ITALIAN CERAMICS

Catherine Hess

ITALIAN CERAMICS
CATALOGUR OF THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM COLLECTION
THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LOS ANGELES

© 2002 J. Paul Getty Trust
Getty Publications
1200 Getty Center Drive
Suite 500
Los Angeles, California 90049-1682
www.getty.edu
Christopher Hudson, Publisher
Mark Greenberg, Editor in Chief
Project staff:
John Harris, Editor
Kurt Hauser, Designer
Amita Molloy, Production Coordinator
Jack Ross, Photographer
David Fuller, Map Designer
Kathleen Preciado, Indexer
Typography by G & S Typesetters
Printed by Mondadori Printing
Unless otherwise specified, all photographs are courtesy of the institution
owning the work illustrated.
Front cover: Pilgrim flask w i t h marine scenes (detail). See no. 34.
Back cover: Plate w i t h a winged putto on a hobbyhorse. See no. 22.
Front inside flap: Lustered plate with a female bust. See no. 20.
Half-title page: Green-painted jug with a bird (detail). See no. 3.
Title page: Drug jar for theriac (detail). See no. 37[.2].
Opposite: Basin with Deucalion and Pyrrha (reverse). See no. 35.
A l l catalogue entries are by Catherine Hess except no. 28 (written by
Peggy Fogelman) and no. 41 (written with Marietta Cambareri).
In the provenance sections, square brackets indicate the names of dealers.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hess, Catherine, 1957Italian ceramics : catalogue of the J. Paul Getty Museum collection /
Catherine Hess,
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-89236-670-2
1. Majolica, Italian—16th century—Catalogs.
California—Malibu—Catalogs.

I. J. Paul Getty Museum. I I . Title.
NK4315 .H47 2002
738.3''o945'07479493 —dc2i
2001006148

2. Majolica—

3. J. Paul Getty Museum—Catalogs.

CONTENTS

Foreword

Acknowledgments

vii

ix

Ceramic Production Centers

x

Introduction

I

Catalogue

18

Literature Cited

245

Profiles

260

Index

263

FOREWORD

I N T H E E A R L Y 1 9 8 0 s t h e M u s e u m ' s h o l d i n g s of I t a l i a n

D u e t o i t s process of f i r i n g c o l o r e d glazes o n t o a c l a y

c e r a m i c s c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of w o n d e r f u l a n c i e n t ex­

body, Renaissance m a i o l i c a preserves a n

unchanging

amples f r o m Etruria, I m p e r i a l Rome, and M a g n a Graecia.

p a l e t t e , a n d i t s p a i n t e d scenes offer a n e n l i g h t e n i n g

A l t h o u g h t h e M u s e u m already o w n e d a n i m p r e s s i v e c o l ­

c o u n t e r p a r t t o p a i n t i n g s f r o m t h e same p e r i o d , w h o s e

l e c t i o n of s e v e n t e e n t h -

French

p i g m e n t s m a y have faded or a l t e r e d w i t h t i m e . O n e of

d e c o r a t i v e arts, i n c l u d i n g pieces p r o d u c e d at Sevres, t h e

and eighteenth-century

t h e m a n y b e n e f i t s of t h e n e w i n s t a l l a t i o n s at t h e G e t t y

I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a was r e p r e s e n t e d b y a m e r e h a n d f u l of

C e n t e r has been t h e c h a n c e t o v i e w t h e m a i o l i c a c o l l e c ­

fine objects p r o d u c e d i n t h o s e same years.

t i o n i n b e a u t i f u l l y designed galleries one f l o o r b e l o w t h e
the

galleries of I t a l i a n Renaissance p a i n t i n g s . T h e o p p o r t u ­

G e t t y b e c a m e t h e r e p o s i t o r y of one of t h e m o s t i m p o r ­

n i t y t o r e l a t e these w o r k s of v e r y d i f f e r e n t m e d i a , b u t of

T h e n , i n a s i n g l e g r o u p a c q u i s i t i o n i n 1984,

t a n t c o l l e c t i o n s of I t a l i a n Renaissance t i n - g l a z e d e a r t h e n ­

c o m p a r a b l y e r u d i t e subject m a t t e r a n d v i r t u o s i c t e c h ­

w a r e , or m a i o l i c a , i n t h e U n i t e d States a n d

n i q u e , is a n u n e x p e c t e d b o n u s t o t h e M u s e u m v i s i t o r .

Europe.

A l t h o u g h s m a l l , t h i s g r o u p of objects is e x c e p t i o n a l l y

T h i s v o l u m e is a r e w o r k i n g of t h e 1988 catalogue of

fine and includes h i g h l y i n v e n t i v e l u x u r y i t e m s w i t h an

t h e I t a l i a n m a i o l i c a at t h e G e t t y . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k

i l l u s t r i o u s provenance, s u c h as t h e s p l e n d i d a n d b i z a r r e

Catherine

V e n e t i a n p l a t e d e c o r a t e d w i t h grotesques t h a t w a s once

W o r k s of A r t , for h e r e x c e l l e n t research a n d w o r k o n b o t h

o w n e d b y Q u e e n V i c t o r i a . I t also c o n t a i n s m o r e h u m b l e

t h e o r i g i n a l c a t a l o g u e a n d t h i s r e v i s e d e d i t i o n . T h e en­

r a r i t i e s , s u c h as t h e s p i r i t e d d r u g jar m a d e f o r Santa

s u i n g f o u r t e e n years have seen great advances i n r e l e v a n t

Hess, A s s o c i a t e

C u r a t o r of S c u l p t u r e

and

M a r i a d e l l a Scala i n Siena, t h e site of o n e of t h e m o s t

s c h o l a r s h i p a n d archaeology. A s a r e s u l t , t h e p r e s e n t cat­

i m p o r t a n t p h a r m a c i e s of i t s day. T h u s , t h e

alogue n o t o n l y f u l l y presents, for t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e M u ­

Museum's

h o l d i n g s p r o v i d e a r e m a r k a b l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e of

seum's I t a l i a n p o r c e l a i n i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s m a i o l i c a b u t

I t a l i a n Renaissance m a i o l i c a p r o d u c t i o n .

also p r o v i d e s n e w a n d m o r e a m p l e s c i e n t i f i c , i c o n o -

Since 1984, several objects have b e e n added t o c o m ­

graphic, and h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n .

p l e m e n t and r o u n d o u t the c o l l e c t i o n . A few earlier
S p a n i s h pieces, a n d a n a s t o n i s h i n g Baroque b a s i n a n d
Rococo

tabletop, bracket

the predominantly

Renais­

sance m a t e r i a l . T h e a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n

DEBORAH

GRIBBON

Director, T h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m
Vice-President, T h e J. Paul G e t t y Trust

f l a s k i n 1986, at t h a t t i m e one of o n l y t h r e e s u c h ob­
jects left i n p r i v a t e hands, e x t e n d e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n i n t o
t h e area of I t a l i a n p o r c e l a i n , w h i c h

also offers

rich

c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e M u s e u m ' s e m i n e n t c o l l e c t i o n of
French porcelain.

OPPOSITE: Drug jar for syrup of lemon juice (detail). See no. 16.

vviiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Italian

p h o t o g r a p h s r e p r o d u c e d here. D a v i d S c o t t of t h e G e t t y

c a t a l o g u e w a s p u b l i s h e d , a n u m b e r of s i g n i f i ­

Research I n s t i t u t e a n d B r i a n C o n s i d i n e , Jane Bassett,

I N T H E D O Z E N Y E A R S since t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s
Maiolica

c a n t advances have b e e n m a d e i n t h e s t u d y of I t a l i a n

a n d A r l e n H e g i n b o t h a m of t h e D e c o r a t i v e A r t s

c e r a m i c s . N e w a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e a n d t h e use of

Sculpture Conservation laboratory helped obtain and

and

a n u n c o m m o n t o o l of i n q u i r y i n

assess t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned f r o m s u c h procedures as

the field—have helped connect baffling ceramic typolo­

X-radiography, thermoluminescence, and nuclear-activa­

gies w i t h t h e i r centers of p r o d u c t i o n . I n cases w h e r e

tion

f i r m e v i d e n c e is l a c k i n g , o l d p r e j u d i c e s r e g a r d i n g at­

assistants James H i n t o n , K a t h r i n Holderegger, K a r e n

t r i b u t i o n — g i v i n g unfair hegemony

H u n g , A n n e I v e r s o n , a n d Bobbye T i g e r m a n assisted i n

archaeometry—once

to certain

over o t h e r s — c o n t i n u e t o g i v e w a y t o a n e w

towns

prudence

and circumspection. A n d archival w o r k continues to u n ­

testing.

Finally,

Getty

interns

and

research

various and i m p o r t a n t ways t h r o u g h o u t the project.
Outside the G e t t y fold I found inspiration and bril­

cover c r i t i c a l d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of p o t t e r s

l i a n t s u p p o r t f r o m T i m o t h y W i l s o n of t h e A s h m o l e a n

and potteries.

M u s e u m , O x f o r d . I w i l l a l w a y s be g r a t e f u l t o h i m for h i s
research

generosity, e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d f r i e n d s h i p . I a m t h a n k ­

w o u l d have b e e n i m p o s s i b l e w e r e i t n o t for t h e h e l p

f u l t o John M a l l e t , a n o t h e r p r e e m i n e n t s c h o l a r i n t h e

Negotiating and incorporating this n e w

of several i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l s , c o l l a b o r a t o r s really,

area of m a i o l i c a studies, w h o s e c o m m e n t s a n d sugges­

f r o m w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the G e t t y M u s e u m . I n G e t t y

tions considerably i m p r o v e d this manuscript. I w o u l d

T r u s t P u b l i c a t i o n s I a m i n d e b t e d t o M a r k Greenberg a n d

also l i k e t o t h a n k scholars A l e s s a n d r o A l i n a r i , M i c h a e l

John H a r r i s for t h e i r c o n s t a n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t

a n d fine

Brody, G u i d o D o n a t o n e , M a r c o S p a l l a n z a n i , a n d A n n a

e d i t o r i a l skills,- t o designer K u r t Hauser for h i s i n s p i r e d

M o o r e V a l e r i for a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d s h a r i n g t h e i r

eye a n d t o C e c i l y G a r d n e r a n d K i m b e r l y R i b a c k for t h e i r

e n t h u s i a s m for t h e subject. I a m b e h o l d e n t o t h e v a r i o u s

;

h e l p i n g a t h e r i n g v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . A m i t a M o l l o y over­

scholars, s c i e n t i s t s , a n d c u r a t o r s w h o c o n t i n u e t o w o r k

saw t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of t h i s b o o k ' s p r o d u c t i o n ; K a t h l e e n

a n d p u b l i s h i n t h e area of I t a l i a n c e r a m i c s , t h e r e b y fur­

Preciado prepared t h e i n d e x ; a n d D a v i d F u l l e r created

t h e r i n g research a n d c o n f i r m i n g t h e s o m e t i m e s

a n e w m a p for t h i s e d i t i o n . E l l e n S o u t h , staff a s s i s t a n t

l o o k e d place of I t a l i a n c e r a m i c s

within

the

over­

broader

i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t of S c u l p t u r e a n d W o r k s of A r t , pro­

h i s t o r y of art. F i n a l l y , s u p p o r t o n t h i s p r o j e c t , as o n so

v i d e d regular assistance w i t h grace a n d t a l e n t . Jack Ross

m a n y things, was p r o v i d e d b y m y husband,

of P h o t o Services w o r k e d h i s m a g i c i n t h e

F r a n k , t o w h o m t h i s b o o k is dedicated.

luscious

Laurence

OPPOSITE: Plate w i t h a winged putto on a hobbyhorse (detail). See no. 22.

ix

CERAMIC PRODUCTION

CENTERS

INTRODUCTION

There were no mortal men until, with the consent of the goddess Athene, Prometheus, son of
Iapetus, formed them in the likeness of gods. He used clay and water of Panopeus of Phocis,
and Athene breathed life into them.
Hesiod, THEOGONY
And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the
breath of life; and man became a living soul.

GENESIS

2: 7

Objects of terra-cotta . . . fulfill us, giving us the tiles for roofs, the bricks for walls, the recep­
tacles for wine, the tubes for water, and all of those objects which one makes on the wheel
and forms with one's hands. For these reasons, Numa established as seventh college that of
the potters.
Pliny the Elder, NATURAL HISTORY

C E R A M I C O B J E C T S h a v e e x i s t e d i n m a n y shapes a n d i n

f i r e d at a t e m p e r a t u r e h i g h e n o u g h t o m a k e t h e b o d y

m a n y c o u n t r i e s for t h o u s a n d s of years. T h a t t h e y are p r o ­

s o m e w h a t v i t r i f i e d , is h a r d a n d dense a n d w a s m o s t pop­

d u c e d f r o m e a r t h m i x e d w i t h w a t e r , d r i e d b y air, a n d

ular i n Europe i n m o d e r n times i n G e r m a n y and En­

b a k e d b y f i r e — e m b o d y i n g , thereby, t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l

g l a n d . F i n a l l y , p o r c e l a i n , also f i r e d at h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s ,

doctrine of t h e four elements that m a k e u p t h e u n i ­

is t r a n s l u c e n t , w h i t e , a n d v i t r e o u s .

verse—may e x p l a i n some of t h e i r allure. T h e potter's

E a r t h e n w a r e s have b e e n p r o d u c e d i n I t a l y since an­

s e e m i n g l y d i v i n e a c t of u s i n g a m e d i u m r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e

c i e n t t i m e s . T h e c o l o n i z i n g G r e e k s ( n i n t h t o e i g h t h cen­

e l e m e n t s o f t h e u n i v e r s e t o create f o r m f r o m n o n f o r m

t u r y B . C . ) a n d t h e Etruscans (seventh t o

h e l p s a c c o u n t f o r t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l appeal o f c e r a m i c

B . C . ) , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e able, e v e n m a s t e r f u l c e r a m i s t s .

fifth

a n d success o f t i n - g l a z e d

century

w o r k , w h i c h l o n g ago i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y u t i l i t a r i a n ves­

The development

sels b u t also v o t i v e offerings t o t h e gods. M o r e i m p o r ­

ware, or m a i o l i c a , o n t h e peninsula i n t h e fourteenth,

earthen­

t a n t l y , h o w e v e r , i t is clay's a b i l i t y t o g i v e shape t o

fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries produced a particu­

f u n c t i o n a l objects t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e l o n g h i s t o r y a n d re­

l a r l y r i c h c h a p t e r i n t h i s h i s t o r y . C e r t a i n l y , I t a l y ' s loca­

m a r k a b l y w i d e geographical and c u l t u r a l d i s s e m i n a t i o n

t i o n i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n , at t h e c e n t e r of a n area

of c e r a m i c p r o d u c t i o n .

t o u c h e d b y diverse c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s — B y z a n t i n e , Is­

T h i s l o n g h i s t o r y a n d w i d e d i s s e m i n a t i o n c a n be at­

lamic, N o r t h African—helped determine n o t only the

t r i b u t e d t o t h r e e c h i e f factors: f i r s t , t h e r a w m a t e r i a l s re­

h i g h l e v e l o f t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y b u t also t h e b e a u t y a n d

q u i r e d — t h e d i f f e r e n t clays f o r t h e c e r a m i c body, a n d t h e

v a r i e t y t h a t m a i o l i c a wares display.

m i n e r a l s , ash, a n d sand f o r t h e p i g m e n t s a n d glazes—are

T h e t e r m maiolica

is c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t t o d e r i v e

a b u n d a n t a n d accessible; second, c e r a m i c w a r e is e a s i l y

f r o m t h e n a m e o f t h e Balearic i s l a n d o f M a j o r c a ( M a ­

shaped (by h a n d , o n a w h e e l [ f i g . 1], o r i n a m o l d ) a n d

j o l i c a ) , w h i c h served as a n e n t r e p o t f o r t h e M o r e s q u e

h a r d e n e d (by d r y i n g o r f i r i n g ) ; a n d t h i r d , t h e objects p r o ­

l u s t e r w a r e b o u n d for t h e I t a l i a n m a r k e t i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h

d u c e d are f u n d a m e n t a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n .

a n d f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . H o w e v e r , i t is m o r e l i k e l y trace­
1

C l a y is m a d e o f e a r t h f o r m e d b y t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n

able t o t h e S p a n i s h n a m e f o r l u s t e r p r o d u c t s , obra

de

M e d i e v a l p o t t e r i e s at Malaga

as

of f e l d s p a t h i c r o c k s . A n a l m o s t l i m i t l e s s v a r i e t y o f clays

mdlequa.

exists, d e p e n d i n g o n t h e a m o u n t o f m i n e r a l a n d o r g a n i c

w e l l as M u r c i a a n d A l m e r i a i n t h e M o o r i s h s o u t h , s e e m

m a t t e r and of i m p u r i t i e s t h a t either a c c u m u l a t e d u r i n g

t o have b e e n t h e first t o p r o d u c e c e r a m i c l u s t e r s i n

2

[mdlequa),

s e d i m e n t a t i o n o r are added. T h r e e general types o f ce­

Spain. U n t i l t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y maiolica

r a m i c w a r e c a n be p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e v a r i o u s clays:

c l u s i v e l y t o wares d e c o r a t e d w i t h i r i d e s c e n t l u s t e r s o f

earthenware,

Earthenware,

Spanish or I s l a m i c o r i g i n . O n l y later d i d this t e r m come

f i r e d at r e l a t i v e l y l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s , i s p o r o u s , coarse,

t o refer t o I t a l i a n e a r t h e n w a r e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e u n l u s t e r e d

a n d ranges i n c o l o r f r o m l i g h t y e l l o w t o red. S t o n e w a r e ,

variety.

stoneware,

and porcelain.

OPPOSITE: Basin with Deucalion and Pyrrha (detail). See no. 35.

referred ex­

3

I

1

Style of the Centaur Painter. Detail of black-figure cup, ca. 540-30 B.C.
Karlsruhe, Badisches Landesmuseum. The decoration on this cup shows
a potter trimming a kylix on a potter's wheel. A robed companion,

T i n glazes c a n l i k e w i s e be t r a c e d t o S p a i n f r o m as
e a r l y as A . D . i o o o . B u t a r o u n d 1300 I b n a l - A h m a r s N a s 4

possibly the person who had ordered the cup, watches h i m at work.

r i d k i n g d o m , w h i c h had u n i t e d Malaga w i t h M u r c i a and

Albarello. Valencia (Manises), early fifteenth century. Tin-glazed

masters were forced n o r t h to the m o r e prosperous Valen-

Granada,
2

;

earthenware, H: 38 cm (15 in.). London, Victoria and Albert Museum.
This Spanish jar is decorated with Kufic script and knot, interlace, and
tree of life patterns.

became increasingly unstable,

and M o o r i s h

c i a n c e r a m i c centers. T h e y b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m I s l a m i c
motifs and techniques that were t h e n exported to Italy
t h a n k s t o a c t i v e c o m m e r c e a n d t h e m o v e m e n t of a r t i ­
sans b e t w e e n S p a n i s h w o r k s h o p s a n d t h e g r o w i n g I t a l i a n
c e n t e r s of p r o d u c t i o n (fig. 2).
T h e t e c h n i q u e of t i n - g l a z i n g c e r a m i c s reached I t a l y
for t h e f i r s t t i m e b y t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , w h e n p o t t e r s
and p o t t e r y f r o m the eastern M e d i t e r r a n e a n and M a g h r i b
reached

southern

Italy.

Geometric

patterns,

Islamic

m o t i f s , ships, a n d a n i m a l figures i n green, b r o w n , a n d
y e l l o w predominate, w i t h cobalt blue p i g m e n t appearing
i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . T h i s so-called p r o t o m a i o l i c a c a n
also be f o u n d i n Pisa, w h e r e p o l y c h r o m e b o w l s w e r e set
i n t o c h u r c h w a l l s — p o s s i b l y t o create a c o l o r i s t i c effect
m u c h l i k e stone m o s a i c — a l t h o u g h w h e t h e r i t arrived
v i a s h i p or o v e r l a n d is n o t k n o w n .

5

I n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y Near Eastern
transmitted

the

technique

across

craftsmen

northwest

Africa

t h r o u g h S p a i n t o E u r o p e . T r a d e a n d m i g r a t i o n also car­
ried ceramics along this route. I t was this later i m p o r t a ­
t i o n — c o m p r i s i n g p o t t e r y of M o o r i s h S p a i n

together

w i t h I s l a m i c w a r e s — t h a t e x e r t e d t h e strongest s t y l i s t i c
influence o n early I t a l i a n m a i o l i c a .

2

Introduction

B y t h e e n d of t h e

fifteenth

c e n t u r y t h e n u m b e r of

H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e c e r a m i c s i n I t a l y f e l l as I t a l i a n p o t ­
ters b e c a m e adept i n t h e t i n - g l a z e m e d i u m . I t a l i a n tastes
h a d also changed, a n d q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y Renaissance e m ­
b e l l i s h m e n t s s u c h as n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s s u p p l a n t e d t h e
medieval and Islamic-inspired m o t i f s s t i l l found

on

S p a n i s h wares f r o m t h e same p e r i o d . I n a d d i t i o n , b y t h e
fifteenth

century Chinese p o r c e l a i n — w i t h its t h i n walls

a n d elegant b l u e a n d w h i t e d e c o r a t i o n — h a d b e g u n t o
r e a c h Italy, s t i r r i n g c o l l e c t o r s ' desire a n d i n f l u e n c i n g l o ­
cal earthenware p r o d u c t i o n .
W h i l e r e t a i n i n g s o m e of t h e o r i g i n a l g l a z i n g t e c h ­
n i q u e s , I t a l i a n Renaissance m a i o l i c a f e a t u r e d d i s t i n c ­
t i v e l y I t a l i a n c o l o r s a n d o r n a m e n t a t i o n , as m a n y of t h e
3

Attributed to Jacopo della Pergola. Illuminated initial "M" from a

Getty Museum's works illustrate. Moreover, maiolica

manuscript (detail), mid-fifteenth century. London, Victoria and Albert

w a r e of t h e

Museum. The woman carting produce from her garden in a basket
on her head also holds a maiolica jar in her right hand. The jar was
probably used in the cultivation or harvest of the crop or to carry a
beverage to the harvesters.

fifteenth

a n d s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s served a

range of purposes t h a t crossed s o c i a l strata: f r o m p r a c t i ­
c a l c o m m o n - w a r e vessels of t h e e v e r y d a y

household

(fig. 3) t o elaborate p o t t e r y of rarefied subject

matter

p o i n t i n g u p t h e taste a n d e r u d i t i o n of i t s p a t r i c i a n o w n ­
ers. I n i t i a l l y , t h e shape a n d glaze of these wares f o l l o w e d
t h e i r f u n c t i o n as receptacles;

later on, however,

the

shape a n d surface d e c o r a t i o n b e c a m e a e s t h e t i c concerns,
t a k i n g o n s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a n d of t h e m s e l v e s .
I t a l i a n m a i o l i c a of t h e
ceptionally brilliant

Renaissance displays

and colorful

surface

ex­

decoration.

T h i s d e c o r a t i o n was m a d e possible b y advances i n glaz­
i n g a n d firing t e c h n i q u e s , d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p i c t o r i a l rep­
r e s e n t a t i o n , a n d a c t i v e patronage t h a t s o u g h t o u t a n d
rewarded q u a l i t y and i n n o v a t i o n . M a i o l i c a decoration
was a c h i e v e d b y c o v e r i n g already fired e a r t h e n w a r e w i t h
a p r i m a r y bianco

( w h i t e ) glaze. T h e bianco

glaze w a s

m a d e u p of a glassy l e a d o x i d e o p a c i f i e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n
of t i n o x i d e (ashes), a l o n g w i t h a s i l i c a t e of p o t a s h m a d e
f r o m w i n e lees m i x e d w i t h sand. T h e p a i n t e d o r n a m e n t
was t h e n a p p l i e d t o t h e r a w glaze i n t h e f o r m of m e t a l l i c
oxides. F i r i n g again i n t h e k i l n fused t h e p a i n t e d p i g ­
m e n t s t o t h i s w h i t e g r o u n d . T h e i n n o v a t i o n of a d d i n g t i n
n o t o n l y e n a b l e d t h e p o t t e r s t o p r o d u c e a n opaque w h i t e
4

Bowl. Iran, thirteenth century. Lead-glazed earthenware. London,
Victoria and Albert Museum. This bowl illustrates the runny nature

g r o u n d b u t also m a d e t h e glazes m o r e stable w h e n

fired;

of fired lead glazes that have not been stabilized by the addition of

p r e v i o u s l y , t h e p i g m e n t s h a d t e n d e d t o r u n or b l u r (fig. 4).

tin oxide.

