty identity. with to this uncom success due more is probably Frantz Fanon's prophetic promisingly the correctness of his attitude. men are gripped tion of messianism. they also fall an unshakeable in radical and final change. he received sible life. than analyses. So his life. have Guevara was to share of Fanon under circumstances. I have spoken of Fanon's cancer at of he died At the death. but does overcome the vision of a totally humanity. the bourgeoisie in the developing not yet spoken their piece. Ultimately nor the nationalists. in the America he hated. They as their own.