M a i o l i c a p a i n t e r s o f t e n reserved t h e t i n g l a z e s — w h i c h

Introduction

3

were

imported from

C o r n w a l l v i a Flanders,

making

t h e m e x p e n s i v e — f o r t h e f r o n t of a d i s h or t h e e x t e r i o r
6

of a p o t , w h e r e t h e glaze's b r i l l i a n c e a n d s t a b i l i t y for
painted decoration were most important, relegating the
less p r i c e y l e a d glaze t o t h e reverse side or i n t e r i o r .
L a t e m e d i e v a l m a i o l i c a displays a l i m i t e d range of
c o l o r s c o m p o s e d p r i m a r i l y of green f r o m acetate or car­
b o n a t e p r o d u c e d b y t h e a c t i o n of v i n e g a r o n

copper,

w h i t e f r o m t i n ( t h o u g h n o t u s e d o v e r a l l at t h i s e a r l y
date), a n d p u r p l i s h b r o w n f r o m manganese. A l t h o u g h
rare, l i g h t b l u e a n d y e l l o w also appear at t h i s t i m e .

7

By the early f o u r t e e n t h century, especially i n E m i l i a R o m a g n a a n d T u s c a n y , one f i n d s t h e f i r s t k n o w n d a r k
b l u e - g l a z e d w o r k s of t h e C h r i s t i a n West. B y t h e m i d Q u a t t r o c e n t o , I t a l i a n vasai,

or p o t t e r s , h a d d e v e l o p e d a

r i c h p a l e t t e t h a t i n c l u d e d a deep b l u e f r o m c o b a l t o x i d e
m i x e d w i t h q u a r t z or sand, a m o r e p u r p l e - c o l o r e d m a n ­
ganese b r o w n , a n d b r i l l i a n t y e l l o w s a n d oranges f r o m
m i x i n g a n t i m o n y a n d f e r r i c o x i d e . A l t h o u g h r e d occa­
s i o n a l l y appeared, n o t r u e r e d f r o m v e r m i l i o n w a s u s e d
before 1700, since t h i s p i g m e n t p r o v e d t o o v o l a t i l e t o
survive contemporary firing techniques.
T h e a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v e r a n d copper o x i d e s before a n
a d d i t i o n a l f i r i n g p r o d u c e d t h e g o l d , red, or p e a r l y m e t a l ­

5

Cipriano Piccolpasso (Italian, 1523-1579). Folio 49V from Li tie libri

l i c r e f l e c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l u s t e r w a r e . T h e s e oxides

dell'arte del vasaio (1557). London, Victoria and Albert Museum.

w e r e s p r i n k l e d or p a i n t e d i n a t h i n w a s h o n t o t h e sur­

Resinous fuel is added below the kiln while plates placed above the kiln

faces of t h e c e r a m i c s . I n t r o d u c i n g s m o k e i n t o t h e k i l n
d u r i n g f i r i n g b y n a r r o w i n g t h e a i r i n l e t s t o t h e fire c h a m ­
ber a n d a d d i n g w e t or r e s i n o u s f u e l (such as r o s e m a r y or
j u n i p e r b r a n c h e s [ f i g . 5]) r e m o v e d t h e o x y g e n f r o m

the

p i g m e n t s , l e a v i n g t h e p a i n t e d areas w i t h a t h i n m e t a l
coat. W h e n r u b b e d , these m e t a l deposits p r o d u c e d t h e
s h i m m e r i n g , i r i d e s c e n t surface c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l u s t e r .
S o m e t i m e s a f i n a l coperta

(cover) glaze w a s a p p l i e d t o es­

p e c i a l l y p r e c i o u s objects, w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d l i k e a clear
varnish, fusing the pigments and leaving a particularly
s h i n y , j e w e l l i k e surface.
marzacotto

( A coperta

is c o m p o s e d

of

[ c o o k i n g m i x t u r e ] m a d e b y f u s i n g sand w i t h

c a l c i n e d w i n e lees.)
M a i o l i c a p a i n t e r s n e e d e d a sure h a n d : once a p p l i e d ,
p i g m e n t s w e r e p a r t l y absorbed i n t o t h e r a w t i n glaze
and

could not

be

imperceptibly

altered

or

erased.

T h e s e a r t i s t s also n e e d e d a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e of t h e i r

4

Introduction

serve as test pieces that the workmen periodically check to determine
when the right temperature has been reached to develop the luster.

6

7

Vannoccio Biringuccio. Illustration from chapter 14, book 9, of De la

Cipriano Piccolpasso. Folio 3 from Li tie libri dell'arte del vasaio

pirotechnia (Venice, 1540). Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute,

(1557). London, Victoria and Albert Museum. Potters collecting clay

Special Collections. Two potters use two different types of potter's

from a riverbed.

wheels next to a kiln in their workshop.

delVaite

del vasaio

at t h e s u g g e s t i o n of C a r d i n a l

m a t e r i a l s t o ensure t h a t t h e d e c o r a t i o n desired b e c a m e

libri

t h e d e c o r a t i o n a c h i e v e d , since r a w p i g m e n t s appear i n

F r a n c o i s de T o u r n o n w h e n t h e c a r d i n a l was

visiting

shades of gray a n d beige w h e n a p p l i e d a n d o n l y develop

Castel

Urbino.

Durante

as

a guest of t h e

duke

of

t h e i r c o l o r w i t h f i r i n g . L u c k i l y , p a i n t e d m a i o l i c a decora­

Piccolpasso

t i o n has t h e great advantage of n e v e r d u l l i n g or d a r k e n ­

l i g h t t h e k i l n " a l far d e l l a l u n a . . . r a c c o r d a n d o s i far sem-

i n s t r u c t e d n o v i c e p o t t e r s t o prepare

and

i n g w i t h age, u n l i k e fresco or o i l p a i n t i n g of t h e same

pre t u t t e l e cose c o l n o m e d i Jesu C r i s t o " (by t h e l i g h t of

period. A l t h o u g h l i m i t e d b y available materials and tech­

t h e m o o n . . . r e m e m b e r i n g t o do a l l t h i n g s i n t h e n a m e

n i q u e s , m a i o l i c a p i g m e n t s t h u s p r o v i d e s o m e of t h e f e w

of Jesus C h r i s t ) .

e x a m p l e s of c o l o r s used i n t h e Renaissance t h a t have re­

T h a n k s t o Piccolpasso, w e are able t o r e c o n s t r u c t
c o n t e m p o r a r y m e t h o d s of g a t h e r i n g (fig. 7) a n d f o r m i n g

m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d b y t i m e or use.
Fifteenth-

9

a n d s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y experts

in

such

clay, m a k i n g a n d a p p l y i n g glazes, a n d f i r i n g

ceramic

subjects as p y r o t e c h n y , m e t a l l u r g y , a n d m i n e r a l o g y —

pieces. H i s m a n u a l r e c o r d e d for t h e first t i m e " t u t t i g l i

s u c h as V a n n o c c i o B i r i n g u c c i o ( 1 4 8 0 - c a . 1539) (fig. 6)

segreti de Parte d e l vasaio . . . q u e l l o che gia t a n t ' a n n i e

and

Georgius

Agricola

(ne

Bauer,

1494-155 5 ) —
8

stato a s c o s t o " ( a l l of t h e secrets of t h e p o t t e r ' s a r t . . .

h e l p e d advance t h e t e c h n i q u e s of m a i o l i c a p r o d u c t i o n .

w h i c h have b e e n k e p t h i d d e n for m a n y y e a r s ) .

O t h e r s e x p l a i n e d h o w t h e " d i v i n e " p r o p e r t i e s of fire

b e i n g h i d d e n (ascosto),

m a d e p o s s i b l e t h e p o t t e r s ' g i f t of l i f e (permanence)

cess a n d f a m e — w e r e j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d as w e l l . T h i s

to

10

Besides

these s e c r e t s — t h e k e y s t o suc­

e a r t h (clay), m u c h as t h e gods of t h e c r e a t i o n m y t h s of

e x p l a i n s w h y , despite t h e m o b i l i t y of c e r a m i s t s

t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n w o r l d gave l i f e t o m a n . References t o

t h e i r wares, one c a n o f t e n d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m e t h o d s , ce­

t h e m y s t i c a l a n d d i v i n e n a t u r e of t h e c e r a m i c

craft

are f o u n d i n t h e m o s t e x h a u s t i v e a n d d i d a c t i c s i x t e e n t h century

manual

on

C i p r i a n o Piccolpasso

ceramic

production.

Cavaliere

of C a s t e l D u r a n t e w r o t e Li

tie

and

r a m i c shapes, a n d d e c o r a t i v e s t y l e s of d i f f e r e n t centers of
production.
Some types of m a i o l i c a d e c o r a t i o n b e c a m e t h e spe­
c i a l t i e s of t h e centers i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e developed.

Introduction

5

E s p e c i a l l y i n T u s c a n y one finds zaffeia

a rilievo, or r e l i e f

b l u e d e c o r a t i o n (see nos. 4 - 5 , 7 - 9 ) . T h e t e r m zaffeia
w e l l r e l a t e t o t h e I t a l i a n t e r m zaffiro

may

for " s a p p h i r e /

g e m s t o n e p r i z e d for i t s b r i l l i a n t b l u e c o l o r . Zaffeia

7

a

deco­

r a t i o n was rendered i n cobalt oxide, a costly m a t e r i a l

Francesco d i A n t o n i o A n t i n o r i s t r u c k a c o n t r a c t
twenty-three

potters

from

neighboring

with

Montelupo

w h e r e b y A n t i n o r i w o u l d b u y t h e e n t i r e p r o d u c t i o n of
the

contracted

workshops

for t h e

subsequent

three

years. W h a t he i n t e n d e d t o do w i t h t h i s s t o c k is n o t

t h a t , l i k e t i n , r e q u i r e d i m p o r t a t i o n , i n t h i s case f r o m

k n o w n , a l t h o u g h one scholar s u r m i s e s t h a t

n o r t h e r n A f r i c a or t h e e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n . M a i o l i c a

m i g h t have seen t h e s i t u a t i o n as a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o m a k e

Antinori

p a i n t e r s u s e d t h i s c o b a l t p i g m e n t t h a t was h i g h i n lead,

m o n e y b y m o n o p o l i z i n g M o n t e l u p o p r o d u c t i o n and sell­

o u t l i n e d w i t h manganese b r o w n , to p a i n t m o t i f s resem­

i n g i t i n Florence, w h e r e t h e m a i o l i c a i n d u s t r y h a d b e g u n

b l i n g o a k leaves a n d b e r r i e s ,

to decline.

11

sometimes framing figural

s ubjects a n d h e r a l d i c devices. Because of t h e l o w e r m e l t ­
i n g p o i n t of lead, t h e d e c o r a t i o n s w e l l e d w i t h

firing,

m a k i n g i t s t a n d o u t i n r e l i e f f r o m t h e jar (see n o . 4 ) .
T h e East i n f l u e n c e d alia

1 2

14

F i g u r a l d e c o r a t i o n began t o p r e d o m i n a t e o n l u x u r y
m a i o l i c a b y 1520. Yet s o m e p a i n t e r s at Faenza, C a s t e l
D u r a n t e , a n d U r b i n o c h a m p i o n e d istoiiato

(historiated),

or p o r c e l a i n ­

ware, o n w h i c h painted "stories"—usually historical,

l i k e d e c o r a t i o n , t h r o u g h Persian designs, T u r k i s h I z n i k

r e l i g i o u s , or m y t h o l o g i c a l — c o v e r m o s t , i f n o t a l l , of

poicellana,

p o t t e r y , a n d e s p e c i a l l y C h i n e s e p o r c e l a i n of t h e M i n g dy­

t h e surface (see n o . 29). Istoiiato

nasty (1368-1644), w h i c h arrived i n Italy i n the

i n f l u e n c e of c o n t e m p o r a r y p a n e l , fresco, a n d o i l p a i n t ­

fifteenth

p a i n t i n g shows the

century. T h i s decoration i m i t a t e d porcelain, w i t h painted

ing, particularly i n its illusionistic representation

b l u e f o l i a g e a n d f l o r a l sprays o n a w h i t e g r o u n d

deep space. B u t t h e t i m e a n d s k i l l r e q u i r e d l i m i t e d i t s

n o . 19). A l t h o u g h p o p u l a r as w e l l i n T u s c a n y ,
R o m a g n a , a n d t h e M a r c h e s , alia poicellana

(see

Emilia-

embellish­

m e n t b e c a m e a s p e c i a l t y of V e n e t i a n w o r k s h o p s , proba­

o u t p u t , m a k i n g istoiiato
that was produced.

L i k e alia

poicellana

I n e a r l i e r m a i o l i c a f o r m s one finds a u n i o n of shape,
decoration,

m o t i f s , beiettino

glazes m a y

h ave o r i g i n a t e d i n V e n i c e as a r e s u l t of M i d d l e a n d Far
E a s t e r n i n f l u e n c e s . C e r a m i s t s a c h i e v e d beiettino's

w a r e , i n spite of w h a t w e s t u d y

a n d see i n m u s e u m s , o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of t h e m a i o l i c a

b l y because of t h e c i t y ' s l o c a t i o n o n t h e A d r i a t i c Sea, a
s trategic p o s i t i o n for t r a d e w i t h t h e East.

of

a n d use. I n istoiiato

ware, however,

the

p a i n t e d stories w e r e of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e , w h i c h ex­
p l a i n s w h y m u c h f u l l - s c a l e istoiiato

p a i n t i n g w a s exe­

char­

c u t e d o n s h a l l o w , concave vessels w h o s e surfaces w e r e

a c t e r i s t i c lavender-gray c o l o r b y m i x i n g t i n - w h i t e glaze

l a r g e l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d b y r i m s , depressions, or m o l d e d

w i t h a s m a l l a m o u n t of c o b a l t . T h i s d e l i c a t e b l u e served

designs. T h e s h i f t i n e m p h a s i s f r o m f u n c t i o n a l c e r a m i c

as a g r o u n d o n w h i c h t h e y p a i n t e d designs ( p r i m a r i l y

receptacles t o p i c t o r i a l glazed surfaces is r e f l e c t e d n o t

f l o w e r s , foliage, a n d g r o t e s q u e s )

13

i n intense blue high­

l i g h t e d w i t h t h r e a d l i k e bands of w h i t e (see nos. 24, 3 2 3 3). A s i m i l a r beiettino

b l u e g r o u n d was also p o p u l a r i n

F aenza and, later, i n L i g u r i a .
Around
painted

the

figural

b e g i n n i n g of t h e

o n l y i n istoiiato

c e r a m i c s b u t also i n m a i o l i c a p l a q u e s

a n d p i a t t i da pompa

( s h o w dishes), w h i c h w e r e p r o d u c e d

s o l e l y for d i s p l a y (see n o . 35). T h e l a r g e l y u n a n s w e r e d
q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r fancy, istoiiato

sixteenth

and abstract decorations

were

century,
equally

m a i o l i c a was ever

u s e d at t h e d i n i n g t a b l e has p r o v o k e d a great a m o u n t of
discussion

among

scholars.

No

evidence

exists

of

p o p u l a r o n m a i o l i c a pieces p r o d u c e d i n t h e r i v a l c e n t e r s

m a i o l i c a objects b e i n g u s e d for d i s p l a y o n a s i d e b o a r d

o f D e r u t a , Faenza, Florence, G u b b i o , a n d M o n t e l u p o .

(fig. 8), w h e r e a s t h e r e is n o l a c k of d e p i c t i o n s of m e t a l

F a e n z a — f r o m w h i c h t h e t e r m faience

p l a t e b e i n g u s e d i n t h i s m a n n e r (fig. 9 ) .

d e r i v e d — w a s one

o f t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e a n d w e l l o r g a n i z e d of these cen­

find

t ers a n d was, as a r e s u l t , one of t h e m o s t

iiato

O t h e r centers were l i k e w i s e developing

influential.

1 5

O n e has y e t t o

i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e e v i d e n c e o n t h e surface of a n

isto­

piece t h a t i t h a d h e l d f o o d (for e x a m p l e , v i r t u a l l y

sophisticated

i n v i s i b l e fine cracks o n t h e surface of a d i s h , c a l l e d craz­

c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n s . A s e a r l y as 1490, t h e F l o r e n t i n e

i n g , c a n b e c o m e p r o n o u n c e d w h e n s t a i n e d w i t h food) or

6

Introduction

8

Plate with Soderini arms. Valencia (Manises), early fifteenth century.
Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 20 cm (8 in.). London, British Museum.
Photo: © The British Museum. According to the inventory of his
estate, Giovanni Soderini kept elegant plates like this one i n his study,
indicating that he considered such Hispano-Moresque maiolica, together
with his other precious and edifying objects, worthy of admiration. He
might have also used these plates for the occasional special meal.

9

Circle of Francesco Granacci (active in Florence, 1469-1543), possibly
Bartolomeo di Giovanni. The Lapiths and the Centaurs (detail), late
fifteenth century. Cassone panel. Wiltshire, England, Longleat. A lavish
display of metalwork appears on the credenza behind the dinner table.

Introduction

~[

io

Workshop of Guido Durantino (active i n Urbino, d. 1576). Plate of

11

David and Goliath, from the Cardinal Duprat service, 1535. Diam: 44

Nicola da Urbino (Urbino, fl. 15 20-15 3 7/8). Plate of Apollo and
Daphne, ca. 1525. London, British Museum, inv. MLA 1855, 1201,

cm (17 V3 in.). Paris, Musee du Louvre, inv. MR 2201. Photo: © Reunion

103. © The British Museum. The duchess of Urbino may have

des Musees Nationaux. The opening to the channel for draining off

been referring to the service to which this plate belongs, comprising

liquid is cleverly located at the lowest point of the river, where i t

twenty-one plates and bowls and marked with the Este-Gonzaga

disappears underground.

coat of arms.

b e e n scarred b y e a t i n g u t e n s i l s , t h e n r e l a t i v e l y c o m m o n

U s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e these n a r r a t i v e c e r a m i c s , p r i n t s

i n I t a l i a n c o u r t s . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e is n o t one representa­

a n d engravings, w h i c h p r o l i f e r a t e d i n t h e m i d - f i f t e e n t h

t i o n of a n istohato

c e n t u r y , b r o u g h t once esoteric i m a g e r y i n t o w i d e r c i r c u ­

p l a t e i n a n I t a l i a n Renaissance p a i n t ­

i n g . O n e scholar, John M a l l e t , believes t h a t t h e n e w a n d

l a t i o n . E s p e c i a l l y i n t h e M a r c h e s r e g i o n of c e n t r a l I t a l y ,

great v a r i e t y of shapes g i v e n t o m a i o l i c a plates m u s t

m a i o l i c a painters used p r i n t s b y G e r m a n and I t a l i a n

have d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t of t h e p l a t e s v a r i e d f u n c t i o n s

m a s t e r s s u c h as M a r t i n Schongauer, A l b r e c h t D i i r e r , a n d

at t h e d i n i n g t a b l e . Indeed, s o m e e v i d e n c e does e x i s t t o

M a r c a n t o n i o R a i m o n d i as c a r t o o n s for t h e i r

suggest t h a t istohato

7

ceramic

m a i o l i c a m i g h t have b e e n used, a l ­

p a i n t i n g s (see nos. 25, 29). T h e y adapted t h e scenes a n d

b e i t rarely, for d i n i n g . For e x a m p l e , M a l l e t p o i n t s o u t t h e

figures f r o m t h e p r i n t s t o t h e g e n e r a l l y c i r c u l a r shapes of

u n a m b i g u o u s f u n c t i o n of a large p l a t e of 1535 f r o m a

t h e c e r a m i c s a n d t r a n s f e r r e d t h e designs t o t h e wares.

service b e l o n g i n g t o a n i l l u s t r i o u s F r e n c h p a t r o n , C a r d i ­

F r o m Piccolpasso w e k n o w t h a t c e r a m i s t s c o p i e d w o r k s

n a l D u p r a t (fig. 10). T h i s p l a t e , d e p i c t i n g t h e subject of

o n paper f r e e h a n d ( p r o b a b l y i n c l u d i n g p r i n t s a n d d r a w ­

D a v i d a n d G o l i a t h , i n c l u d e s a clever o u t l e t for g r a v y or

ings b o t h ) (fig. 12). Yet, since so m a n y p r i n t images ap­

some other l i q u i d o n its underside, o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m and

pear r e p e a t e d l y — a n d a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l l y — o n

hidden i n the stream on the front.

D o c u m e n t s also t e l l

plates, i t appears t h a t p a i n t e r s used t h e c a r t o o n s as sten­

us t h a t Pope C l e m e n t V I I preferred t o eat f r o m m a i o l i c a

c i l s or t e m p l a t e s i n order t o c o p y m o r e p r e c i s e l y t h e de­

p a i n t e d w i t h bianco

rather t h a n w i t h

s i r e d scenes a n d figures. T h e y w o u l d have t r a n s f e r r e d

d e c o r a t i o n , w h i c h h e h a d lesser c h u r c h officials

these images b y p r i c k i n g a c a r t o o n w i t h s m a l l h o l e s ,

use. H i s o p i n i o n w o u l d s e e m t o have b e e n shared b y

p l a c i n g t h e c a r t o o n o n t h e c e r a m i c surface, a n d t a p p i n g

Isabella d'Este's m o t h e r , E l e o n o r a , w h o gave h e r d a u g h ­

i t w i t h a bag f i l l e d w i t h a d a r k p o w d e r (fig. 13). T h i s p r o ­

t e r a n i m p o r t a n t istohato

bianco

istohato

isto­

hato

sopra

1 6

m a i o l i c a service i n 1524 a n d

cess l e f t a series of s m a l l dots u n d e r t h e c a r t o o n t h a t

n o t e d t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e w a s s u i t a b l e for use i n t h e casual

served t o g u i d e t h e p a i n t i n g y e t b u r n e d a w a y d u r i n g

s e t t i n g of Isabella's c o u n t y v i l l a (fig. n ) .

f i r i n g , l e a v i n g n o trace.

8

Introduction

1 7

12

Cipriano Piccolpasso. Detail of folio 57V from Li tie libri dell'arte del
vasaio (1557). London, Victoria and Albert Museum. Ceramic painters
copy images from the paper tacked to the wall behind them onto the
bowls and jugs that they hold on their knees.

I n a d d i t i o n t o d r a w i n g o n sources i n t h e v i s u a l arts,
m a i o l i c a p a i n t e r s also u s e d t h e w o r k s of c o n t e m p o r a r y
l i t e r a r y figures t o o r n a m e n t t h e i r wares. T h e i n s c r i p t i o n s
and mottoes

13

Pricked cartoon (backlit view). Castelli, late seventeenth to early eigh­
teenth century. Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute, Gentili/Barnabei
Archive, cat. no. 170. A n unidentified engraving was used to transfer
the image onto a piece of maiolica by means of pricking.

often w r i t t e n o n decorative

banderoles

p a i n t e d across t h e f r o n t of vases, plates, a n d jugs w e r e
u s u a l l y r e c o r d i n g s of p o p u l a r w i s d o m t h a t

frequently

e m p h a s i z e d a clever t u r n of phrase. F a m o u s c o n t e m p o ­
r a r y w r i t e r s w e r e s o m e t i m e s engaged t o i n v e n t these w i t ­
t i c i s m s , c a u s i n g A n g e l o P o l i z i a n o t o c o m p l a i n i n 1490 of
those w h o wasted his t i m e by e m p l o y i n g h i m to c o m ­
pose " u n m o t t o . . . o u n verso . . . o u n a i m p r e s a . . . p e i
i c o c c i d i casa" (a m o t t o . . . verse . . . or device . . . for
household pots).

18

T h o u g h he l a m e n t e d s u c h a t t e m p t s t o

display e r u d i t i o n , w i t , and status b y e m b l a z o n i n g even
household

crockery w i t h w i t t y mottoes

and

a r m s , t h e d e m a n d for t h e l a t e s t f a s h i o n a n d

heraldic
cleverest

m a x i m served o n l y t o increase c o m p e t i t i o n a m o n g w o r k ­
shops. T h i s c o m p e t i t i o n e x i s t e d i n t h e area of t e c h n i q u e ,
p i c t o r i a l rendering, and style, thereby h e l p i n g to p r o m o t e
innovations i n the m e d i u m .
I n c o n t r a s t t o these h u m a n i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n s i n deco­
r a t i o n , p o t t e r y shapes c o n t i n u e d t o r e f l e c t l a t e m e d i e v a l
forms w e l l i n t o the fifteenth and sixteenth

centuries.

Introduction

9

14

Domenico Ghirlandaio (Italian, 1448/9-1494). The Birth of Saint John

15

Guido Reni (Italian, 1575-1642). Young Bacchus, 1620. O i l on canvas.

the Baptist (detail), ca. 1486/7. Fresco i n Santa Maria Novella, Florence.

Florence, Galleria Palatina, Palazzo Pitti. Photo: Alinari/Art Resource,

Photo: Alinari/Art Resource, New York. A n albarello w i t h a lid, pre­

New York. The young boy i n the foreground holds a late sixteenth-

sumably holding a medicine to aid in childbirth or sleep, sits on a round

century maiolica jug with compendiario decoration.

box between two lemons on the headboard of Saint Elizabeth's bed.

T y p i c a l a m o n g these shapes, jugs, t w o - h a n d l e d jars, tondini

( s m a l l , r o u n d e d b o w l s ) , a n d albarelli

(cylindrical

storage jars) are r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e M u s e u m ' s c o l l e c t i o n .
Albaielli

w e r e m o s t o f t e n u s e d i n t h e h o m e (fig. 14) a n d

i n public and private pharmacies

for c o n s e r v i n g a n d

i m i t a t i o n of h i g h l y v a l u e d m e t a l repousse v e s s e l s .
T h e s e crespine

20

w e r e g a d r o o n e d (the r o u n d e d m o l d i n g

w a s d e c o r a t i v e l y n o t c h e d ) , embossed,

and m o l d e d i n

s h e l l , m a s k , a n d o t h e r o r n a t e shapes (see n o . 31). O n e
finds t h e u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s fondness f o r i r r e g u ­

t r a n s p o r t i n g p r e p a r a t i o n s i n v i s c o u s , paste, or d r y f o r m ,

l a r surfaces a n d surface

i n c l u d i n g p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s as w e l l as v a r i o u s n o n m e d i c i -

flasks, basins, vases, a n d w i n e coolers of t h e l a t e six­

decoration i n the sculptural

n a l spices, herbs, dyes, a n d o i n t m e n t s (see nos. 5, 1 0 - 1 2 ,

t e e n t h c e n t u r y (see n o . 35), as w e l l as i n t h e s k e t c h y

14, 16, 2 1 , 24). T h e y w e r e c l o s e d w i t h a l i d or w i t h a
piece of paper, p a r c h m e n t , or c l o t h t i e d a r o u n d t h e r i m .

compendiario
Compendiario

T h e i r n a m e m a y d e r i v e f r o m a n A r a b i c t e r m t h a t refers

o f t e n o n wares w i t h p u r e w h i t e g r o u n d s ( c a l l e d

( s h o r t h a n d ) s t y l e of p a i n t i n g (fig. 15).
p a i n t i n g — e x e c u t e d i n a l i m i t e d palette,
bianchi)—

t o c o n t a i n e r s m a d e of s e c t i o n s of b a m b o o t h a t w e r e used

also e n a b l e d w o r k s h o p s t o t u r n o u t large n u m b e r s of

i n the East.

finished

19

D u r i n g t h e second h a l f of t h e s i x t e e n t h

century

t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e p o t t e r y shapes,

pieces q u i c k l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y i n order t o m e e t

t h e d e m a n d s of a n e x p a n d i n g m a r k e t . I n San

Casiano

o n a t r i p t h r o u g h T u s c a n y i n 15 8 1 , M i c h e l de M o n t a i g n e

reflecting a n e w interest i n h i g h l y decorative, u n d u l a t i n g

o b s e r v e d t h a t these w h i t e wares "are l i k e p o r c e l a i n , t h e y

f o r m s . T o w a r d t h e m i d d l e of t h e c e n t u r y , as p i c t o r i a l

are so w h i t e a n d c l e a n . Indeed, t h e y are so r e f i n e d a n d

m a i o l i c a d e c o r a t i o n w a s passing f r o m vogue, p o t t e r s a n d

s u c h a b a r g a i n t h a t t h e y s e e m b e t t e r s u i t e d for t a b l e w a r e

p a i n t e r s began b r e a k i n g u p a n d r e a r r a n g i n g i n t o c o m ­

t h a n t h e F r e n c h wares of p e w t e r , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e served

p a r t m e n t s b o t h t h e c e r a m i c surface a n d t h e p a i n t e d dec­

i n h o t e l s , w h i c h are r e a l l y

o r a t i o n . M a i o l i c a p o t t e r s i n v e n t e d t h e crespina

10

Introduction

form i n

filthy/'

21

taste, a n d splendor. I n d e s c r i b i n g N i c c o l o N i c c o l i , t h e
wealthy

fifteenth-century

h u m a n i s t a n d c o l l e c t o r of art,

Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i w r i t e s : " T h e r e w a s n o h o u s e i n
F l o r e n c e t h a t w a s m o r e a d o r n e d t h a n h i s or w h e r e t h e r e
w e r e m o r e r e f i n e d t h i n g s t h a n i n h i s , so t h a t w h o e v e r
w e n t there, w h a t e v e r h i s i n t e r e s t s , f o u n d a n
n u m b e r of w o r t h y t h i n g s . "

infinite

2 3

A l t h o u g h m u c h of t h e m a i o l i c a t h a t has s u r v i v e d i n ­
t a c t consists of t h e s p l e n d i d i t e m s — " w o r t h y t h i n g s " —
t h a t w e r e c a r e f u l l y k e p t a n d d i s p l a y e d , o t h e r , less l u x u ­
r i o u s pieces t h a t have e n d u r e d h e l p i l l u m i n a t e n o t o n l y
t h e vessels

7

s i g n i f i c a n c e b u t also t h e s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s

w i t h w h i c h t h e y w e r e associated. T h e s t u d y of m a i o l i c a ,
a n d of t h e m i n o r arts i n general, affords t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
to understand

b e t t e r t h e d a i l y l i f e of v a r i o u s s o c i a l

classes, since t h e objects w e r e n o t d e s t i n e d s o l e l y for use
by c o u r t l y patrons and the C h u r c h .
16

Cipriano Piccolpasso. Folio 11 from Li tie libri dell'arte del vasaio

O n e gets a n idea of t h e r o l e of c o u r t s h i p , m a t r i m o n y ,

(1557). London, Victoria and Albert Museum. The various parts of

a n d c h i l d b e a r i n g — a n d y o u t h , beauty, h o s p i t a l i t y , a n d

a parturition set.

d e c o r u m — i n Renaissance l i f e w h e n one considers t h e
o f t e n elaborate m a i o l i c a f o r m s m a d e t o serve these s o c i a l
p r a c t i c e s a n d h o n o r these ideals. Bella

W h y w a s t h i s c e r a m i c a r t so p o p u l a r a n d so h i g h l y

lady) plates a n d so-called coppe

donna

(beautiful
(love cups)

amatorie

d e v e l o p e d i n Renaissance I t a l y ? I t m i g h t w e l l be t r u e

w e r e o f t e n d e c o r a t e d w i t h c l a s s i c i z e d b u s t s of b e a u t i f u l

t h a t e a t i n g off of glazed c e r a m i c s was m o r e p a l a t a b l e

w o m e n or h e r o i c m e n or w i t h a lover's p o r t r a i t ac­

t h a n e a t i n g off of w o o d or p e w t e r . Y e t t h e q u e s t i o n re­

c o m p a n i e d b y a n a m e or l o v e m o t t o ; piatti

m a i n s : W h y is i t t h a t , i n t h e Renaissance, b e a u t i f u l

( p a r t y plates) w e r e used t o offer sweets t o houseguests;

da

ballata

t h i n g s — t h a t is, objects m a d e v a l u a b l e b y t h e i r crafts­

m a i o l i c a flasks, ewers, hnfrescatoi

manship rather t h a n b y their i n t r i n s i c worth—appear

h e l d s c e n t e d w a t e r offered t o guests t o w a s h t h e i r h a n d s

for t h e f i r s t t i m e so p e r v a s i v e l y a n d i n s u c h

numbers?

Richard G o l d t h w a i t e , a p r o m i n e n t scholar outside the

(coolers), a n d basins

a n d c o o l e d w i n e glasses a n d b o t t l e s ; a n d scodelle
parto

da

w e r e vessels u s e d b y a n d g i v e n t o p r e g n a n t w o m e n

r a n k s of a r t h i s t o r y , believes t h a t t h e Renaissance c a n be

or n e w m o t h e r s

d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s b y a great n e w de­

o f t e n used

(fig. 16). T h e s e c o n f i n e m e n t

dishes,

during the period i m m e d i a t e l y following

m a n d for secular a r c h i t e c t u r e , c o m p r i s i n g n o t o n l y c i v i c

childbirth, could comprise various components—bowls,

m o n u m e n t s b u t also p r i v a t e residences.

a saltcellar, a trencher,

These struc­

sometimes

a n eggcup, a n d a

t u r e s w e r e n o w g a t h e r e d i n u r b a n centers r a t h e r t h a n

c o v e r — p i e c e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e shape of a vase. I n these

i n a c o u n t r y s i d e c o n t r o l l e d b y f e u d a l i s m . O n e r e s u l t of

dishes w o m e n w o u l d be served specials foods d u r i n g

t h i s n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s t h a t " f u r n i s h i n g s of e v e r y

pregnancy and p a r t u r i t i o n .

frescoes,

I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s d o m e s t i c use, m a i o l i c a w a s also

T h i s n e w need

c o m m i s s i o n e d b y a n d p r e s e n t e d as p r i z e d gifts t o t h e

k i n d , f r o m p o t t e r y a n d beds t o p a i n t i n g s a n d
p r o l i f e r a t e d t o fill u p i n t e r i o r s p a c e s /
for

objects

not

only

redefined

722

spending

habits

but

aristocracy. M a r c h e s a

Isabella d Este,

Pope J u l i u s I I ,

7

also c h a n g e d t h e w a y t h e u p p e r classes c l a i m e d t h e i r

Pope Leo X , G r a n d D u k e C o s i m o I de

place i n society, t h a t is, v i a a d i s p l a y of e r u d i t i o n ,

G u i d o b a l d o da M o n t e f e l t r o , a n d D u k e Francesco M a r i a

7

Medici, Duke

Introduction

11

d e l l a Rovere a l l c o m m i s s i o n e d w o r k s b y t h e f o r e m o s t
m a i o l i c a a r t i s t s of t h e i r t i m e . T h e m a i o l i c a v o g u e s o o n
spread t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h r o u g h gifts a n d f o r e i g n c o m ­
m i s s i o n s ; t h e h o u s e h o l d s of A n d r e a s I m h o f i n N u r e m ­
berg a n d C o n s t a b l e A n n e de M o n t m o r e n c y i n Franc e
i n c l u d e d pieces of I t a l i a n m a i o l i c a .

2 4

Indeed, t h e M u ­

seum's t r i l o b e d b a s i n (no. 35) m a y o r i g i n a t e f r o m a d u c a l
collection i n Urbino. A l t h o u g h unable

t o afford

m o s t r e f i n e d pieces b y t h e m o s t sought-after

ceramists,

f a m i l i e s of lesser f a m e b u t of a c e r t a i n affluence
commissioned

and

the

collected maiolica. Three

of

als o
the

M u s e u m ' s m a i o l i c a objects (nos. n , 2 5 - 2 6 ) w e r e e i t h e r
o r d e r e d b y or g i v e n t o t h e w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s w h o s e
a r m s t h e y bear.
A l s o of n o b l e h e r i t a g e is t h e M u s e u m ' s

sixteenth-

c e n t u r y p o r c e l a i n flask m a d e i n t h e g r a n d - d u c a l f a c t o r y
f o u n d e d b y Francesco I de' M e d i c i , (no. 36). T h i s r e m a r k ­
able object is a p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e e x a m p l e of t h i s rare p r o ­
d u c t i o n — t h e f i r s t of i t s k i n d i n t h e W e s t — a n d is t h e
v e r y i t e m t h a t set i n m o t i o n t h e r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n
these objects i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y after several cen ­
turies

of

oblivion.

p i g " - s h a p e d [porcellus

Named

for

a

type

of

"little

i n L a t i n ) s h e l l , p o r c e l a i n is dis ­

t i n g u i s h e d f r o m e a r t h e n w a r e b y t h e v e r y q u a l i t i e s of t h e
s h e l l after w h i c h i t w a s n a m e d : i t is t r a n s l u c e n t , s m o o t h ,
w h i t e , and hard. T h e m o r e porous earthenware

requires

a v i t r e o u s glaze surface t o be w a t e r t i g h t , w h e r e a s porce ­
l a i n (and t o a c e r t a i n degree stoneware) a c t u a l l y v i t r i f i e s
w h e n f i r e d at h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s . P o r c e l a i n glaze a n d p i g ­
m e n t d e c o r a t i o n are e n t i r e l y d e c o r a t i v e , w i t h n o r e a l
practical function.
M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n as w e l l as t h e F r e n c h v e r s i o n s m a d e
at S a i n t C l o u d a n d R o u e n i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h

century

w e r e of a t y p e c a l l e d soft paste, w h i c h served as a s u b s t i ­
t u t e for t r u e , or hard-paste p o r c e l a i n before t h e secret o f
hard-paste m a n u f a c t u r e w a s d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e West. T h i s
secret e n t a i l e d m i x i n g k a o l i n ( f o u n d i n a l i m i t e d n u m b e r
of deposits

w o r l d w i d e ) w i t h a feldspathic rock

that,

w h e n f i r e d at a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e ( a r o u n d 1300 degree s
centigrade), fuses i n t o a glassy m a t r i x . B y c o m p a r i s o n ,
soft paste is g e n e r a l l y m a d e of w h i t e c l a y m i x e d w i t h
g r o u n d glass a n d t h e n f i r e d at a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e . A l ­
t h o u g h porcelaneous

12

Introduction

( t h a t is, v i t r e o u s or glassy), sof t

17

Figure of Beltrame di Milano. Meissen manufactory, ca. 1720. Hardpaste porcelain, H: 16.5 cm (6 Vi in.). Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum,
86.DE.542.

A n o t h e r area of i n t e n s e c e r a m i c a c t i v i t y i n I t a l y was

paste is, i n d e e d , less h a r d t h a n t r u e p o r c e l a i n ( a l t h o u g h
t h e t e r m s hard

a n d soft refer, i n fact, t o t h e h i g h e r or

the region under Bourbon control. I n the mid-fifteenth

l o w e r f i r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s ) . W i t h i t s o w n q u a l i t i e s of

c e n t u r y , s o u t h e r n I t a l y a n d S i c i l y w e r e u n i t e d i n t o one

paste a n d p i g m e n t , soft paste c o n t i n u e d t o be i n f a s h i o n

s t a t e — t h e K i n g d o m of t h e T w o S i c i l i e s — u n d e r t h e Si­
c i l i a n r u l e r A l f o n s o V of A r a g o n . I n t h e l a t e 1730s t h e i n ­

e v e n after h a r d paste w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y m a n u f a c t u r e d .
I n Europe, hard-paste p o r c e l a i n was f i r s t d e v e l o p e d

fante D o n C a r l o s of t h e H o u s e of B o u r b o n b e c a m e k i n g

at t h e G e r m a n M e i s s e n f a c t o r y i n t h e e a r l y years of t h e

of these " T w o S i c i l i e s " (i.e., s o u t h e r n I t a l y , e s s e n t i a l l y

e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m a i o l i c a

N a p l e s , a n d S i c i l y ) as C h a r l e s V I I , b e c o m i n g k i n g of

l u s t e r , t h e r o l e of a l c h e m i s t s w a s a c e n t r a l one. Since t h e

S p a i n as C h a r l e s I I I i n 1759 a n d t h e n l e a v i n g t h e c r o w n

M i d d l e Ages t h e desire h a d b e e n s t r o n g t o f i n d t h e " p h i ­

of N a p l e s t o h i s son, F e r d i n a n d I . B o u r b o n c o n t r o l l a s t e d

losopher's s t o n e " : t h a t a n c i e n t " m e d i c i n e " for base m e t ­

u n t i l t h e u n i f i c a t i o n of I t a l y i n t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h cen­

als

t u r y , w h e n s o v e r e i g n t y passed t o t h e H o u s e of Savoy.

that

would

transmute

them

into

gold,

thereby

l e a d i n g t o t h e d i s c o v e r y of a m e d i c i n e t h a t w o u l d t r e a t

T h i s b r i e f a c c o u n t of I t a l i a n p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s is

t h e m a l a d i e s of m a n . A t t h e t u r n of t h e e i g h t e e n t h cen­

r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n of I t a l i a n p o r c e l a i n since

t u r y Johann B o t t g e r ( 1 6 8 2 - 1 7 1 9 ) , a n apothecary's

ap­

C h a r l e s and, later, F e r d i n a n d w e r e b o t h i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o ­

p r e n t i c e i n Saxony, c l a i m e d t h a t h e c o u l d create g o l d b y

m o t i n g cultural and economic development during their

t r a n s m u t a t i o n . F r e d e r i c k I , t h e f i r s t k i n g of Prussia, ar­

reigns. I n 1743 C h a r l e s e s t a b l i s h e d a r o y a l f a c t o r y for

rested B o t t g e r a n d o r d e r e d h i m t o do j u s t t h a t . A u g u s t u s

soft-paste p o r c e l a i n at C a p o d i m o n t e o u t s i d e N a p l e s . H e

t h e Strong, k i n g of P o l a n d a n d e l e c t o r of Saxony, i n t e r ­

b r o u g h t t h i s f a c t o r y w i t h h i m w h e n he a s s u m e d t h e

ceded, b r i n g i n g B o t t g e r t o D r e s d e n so t h a t he c o u l d c o n ­

Spanish c r o w n , setting up the Buen Retiro factory out­

t i n u e his experiments there. A l t h o u g h the philosopher's

side M a d r i d i n 1760 a n d l e a v i n g h i s successor t o r e v i v e

stone eluded Bottger, his experiments w i t h the p h y s i c i s t

N e a p o l i t a n p r o d u c t i o n i n 1 7 7 1 , w h e n t h e Real Fabbrica

and m a t h e m a t i c i a n Ehrenfried Walter v o n Tschirnhaus

Ferdinandea was f o u n d e d .

( 1 6 5 1 - 1 7 0 8 ) l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n of Europe's f i r s t w h i t e

A r o u n d t h e m i d d l e of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , E n ­

t r u e p o r c e l a i n a r o u n d 1710 (fig. 17). T w o c r a f t s m e n e m i ­

g l i s h p o t t e r s f r o m Staffordshire d e v e l o p e d a f i n e e a r t h e n ­

g r a t e d f r o m M e i s s e n t o V i e n n a and, w i t h t h e h e l p of

w a r e w i t h a c r e a m - c o l o r e d b o d y a n d l e a d glaze

D u t c h m a n C l a u d i u s I n n o c e n t i u s d u Paquier (d. 1751),

offered a s u b s t i t u t e for t h e m o r e expensive p o r c e l a i n .

that

succeeded i n p r o d u c i n g hard-paste p o r c e l a i n at t h e V i ­

C r e a m w a r e , also k n o w n as Queen's w a r e after t h e E n ­

e n n a f a c t o r y b y 1719.

g l i s h q u e e n C h a r l o t t e , created t h i n , durable, a n d l i g h t -

T h e first I t a l i a n w o r k s h o p to produce this elusive
m a t e r i a l was e s t a b l i s h e d b y Francesco

and

Giuseppe

c o l o r e d c e r a m i c s t h a t b e c a m e t h e s p e c i a l t y of Josiah
W e d g w o o d ' s f a c t o r y i n t h e second h a l f of t h e c e n t u r y .

V e z z i i n V e n i c e i n 1720; i t l a s t e d o n l y seven years. T r u e

T h e p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s w a r e — w h i c h was c a l l e d

p o r c e l a i n was t h e n p r o d u c e d i n France a r o u n d m i d -

fine

c e n t u r y and i n England s l i g h t l y later. F o l l o w i n g

i n France a n d terraglia

faience

i n I t a l y — d r o v e o u t of t h e

the

m a r k e t a n u m b e r of t i n - g l a z e d e a r t h e n w a r e factories a n d

V e z z i w o r k s h o p i n V e n i c e was t h e C o z z i factory, w h o s e

e v e n t h r e a t e n e d p o r c e l a i n ones. H o w e v e r , l e d b y t h e

o w n e r , G e m i n i a n o C o z z i , m a d e use of lessons l e a r n e d

G e r m a n M e i s s e n a n d t h e F r e n c h Sevres m a n u f a c t o r i e s ,

f r o m o t h e r factories (he h a d b e e n a p a r t n e r i n t h e M e i s ­

p o r c e l a i n p r o d u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o do w e l l i n t o t h e n i n e ­

sen-based H e w e l c k e f a c t o r y d u r i n g i t s b r i e f t e n u r e i n

t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h a s l i g h t l y less e x p e n s i v e v e r s i o n ,

V e n i c e f r o m 1758 t o 1763), e v e n l u r i n g c r a f t s m e n a w a y

bone china, b e c o m i n g popular i n England and A m e r i c a .

f r o m r i v a l enterprises. E l s e w h e r e i n I t a l y , t h e f a c t o r y

A f t e r t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , I t a l i a n p o r c e l a i n was p r o ­

e s t a b l i s h e d b y M a r q u i s C a r l o G i n o r i i n 1737 at D o c c i a

duced i n Naples, Doccia, and elsewhere.

o u t s i d e F l o r e n c e has

continued production, although

l e a v i n g G i n o r i h a n d s i n 1896, t o t h e p r e s e n t day.

W. B. H o n e y , f o r m e r keeper of t h e D e p a r t m e n t of
C e r a m i c s at t h e V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , w r o t e i n

Introduction

13

18
Giovanni Battista Quadrone.
Vergognosa (detail), 1875. O i l on
panel, 26.5 x 26.3 cm (10/4 x i o / s in.).
3

Turin, Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna
e Contemporanea, Bequest of Antonio
Abrate, 1926, inv. 991. The artist's
studio i n this painting is bedecked
with a variety of objects. On the
cabinet above the nude model is a
late sixteenth-century Urbino vase.
It would have been prized by a nine­
teenth-century collector as a romantic
evocation of another time and place.

t h e 1950s: " T h e n e g l e c t of I t a l i a n p o r c e l a i n b y s t u d e n t s

C l a i r e Le C o r b e i l l e r , L e o n a r d o G i n o r i - L i s c i , A l e s s a n d r a

of a r t h i s t o r y i n v i e w of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e w a r e s i n

M o t t o l a M o l f i n o , a n d A n g e l a C a r o l a - P e r r o t t i — m u c h re­

t h e e v o l u t i o n of E u r o p e a n p o r c e l a i n is a piece of i r o n y .

m a i n s t o be e x p l o r e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e f i e l d . T h e

N o s t u d y a d e q u a t e t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e wares has

h e g e m o n y of F r e n c h a n d G e r m a n p o r c e l a i n s seems t o

ever b e e n p u b l i s h e d , a n d a f u l l s u r v e y has l o n g b e e n

have h i n d e r e d e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e I t a l i a n v e r s i o n s .

overdue/

T h i s s t a t e m e n t appears i n t h e f o r e w o r d t o

B y c o n t r a s t , i n t h e f i e l d of m a i o l i c a one m i g h t c l a i m

one s u c h s u r v e y p u b l i s h e d i n 1954, t h a t of A r t h u r Lane,

t h a t t h e f i r s t s u r v e y was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m i d - s i x t e e n t h

Honey's

7 2 5

successor as

keeper

of t h e

Department

of

c e n t u r y b y C i p r i a n o Piccolpasso i n h i s t r e a t i s e /

tie

C e r a m i c s . A l t h o u g h H o n e y passes over t h e w o r k done b y

libii

N i n o B r a b a n t i n i and M o r a z z o n i between the wars, his

t y p o l o g i e s a n d styles are c a t e g o r i z e d b y c e n t e r of p r o ­

c o m m e n t does r e v e a l t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n t h e

d u c t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e f i r s t serious a n d s y s t e m a t i c at­

f i e l d . T h e year after Lane's b o o k , A l i c e W i l s o n F r o t h i n g -

tempts

h a m , c u r a t o r at t h e H i s p a n i c S o c i e t y of N e w Y o r k , p u b ­

Renaissance m a i o l i c a began i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y

delVaite

del vasaio

i n Europe

that includes a section i n w h i c h

to identify

and

catalogue

l i s h e d h e r s t u d y of p r o d u c t i o n u n d e r C h a r l e s I I I . I n i 9 6 0

w h e n G i a m b a t t i s t a Passeri p u b l i s h e d h i s Istoiia

a basic t w o - v o l u m e s u r v e y appeared, b e g u n b y t h e M i ­

pittuie

in majolica

lanese professor

teenth

and early t w e n t i e t h centuries

G i u s e p p e M o r a z z o n i a n d f i n i s h e d at

M o r a z z o n i ' s d e a t h b y a n o t h e r M i l a n e s e c e r a m i c s scholar,

fatte

in Pesaio.

Italian
delle

By the late nine­
collectors

and

a r t h i s t o r i a n s w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n m a i o l i c a — s u c h as

Saul Levy. A l t h o u g h several f i n e s t u d i e s of I t a l i a n porce­

C . D . E. F o r t n u m , A l f r e d D a r c e l , O t t o v o n Falke, B e r n a r d

l a i n , s o m e c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n specific centers, have ap­

Rackham, Gaetano Ballardini, Giuseppe Liverani, and

peared m o r e r e c e n t l y — s u c h as t h o s e b y Francesco Stazzi,

H e n r y W a l l i s — b e g a n p r o d u c i n g c o l l e c t i o n catalogues

14

Introduction

as w e l l as b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s o n t h e subject. M o r e re­

trious

nineteenth-

and

t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y collectors,

c e n t l y , t h e l i s t of E u r o p e a n p i o n e e r s i n m a i o l i c a s t u d i e s

s u c h as C h a r l e s D a m i r o n of Lyons,- A l f r e d P r i n g s h e i m of

i n c l u d e s Galeazzo

M u n i c h ; W i l h e l m v o n Bode of Berlin,- A n d r e w F o u n t a i n e

C o r a , Paride B e r a r d i , C a r m e n

Ra-

v a n e l l i G u i d o t t i , John M a l l e t , T i m o t h y W i l s o n ,

and

of N o r f o l k

(fig. 19); A l e s s a n d r o C a s t e l l a n i of R o m e ;

o t h e r s . O n e of t h e r i c h e s t sources for i n f o r m a t i o n re­

J. P i e r p o n t M o r g a n of N e w York,- a n d Baroness M a r i e -

garding

the periodical

H e l e n e a n d Barons G u y E d o u a r d A l p h o n s e a n d A l p h o n s e

published by the M u s e o Internazionale delle

M a y e r of Paris, as w e l l as L o r d N a t h a n i e l C h a r l e s Jacob

Faenza

current

m a i o l i c a research

is

C e r a m i c h e t h a t h a d b e e n f o u n d e d b y B a l l a r d i n i i n 1908.
I n t h e U n i t e d States t h e f i e l d of m a i o l i c a s c h o l a r s h i p

R o t h s c h i l d of L o n d o n .
T h e present v o l u m e is a r e w o r k i n g of t h e M u s e u m ' s

is m o r e l i m i t e d . I n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A r t h u r

1988 Italian

B e c k w i t h p u b l i s h e d h i s Majolica

Maiolica

catalogue, c h a n g e d n o t o n l y t o

This vol­

c o r r e c t a n d u p d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e ensu­

u m e was f o l l o w e d b y several catalogues of A m e r i c a n

i n g d o z e n years of research b u t also t o i n c l u d e t h e o t h e r

c o l l e c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e b y Joan P r e n t i c e v o n E r d b e r g

I t a l i a n c e r a m i c objects i n t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s c o l l e c t i o n

a n d M a r v i n C . Ross o n t h e W a l t e r s A r t G a l l e r y ( n o w M u ­

t h a t h a p p e n n o t t o be m a d e of m a i o l i c a . O f t h e f o r t y - o n e

seum), B a l t i m o r e ; B r u c e C o l e o n m i d w e s t e r n c o l l e c ­

e n t r i e s ( i n c l u d i n g f o u r pairs of objects), t h i r t y - s i x are ob­

tions;

jects m a d e of m a i o l i c a ( t i n - g l a z e d e a r t h e n w a r e ) , o n e is

A n d r e w Ladis

on

and Fayence.

southern

collections,- Jorg

Rasmussen o n the Robert L e h m a n collection, M e t r o p o l ­

m a d e of t e r r a - c o t t a ( e a r t h e n w a r e b a k e d b u t n o t t i n -

i t a n M u s e u m of A r t , N e w Y o r k ; W e n d y W a t s o n o n t h e

glazed), a n o t h e r one is m a d e of t e r r a g l i a ( w h i t e - b o d i e d

W i l l i a m A . C l a r k C o l l e c t i o n , C o r c o r a n G a l l e r y of A r t ,

e a r t h e n w a r e ) , a n d t h r e e are m a d e of p o r c e l a i n : one soft-

Washington, D.C.; T i m o t h y W i l s o n on the N a t i o n a l

paste ( w i t h o u t k a o l i n ) , one h y b r i d soft-paste ( w i t h k a o l i n

G a l l e r y of A r t , W a s h i n g t o n D . C . ; a n d Jessie M c N a b o n

b u t l o w fired), a n d o n e hard-paste ( w i t h k a o l i n ) . T h e s e

t h e Taft M u s e u m , C i n c i n n a t i .

objects span a l m o s t f o u r h u n d r e d years, f r o m t h e e a r l y

T h e J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m ' s c o l l e c t i o n of I t a l i a n ce­
r a m i c s is c o m p o s e d of objects of o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y a n d

fifteenth

c e n t u r y t o t h e e n d of t h e e i g h t e e n t h ,

so d e m o n s t r a t e

and

the changing fashions and t e c h n i c a l

i n f i n e c o n d i t i o n . I t is n o s u r p r i s e t h a t o n e c a n trace t h e

developments i n Italian ceramic production during that

p r o v e n a n c e of a great n u m b e r of these w o r k s t o i l l u s ­

p e r i o d . T w o e s s e n t i a l l y s c u l p t u r a l c e r a m i c objects (nos.

19

Composite photograph of the Andrew Fountaine maiolica collection, as displayed in the China Room at Narford Hall, Norfolk, ca. 1884.
Photo: Courtesy of Christie's.

Introduction

15

28, 4 ) have b e e n i n c l u d e d here a n d c a n be cross-refer­

appearance t h a t w e have n o t y e t l e a r n t v i s u a l c r i t e r i a t o

enced t o t h e i r m o r e c o m p l e t e e n t r i e s i n t h e M u s e u m ' s

tell them apart."

1

Italian

and

Spanish

(2002). T h e a l e r t reader

Sculpture

2 7

L a c k i n g signatures and d o c u m e n t a r y

i n f o r m a t i o n , stylistic groupings established by connois-

w i l l also n o t i c e t h a t t h e f i r s t t w o objects i n t h e c a t a l o g u e

s e u r s h i p have b e e n t h e o n l y t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o d i s t i n ­

are n o t I t a l i a n at a l l b u t S p a n i s h . T h e i n f l u e n c e of Span­

g u i s h t h e y i e l d of d i f f e r e n t centers of p r o d u c t i o n . N o w ,

i s h p o t t e r y , as d e v e l o p e d b y c r a f t s m e n f r o m t h e I s l a m i c

a r c h a e o m e t r y — t h e s t u d y of a r t h i s t o r y a n d a r c h a e o l o g y

w o r l d , o n I t a l i a n postclassical ceramics was significant,

u s i n g p h y s i c a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l sciences, i n t h i s case, t h e

a n d i t is o p p o r t u n e a n d r e v e a l i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t

c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s of c l a y s — c a n be added t o t h e t o o l s

i n f l u e n c e here.

at t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s d i s p o s a l .

28

H o w e v e r , as i n o t h e r cases,

For t h e past f i f t e e n years or so t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m

n o s i n g l e m e t h o d of a n a l y s i s is t o t a l l y s u f f i c i e n t t o eval­

has b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h r e e l i n k e d p r o j e c t s a t t e m p t i n g t o

u a t e a n object. For t h e m o s t c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a

e s t a b l i s h t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l sources of d i f f e r e n t groups of

c o n c e r t of analyses m u s t be e m p l o y e d : s t y l i s t i c a n d doc­

tin-glazed earthenware u s i n g n e u t r o n a c t i v a t i o n analysis

u m e n t a r y as w e l l as s c i e n t i f i c .

(NAA).

2 6

T h e t h r e e groups i n c l u d e H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e

and other Spanish pottery, I t a l i a n m a i o l i c a , and N o r t h ­
ern European tin-glazed ceramics. These N A A investiga­
tions

have

been

remarkably

successful.

Using

as

b e n c h m a r k s objects w h o s e o r i g i n s are k n o w n , t h e a n a l y ­
sis has b e e n able t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n d i s c r e t e groups
of objects, e s t a b l i s h i n g i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t
t h e g r o u p s w e r e created i n d i f f e r e n t places

(different

clays c o m e f r o m d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l settings). O f t h e
m a i o l i c a i t e m s i n t h e G e t t y c o l l e c t i o n w h o s e place of
origin

had remained

elusive, f o u r — n o s .

13-14,

17,

2 1 [ . 2 ] — w e r e c h o s e n for n e u t r o n a c t i v a t i o n a n a l y s i s o n
t h e g r o u n d s t h a t r e m o v i n g samples w o u l d n o t r i s k t h e
i n t e g r i t y of t h e pieces. T w o types of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s
w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n t h e data o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e samples:
cluster analysis and d i s c r i m i n a n t analysis. I n i t i a l l y the
results confirmed that a l l were produced i n the Tus­
c a n y / U m b r i a r e g i o n s of c e n t r a l I t a l y . M o r e specifically,
w h e r e a s t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t nos. 13, 14,
a n d 2 1 d i s p l a y e d c h e m i c a l features associated w i t h c o m ­
parison

pieces

from

Deruta,

discriminant

analysis

s h o w e d t h a t t h e s a m p l e s w e r e close t o M o n t e l u p o refer­
ence samples. I n t h i s case, s t y l i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s

were

u s e d t o a t t r i b u t e t h e G e t t y pieces t o o n e of these t w o
centers. Results s h o w e d t h a t t h e clays used for nos. 13 a n d
14 are so s i m i l a r as t o s t r o n g l y suggest t h e y w e r e m a d e
f r o m t h e same center. B o t h c l u s t e r a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t
analyses of n o . 17 i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was m a d e i n M o n t e l u p o .
T i m o t h y W i l s o n a d m i t s t h a t pieces of e a r t h e n w a r e
from

different

16

Introduction

areas "are

sometimes

so s i m i l a r

in

1.

Notes

24.

Rasmussen 1984, 212-13, no. 142; Rasmussen 1989, 156-58, no. 91.

Maiolica specifically refers to tin-glazed earthenware dating from the

25.

Lane 1954, vii.

Renaissance; majolica is an application of the original term to the color­

26.

2.

3.
4.

See, for example, Hughes 1995, no. 3o Hughes et al. 1995, 7 7 - 8 1 ;
;

Hughes and Gaimster 1999, 57-89.

ful Renaissance-inspired wares of the nineteenth century championed
by the Minton factory in England.

27.

Wilson 1999, 8.

Caiger-Smith 1985, 127. Gaetano Ballardini (1922b, 60) reminds us,

28.

In addition to neutron activation analysis (NAA), other analytical meth­

however, that by the mid-thirteenth century obra de mdlequa (alternate

ods are now (or soon w i l l be) available to provenance clays. These in­

spellings include melica, melicha, maliqua, and malica), although cer­

clude electron microprobe analysis, proton induced X-ray emission

tainly referring to a place (Malaga), became a generic term for the pro­

(PIXE), proton induced gamma emission (PIGE), inductively coupled

cess (luster) much as the French term faience (from Faenza) was later

plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled

applied to tin-glazed earthenware i n general.

plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation-icp (inductively

See, for example, Lightbown and Caiger-Smith 1980, 1: fols.

coupled plasma), all of which have their own advantages and drawbacks.

46V, 47r, sor.

Only a database of NAA information exists at present. To continue these

Caiger-Smith 1973, 54 n. 3. Because these t i n glazes could produce a

promising archeometry studies, it w i l l be critical to compile an exten­

particularly white surface, they were crucial to the development and ap­

sive database for whichever method is ultimately determined to be the

peal of lusterware. Fired on the more common lead-based glazes, luster

best, i.e., the most accurate, the least damaging, the most cost effective.

appears dull, whereas i t becomes fully brilliant when set off against a
stabler and purer white ground.
5.

See Ragona 1999, 24-33; Ragona i n Cilia Platamone and Ragona 1995,

6.

Caiger-Smith 1973, 101.

7.

Valeri 1986, 281.

34-38, figs. 34-49,- Berti and Tongiorgi 1981.

8.

See Biringuccio 15 40; Agricola 1556.

9.

Lightbown and Caiger-Smith 1980, 1: fol. 64V.

10.

Lightbown and Caiger-Smith 1980, 1: prologue.

11.

Although once thought to depict oak leaves, the precise identification of
this foliate ornament has not been settled (Wallis 1903).

12.
13.

For more information on this decoration, see Conti et al. 1991.
So called after the decoration i n the ancient Roman ruins that had been
buried and so were called grottoes, grotesque embellishment is charac­
terized by fantastic and highly decorative combinations of animals and
humans (for two different approaches to grotesque embellishment on
maiolica, see nos. 33 and 35).

14.
15.

Cora 1973, 1: io8ff.
The Italian word for such a table service as well as for the sideboard on
which i t would have been displayed, signified the owner's monetary
worth, or "credit," hence credenza.

16.
17.

Mallet 1998, 35; Crepin-Leblond 1995, no. 31.
Spallanzani 1994, 129 n. 19; Palvarini 1987, 211 n. 2 (cited in
Mallet 1998, 35).

18.
19.

Bellini and Conti 1964, 27.
Conti 1976, 219. Conti believes that these Eastern jars were originally
made from sections of bamboo; this may help explain the origin of the
ceramic albarello shape.

20.

From the Italian crespa, meaning wrinkle or ripple.

21.

Montaigne [1774] 195 5, 21 5.

22.

Goldthwaite 1987, 153-75. For other enlightening publications by
this scholar relevant to maiolica studies, see "The Florentine Palace
as Domestic Architecture," American Historial Review 77 (1972):
977-1012; "The Economic and Social World of Italian Renais­
sance Maiolica," Renaissance Quarterly 42 (1989): 1-32; The Build­
ing of Renaissance Florence: An Economic and Social History
(Baltimore, 1982); Wealth and the Demand for Art in Italy,

1300-

1600 (Baltimore, 1993).
23.

As cited in Goldthwaite 1987, 172.

OVERLEAF: Plate w i t h the Abduction of Helen (detail). See no. 29.

Introduction

I ~f

CATALOGUE

1

Tile Floor
Valencia region, probably Manises
(Spain)

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

EXHIBITIONS

On the scrolls across the hexagonal tiles, speratens, ne oblyer-, on the square tiles, a coat of arms
of barry of six argent and gules.

Beyond Nobility: Art for the Private Citizen in the
Early Renaissance, Allentown Art Museum, Sep­
tember 28, 1980-January 4, 1 9 8 1 Italian Renais­
sance Maiolica from the William A. Clark
Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of Art,
March 5-May 17, 1987.

CONDITION

ca. 1425-50

Surface chips; numerous abraded areas.

Tin-glazed earthenware

;

Overall: 110 x 220 c m (42% x 8 5 % i n . '

PROVENANCE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Square tiles: 11.2 to 12.4 c m

Luigi Grassi, Florence, before 1920, sold to
R. Blumka in i 9 6 0 ; [Ruth Blumka, New York,
sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

Berendsen 1967, 76; Callmann 1980, n 5 - 1 6 ;
GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 239, no. 15 i Hess 1988A,
no. i ; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 382.

(4 /i6 to 4 % in.)
7

Hexagonal tiles: 10.8 to 11.1 x 21 to
21.8 c m (4V4 to 4 % x8 A
l

;

to 8 /i6 in.)
9

84.DE.747

T H I S P A V E M E N T c o n s i s t s of i n t e r l i n k e d o c t a g o n a l u n i t s
[alfardones)

c o m p o s e d of square t i l e s (rajoles)

w i t h a coat

of a r m s , s u r r o u n d e d b y h e x a g o n a l t i l e s [alfardones)

with

a m o t t o o n s c r o l l s . B o t h t y p e s of t i l e s are p a i n t e d w i t h
c o b a l t b l u e foliage. T h e

triangular fills

[rigoletes

de

n o t illustrated) m a y have been cut f r o m o l d tiles

puntes,

at a l a t e r date. T h e coat of a r m s (barry of s i x a r g e n t a n d
gules) is p r o b a b l y T u s c a n , b u t t h e f a m i l y t o w h i c h i t be­
l o n g s has y e t t o be i d e n t i f i e d (fig. 1 A ) .
On

t h e s c r o l l s , t h e m o t t o e s speratens

a n d ne

oblyer

("have h o p e " a n d " d o n o t f o r g e t " ) , p o s s i b l y r e l i g i o u s or
f a m i l y devices, are w r i t t e n i n G o t h i c s c r i p t . T h e s e m o t ­
toes m a y be d e r i v e d f r o m a n O l d C a t a l a n or O l d F r e n c h
dialect.

1

T h e floor's o c t a g o n a l u n i t s c o m p o s e d of square a n d
h e x a g o n a l t i l e s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of S p a n i s h p a v e m e n t s ,
a n d t h e f o l i a t e p a t t e r n is t y p i c a l of t h e c e r a m i c c e n t e r s of
M a n i s e s , Paterna, a n d V a l e n c i a . A l t h o u g h t h e design of
these t i l e s is c e r t a i n l y S p a n i s h i n o r i g i n , i t is n o t k n o w n
w h e t h e r t h e f l o o r w a s ever i n s t a l l e d i n Spain. V a l e n c i a n
p o t t e r s p r o d u c e d large q u a n t i t i e s of s i m i l a r l y i n s c r i b e d
t i l e s , as w e l l as c e r a m i c p l a t e s a n d vessels for e x p o r t t o
Italy i n the fifteenth century.

2

M a t c h i n g h e x a g o n a l t i l e s i n s c r i b e d speratens
the Kunstgewerbemuseum,

are i n

B e r l i n (inv. 01,43c), and the
3

M u s e e N a t i o n a l de C e r a m i q u e , Sevres ( i n v . M N C 8447),
a n d one i n s c r i b e d ne oblyer

was f o r m e r l y i n the Robert

Forrer c o l l e c t i o n , Z u r i c h . A m a t c h i n g square t i l e w i t h
4

20

1A

Plate with the arms of the Bonacossi of Ferrara. Valencia, ca. 1450.
Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 27 cm (io /s in.). Courtesy of the
Hispanic Society of America. Given the limited palette available, it is
difficult to securely identify simple coats of arms depicted on maiolica:
a light-colored bar, for example, might be painted in any available lightcolored pigment. However, the apparent Bonacossi interest in Valencian
ceramics makes it at least possible that their coat of arms is the one on
the Getty tiles.
5

IB

Jaume Huguet (Spanish, ca. 1415-d. before 1492). Santa Tecla and San Sebastian with a Donor, mid-fifteenth
century. Barcelona, Museus de Arte de Barcelona, Museu de la Catedral. The floor depicted in this Spanish retable,
contemporary with the Getty tiles, is similar i n conception and design to the Museum's tile floor.

22

Tile Floor

s h i e l d is i n t h e M u s e u m B o i j m a n s - V a n B e u n i n g e n , R o t ­
t e r d a m . S i m i l a r , b u t n o t i d e n t i c a l , i n d i v i d u a l t i l e s are i n
5

t h e M u s e o N a c i o n a l de C e r a m i c a , V a l e n c i a ; t h e

Victoria

and A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 607-610, 1893);
Museo

Arqueologico

Nacional,

d ' A r t s Industrials, Barcelona; the

Madrid;

the

6

the

Museu

H i s p a n i c S o c i e t y of

A m e r i c a , N e w Y o r k ( i n v . E712); t h e A r t I n s t i t u t e of C h i ­
cago ( i n v .

1984.923); a n d

the

Museo

Correr,

Venice.

7

C o m p a r a b l e t i l e s can also be seen i n t h e p a n e l p a i n t i n g s
of Jaume H u g u e t (fig. I B ) , Pedro A l e m a n y , a n d

Gabriel

Guardia, Spanish artists active f r o m the m i d - f i f t e e n t h
the early sixteenth century.

to

8

Notes
1.

Corti suggested this derivation in correspondence with the author, Janu­
ary 25, 1985.

2.

Hausmann 1972, 50, no. 32. Frothingham (1953, 92) mentions Ferrarese notarial records of 1442 listing numerous Valencian ceramics
that had been carried to Italy on Majorcan ships.

3.

Hausmann 1972, 50, no. 32.

4.

Forrer 1901, pi. 38.

5.

Berendsen 1967, facing 7 6.

6.

Ray 2000, 316-17, nos. 617-20, colorpl. 70.

7.

For an examination of these Museo Correr tiles, see Gonzalez Marti
1948, 91-92, pi. 22a; Concina 1975, 80-82. Produced in Valencia for
the church of Sant' Elena, Venice, these tiles are further evidence of the
active artistic exchange between Italy and Spain in the fifteenth cen­
tury. The hexagonal azulejos, inscribed Justiniano, and the square units,
decorated with a crowned eagle, may have been ordered by Francesco
Giustinian to embellish the tomb of his father, Giovanni, in Sant' Elena.

8.

ic

This early twentieth-century photograph shows how the tiles were

In light of archival documents, Concina (1975, 82) has suggested dating

made to fit into a small room i n a Tuscan villa, a previous (but not the

these tiles soon after 1460.

original) setting. Later tiles fill in the gap between the perimeter of the

For examples, see Ainaud de Lasarte 1955, figs. 38, 48; Mayer 1922, pi.

tile floor and the walls of the room. Photo courtesy of Ruth Blumka.

73; Post 1938, 7, pt. 1: fig. 116.

Tile Floor

23

2

Hispano-Moresque Basin

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

EXHIBITIONS

On the obverse, in the center, IHS.

Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William A.

Valencia region, Manises (Spain)

CONDITION

M i d - f i f t e e n t h century

Art, March 5-May 17, 1987.

Some minor chips and glaze faults.

Clark Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Tin-glazed earthenware

Conti 1973, pi. 8; "The Sale-Room," Apollo, no.

PROVENANCE

H : 10.8 c m (4V4 in.)

[Leonardo Lapiccirella, Florence]; (sold, Christie's,

122 (1985): 405, no. 5; GettyMusJ 14 (1986): 252,

D i a m : 49.5 c m (19V2 i n . )

London, July 1, 1985, lot 270, to R. Zietz);

no. 214; Hess 1988A, no. 2 Hess 1990A, i;

85.DE.441

[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul

Musacchio 1999, 93, fig. 74; Museum Handbook

Getty Museum, 1985].

2001,

T H I S B A S I N ( c a l l e d a brasero)

has a f l a t b o t t o m , n e a r l y

(figs. 2 D - F ) .

;

8

236; Summary Catalogue 2001,

no. 383.

T h i s f o l i a t e m o t i f spread f r o m S p a i n t o

v e r t i c a l sides s l o p i n g s l i g h t l y o u t w a r d , a n d a flat r i m .

Italy and became popular o n I t a l i a n wares—especially i n

T h e p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n is e x e c u t e d i n c o b a l t b l u e p i g ­

t h e area a r o u n d F l o r e n c e — t o w a r d t h e e n d of t h e cen­

m e n t a n d copper r e d luster,- S p a n i s h M o o r s h a d m a s t e r e d

t u r y . W o r k s d e c o r a t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r w e r e also f a v o r e d
9

the m e t a l l i c luster technique by the eleventh century,

a n d c o l l e c t e d i n France, w h e r e t h i s leaf-spray m o t i f is re­

a n d b y 1415 M a l a g a n a n d M u r c i a n p o t t e r s h a d b r o u g h t

ferred t o as feuillages

this technique to the Valencian region.

1

pers

(greenish b l u e foliage). T h e y

are i n c l u d e d i n i m p o r t a n t i n v e n t o r i e s s u c h as t h a t of

T h e c e n t e r of t h e obverse is i n s c r i b e d IHS

(Jesus

H o m i n u m Salvator). S a i n t B e r n a r d i n o of Siena, w h o d i e d

K i n g Rene of A n j o u .

1 0

M o r e s h a l l o w v e r s i o n s of t h i s t y p e of V a l e n c i a n d i s h

i n 1444, began i n 1425 t o h o l d u p t h i s m o n o g r a m sur­

m a y have b e e n u s e d as s e r v i n g dishes,

r o u n d e d b y rays of l i g h t for v e n e r a t i o n at t h e e n d of h i s

deeper v e r s i o n s m a y have f u n c t i o n e d as

whereas

the

refreshment

s e r m o n s , a n d i t c a m e t o be associated w i t h t h e s a i n t a n d

coolers a n d w a s h b a s i n s (fig. 2 G ) . T h e large scale, elabo­

h i s m i s s i o n a r y w o r k (fig. 2 C ) . T h e m o n o g r a m , c o m p l e t e

rate d e c o r a t i o n , a n d e x c e l l e n t state of p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e

w i t h r a d i a t i n g shafts of l i g h t , appears o n I t a l i a n c e r a m i c s
datable

from

1425

t o after

1450, t h e

date of

Saint

M u s e u m ' s d i s h suggest t h a t i t w a s i n t e n d e d for display,
perhaps o n a credenza.

S i m i l a r dishes w i t h

leaf-spray

Bernardino's c a n o n i z a t i o n . T h e m o n o g r a m o n this m i d -

e m b e l l i s h m e n t and the Saint Bernardino

f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y S p a n i s h b a s i n p r o b a b l y reflects t h e i n ­

m a n y of w h i c h are basins a n d d i s p l a y c o n c e n t r i c bands

creased i n t e r e s t at t h a t t i m e i n t h e saint's

o n t h e reverse, i n c l u d e t h o s e i n t h e K u n s t m u s e u m , D i i s -

2

teachings,

monogram,

w h i c h w e r e spread t h r o u g h h i s S p a n i s h d i s c i p l e , Fray

seldorf

M a t e o de A g r i g e n t o .

m e r l y i n the Vieweg collection, Braunschweig;

3

T h e p i e c e is f u r t h e r e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h a r a d i a t i n g leaf

11

formerly i n the Bak collection, N e w Y o r k ;
1 3

i n the

t h e M u s e e de C l u n y , Paris ( i n v . 2 4 7 1 , 2 7 5 3 ) ;

t h e exterior,- t h e reverse d i s p l a y s a l t e r n a t i n g w i d e a n d

M u s e o N a z i o n a l e , Palazzo d e l B a r g e l l o , F l o r e n c e ;

n a r r o w c o n c e n t r i c bands. T h e floral a n d f o l i a t e decora­

m e r l y i n t h e M . B o y c o l l e c t i o n , Paris,-

t i o n i n c l u d e s a t h r e e - p a r t leaf i n b l u e i d e n t i f i e d as a

and A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. C.2046-1910);

b r y o n y leaf [brionia,

m e r l y i n t h e E m i l e G a i l l a r d c o l l e c t i o n , Paris,-

4

fleur-

16

d e - l i s , a s m a l l flower i n b l u e w i t h a g o l d l u s t e r c e n t e r

H i s p a n i c S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a , N e w Y o r k , -

s o m e t i m e s i d e n t i f i e d as a daisy [floi de margahta),

M u s e u m of A r t ;

5

6

and

t e n d r i l s b e a r i n g h a t c h m a r k s i n l u s t e r i d e n t i f i e d as ferns
[helechos).

7

O n e f i n d s t h i s leaf-spray e m b e l l i s h m e n t i n

v a r i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o n H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e w a r e s of
t h e second a n d t h i r d q u a r t e r s of t h e f i f t e e n t h

24

century

for­

M u s e e d u L o u v r e , Paris ( i n v . O A 1 2 2 3 - 2 4 , 4029, 4032); i n

p a t t e r n t h a t extends over t h e r i m a n d d o w n t h e sides of

a v i n e of t h e g o u r d f a m i l y ) or

1 2

lencia,-

21

2 0

1 4

i n the
15

for­

i n the Victoria

19

18

17

for­

i n the

i n the Toledo

i n t h e G o n z a l e z M a r t i c o l l e c t i o n , Va­

f o r m e r l y i n t h e Francis W i l s o n M a r k c o l l e c t i o n ,

P a l m a de M a l l o r c a a n d L o n d o n , - a n d i n t h e B r i t i s h M u ­
22

seum, L o n d o n .

2 3

2A

26

Reverse.

Hispano-Moresque

Basin

2B

Profile of basin.

2C

Taddeo Crivelli (Italian, fl. 145 i - d . by 1479)- Saint Bernardino
of Siena from the Gualenghi-d'Este

Hours, ca. 1469 (detail).

Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig IX 13, fol. 195v.

Hispano-Moresque

Basin

2J

2 E - F A Hispano-Moresque platter (top) and ewer and bowl (bottom) can be
seen in these details from The Last Supper.

2D

Jaime Ferrer I . The Last Supper (detail). Solsona, Spain, M u s e u
Diocesa i Comarcal. T h i s disciple is s h o w n d r i n k i n g f r o m a
Hispano-Moresque b o w l .

28

Hispano-Moresque Basin

1.
2.

Lane 1946, 251-52.
See, for example, a drug jar i n the Museo Internationale delle Ceramiche, Faenza, dated to the second quarter of the fifteenth century
(Conti et al. 1991, no. 16), and a plaque of the second half of the
fifteenth century (Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, fig. n ) .

3.

De Arechaga Rodriguez-Pascual and Manglano Baldovi 1985 (cited i n
Ray 2000, 77).

4.

See, for example, Frothingham 1936, 158; Frothingham 1951, 139;
Martinez Caviro 19 91, 158.

5.

In contemporary Italian inventories, this decoration is referred to as
fiordalisi [fioralixi) normally translated as fleurs-de-lis but also fre­
quently used to identify small carnations (Spallanzani 1986, 164-70).
Indeed, since these inventories were concerned with listing works so
that they could be readily identified, it is possible that a common and
easily recognizable flower such as the carnation might have been used
to describe this decoration.

6.

Montagut 1996, 68, no. 10.

7.

Martinez Caviro 1991, 158.

8.

Ray 2000, 73; Barber 1915, 34.

9.

See, for example, Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani 1985,
nos. 4 6 7 - 7 1 . For a further discussion of the extent to which Spanish
ceramics might have influenced the appearance of fifteenth-century
Tuscan wares, see Alinari and Berti 1991, 47-5^; Valeri 1996, 128-32.

10.

Husband and Hayward 1975, 53.

11.

Dusseldorf 1962, 266, no. 892, fig. 104.

12.

Sotheby's 1965, lot 2.

13.

Lepke 1930, lot 147.

14.

Montagut 1996, 68, no. 10.

15.

Conti 1971 A, no. 517; Conti 1980, pi. 68.

16.

Galerie Georges Petit 1905, lot 53.

17.

Ray 2000, 76-77, no. i 6 o Ainaud de Lasarte 1952, 10: 68, fig. 155.

18.

Gaillard 1904, 85, no. 406.

;

19.

Frothingham 195 1, 136, 138-39, figs. 98-99.

20.

Toledo 1962, 58.

21.

Gonzalez Marti 1944-52, 1: 461, pi. 17, fig. 565.

22.

Blaikie Murdoch 1922, 201, no. 5.

23.

Godman 1901, 34, nos. 48-50, i l l . nos. 252, 254 on pi. XXXIX and i l l .
no. 394 on pi. XXV.

2G

Paolo Uccello (Italian, 13 97-1475). The Birth of the Virgin (detail), ca.
1436. Prato, Prato cathedral. Photo: Alinari/Art Resource, New York.
Saint Anne is depicted washing her hands i n a basin—possibly made of
maiolica—that is comparable in size and shape to the Getty piece.

Hispano-Moresque Basin

29

3

Green-Painted Jug
with a Bird
Southern Tuscany or possibly

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

EXHIBITIONS

None.

None.

CONDITION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A chip i n the base; minor chips on the handle and

GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 239-40, no. 155; Hess

r i m three apparent chips around the central sec­

1988A, no. 3; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 342.

;

n o r t h e r n Lazio

tion are areas of the clay body on which deposits

Early fifteenth c e n t u r y

of calcined lime or other impurities have expanded

Tin-glazed earthenware

and "popped out/' or exploded, during firing.

H : 25 c m ( 9 % in.)

PROVENANCE

Private collection, the Netherlands,- [Rainer Zietz,

D i a m (at lip): 9.5 c m ( 3 % in.)

Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

W (max.): 16.2 c m (6 /8 in.)
3

1984].

84.DE.95

F O R M E D O F a n o v o i d body, strap h a n d l e , flared r i m , a n d

b y berries a n d leaves, is b e l i e v e d t o have b e e n e x c a v a t e d

p i n c h e d s p o u t , t h i s j u g (or brocca)

at O r v i e t o , a n d o t h e r e x a m p l e s have b e e n a t t r i b u t e d

is a s i m p l e y e t elegant

p i e c e because of i t s g e n t l y a t t e n u a t e d s h a p e a n d s t r o n g l y

to makers i n Viterbo.

r e n d e r e d surface d e c o r a t i o n . A l o n g - b e a k e d b i r d stands

p a i n t e d green glaze a n d t h e appearance of b e r r i e s a n d

1

7

I n addition, the rather t h i c k l y

o n t h e g r o u n d l i n e , f r o m w h i c h s p r o u t s foliage, against a

l o b e d leaves r e l a t e t h i s d e c o r a t i o n t o t h e

b a c k g r o u n d of berries a n d d o t s i n copper green a n d m a n ­

[zaffera

ganese b r o w n p i g m e n t s . T h e i n t e r i o r is l e a d glazed.

T u s c a n y p r i m a r i l y i n t h e second q u a r t e r of t h e f i f t e e n t h

T h e o l d e s t p i e c e of m a i o l i c a i n t h e M u s e u m ' s c o l ­
l e c t i o n , t h i s j u g corresponds t o t h e a r c h a i c s t y l e , accord­

a

rilievo)

relief-blue

embellishment popular i n southern

c e n t u r y (see nos. 4 - 5 , 7 - 9 ) .

8

Indeed, t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n e a r l i e r a r c h a i c ce­

i n g to Gaetano Ballardini's classification. T h e archaic

r a m i c s a n d zaffera

style prevailed f r o m roughly the t h i r t e e n t h to the begin­

t h a n i n i t i a l l y t h o u g h t . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a l l c e r a m i c s of t h e

n i n g of t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d is g e n e r a l l y character­

relief-blue typology were dated to the fifteenth c e n t u r y .

i z e d b y s i m p l e m o t i f s — i n i t i a l s , coats of a r m s , s t y l i z e d

R e c e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s i n T u s c a n y have u n ­

2

a rilievo

p r o d u c t s m a y be m o r e d i r e c t
9

a n i m a l s — p a i n t e d i n copper green o u t l i n e d i n m a n g a n e s e

e a r t h e d zaffera

b r o w n . L i k e the present w o r k , archaic-style m a i o l i c a

a r c h a i c types, h o w e v e r , so t h a t o n e c a n be c e r t a i n t h a t

wares together w i t h f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y

jugs f r o m s o u t h e r n T u s c a n y c o m m o n l y d i s p l a y a g u i l -

r e l i e f - b l u e w o r k s w e r e a l r e a d y b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n t h e sec­

loche pattern encircling the neck and parallel lines d i ­

o n d h a l f of t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y .

v i d i n g the piece i n t o decorative panels.

1 0

I t has b e e n sug­

Also popular

gested t h a t , since t h e b l u e p i g m e n t of r e l i e f - b l u e w a r e

w a s t h e m o t i f of a s i n g l e b i r d , o f t e n p o r t r a y e d p e c k i n g at

c o n t a i n s copper as w e l l as c o b a l t , t h e less p r e c i o u s relief-

a b e r r y or leaf (fig. 3 c ) . I n a d d i t i o n , e x a m p l e s of s i m i ­

green v a r i a n t m a y have r e s u l t e d f r o m s i m p l y o m i t t i n g

l a r l y shaped

the cobalt.

3

4

or c o m p a r a b l y d e c o r a t e d c e r a m i c s

have

11

A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n t j u g is n o t p a i n t e d w i t h

b e e n e x c a v a t e d i n n o r t h e r n L a z i o or are a t t r i b u t e d t o

a t h i c k impasto, its typology m a y relate m o r e closely to

makers there.

relief-blue decoration t h a n was p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d .

5

A l t h o u g h s i m i l a r objects—jugs

decorated w i t h

a

single b i r d — h a v e been found i n Faentine excavations,

6

1 2

O n c e t h o u g h t t o be d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y f r o m I s l a m i c a n d
Islamic-inspired ceramic decoration,

1 3

the stylized ani­

t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e of t h e m o s t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l

m a l d e s i g n s — i n c l u d i n g l i o n s , hares, leopards, a n d dogs

derives f r o m t h e area c o m p r i s i n g n o r t h e r n L a z i o a n d

as w e l l as b i r d s — o n I t a l i a n w a r e s appear t o have b e e n

southern Tuscany. A plate i n the H o c k e m e y e r collection,

based i n s t e a d o n l o c a l t e x t i l e s a n d o t h e r d e c o r a t i v e arts

B r e m e n , d e c o r a t e d i n green w i t h a s i n g l e b i r d s u r r o u n d e d

of t h e f o u r t e e n t h a n d f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . T h e s e p r o d u c t s

30

3A

32

Alternate view.

Green-Painted Jug with a Bird

3c

Plate with a bird. Viterbo, first half of the fifteenth century. Tin-glazed
earthenware, Diam: 28.3 cm (11 A in.). Viterbo, private collection. The
l

similarity of the decoration on this plate to the Getty jug suggests that
this bird, leaf, and berry design was popular i n the early fifteenth cen­
tury. It is also possible that both objects were produced in the same
workshop. The acorn above the wing on the plate helps identify the
similar but harder-to-distinguish element in the same position on the
jug; its foliate motif depicts oak leaves.
3B

Alternate view.

i n t u r n appear t o h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y m o t i f s
n a t i n g i n the I s l a m i c eastern M e d i t e r r a n e a n .
decoration therefore
were

indirectly

may

1 4

Maiolica

display Islamic m o t i f s

transmitted

to

the

ceramic

Notes

origi­
1.

The form of this jug corresponds to Francovich's category A.7.1
(Francovich 1982, 128), which, he speculates, marks a transition from

that

an earlier shape w i t h a higher foot and wider neck that was diffuse

medium

throughout Tuscany—with variants i n Umbria, Lazio, and EmiliaRomagna, Liguria, the Veneto—and a later, broader one found more

t h r o u g h o t h e r Renaissance I t a l i a n decorative arts.

specifically i n the area of the Maremma i n southern Tuscany; appar­
ently A.7.1 is also common to the Maremma area, especially the
Nicchia district.
2.

See Ballardini 1933, 1: 13 -14; for a helpful schema see Ballardini
1938, 2: 10. Based on classifications of ancient pottery, Ballardini's
categories are organized according to the wares' decorative motifs. Al­
though scholars have become increasingly aware of the importance of
such factors as object shape as well as clay body and glaze composition
in grouping maiolica wares, Ballardini's classification remains helpful i n
establishing a basic chronology of maiolica decoration. More recently,
Galeazzo Cora established nineteen major categories of early Italian

Gieen-Painted Jug with a Bird

33

3D

Unknown fourteenth-century artist. Saint Guido Pours Out Water for Himself and Transforms Water into Wine for His Guest Gebeardo,
Archbishop of Ravenna (detail), 1316-20. Pomposa, Italy Church of Santa Maria. Maiolica jugs like the Getty example were functional
objects to be used at the dinner table.

34

Green-Painted Jug with a Bird

3E

Unknown artist. Niche of the Sacred Oils (detail). Spilimbergo, Italy, Spilimbergo cathedral, Cappella Maggiore. Photo: Elio and Stefano Ciol, Casarsa PN.
As can be seen i n this fresco, the Getty's maiolica jug could have had an ecclesiastical function.

maiolica that vary only slightly from Ballardini's schema (Cora 1973, 1:

9.

rilievo (his group V) dates from ca. 1410-50 and zaffera diluita (diluted

ized terms employed by Ballardini and others can prove misleading, es­

or thin-blue) (his group VI) dates from ca. 1410-80 (Cora 1973, 1:

pecially when used to identify the subjects of decorative motifs. Anna

73-83).

Moore Valeri (1984, 4 9 0 - 9 1 , no. 62) has pointed out, for example, that

10.

Valeri 1984, 477-78.

the "Persian palmette" bears no resemblance to a palmette and that i n

11.

Mallet 1998, 210.

the Near East the "peacock-feather" motif originally had no connection

12.

with peacocks, symbolizing instead the rising sun.
3.
4.

Compare, for example, a mid-fifteenth-century archaic jug decorated
with leaves i n copper green pigment from Viterbo (Galeazzi and Valen-

See Cora 1973, 2: figs. 6c, 8a-b, 11, 13a, 3 i a - d , 32, 33, 3 ioa-c,

tini 1975,108-9) and a Tuscan jug with similar decoration but in

3 i 3 a - d , 318b; Francovich 1982, 28, 30-33, 36-37, 53, 95 passim.

zaffera diluita (Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani 1985, no. 706).

See Cora 1973, 2: figs. 8a-b, 44c, 5 ia, 64b, 6sa-c, 69a, 69C-d, 7oa-c,

For a similar jug with a "pecking bird" but painted i n relief cobalt blue,

7 i a - c , 137a, 138a, 309a-c.
5.

According to Cora's classification of early Florentine ceramics, zaffera a

33). One must remember, however, that while useful, the conventional­

Mazza 1983, 61, 92, 94, 114, 133, 137, 144 passim.

see Cora 1973, 2: pis. 64b, 65a-c.
13.

For examples of Islamic animal motifs, see Kiihnel 1971, figs. 51, 84,

6.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 89-90, 113-15, nos. 7, 14.

88, 90; Kiihnel 1925, pi. 99. For bird motifs on Hispano-Moresque

7.

Mallet 1998, 10, 210, no. 4; see, for example, Mazza 1983, 114,

works see Gonzalez Marti 1944-52, 1: figs, 150, 153, 183, 192, 277,

no. 146.

280, 356, 459, 494-96, 538, 612, 631, 640, 648-52, 700; 2: 4 7 2 -

8.

One knows of works decorated with typical relief-blue leaves, dots,
and animals painted i n a thin copper green glaze, as on this jug, instead
of the much more common thick cobalt pigment (Giacomotti 1974,

78, figs. 556-63, 668, 670, 678-80, 6 8 9 - 9 1 .
14.

First discussed i n Wallis 1900, ix-xxx; most recently examined in
Spallanzani 1978, 100-102; Valeri 1984, 477-500.

10-11, fig. 28). Cora (1973, 2: pi. 21a) reproduces an early fifteenthcentury Florentine fragment displaying similarly shaped and outlined
leaves, also painted in copper green.

Green-Painted Jug with a Bird

35

4

Relief-Blue Jar with
Harpies and Birds

CONDITION

heritance to his widow, Elisabeth Lederer,

Previously broken and repaired; some overpaint-

Elisabeth Lederer, Geneva; sold to the J. Paul Getty

ing, particularly around the lip and neck on the

Museum, 1 9 8 5 .

left of the side w i t h birds and on the right-hand

Probably the w o r k s h o p of Piero d i

bird; approximately three-quarters of glaze on the

Mazzeo (Maseo, Mazeo) (b. 1 3 7 7 )

top r i m has worn off.

Florence or possibly Siena
ca. 1 4 2 0 - 4 0

Tin-glazed earthenware

Wilhelm von Bode, Berlin, by 1 8 9 8 , sold to

July 3, 1 8 9 8 .

3

1936),

Vienna,- by

inheritance to his widow, Serena Lederer, 1 9 3 6 ;

D i a m (at lip): 14.3 c m (5 /s in.)
W (max.): 2 9 . 8 c m (n A

Serena Lederer, Vienna,- looted from Serena Led-

in.)

erer's collection by the Nazis, 1 9 3 8 ; stored in Nazi

85.DE.56

depot i n Vienna at Bartensteingasse, 8 (it appears
as no. 1 8 2 on inventory list); restituted by the

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

Austrian government to her son, Erich Lederer,

On each side, a ladder surmounted by a cross; be­

1 9 4 7 ; Erich Lederer (1896-1985), Geneva,- by in­

low each handle a P, possibly intertwined w i t h a
backward C.

THIS LARGE TWO-HANDLED

J A R (or orciuolo

biansato)

is of a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y b o l d a n d u n u s u a l shape. Indeed, i t s
w i d e c y l i n d r i c a l body, t a l l n e c k , h i g h foot, a n d r i b b e d ,
o u t w a r d - j u t t i n g handles comprise a singular f o r m , n o t
e n c o u n t e r e d i n o t h e r e x a m p l e s . T h e c e n t e r of each side
d i s p l a y s a s h o r t l a d d e r s u r m o u n t e d b y a cross f r a m e d o n
one side b y t w o b i r d s , s o m e t i m e s i d e n t i f i e d as p e a c o c k s ,

1

a n d o n t h e o t h e r side b y t w o h u m a n - f a c e d b i r d s , or
H a r p i e s . T h e surface is f u r t h e r d e c o r a t e d w i t h leaves a n d
d o t s ( o f t e n c a l l e d bacche,

" b e r r i e s " ) . T h i s d e c o r a t i o n is

painted i n an exceptionally thick, cobalt blue i m p a s t o

2

o u t l i n e d i n a n d s c a t t e r e d w i t h t o u c h e s of m a n g a n e s e
purple o n a p i n k i s h w h i t e ground. Vertical patterns i n
m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e of d o u b l e dashes b e t w e e n t h r e e p a r a l ­
l e l stripes b o r d e r each side of t h e jar's body. T h e i n t e r i o r
is t i n glazed.
T h e leaf d e c o r a t i o n o n t h i s j a r — a l t e r n a t e l y k n o w n
as pastoser

Blau,

zaffem

a rilievo, r e l i e f - b l u e , or oak-leaf

d e c o r a t i o n — i s one of t h e f i r s t d e c o r a t i v e t y p o l o g i e s t o
be r e c o g n i z e d a n d discussed as a c o h e r e n t g r o u p . I n 1 8 9 8
both

Federigo A r g n a n i a n d W i l h e l m

v o n Bode

first

g r o u p e d t h e m t o g e t h e r a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p a i n t e d deco­
r a t i o n as r a i s e d f r o m t h e surface of t h e c e r a m i c , a n d five
3

years later, H e n r y W a l l i s i d e n t i f i e d t h e m o t i f as o a k

36

Privatbesitz,

Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft, Berlin, May 2 0 -

A. Lederer); August Lederer (d.
5

des Mittelalters

PROVENANCE

Sotheby's, London, June 8, 1 9 3 2 , lot 5 8 , to

l

EXHIBITIONS

Ausstellung von Kunstwerken

und der Renaissance aus Berliner

K. Glogowski; Kurt Glogowski, Berlin (sold,

H : 3 1 . 1 c m ( 1 2 A in.)

1985,-

4A

Alternate view.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bode 1 8 9 8 , 2 0 6 ; Berlin 1 8 9 9 , pi. 4 8 , fig. 2 Wallis
}

1 9 0 3 , 9 , fig. 7 Bode 1 9 1 1 , pi. 1 4 ; Chompret
;

1 9 4 9 , 2 : fig. 6 4 8 ; Conti 1 9 6 9 , 4 7 , fig. n
1971B, 22;

Conti

Cora

1980,

GettyMusJ

pis.

1 9 7 3 , 1: 76; 2:
45-46;

Valeri

14 (1986): 251,

no.

pis.

1984,

211

;

;

Conti

6 1 - 6 2 , 63c,-

fig.

Hess

4B;
1988A,

no. 5; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 1 7 , 2 6 5 , fig. 3, no. 15 i
Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 3 4 3 .

;

4.B

38

Alternate view.

Relief-Blue Jar with Harpies and Birds

leaves.

4

O t h e r s , h o w e v e r , h a v e described t h e p a i n t e d

d e c o r a t i o n as grape, w a l n u t , t u r k e y oak, or i v y leaves.
A c c o r d i n g t o one scholar, t h i s t y p e of o r n a m e n t a t i o n
was adapted i n F l o r e n c e f r o m H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e

ce­

r a m i c d e c o r a t i o n of v i n e s a n d f e a t h e r e d leaves, w h i c h ,
w h e n painted w i t h the Florentine t h i c k blue impasto,
b e c a m e s i m p l i f i e d t o r e s e m b l e o a k leaves. T h e H i s p a n o 5

M o r e s q u e b a s i n i n t h e M u s e u m ' s c o l l e c t i o n (no. 2), f o r
e x a m p l e , d i s p l a y s t h i s t y p e of S p a n i s h c e r a m i c decora­
t i o n , especially prevalent i n Valencia. Recent
s h i p , h o w e v e r , favors c o n n e c t i n g t h i s leaf

scholar­

decoration

w i t h earlier t e x t i l e p a t t e r n s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s , a n d
i l l u m i n a t e d m a n u s c r i p t border e m b e l l i s h m e n t
than w i t h Hispano-Moresque

sources.

6

rather

Arguably the

m o s t c o n v i n c i n g l i n e of r e a s o n i n g traces t h i s T u s c a n leaf
p a t t e r n o n e a r l y m a i o l i c a t o l o c a l s i l k (fig. 4 c ) a n d l i n e n
(fig. 4D) d a m a s k s t h a t w e r e , i n t u r n , i n f l u e n c e d b y Is­
l a m i c fabrics, s u c h as t h o s e of t h e T u r k i s h M a m l u k s .

7

T h e m a r k s b e l o w each h a n d l e — a P, p o s s i b l y i n t e r ­
t w i n e d w i t h a backward C — m a y indicate the Florentine
w o r k s h o p of Piero d i M a z z e o a n d c o m p a n y , a c t i v e at t h e

4c

Lorenzo Monaco (Italian, 1370/75 i-1425/30?). The Madonna and
Child with Six Saints (detail). Florence, Fondazione Home. From
Federico Zeri, Giorno per giorno nella pitura (Turin, 1988). Courtesy
Allemandi & Co. The lavish fabric covering the floor in this scene has
a decoration—paired animals on a winding foliate ground—similar to
that on the Getty jar. In particular, the addorsed birds recall the Harpies
on the Getty example, who turn their heads to look back toward one
another.

4D

Domenico Ghirlandaio (Italian, 1448/49-1494). The Last Supper
(detail), late fifteenth century. Florence, Chiesa di Ognissanti. Photo:
Scala/Art Resource, New York. Simple fabrics, such as this so-called
"towel from Perugia" serving as table linen, also featured patterns of
paired animals. Here the animals are fantastic creatures, like the Getty
jar's Harpies.

Relief-Blue Jar with Harpies and Birds

39

t i m e t h e jar was m a d e . F r o m 1395, d i M a z z e o w o r k e d as
a c e r a m i s t i n h i s h o m e t o w n of B a c c h e r e t o before m o v i n g
t o n e a r b y Florence, w h e r e he b e c a m e h e a d of a n i m p o r ­
t a n t w o r k s h o p i n 1422 t o g e t h e r w i t h t w o p a r t n e r s a n d a
g r o u p of c r a f t s m e n , m a n y of w h o m also c a m e f r o m t h e
t o w n . B a c c h e r e t o appears t o have b e e n a n a c t i v e p o t t e r y
8

center f r o m the f o u r t e e n t h century, c l a i m i n g m o r e t h a n
forty active potters by the fifteenth century. One potter,
9

A n t o n i o d i Branca, w a s a n a t i v e of V i t e r b o a n d is k n o w n
t o have w o r k e d i n d i M a z z e o ' s w o r k s h o p f r o m r o u g h l y
1427 t o 1 4 2 9 .

10

D i Branca's presence i n d i M a z z e o ' s

w o r k - s h o p m a y e x p l a i n t h e u n u s u a l presence of a fantas­
t i c beast w i t h h u m a n h e a d — m o r e c o m m o n o n w o r k s
f r o m centers s u c h as O r v i e t o a n d V i t e r b o — o n t h i s jar of
Tuscan origin.

1 1

T h e H a r p y w a s a m o n s t e r said t o t o r m e n t m i s e r s a n d
was c o m m o n l y used d u r i n g t h e Renaissance as a s y m b o l
of avarice. I t is u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e H a r p i e s here are
i n v e s t e d w i t h t h i s m e a n i n g . T h e y m i g h t have served as
a d m o n i t o r y e m b l e m s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g e n e r o s i t y of t h e
h o s p i t a l f o r w h i c h t h i s d r u g jar w a s m a d e . H a r p i e s also
decorate a F l o r e n t i n e d r u g jar f o r m e r l y i n t h e W i l h e l m
v o n Bode c o l l e c t i o n , B e r l i n ,
du Louvre, Paris.

13

1 2

and another i n the Musee

T h e u n u s u a l l y close r e s e m b l a n c e of a

H a r p y o n a j u g i n a Sienese p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n (fig. 4 E ) t o
t h e H a r p i e s o n t h e G e t t y j a r — w i t h e l o n g a t e d heads,
p r o m i n e n t u p p e r l i p , a n d eyes m a d e of a d o t w i t h i n a
s i n g l e c u r v i n g l i n e — s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e same p a i n t e r w a s
4E

Jug. Late fourteenth-early fifteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware,
H: 23.5 cm (9/4 in.). Siena, private collection.

r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e d e c o r a t i o n of b o t h objects. T h e asso­
c i a t i o n of t h e G e t t y ' s r e l i e f - b l u e vessel w i t h t h i s greenp a i n t e d j u g , a n e a r l y t y p o l o g y , c o n f i r m s t h e e a r l y date of
t h e G e t t y piece.
F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s of c l o s e d vessels d i s p l a y i n g s y m ­
m e t r i c a l l y p l a c e d s t r i p e d b i r d s , p o s s i b l y peacocks, are i n
t h e M u s e o N a z i o n a l e , Palazzo d e l B a r g e l l o , Florence, a n d
in

the M u s e o Internazionale delle Ceramiche, D o n -

azione Cora, Faenza.

14

A s h o r t ladder s u r m o u n t e d b y a cross is t h e e m b l e m
of t h e h o s p i t a l of Santa M a r i a d e l l a Scala i n Siena, w h e r e
t h i s jar w o u l d have served as a d r u g c o n t a i n e r i n t h e
h o s p i t a l ' s p h a r m a c y . I t s e m b l e m refers t o t h e h o s p i t a l ' s
l o c a t i o n i n f r o n t of t h e steps [scala)

of t h e c i t y ' s cathe­

d r a l . Santa M a r i a d e l l a Scala w a s p r i m a r i l y a f o u n d l i n g

40

Relief-Blue far with Harpies and Birds

hospital.

around the t e n t h century,

the

h o s p i t a l became increasingly i m p o r t a n t and was

de­

1 5

Established

s c r i b e d i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y as " t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l
i n the w o r l d . "

1 6

O n M a y 17, 1316, t h e F l o r e n t i n e t o w n

c o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d t h e o p e n i n g of a b r a n c h i n t h e T u s c a n
c a p i t a l o n w h a t w a s t o be c a l l e d via della Scala.

T h e Flo­

rentine branch became p r o m i n e n t , m a i n t a i n i n g almost
c o m p l e t e a u t o n o m y u n t i l 1535, w h e n i t w a s c o m b i n e d
w i t h t h e F l o r e n t i n e Ospedale d e g l i I n n o c e n t i .

1 7

Since ap­

p a r e n t l y a l l T u s c a n branches of t h e Santa M a r i a d e l l a
Scala h o s p i t a l u s e d t h e cross-and-ladder e m b l e m ,

one

c a n n o t be c e r t a i n for w h i c h b r a n c h t h e p r e s e n t jar w a s
produced. M a i o l i c a products displaying the e m b l e m i n ­
clude mid-fifteenth-century two-handled drug j a r s
mid-sixteenth-century dishes.

1 8

and

19

Notes
1.

Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani 1985, 1: nos. 181, 222,

2.

The liquid pigment includes a large proportion of lead.

225, 7073.

Argnani 1898; Bode 1898, 206-17.

4.

Wallis 1903, xx. Both Bode (1898) and Wallis (1903) published the
present jar.

5.

Hausmann 1972, 96.

6.

Valeri 1984, 490-93; Valeri 1996, 128-32; Wardwell 1976-77,

7.

Wardwell 1976-77, especially 186-87.

177-226.
8.

Roncaglia 1992, 16-17.

9.

Roncaglia 1992, 17.

10.

Cora 1973, 1: 76; Roncaglia 1992, 16.

11.

See, for example, Soler et al. 1992, nos. 92, 94, 107, 113, 116, 118,

12.

Wallis 1903, 22, fig. 20; Chompret 1949, 2: fig. 635; Bode 1911, 14

13.

Inv. OA 3982; Giacomotti 1974, 12-13, no. 30.

122-24; Mazza 1983, nos. 81, 182, 193, 205.
right; sale cat., Sotheby's 1965, lot 19.
14.

Cora 1973, 2: fig. 68; Conti 1971A, no. 509; Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti,
and Fanfani 1985, 276, no. 707.

15.

Park 1985, 104, no. 60.

16.

Bellucci and Torriti 1991, 46; this source also discusses medical

17.

Cora 1973, 1: 76.

arrangements at the hospital (44-50).
18.

Cora 1973, 2: figs. 91, 92c.

19.

See Ballardini 1933, 1: nos. 64-67; Rackham 1940, 1: nos. 642-43.

Relief-Blue Jar with Harpies and Birds

4

1

5

Relief-Blue Jar with
a Fish
Tuscany, probably Florence

CONDITION

EXHIBITIONS

Minor chips and overpainting on the rim.

None.

PROVENANCE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Luigi Grassi, Florence, sold to A. Lederer; August

Rothenstein 1944, 205, pi. Q Cora 1973, 1: 78;

Lederer (d. 1936), Vienna; by inheritance to his

2: fig. 83c; Conti 1980, no. 48; GettyMusJ 14

ca. 1 4 2 0 - 4 0

widow, Serena Lederer, 1936; Serena Lederer

(1986): 251, no. 213; Hess 1988A, no. 6 Conti

Tin-glazed earthenware

(d. 1943), Vienna; looted from Serena Lederer's col­

et al. 1991, 258, no. 94; Summary Catalogue

H : 1 6 . 5 c m (6V2 in.)

lection by the Nazis, 1938; stored in Nazi depot in

2001, no. 344.

Vienna at Bartensteingasse, 8 (it appears as no. 183

D i a m (at lip): 9 . 7 c m (3 / i 6 in.)
1 3

W (max.): 1 2 . 2 c m

(4

1 3

/i6

;

on inventory list); restituted by the Austrian gov­

in.)

ernment to her son, Erich Lederer, 1947,- Erich
Lederer (1896-1985), Geneva; by inheritance

85.DE.57

to his widow, Elisabeth Lederer, 1985; Elisabeth
Lederer, Geneva; sold to the J. Paul Getty Mu­

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

seum, 1985.

None.

though

c e r a m i c s i d e n t i f i e d as T u s c a n p u b l i s h e d i n a n e x t e n s i v e

s l i g h t l y w i d e r at t h e base, is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e al-

c o m p e n d i u m of t h i s t y p o l o g y ( e x c l u d i n g f o u r groups of

THIS

barello

ESSENTIALLY

CYLINDRICAL

VESSEL,

f o r m , a c o n t a i n e r shape t h a t w a s used t o store

drugs a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l s (fig. 5 B ) . T h e surface is p a i n t e d

fragments), 126 are t w o - h a n d l e d jars (orciuoli),
jugs (boccali),

3 5 are

6 are plates, 2 are w e t - d r u g jars (utelli),

1 is
the

w i t h a v e r t i c a l l y p l a c e d fish s u r r o u n d e d b y leaves a n d

a b u c k e t , a n d o n l y 3 are c y l i n d r i c a l jars [albarelli],

dots (or " b e r r i e s " ) i n t h i c k c o b a l t b l u e p i g m e n t [zaffera

p r e s e n t e x a m p l e b e i n g m u c h t h e s m a l l e s t of t h e g r o u p .

a

4

o u t l i n e d i n manganese purple o n a p i n k i s h w h i t e

T w o e x a m p l e s of s m a l l c y l i n d r i c a l jars i d e n t i f i e d as f r o m

g r o u n d . T h e b a c k g r o u n d is s c a t t e r e d w i t h m a n g a n e s e

Faenza a n d a larger e x a m p l e f r o m V i t e r b o are also l i s t e d ,

dots a n d c u r v e d l i n e s t h a t echo t h e d o t shapes. D o w n

b u t a l l t h r e e of these d i s p l a y surface d e c o r a t i o n s i g n i f i ­

one side a n d a r o u n d t h e r i m , w a v y m a n g a n e s e l i n e s are

c a n t l y different f r o m that o n the present jar.

hlievo)

5

Whether

p u n c t u a t e d b y b l u e dots. T h e i n t e r i o r is t i n glazed. T h e

t h i s was a shape n o t c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l or, conversely,

vessel's s m a l l size suggests t h a t i t m u s t be a

w h e t h e r objects of t h i s shape w e r e u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y —

quartuccio,

t h u s s u f f e r i n g f r e q u e n t damage or d e s t r u c t i o n — i s n o t

or q u a r t e r m e a s u r e .
Although

c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t t o be of H i s p a n o -

known.

M o r e s q u e d e r i v a t i o n , t h i s fish m o t i f appears t o be de­
rived instead f r o m I t a l i a n archaic m a i o l i c a prototypes
t h a t m a y i n t u r n have b e e n based d i r e c t l y o n I s l a m i c
m o d e l s . A d r u g jar i n a p r i v a t e F l o r e n t i n e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t
1

Notes
1.

Valeri 1984, 478, 480, 481 n. 24.

2.

Cora 1973, 2: fig. 82; Valeri 1984, 480 n. 24, 494 n. 85.

3.

For other examples see Cora 1973, 2: figs. 83a-b, 84a-c, pi. 85; Bojani

d i s p l a y s a h o r i z o n t a l l y p l a c e d fish m a y be one of t h e f e w

1990, 170, pi. i ; Cole 1977, 84-85, 100-101, nos. 40, 51. For ex­

m a i o l i c a objects w i t h t h i s m o t i f t h a t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o

amples on archaic maiolica, see Cora 1973, 2: pis. 14a, 16a, 17a, 20.

H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e or N e a r E a s t e r n t y p e s . T h i s fish m o ­
2

t i f i n t h e m o r e c o m m o n v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n is f o u n d o n
o t h e r e a r l y F l o r e n t i n e jars, a l t h o u g h of t h e t w o - h a n d l e d
f o r m , also w i t h o a k - l e a f a n d b e r r y e m b e l l i s h m e n t .
A l t h o u g h the

fish—both

3

as a v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l

d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t — i s r a t h e r c o m m o n , t h e s m a l l albarello

42

shape of t h i s p i e c e is n o t . O f t h e L73 r e l i e f - b l u e

4.

Conti et al. 1991, 248-68.

5.

Conti et al. 1991, 269, 291.

5A

44

Alternate view.

Relief-Blue Jar with a Fish

SB

Carlo Crivelli (Italian, 1430/3 5 ?-before 1495). The Annunciation

with Saint Emidius (detail), i486. O i l on canvas, transferred

from wood, 207 x 146.7 cm (81 Vi x 57/4 in.). London, National Gallery, inv. N G 739. On a shelf above the Virgin's bed are a
number of useful household items, including a covered albarello.

Relief-Blue Jar with a Fish

45

6

Green-Painted Dish with
an Interlace Pattern

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

ing Pringsheim and his wife to emigrate to

None.

Switzerland (sold, Sotheby's, London, July 19,
1939, lot 201, to E. L. Paget [according to sale cat.

CONDITION

A break w i t h areas of overpainting from r i m to r i m

Florence area or M o n t e l u p o
Fifteenth century

Getty Museum, 1984].

glaze fault and a few glaze chips around the rim.

H : 4 . 4 c m ( i A in.)
1 5

EXHIBITIONS

PROVENANCE

3

(9

don; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul

across the center of the dish and on the rim; a

Tin-glazed earthenware
Diam: 25.3 cm

notation]); E. L. Paget, London; A. Kauffman, Lon­

None.

Alfred Pringsheim, Munich, by 1913; looted from

in.)

/i6

84.DE.94

Pringsheim's collection by the Nazis during

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938; stored i n an an­

Falke 1914-23, 1: 4, fig. 4; 3: pi. 154, no. 236

nex of the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich;

(1); Cora 1973/ 2: no. sod, pi. 50; GettyMusJ 13

ordered exported to London by the German State

(1985): 239, no. 152; Hess 1988A, 20-22, no. 4;

in 1938 for sale at auction in exchange for allow­

Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 345.

T H I S M O D E S T D I S H is i n t h e f o r m of a b a s i n , or

bacino,

t o t h i s bacino

is a F l o r e n t i n e b a s i n f r o m t h e f i r s t h a l f of

w i t h a flat b o t t o m a n d r a t h e r v e r t i c a l sides. I n s p i t e of i t s

the fifteenth century i n the F i t z w i l l i a m M u s e u m , Cam­

s i m p l e f o r m , t h e piece d i s p l a y s s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e o m e t r i c

b r i d g e (fig. 6 c ) . A l t h o u g h a l m o s t t w i c e t h e size of t h e
1

a n d v e g e t a l d e c o r a t i o n i n green, ocher, a n d pale b r o w n ­

G e t t y piece, t h i s b a s i n displays v e r y s i m i l a r d e c o r a t i o n ,

i s h p u r p l e . T h e r a d i a t i n g s e c t i o n s of s c a l e l i k e o r n a m e n ­

i n c l u d i n g the " s h u t t l e " m o t i f around the w e l l w a l l and

tation

around

the

r i m , slanting

"shuttle"

pattern

the "scale" p a t t e r n around the r i m . T h i s r i m embellish­

a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h w a v y l i n e s a r o u n d t h e deep w e l l border,

m e n t is p l a u s i b l y d e s c r i b e d as a " b o u n d l a u r e l w r e a t h "

and curvilinear pattern i n the w e l l a l l c o m p l e m e n t the

t h a t w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e a r r i v a l of Renaissance features

object's s i m p l e shape. M o r e o v e r , t h i s d i s h is one of t h e

o n t h i s " a r c h a i c " m a i o l i c a of e s s e n t i a l l y n o n f i g u r a t i v e ,

rare u n d o u b t e d l y f u n c t i o n a l pieces t h a t have s u r v i v e d i n

l a t e m e d i e v a l d e c o r a t i o n . O n t h e G e t t y piece, h o w e v e r ,

good c o n d i t i o n . A l t h o u g h unembellished, the

t h e b i n d i n g appears as s t r a i g h t l i n e s r a t h e r t h a n c u r v e d

reverse

s h o w s traces o f l e a d a n d t i n glazes.

2

ones, m a k i n g i t s r i m less r e c o g n i z a b l e as a g a r l a n d .

T h e t y p e of d e c o r a t i o n f o u n d o n t h i s b a s i n m a r k s a n

S i m i l a r d e c o r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e w e l l a n d w e l l

important development i n maiolica embellishment. I n

border, is f o u n d o n T u s c a n m a i o l i c a f r a g m e n t s d a t i n g

t h e second q u a r t e r of t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , n e w designs

f r o m t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h t h r o u g h t h e l a t e f i f t e e n t h cen­

d r a w n f r o m a v a r i e t y of m e d i a (such as t e x t i l e s , a r c h i t e c ­

t u r y t h a t appear t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m m o n t o M o n ­

t u r a l decoration, manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n , and ceram­

t e l u p o since a n u m b e r of t h e m have b e e n f o u n d i n

ics), o r i g i n a t i n g i n c e n t e r s o u t s i d e t h e p e n i n s u l a (such

e x c a v a t i o n s there, s o m e near k i l n sites. A c c o r d i n g t o

as S p a i n a n d t h e N e a r East), s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d I t a l i a n

t h e i r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , t h e e x c a v a t e d e x a m p l e s are

maiolica

of

datable t o t h e second h a l f of t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t is

e m b e l l i s h m e n t i n c l u d e s u c h diverse types of p a i n t e d

painted

motifs.

Examples

of t h i s

kind

p o s s i b l e t h a t , since s o m e of t h e M o n t e l u p o e x a m p l e s ap­

d e c o r a t i o n as r e l i e f - b l u e , I t a l o - M o r e s q u e , G o t h i c - f l o r a l ,

pear m o r e l o o s e l y a n d f r e e l y rendered, t h e y represent a

p e a c o c k feather, Persian p a l m e t t e , a n d alia

s l i g h t l y l a t e r phase of t h e t y p e of d e c o r a t i o n f o u n d o n

porcellana.

T h i s dish's w e l l d i s p l a y s l o o p e d s c r o l l s a n d leaf

the Getty example.

F r a g m e n t s of a s i m i l a r p l a t e w e r e

3

sprigs t h a t e m a n a t e f r o m a c r u c i f o r m m o t i f a n d grace­

also e x c a v a t e d f r o m a site l o c a t e d b e t w e e n Siena a n d

f u l l y feed i n t o a b a n d a r o u n d t h e w e l l , a l l reserved o n a

M o n t e l u p o (fig. 6 D ) .

h a t c h e d ground. A r g u a b l y the piece m o s t closely related

46

4

48

6A

Reverse.

6B

Profile of dish.

Green-Painted Dish with an Interlace

Pattern

6c

Dish. Florence or Florence district, ca. 1420-50. Tin-glazed earthen­

6D

Plate called a rinfrescatoio excavated at Semifonte, Comune di Barberino

ware, H: 7 cm [2V4 in.) Diam: 43 cm (17 in.). Cambridge, Fitzwilli am

Valdelsa, Province of Florence, second half of the fifteenth century. Tin-

Museum, inv. c.25-1932.

glazed earthenware, H: 4.5 cm (1/4 in.) Diam: 24.5 cm ( 9 V 8 in). Soprint-

;

;

endenza Archeologica della Toscana, material kept in the Museo Civico,
Certaldo.

Notes
1.

Bode 1911, 13; Rackham 1935, 1: no. 2164; Cora 1973, 2: no. 50c;

2.

Poole 1995, 96; Poole 1997, 18.

Poole 1995, 95-96, no. 153; Poole 1997, 18-19, no. 4.
3.

See Berti 1997, pis. 42, 47-49, 51-52, 54; Cora 1973, 2: figs. 24b,
28a; Rackham 1940, 1: 20, no. 76; 2: pi. 5.

4.

Francovich 1982, 117, no. 47a, fig. 154.

Green-Painted Dish with an Interlace Pattern

49

7

Relief-Blue Jar with
Rampant Lions
Tuscany, probably Florence
ca.

1425-50

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

EXHIBITIONS

Below each handle, a six-pointed asterisk.

None.

CONDITION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A crack runs from under one handle to the base;

Cora 1973, 1: 83, 4 5 7 ; 2, pi. 1 n

two small losses in the neck are filled and painted;

(1985): 2 4 0 , no. 157; Hess 1988A, no. 7; Conti

small chips around the r i m and along the handles.

Tin-glazed earthenware

Villa Vittoria, Florence, sold to N . Longari; [Nella

s

W (max.): 4 0 c m [is A

et al. 1991, 2 5 4 , no. 59; Masterpieces 1997, 9,

Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi (d. 1956),

D i a m (at lip): 19.3 c m (y A in.)
3

GettyMusf 13

no. 2; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 346.

PROVENANCE

H : 3 9 . 4 c m ( 1 5 Vi in.)

}

Longari, Milan, sold to R. Zietz]; [Rainer Zietz,

in.)

Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

84.DE.97

1984].

T H I S T W O - H A N D L E D d r u g jar is t h e l a r g e s t k n o w n ves­

i m a g e o n wares f r o m V a l e n c i a n c e n t e r s s u c h as Paterna

sel of i t s k i n d . I t s h i g h - s h o u l d e r e d , o v o i d b o d y is e m b e l ­

or M a n i s e s ,

l i s h e d o n each side w i t h a r a m p a n t l i o n a m o n g dots (or

M o r e s q u e o r i g i n . R e c e n t s c h o l a r s h i p also suggests t h a t i t

" b e r r i e s " ) a n d b r a n c h e s of leaves i n a t h i n b l u e i m p a s t o

m a y d e r i v e f r o m I t a l i a n h e r a l d r y or a r c h a i c c e r a m i c s .

o u t l i n e d i n a n d s u r r o u n d e d b y dashes a n d w a v y l i n e s i n

T h e w h i t e , s t a r l i k e d i s k o n t h e l i o n ' s chest, a d e s i g n

5

is c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t t o be of H i s p a n o 6

m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e . T h e s h o r t n e c k a n d strap h a n d l e s are

w h o s e s i g n i f i c a n c e has y e t t o be e x p l a i n e d , appears o n

l i k e w i s e p a i n t e d w i t h b l u e dots a n d m a n g a n e s e l i n e s

H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e w o r k s (fig. 7E) a n d m a y have b e e n

o n a t h i n b l u i s h w h i t e g r o u n d . T h e i n t e r i o r is glazed b u t

t r a n s f e r r e d t o I t a l i a n c e r a m i c s w i t h t h e i n f l u x of S p a n i s h

m u c h abraded.

wares i n t h e f i f t e e n t h

T h i s piece d i s p l a y s a p a i n t e d a s t e r i s k b e l o w each

century.

Be­

1

cause t h e areas b e l o w h a n d l e s o n jugs a n d jars are c o n ­
v e n t i o n a l l y inscribed w i t h maker's marks, however, i t
is also p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e asterisks o n t h i s w o r k

indi­

cate a g i v e n w o r k s h o p . G a l e a z z o C o r a i d e n t i f i e d t h e sixp o i n t e d a s t e r i s k o n t h i s d r u g jar (fig. 7 A ) as t h e m a r k of
t h e w o r k s h o p of G i u n t a d i T u g i o d i G i u n t a (ca. 1 3 8 2 - c a .
1 4 5 0 ) , o n e of t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t m a i o l i c a c e r a m i s t s of
h i s t i m e i n F l o r e n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e a s c r i p t i o n of a l l jars
2

m a r k e d w i t h t h e a s t e r i s k t o d i T u g i o is c u r r e n t l y u n d e r
question.

3

O n s t y l i s t i c g r o u n d s , i t has b e e n

proposed

t h a t t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e r e l i e f - b l u e jars m a r k e d w i t h aster­
i s k s of t h e t o t a l 1 6 2 a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e F l o r e n t i n e area may,
i n fact, be t h e w o r k of at least seven d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s .
L i o n s f r e q u e n t l y e m b e l l i s h zaffeia

a rilievo,

4

or relief-

b l u e c e r a m i c s (fig. 7 D ) a n d are p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e
as a F l o r e n t i n e m o t i f since t h e y m a y refer t o t h a t c i t y ' s
l i o n e m b l e m , or marzocco.

50

T h e l i o n , also a p o p u l a r

T h i s d e s i g n also ap­

pears o n a n i m a l s e m b e l l i s h i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d e a r l i e r

h a n d l e , w h i c h m a y serve a p u r e l y o r n a m e n t a l f u n c t i o n ,
since asterisks w e r e a c o m m o n d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f .

7

7A

Detail of maker's mark below handle.

7B

51

Alternate view.

Relief-Blue far with Rampant

Lions

jc

Alternate view.

Relief-Blue far with Rampant Lions

53

7D

Bartholomew the Englishman. Detail from The Proprietor, translation by Friar Jean Corbichon. Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, French ms. 2 1 8 , fol. 111. In the center of the upper shelf behind the pharmacist is a drug jar,
possibly of Hispano-Moresque or Florentine maiolica, decorated w i t h a rampant lion similar to the one on the
Getty example.

54

Relief-Blue far with Rampant

Lions

Notes
1.
2.

For other examples, see Cora 1973, 2: fig. i42a-b.
Cora 1973, 1: 39 n. 12; 2: pi. 350 (M222-23); and for Cora's discus­
sion of the artist, see Cora 1973, 1: 54-58, 272-75.

3.

Alinari and Berti 1991, 52-56; Alinari and Berti (1991, 52) believe
Cora's "constant preoccupation with finding links between archival in­
formation and specific ceramic objects even when the links appear
weak" is problematic (see also Wilson 1996, 6-7, no. 1).

4.

Alinari and Berti 1991, 54-5 5.

5.

For examples, see Gonzalez Marti 1944-1952, 1: figs. 290, 329, 641;

6.

Valeri 1984, 478 n. 7.

7.

See Gonzalez Marti 1944-52, 1: figs. 276, 278-79, 282,- 3: fig. 575.

2: figs. 342, 644, 6 8 0 - 8 1 , 699, 799, 801-4, 942; 3: figs. 551-54.

8.

See, for example, a thirteenth-century Sicilian altar frontal w i t h em­
broidered leopards, parrots, and griffins in Santangelo 1959, pi. 4. As on
numerous examples of textiles, moreover, the animals here are symmet­
rically displayed, much in the same way that animal motifs are painted
facing one another or addorsed on oak-leaf jars; see also Valeri 1984,
480, figs. 4 - 6 . For a discussion of the importance of textiles as trans­
mitters of designs from the Islamic world to Italy, see Spallanzani 1978,
101-2.

9.

See Wallis 1903, 23, fig. 21; Cora 1973, 2: fig. 81b; Wilson 1987A,
no. 20.

7E

Round plate (reverse). Valencia (Manises), 1469-74? Tin-glazed earthen­

10.

Hausmann 1972, 94-96, no. 7 1 .

11.

Bellini and Conti 1964, 61.

12.

Cora 1973, 2: fig. 79c; Chompret 1949, 2: 80, fig. 636; Giacomotti

13.

Cora 1973, 2: fig. 80b.

14.

Cora 1973, 2: fig. 8 i a Bossert 1928-35, 6: 17; Hannover 1925, 1:

ware, H: 7 cm {2 A in.); Diam: 46.5 cm (18 A in.). Paris, Musee de Cluny,

1974, 12-13,

l

3

inv. 1687.

n o

- 34-

;

100, fig. i i 2 ; Wallis 1903, fig. 32.
15.

Cora 1973, 2: fig. 8 i c Rackham 1916, 76-77, no. 740.

influ­

16.

Sale cat., Sotheby's 1938, 75, lot 73.

e n c e d b y S p a n i s h or e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n p r o t o t y p e s ,

17.

Cora 1973, 2: figs. 80a, 8oc Wilson 1987A, no. 23.

m a y h a v e s e r v e d as t h e s o u r c e for t h e c e r a m i c d e s i g n s .

18.

Bode 1911, 18; Cora 1973, 2, fig. 57c; Wilson 1987A, no. 21.

fabrics,

and

Other

these fabrics,

Tuscan

possibly

two-handled

themselves

jars

with

leaves

8

;

;

and

r a m p a n t lions include those i n the British M u s e u m , Lon­
don

( i n v . 1903,

Berlin

(inv.

85,

5-15,

i);

621);

i n the

9

in

1 0

Kunstgewerbemuseum,

the

Fitzwilliam

C a m b r i d g e (inv. C 7 6 - 1 9 6 1 , C 7 7 - 1 9 6 1 ) ;
National

de

Ceramique,

Sevres

(inv.

1 1

5292);

R o c h e m a i o l i c a d r u g jar c o l l e c t i o n , B a s e l ;
princes

of

1 3

Liechtenstein,

Musee
in

the

i n the

col­

1 2

lection

of

1267);

formerly i n the O t t o Beit collection, L o n d o n ;

1 4

the

Museum,

i n the

formerly i n the D a m i r o n collection, L y o n s ;
Wads w o r t h

Atheneum,

Hartford

(inv.

B r i t i s h M u s e u m also has

a l a r g e albarello
5-23,

i).

1 7

shaped large t w o - h a n d l e d j a r — w i t h

1 6

and i n

1917.433).

p a n t l i o n (inv. M L A

1898,

Vaduz

(inv.
1 5

the
The

w i t h a ram­

The most similarly
high shoulder

ac­

c e n t u a t e d b y t h e h a n d l e s — i s also i n t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m
( i n v . M L A 1902, 4-24, i ) .

1 8

Relief-Blue Jar with Rampant Lions

55

8

Relief-Blue Jar with
Running Boars

manganese purple crutch; below each handle, a
six-pointed asterisk surrounded by dots.
CONDITION

handles on one side; minor chips on the handles

ca. 1 4 3 0

and in the glaze of the body.

Tin-glazed earthenware
D i a m (at lip): 1 2 . 5 c m

J4 /i6
1 5

in.)

W (max.): 2 4 . 5 c m (9V8 in.)
84.DE.98

R. Zietz); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the
J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].
EXHIBITIONS

None.

PROVENANCE

H : 2 5 c m ( 9 % in.)

Castle, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England (sold,
Sotheby's, London, April 14, 1 9 8 1 , lot 13, to

A crack runs from the base to the top of one of the

Florence

by inheritance to Sir Thomas Ingilby, Bt., Ripley

According to Sir Thomas Ingilby, possibly acquired

BIBLIOGRAPHY

by Sir John Ingilby i n Italy in 1743, though cer­

Norman 1981; Cuadrado 1 9 8 4 , 127; GettyMus]

tainly at Ripley Castle for several generations; by

13 (1985): 2 4 0 , no. 158; Hess 1988A, no. 8 Conti

inheritance to Sir Joslan Ingilby, Bt., Ripley Castle,

et al. 1991/ 255, fig. 7 1 ; Cohen and Hess 1993,

Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England (offered for

29; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 3 4 7 .

;

sale, Sotheby's, London, July 2, 1974, lot 2 6 1 ,
withdrawn because of the owner's sudden death);

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

On each strap handle, a copper green and

T H E B O D Y O F T H I S t w o - h a n d l e d d r u g jar is c o v e r e d w i t h

w h i t e tin-glaze ground

b y t h e m i d - f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e largest i n Florence,

b r a n c h e s of leaves i n c o b a l t b l u e p i g m e n t , f r a m i n g o n

was the first h o s p i t a l i n t h a t c i t y dedicated p r i m a r i l y to

each side a r u n n i n g saddleback boar, also i n b l u e . T h i s

c a r i n g for t h e s i c k . F r o m d o c u m e n t s s u c h as t h e h o s p i ­

jar is t h e o n l y k n o w n r e l i e f - b l u e p o t d e c o r a t e d w i t h t h e

tal's a c c o u n t b o o k s a n d M a t t e o V i l l a n i ' s Cronica,

boar m o t i f .

manganese

k n o w t h a t Santa M a r i a N u o v a s u p p l i e d h i g h - q u a l i t y

p u r p l e l i n e s f u r t h e r e m b e l l i s h t h e body, n e c k , a n d r i b b e d

m e d i c a l care t o a w i d e cross s e c t i o n of Florence's p o p u ­

strap h a n d l e s . T h e c o b a l t d e c o r a t i o n is o u t l i n e d i n m a n ­

l a t i o n w h i l e c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h e needs of t h e p o o r .

B l u e dots

decorated

p i l g r i m s a n d travelers. T h e Santa M a r i a N u o v a h o s p i t a l ,

with

a yellowish

(or " b e r r i e s " ) a n d

ganese p u r p l e . T h e i n t e r i o r is t i n glazed.
b l e m of t h e F l o r e n t i n e Santa M a r i a N u o v a h o s p i t a l , is

Italian manuscript illuminations,

M i c h e l e d i F r o s i n o da

Panzano (elected 1 4 1 3 - d . 1443), i t appears t h a t a n e w
p h a r m a c y w a s o r d e r e d f o r Santa M a r i a N u o v a . T h i s r e n ­
o v a t i o n p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d a r o u n d 1431 since i n J u l y of
t h a t year a c e r a m i s t w a s p a i d for n e w d r u g c o n t a i n e r s
"per l a n u o v a s p e z i e r i a " (for t h e n e w p h a r m a c y ) a n d i n
was p a i d for m a k i n g the

" l ' a r m a r i o n u o v o d e l l a s p e z i e r i a " ( n e w c a b i n e t for t h e
p h a r m a c y ) . A l t h o u g h G i u n t a d i T u g i o has b e e n associ­
1

a t e d w i t h t h e a s t e r i s k m a r k (fig. 8 A

;

see nos. 7, 9),

records s h o w t h a t several c e r a m i s t s , i n c l u d i n g M a s o a n d
M i n i a t o d i D o m e n i c o as w e l l as G i u n t a , s u p p l i e d t h e
h o s p i t a l w i t h m o r e t h a n f i v e h u n d r e d a n d one t h o u s a n d
d r u g jars, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r o u n d 1 4 3 0 .

2

I n t h e e a r l y M i d d l e Ages h o s p i t a l s w e r e s i m p l e hos­
pices set u p o u t s i d e c i t i e s t o offer f o o d a n d l o d g i n g t o

56

4

t h e saddleback boar

m i g h t have b e e n used t o refer e i t h e r t o one of t h e

p a i n t e d o n each of t h e t w o h a n d l e s (fig. 8 B ) . U n d e r t h e

November a cabinetmaker

3

A l s o used as a m o t i f o n S p a n i s h c e r a m i c s a n d i n

A copper green a n d m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e c r u t c h , e m ­

d i r e c t i o n of h o s p i t a l m a n a g e r

we

8A

Detail of maker's mark below handle.

8B

58

Alternate view.

Relief-Blue far with Running

Boars

8c

Alternate view.

Relief-Blue Jar with Running Boars

59

animal's many symbolic qualities—as one of the four

the Volpi collection, Florence.

heraldic beasts of the hunt, i t represents speed and fe­

drug jar from this same Santa Maria Nuova group, also

rocity— or to a scene from Greco-Roman mythology.

formerly i n the Volpi c o l l e c t i o n .

5

23

Cora also mentions a
24

From the published

One finds similar boars on maiolica jugs, plates, and ce­

dimensions of these jars, they fall into two groups accord­

ramic fragments,- this animal can be seen as a heraldic

ing to size: fifteen jars measure between 18.5 and 22.2 cm,

emblem on a Florentine jug of the t h i r d quarter of

and three jars measure between 30.8 and 31.5 cm.

6

the fifteenth century, as w e l l as on an early sixteenth-

Two other drug jars w i t h the crutch emblem of the

century maiolica plate from Gubbio i n the Victoria and

Santa Maria Nuova hospital but of slightly different

7

Albert Museum, London (inv. 1725-1855); neither coat

shape and later date and w i t h simplified leaf decoration

of arms has been identified.

were formerly i n the Elie Volpi collection, Florence, one

8

Including the Getty Museum's piece, approximately

of w h i c h was later sold at auction i n Paris.

25

Maiolica

twenty drug jars w i t h the Santa Maria Nuova crutch em­

jugs and jars bearing the same crutch emblem were also

blem are k n o w n . They include one decorated w i t h eagles

produced for the Santa Maria Nuova hospital i n the six­

in

teenth and seventeenth centuries.

the

State Hermitage

Museum,

Saint

Petersburg

(H: 18.5 cm, inv. F-3118); two—one w i t h birds, the
9

other w i t h f i s h — i n the Musee du Louvre, Paris (H: 19
cm, inv. O A 6304; H : 19 cm, inv. O A 6305);

10

another

w i t h fish i n the Toledo M u s e u m of A r t (H: 30.8 c m ) ;

11

a

drug jar w i t h rampant dogs i n the National Gallery of
Victoria, Melbourne (H: 31 cm, inv. 3649.3);

12

another

w i t h running dogs i n the F i t z w i l l i a m Museum, Cam­
bridge (H: 20 cm),with

13

two—one w i t h rabbits, the other

fleurs-de-lis—in

the Victoria and Albert Museum,

London (H: 21 cm, inv. 389-1889; H : 21 cm, inv. C.20631910); another w i t h fleurs-de-lis i n the Cleveland M u ­
14

seum of A r t ;

1 5

a t h i r d w i t h fleurs-de-lis i n the Museo

Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples;

16

one w i t h geomet­

ric decoration i n the Osterreichisches M u s e u m fur angewandte Kunst, Vienna (H: 20.5 c m ) ; one w i t h cranes i n
17

the Lehman collection, Metropolitan M u s e u m of A r t ,
N e w York (H: 31.5 c m ) ;

18

one w i t h leaf decoration i n the

M u s e u m of Fine Arts, Boston (H: 20.5 cm, inv. 23.268);
one w i t h Saint Bernardino monograms i n the Museo
Nazionale delle Ceramiche, Faenza (H: 18.5 cm, inv.
21054/c); one w i t h crowns formerly i n the collection of
19

the princes of Liechtenstein, Vaduz (inv. 1269); another
20

w i t h crowns cited as i n a private collection, M i l a n , and
probably the same as that from the Guido Rossi collec­
tion, M i l a n , that was offered for sale i n 1998 (H: 19.3
cm);

21

one w i t h profile portraits of a bearded man wear­

ing a pointed cap and a woman wearing a plumed hat i n
the Cleveland M u s e u m of A r t (H: 20.3 cm, inv. 43.54);

22

and one w i t h curly-haired figures i n profile formerly i n

60

Relief-Blue Jar with Running Boars

26

Notes
Cora 1 9 7 3 , i : 5 6 .

1.
2.

Cora

1973,

i:

see also Wilson

54-61;

precise information, Alinari and Berti

1996, 6 - 7 ,

( 1 9 9 1 , 54)

no. 1 . Lacking more

attribute the present

jar to their "painter C," who would also be responsible for the jar
with Saint Bernardino monograms in the Museo Internazionale delle
Ceramiche, Cora donation, Faenza, inv. 2 1 0 5 4 / c .
3.

Park

4.

For ceramic examples, see Gonzalez Marti

1985, 1 0 2 - 3 ,

106.
1 9 4 4 - 5 2 , 2:

fig.

6 7 3 ; 3:

fig. 5 7 5; for late medieval manuscript illuminations see, for example,
the version of the Tacuinum sanitatis i n the Bibliotheque Municipale,
Rouen, s.v. "ghiande" (Cogliati Arano 1 9 7 9 , 5 9 , pi. XV).
5.

The Calydonian boar hunt, for example, was a popular subject for narra­
tive scenes (see Liverani

fig.

i960,

a plate from Deruta of ca.

26);

1530

also displays a wild-boar hunt (with saddleback boar), allegorically inter­
preted as one of Hercules' labors (Conti 1 9 8 4 , no. 2 4 ) .
6.

See Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : figs. 3 7 , 1 6 6 c , 1 8 8 c , 1 9 6 b ; Ravanelli Guidotti 1 9 9 0 ,

7.

Lepke 1 9 1 3 , lot 8 0 .

56-57,

no.

22;

Fuchs

1993, 177,

no.

64.

8.

Rackham 1 9 4 0 , 1: no. 6 5 6 ; 2 : pi. 1 0 3 .

9.

Kube 1 9 7 6 , no. i ; Bode 1 9 1 1 , 1 9 ; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 5 1 , fig. 3 2 .

10.

Giacomotti 1 9 7 4 , nos.

31-32;

Conti etal.

1991, 252, 257,

figs.

43,

86.

11.

Sale cat., Christie's 1 9 3 6 , lot 2; Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : fig. 8 4 a ; Conti et al.

12.

Sale cat., Christie's

1991, 257,

fig.

87.
1936,

lot i ; Legge in Brody et al.

1980,

14-15;

Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 5 6 , fig. 7 4 .
13.

Poole

14.

Rackham

no.

15.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : fig. 8 8 a Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 6 0 , fig. 1 1 1 .

16.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : fig. 8 9 a ; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 6 0 , fig. 1 0 9 .

17.

Bode 1 9 1 1 , 1 8 , pi. 1 9 ; Wallis 1 9 0 3 , 8; Lepke 1 9 1 3 , lot 2 3 ; Conti et al.

18.

Falke

1 9 1 4 - 2 3 , 1:

et al.

1991, 252,

1995, 9 6 - 9 9 ,

nos.

1 9 4 0 , 1:

154;

Poole

3 8 - 3 9 ; 2:

1997, 2 0 - 2 1 ,

no.

pi. g Conti et al.
}

5.

1991, 257, 259,

figs. 8 3 , 1 0 6 .
;

1991, 261,

19.

fig.

122.

no.

fig.

pi.

4,

3,-

Rasmussen

1989, 10: 4 - 5 ,

no.

2

;

Conti

41.

Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani 1 9 8 5 , no. 4 2 5 ; Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 :
pi. 9 5 ; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 6 0 , fig. 1 1 6 .

20.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : fig. 9 0 c ; Bode 1 9 1 1 , 1 4 center; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 6 0 ,
fig.

115 .

21.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 1 : 7 8 ; Trinity 1 9 9 8 , 8 - 9 , no. 2 .

22.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : fig. 5 5 a - b Pillsbury 1 9 7 1 , no. 9 3 ; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 ,
;

258,

fig.

95.

23.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : fig. 5 5 c ; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 5 8 , fig. 9 6 .

24.

Cora 1 9 7 3 , 1 : 8 0 , 2 : pi. 1 0 7 a ; Conti et al. 1 9 9 1 , 2 6 1 ,fig.1 2 1 .

25.

The pair appeared for sale at Jandolo and Tavazzi, Rome, April 2 5 May

3, 1 9 1 0 ,

lots

261-62;

lot

262

from the previous sale was then

sold at Hotel Drouot, December 1 5 , 19 7 6, lot 2 3 Conti et al. 19 9 1 ,
;

256,
26.

Berti

fig.

77.

1999, 37-54;

Cora and Fanfani

1982,

no.

i; Bojani, Ravanelli

Guidotti, and Fanfani 1 9 8 5 , no. 5 7 7 .

Relief-Blue Jar with Running Boars

61

9

Relief-Blue Jar with Dots

by inheritance to Lederer's widow, Elisabeth

C O N D I T I O N

Two chips in the r i m chips along the handles,-

Lederer, 1985; sold to the J. Paul Getty M u ­

;

Tuscany, probably Florence
ca. 1430-50
Tin-glazed earthenware
H: 16.5 cm

(6V2

in.)

Diam (at lip): 10.5 cm (4V8 in.)
W (max.): 17.8 cm (7 in.)
85.DE.58

a number of blind cracks in the body.

seum, 1 9 8 5 .

PROVENANCE

EXHIBITIONS

Palazzo Davanzati, Florence (fig. 9D); Stefano

None.

Bardini, Florence; Elie Volpi, Florence (sold,
1

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Jandolo and Tavazzi, Rome, April 25 -May 3,
1910, lot 777, to Count H.-A. Harrach [informa­
tion supplied by auction house]); Count HansAlbrecht Harrach (d. 1963), Rome ( 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 1 4 ) ,
Munich ( 1 9 2 3 - 4 3 ) , and Niederarnbach, South

Cora 1973, 1: 8 o 2: fig. 107b; GettyMusf 14
;

(1986): 2 5 1 , no. 212; Hess 1988A, no. 9; Conti
et al. 1 9 9 1 , fig. 17; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 ,
no. 3 4 8 .

Germany (sold, Lempertz, Cologne, May 6, 1953,
MARKS

A N D INSCRIPTIONS

Below each handle, a six-pointed asterisk sur­
rounded by dots.

lot 414); Dr. Robert Bak, New York (sold,
Sotheby's, London, December 7, 1965, lot 15, to
E. Lederer); Erich Lederer ( 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 8 5 ) , Geneva;

T H I S T W O - H A N D L E D VESSEL displays on each side four

horizontal zones delineated by manganese purple lines.
These zones display wavy manganese purple lines and a
double row of cobalt blue dots (or "berries") set into the
curves on a ground of small manganese dots. The interior
is lead glazed. The area below each strap handle bears
a six-pointed asterisk mark surrounded by dots, attrib­
uted to the Florentine workshop of Giunta di Tugio (see
nos. 7-8).

2

However, there is some question as to

whether the more than t h i r t y jars marked w i t h various
forms of asterisk a l l belong to di Tugio or even to a single
other potter. A n attempt has been made to stylistically
l i n k works by the same hand as that responsible for dec­
orating this jar. According to this grouping, a so-called
painter E w o u l d have decorated the Getty jar and the
small example w i t h an upright hare i n the Victoria and
Albert Museum, London (fig. 9 c ) .

3

Roughly a dozen examples of relief-blue jugs and
two-handled jars display similar repetitive, almost geo­
metric decoration (including patterns

of tabs,

dots,

dashes, and wedge shapes), rather than the more com­
mon leaf embellishment. The arrangement of rows of
4

repeating fingerlike cogs (called a goccioloni
9A

Alternate view.

for "big

drops" of pigment) on several of these more abstractly
decorated pots has been associated w i t h the vair m o t i f
.deriving from heraldry. H o w these more simplified pat­
5

terns relate to the more c o m m o n relief-blue leaves has
yet to be fully considered.

62

Notes
1.

There were strong connections among Palazzo Davanzati, Stefano Bar­
dini, and Elie Volpi around the turn of the twentieth century. In the late
1860s

Bardini was the most important antique dealer in Italy. With the

financial difficulties caused by changes in the economy and in inheri­
tance laws after Unification in 1 8 6 1 , many noble Italian families chose
to sell parts of their collections to have money on hand. Bardini took
advantage of this situation, having access, as he did, to the palaces and
villas of many important Florentine families such as the Strozzi, Torrigiani, and Capponi. Bardini's clients included Wilhelm Bode, Oscar
Hainauer, and Albert Figdor. Elie Volpi was hired by Bardini during this
period to restore and copy works of art. Working for Bardini was excel­
lent training for Volpi's future career as antique dealer in Florence, an
activity that caused Volpi to fall out of Bardini's favor. As a dealer,
Volpi's clients included J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., Enrico Caruso, Joseph
Widener, William Randolph Hearst, Isabella Stewart Gardner, and the
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. After buying the Palazzo
Davanzati in 1 9 0 4 , Volpi restored it and made it a private museum ded­
icated to the Florentine house of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. In­
terest in the Palazzo Davanzati helped promote an active and profitable
market for Volpi, especially in the United States in the first decades of
the twentieth century. After changes in the public's taste and scandals
involving the production of fakes, Volpi sold Palazzo Davanzanti i n
1 9 2 6 . The structure fell into disuse before reopening in 1 9 5 6 as the
present Museo Statale della Casa Fiorentina Antica (see Ferrazza

1994).

The Machiavellian world of today's art market is not new: a 1 9 2 3 cable
sent from the Paris office of Duveen Brothers (another very prominent
art dealership at the time) to their office i n New York states, "Bardini
going to Volpi's i n March. We must be careful. . . get friendly with
9B

Volpi" (Duveen 1876-1981,

Alternate view.
2.

box 2 6 0 , folder 1 8 ) .

For more on this mark, see Cora

1973,

1: 39

n.

2; 2:

pi.

350 (M225);

see also no. 8 above.
3.

Inv. 1 1 2 4 - 1 9 0 4 ; Rackham
1991,

4.

256,

no.

1940,

1:

no.

41,

pi.

j

}

2: 1 1

;

Conti et al.

81.

For examples, see Cora 1 9 7 3 , 2 : figs. 9 9 c , 1 0 1 c , i o 2 a - c , 1 0 3 a , 1 0 3 c ,
i o 4 a - b , 1 0 6 , 1 0 7 a , 1 0 7 c ; sale cat., Semenzato, Florence, November 1 1 ,
1987,

5.

lot

290;

Conti et al.

Anna Moore Valeri

1991, 250, 2 6 1 ,

(1984, 4 8 6 - 8 7 )

nos.

20-26,

119-23.

has suggested that the so-called a

goccioloni pattern on Florentine zaffera wares may derive from the me­
dieval vair, or squirrel pelt, which commonly served to line cloaks and
appears as a motif on furriers' coats of arms.

64

Relief-Blue Jar with Dots

9C

Relief-blue jar with rampant hare. Florence area, first half
of the fifteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware. London,
Victoria and Albert Museum, inv.

1124-1904.

9D

Display cabinet in Palazzo Davanzati, late nineteenth century. Edizioni Brogi,
no. 2 1 9 1 6 . The Getty jar is second from the right on the middle shelf.

Relief-Blue far with Dots

65

10

Jar with Foliate
Decoration

MARKS

A N D

INSCRIPTIONS

EXHIBITIONS

None.

None.
C O N D I T I O N

Montelupo
Mid-fifteenth century

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Chips on the rini; minor crack through the body

GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 2 3 9 , no. 1 5 3 ; Hess 1988A,

with overpainting.

no. i i ; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 ,
no.

349.

PROVENANCE

Tin-glazed earthenware

Sold, Sotheby's, London, November 2 2 , 1 9 8 3 , l ot

H: 18.6 cm (7 /i6 in.)
5

1 9 4 , to R. Zietz; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold

Diam (at lip): 10.5 cm (4V8 in.)

to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

1984].

W (max.): 11.8 cm (4 /s in.)
5

84.DE.100

T H I S C Y L I N D R I C A L JAR,

or albaiello, w i t h waisted neck

and tapering foot, is divided into horizontal zones by
light yellowish green bands outlined i n grayish blue. The
wide zone around the body displays a series of stylized
flowers enclosed i n circles and surrounded by foliate
scrolls. This area is bordered below by incised flat
leaves—sometimes called foglie di gelso, or mulberry
leaves —in alternating manganese and cobalt i n t e r m i n ­
gled w i t h t h i n , curved ones. Blue foliate scrolls inter­
1

spersed w i t h parallel lines ornament the shoulder, and
additional foliate scrolls r u n around the neck.
2

The incised flat-leaf m o t i f i n the lower section is de­
rived from Hispano-Moresque designs that spread to
Italy (fig. I O B ) , becoming popular i n Tuscany. I n par­
3

4

ticular, Montelupo potters i m i t a t e d various types of
Hispano-Moresque decoration, including metallic luster
and the so-called parsley leaf (foglia di prezzemolo) pat­
tern. Similar versions of the u n c o m m o n rosette m o t i f
5

also appear on Hispano-Moresque works (fig. 1 0 c ) , and
the Italian designs may be derived from, or at least have
been influenced by, that source. I t is equally likely, how­
6

ever, that such a generalized m o t i f was developed inde­
1 O A Alernate view.

pendently i n Italy.
Comparable decoration is found on ceramic frag­

the second half of the fifteenth century, although the

ments excavated at k i l n sites i n the t o w n of Montelupo
(fig. I O D ) . These fragments display not only very similar

rather archaic quality of this jar's decoration suggests

floral medallions, foliate scrolls, andHispano-Moresqueinspired incised leaves, but also the same l i m i t e d palette

that i t was executed shortly before mid-century.
For essentially functional maiolica objects such as

of blackish blue, pale green, and dark brown manganese.

this drug jar, efficiency of production was a prime

7

Most of these works can be dated to the first decades of

66

concern. Apparently painted i n haste, this w o r k affords

one the opportunity to view the artist's hand i n its
painted decoration. For the green stripes the artist dipped
the brush once i n t o pigment, placed the color-laden
brush on the body, and as the jar was turned, the color be­
came depleted, leaving a m u c h lighter green where the
end of the stripe meets the beginning. I n addition, the
artist painted the rosette motifs w i t h o u t considering
the size of the piece, so that the last rosette was forced to
fit i n t o the remaining space and as a result appears more
oval than round.
Notes
1.

Conti 1 9 8 0 , pi. 7 0 .

2.

For other examples of this scroll motif, derived from the Chinese

3.

Examples are found in Frothingham 19 5 1, figs. 8 5 , 8 7 .

"classic scroll," see no. 11 below, especially note 3 .
4.

See, for example, Rackham 1 9 4 0 , 2 : nos. 6 7 , pi. u

5.

Berti

1997,

i O B Albarello. Valencia (Manises), third quarter of the fifteenth century.

6.

See Frothingham

Tin-glazed earthenware, H : 3 9 . 5 cm ( 1 5 / 2 in.). London, Victoria and

7.

Berti

Albert Museum, inv.

cm (15 Vi in.). New York, Hispanic Society of America, inv. E5 5 5.

Jar with Foliate Decoration

1951,

1997, 2 4 5 - 3 0 1

I O D

figs.

70-72.

passim, especially nos.

Fragments of a jug. Montelupo,

92, 9 5 - 9 6 ,

98,

119-21,

1460-70.

Tin-glazed earthenware,

H : 2 3 . 5 cm (9 'A in.). Restored from fragments found i n excavation at
Palazzo Podestarile, Montelupo. Montelupo, Museo Archeologico e della
Ceramica.

68

8 0 , pi. 1 3 .

1 6 8 , Berti 1 9 9 9 , fig. 4 5 .

53-1907.

i o c Deep dish. Valencia, ca. 1 4 5 0 . Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 3 9 . 5

;

303-30.

11

Jar with a Kufic Pattern

MARKS

[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul

A N D INSCRIPTIONS

Getty Museum, 1984].

On the underside of the unglazed bottom, marks
were scratched after firing.

Montelupo

EXHIBITIONS

Mid-fifteenth century

None.

C O N D I T I O N

Hairline crack opposite handle runs from lip down

Tin-glazed earthenware

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

neck and then forks; minor chips at lip, handle,

H: 18.1 cm (jVs in.)

GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 240, no. 156; Hess 1988A,

and base.

Diam (at lip): 9.5 cm (3 /4 in.)

no. i o ; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 350.

3

PROVENANCE

W (max.): 13 cm (5 Vs in.)

Dr. Joseph Chompret, Paris (sold, Hotel Drouot,

84.DE.96

Paris, December 1 5 , 1 9 7 6 , lot 1 9 , to R. Zietz);

T H I S JAR'S C Y L I N D R I C A L B O D Y , wide m o u t h , indented

transportable goods—such

as textiles,

6

leather-

and

collar, and slight foot are characteristic of the most com­

metalwork, as w e l l as ceramics (fig. I I D ) — d e c o r a t e d

m o n albarello

w i t h the script. Especially i n Tuscany, Kufic designs had

shape i n the fifteenth century. The small

handle, however, is an unusual addition. There are only

a strong influence, and there are Kufic inscriptions i n

three other examples of such a handle, and they are a l l

paintings by important Tuscan artists from the late thir­

found on jars belonging to the same set as the Getty

teenth to the late fifteenth century, such as Duccio, Fra

piece. Too small to grip well, this handle may have been

Angelico, Gentile da Fabriano (fig. H E ) , Filippo Lippi,

used to tie together a group of jars that could then be sus­

and Domenico Ghirlandaio. The illegibility of the jar's

pended for storage. I t is perhaps more credible that a

inscription, however, suggests that either a fanciful Kufi-

pharmacist w o u l d have used this handle to grab the jar

l i k e pattern was copied on a l l of the jars so inscribed or

from a crowded shelf.

else that the painter, misunderstanding Arabic orthogra­

1

2

The blue decoration is divided i n t o horizontal bands
following the object's shape: scrolls around the neck; a

7

phy, copied his o w n corrupted version of the blessing as
a simpler, chiefly ornamental pattern.

8

scroll and stylized leaf design around the shoulder and on

One finds an interesting m i x t u r e of Near and Far

the handle,- a wavy line w i t h stylized leaves around the

Eastern influences on this small jar. The scroll design

curved section above the unglazed foot; and hatched

around its neck and shoulder can also be found on Is­

fields and k n o t w o r k w i t h i n angular, discontinuous lines

lamic w o r k s , although i t may originally have been de­

around the body. The interior is t i n glazed. I t appears

rived from a Far Eastern source. The k n o t w o r k on the

that this jar was made i n the Tuscan t o w n of Montelupo

jar's body, c o m m o n l y found on pots and tiles from

since excavated fragments from k i l n sites i n that t o w n

Malaga and Manises, can also be traced to Moorish and

match not only the scroll patterns around this vessel's

Near Eastern sources.

3

neck but also its peculiar Kufic decoration.

9

10

Because of the large quantity of Hispano-Moresque

4

This rather stylized Kufic script pattern on Spanish

ceramics arriving i n Italy by the fourteenth and fifteenth

jars and dishes has been identified as the Arabic inscrip­

centuries, Spanish rather than eastern Mediterranean

t i o n signifying the w i s h of good health, alafia.

I t is pos­

products were largely responsible for the spread of Is­

sible that the angular line decoration—which appears i n

lamic decoration to that country. However, the Islamic-

identical form on a l l jars from this group—was meant to

inspired ornamentation on the vessel under discussion

copy this k i n d of inscription, a c o m m o n blessing i n Ara­

may have been influenced less by patterns on Spanish

bic and one that w o u l d be particularly appropriate for a

jars than by the blue decoration on a type of early

jar meant to hold medication (fig. l i e ) .

fifteenth-century tile from Manises.

5

11

Certainly, Kufic calligraphy was k n o w n throughout

The marks on the underside may indicate the vol­

Spain and Italy thanks to the spread of small and easily

ume, weight, or price of the container (fig. I I B ) .

69

1 1 A Alternate view.

1 1 B Detail of underside.

Gauging the volume of storage jars, particularly drug

must have been regulated and identifiable i n some way

jars, probably served to facilitate the sale or proper dis­

and that they followed different measuring systems de­

t r i b u t i o n of the jars' contents. The jars whose dimen­

pending on the place of production and use.

sions are published fall i n t o general groups according to

12

I n addition to this jar, there are twenty-four other

size: roughly one quarter of the jars measure between 17

k n o w n albarelli

and 18.5 c m high, slightly more than half of the jars mea­

ration.

13

of similar form and related Kufic deco­

These include examples i n the Victoria and

sure between 21 and 25 c m high, and three measure be­

Albert Museum (inv. 1143-1904, 1147-1904, 1150-1904,

tween 27.5 and 33.5 c m high. Rather than simple height

and 372-1889); Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche,

measurements, however, i t is the relative volume or ca­

Faenza (inv. 21100/C, 21058/C, and 24886);

pacity of jars that appears to be most significant. One

gewerbemuseum, Berlin (inv. 14, 63); Musee National

scholar has shown that the volume of jars belonging to a

de Ceramique, Sevres (inv. 22667); formerly Ducrot col­

verifiable set relate to one another proportionally. I n ad­

lection, Paris,- Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello,

dition, i t seems that these measurements of capacity

Florence (inv. 13795); private collection, Florence,-

14

15

Kunst-

16

17

18

Jar with a Kufic Pattern

19

~f I

lie

Unknown artist. An Apothecary's Shop (detail) from Avicenna's Canon,

Jar. Probably Manises, ca. 1 4 0 0 . Tin-glazed earthen­
ware, H : 3 1 cm ( 1 2 / 8 in.). Madrid, Instituto de Valencia

Ms.

de Don Juan.

2197,

fol.

492A,

38B.

Maiolica albarelli decorated with Kufic script

fill the shelves of this shop as the pharmacist prepares a drug using a
mortar and pestle.

Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples (inv. 46);
Hoffmann-La Roche collection, Basel (inv. 244);
tional M u s e u m of Stockholm,lection, Messina;

23

22

21

20

Na­

formerly Spano col­

early pharmacy

of the M i n o r i t e

brothers at San Romano Valdarno, near Pisa; and an ex­
24

ample presently on the art market.

25

Two of the twenty-

five jars are adorned on the front w i t h a coat of arms
w i t h i n a wreath—identified as belonging to either the
Marzalogli or Buffoni families of Bologna—and, one can
assume, originate from a pharmacy belonging to the
patron f a m i l y .

72

1ID

ca. 1 4 4 0 . Tempera on vellum. Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria,

26

Jar with a Kufic Pattern

2 : nos. 5 7 1 , 5 8 1 , 5 8 3 , 5 8 6 , 5 9 3 , 5 9 5 . For another example on Italian
maiolica, see Carswell 1 9 8 5 , 1 5 0 , no. 9 0 .
4.

Kufi is an angular, early Islamic style of the handwritten alphabet. This
script was used to record the Qur'an and for inscriptions on tombstones,
coins, and buildings. Berti

especially nos.

1997, 2 5 6 - 6 3 ,

92,

94-96;

Berti 1 9 9 9 , 1 2 6 , fig. 4 3 .
5.

Ray

2000, 4 6 - 4 7 ,

1940,

6.

nos.

56, 6 6 - 6 8 ,

1 : 1 3 - 1 4 , no.

5 0 ; 2 : no.

94, 96, 122, 1 3 4 - 3 9 ;

5 0 in pi.

Rackham

10.

Islamic fabrics, desired for their rich decoration, were imported into
Italy i n large quantities i n the fifteenth century and likely served as a
primary source for ceramic embellishment, including Kufic patterns
(Lightbown

1980,

449-55).

7.

For a discussion of this phenomenon, see Soulier

8.

I would like to thank Tarek Naga for his help i n interpreting these in­

1924,

347-58.

scriptions. For more information on this subject, see Contadini 1 9 9 9 ,
esp.
9.

5-9.

See, for example, a blue, black, and white albarello of the first half of
the fifteenth century from Damascus i n the Musee des Arts Decoratifs,
Paris (Spallanzani 1 9 7 8 , pi. 1). Although this work was likely produced
for the Florentine market, aside from the shield with fleur-de-lis, its
painted motifs derive from eastern Mediterranean products.

10.

Caiger-Smith 1 9 7 3 , 5 9 . For examples of this knotwork design on Is­
lamic metalwork, see Baer 1 9 8 3 , fig. 1 8 0 . For this pattern on HispanoMoresque ceramics, see Gonzalez Marti
especially figs.

I E

Gentile da Fabriano (Italian,
ca.

1424-25.

1370-1427).

Tempera on panel,

91.4

x

Madonna and Child (detail),

62.9

cm

(36

fig.

2: 3 5 5 - 7 4

passim,

10.

Hausmann 1 9 7 2 , 9 9 ; for further examples see Gonzalez Marti 1 9 4 4 -

12.

Montagut

pi.

4,

figs.

90-94/

1990,

142,

174-

41-45.

13.

Berti

14.

Rackham

15.

Two from the Cora collection (Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani

x 24 /4 in.). New

1999,

Guidotti
16.

127-28,

1940,

nos.

1985,

3

Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Art Gallery, University Purchase
from James Jackson Jarves.

1944-52,

1973,

11.

5 2 , 3:

i

Caiger-Smith

472-73;

1:

436-37)

238-39,

nos.

pis.

11-15.

5 1 - 5 2 , 68, 7 0 ; 2:

pis.

12-13.

and one from the Fanfani collection (Ravanelli

1990, 2 2 - 2 5 ,

n

o

l)-

-

Hausmann 1 9 7 2 , no. 7 6 .

17.

Giacomotti 1 9 7 4 , no. 5 4 .

18.

Ballardini

1934,

pi.

3,

nos.

5-6;

Chompret

1949, 2:

nos.

655-56;

sale

cat., Sotheby's, London, April 2 3 , 1 9 7 4 , lot 3 8 , from the collection of
Thomas Harris, London; sale cat., Semenzato, Florence, November 1 1 ,

Notes
1.

One is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (Rackham 1 9 4 0 , 1 :
no. 5 2 ; 2 : pi. 1 2 ; Wallis 1 9 0 4 , fig. 2 3 ) ; a second is in the collection of
the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Poole

1995,

108-10,

no.

164);

and a third was formerly i n the della Gherardesca collection, Bolgheri
(sold, Finarte, Milan, November

21-22,

1963,

lot

141,

pi.

75).

This

third example is the closest to the Getty jar regarding shape, scale, and
decoration. Other single handles are found on a few jars, but their longer
form, extending down the body of the vessel, suggests they served for

1987,

lot

19.

Conti

1971A,

20.

Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte 1 9 5 8 , 2 3 , no. 4 6 .

21.

319.

no.

339;

Cora

1 9 7 3 , 2:

no.

132b.

Mez-Mangold 1 9 9 0 , 9 9 top,- Thomann 1 9 6 2 , pi. 8; Castiglioni 1 9 2 2 ,
pi. 8 c Mariaux 1 9 9 5 , 7 4 , 1 6 6 , no. 1 2 .
;

22.

Dahlback-Lutteman 1 9 8 1 , 4 8 , fig. 6 .

23.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1 9 9 0 , 2 4 , fig. 7 m

24.

Pedrazzini 1 9 3 4 , 1 4 7 .

25.

Gardelli 1 9 9 9 , no. 1 4 6 .

26.

Rackham 1 9 4 0 , 1: no. 7 0 ; 2 : pi. 1 3 ; Gardelli 1 9 9 9 , no. 1 4 6 .

gripping w i t h the hand rather than for suspension.
2.

Suggested by John Mallet i n May 2 0 0 1 .

3.

The scrollwork around the neck and above the shoulder is nearly identi­
cal to, and apparently derived from, the Chinese "classic scroll" motif
used as border decoration primarily on porcelain from the Yuan
1368)

and Ming

(1368-1644)

dynasties. See, for example, Krahl

(12711986,

Jar with a Kufic Pattern

73

12

Armorial Jar
Deruta

PROVENANCE

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Alfred Pringsheim, Munich, by 1 9 1 3 ; looted from

Falke

Pringsheim's collection by the Nazis during

1964,

Kristallnacht, November 9 , 1 9 3 8 ; stored i n an an­

no. 1 5 9 ; Bojani 1 9 8 8 , 5 4 - 5 5 , fig. 1 4 ; Fiocco and

1914-23,

ca. 1460-90

nex of the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich;

Gherardi

Tin-glazed earthenware

ordered exported to London by the German state

no.

H: 22.2 cm

(8 /4
3

in.)

Diam (at rim): 11.4 cm (4V2 in.)
W (max.): 23.4 cm

(9 /i6
3

in.)

On one side,

pi. 8; Bellini and Conti

11,

12;

1988,

1:

Donatone

13 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 2 4 0 ,

5 4 - 5 5 ,fig.1 4 ; Hess

1988A,

pis. 46,

Fiocco

1993A,

i62d

in 1 9 3 8 for sale at auction i n exchange for allow­

and Gherardi

ing Pringsheim and his wife to emigrate to

Gherardi 1 9 9 4 , 1 4 5 , no. 6; Summary

Switzerland (sold, Sotheby's, London, July 1 9 ,

2001,

no.

1994A, 145,

;

no. 6; Fiocco and
Catalogue

351.

tation]); [Alfred Spero, London]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd.,
London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

A N D

no.

1 9 3 9 , lot 3, to A. Spero [according to sale cat. no­

84.DE.99
MARKS

1:

fig.A; GettyMus]

89,

INSCRIPTIONS

1984].

EXHIBITIONS

AMA.DIO.

Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William A.
Clark Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of

C O N D I T I O N

Glaze chips on the handles, body, and r i m loose

Art, March 5 - M a y 1 7 , 1 9 8 7 .

;

glaze on the lower left of the shield side near the
base due to soluble-salt damage; a hairline crack i n
the neck on reverse.

T H I S VESSEL is of a gently waisted, cylindrical form

indicate that this jar came from there. Given their nature

w i t h a tall, perpendicular r i m and two rope-twist handles

as mistakes, these discards—which include examples

that terminate i n deep indentations. The body is divided

of rope-twist handles (fig. I 2 D ) and similar zigzag, ten­

into decorative panels that display on one side a blue and

dril, dot, and splayed-lined motifs as on this vessel—

ocher testa di cavallo (horse's head, so called because of

could n o t have been brought i n t o the area from else­

its shape) shield against a light copper green half-circle

where and must have been created at the site where

below blue tendrils and dots. The colors that could be

they were found.

fired on maiolica i n the fifteenth century were l i m i t e d

4

On the other side of this jar, stylized leaves, tendrils,

to shades of blue, green, ocher, and purple. I t is there­

and dots frame the inscription AMA.DIO

fore difficult to identify coats of arms that do not have

This proverb, w h i c h begins " A m a D i o e non fallire/fai

(love God).

5

specific distinguishing features. A l t h o u g h the horizontal

del bene e lascia dire/lascia dir lasciar chi vuole/ama D i o

stripes on this jar are painted i n ocher and blue, these

di buon cuore" (Love God and do not fail/do good deeds

pigments may stand for any alternating light and dark

and let i t be said/let i t be said by anyone/love God w i t h

colors, and thus this shield could belong to any one of a

a good heart), was widely k n o w n i n sixteenth-century

number of prominent contemporary families. However,

Italy. A diagonal dash pattern i n blue ornaments the

the distinctive testa di cavallo shield of azure a fesse or

base, a triangular m o t i f of splayed blue lines decorates

appears on a number of maiolica plates and drug jars

the shoulder, and an ocher zigzag between blue stripes

from Deruta, where i t is identified as the arms of the

embellishes the r i m . The interior is unglazed.

1

Baglioni of Perugia, a powerful family w h o periodically

This w o r k belongs to the second phase of the severe

ruled Deruta, located a scant fifteen kilometers to the

style, often referred to as the Gothic-floral family be­

south. Indeed, one early sixteenth-century Deruta plate

cause central Italian ceramists drew not only on Islamic

displaying such a shield includes a banderole inscribed

motifs but also on European Gothic ornament (in archi­

w i t h the Baglioni name (fig. 12c).

tecture and miniature i l l u m i n a t i o n , for example) to dec­

2

3

I n addition, recent public construction and u t i l i t y
projects i n Deruta have unearthed k i l n discards that

74

orate their works. Single figurative elements began to
6

appear on objects of this early period, w h i c h

flourished

I2A

Alternate view.

1 2 B Alternate view.

from roughly 1460 to 1490. The form of this jar and its
7

glaze color and decoration are also found on similar
works attributed to central Italy and so attest to the
"cross-pollination" among potteries—due to the move­
ment of craftsmen as w e l l as objects—and to the com­
m o n vocabulary of ceramic form and decoration that
extended throughout central Italy.

8

Jars w i t h similar rope-twist handles,

splayed-line

motifs around the shoulder, slanted lines around the
neck and/or base, and panels of decoration on the front
and back bordered by repetitive curved lines i m i t a t i n g a
twisted rope include a jar i n the Museo Internazionale
delle Ceramiche (inv. 21097/0), the Minneapolis M u ­
seum of A r t (inv. 43.21.2), and the Museo Nazionale,
Palazzo del Bargello, Florence (inscribed MARIA;
monstein bequest 1984).

76

Armorial far

Dia-

Notes
1.

Such as the Fabbrini of Florence or Sanseverino of Salerno. Guido Donatone

(1993A,

pis.

46, i62d)

proposes the latter in reference to this jar,

suggesting that the Getty vessel was made in Naples.
2.

The plates include one formerly i n the Adda collection, Paris (Rackham
no.

1959,

343,

pi.

148b);

another formerly in the Charles Damiron col­

lection, Lyons (art market, London, late

1990s),

a third plate sold at

Christie's, London, July 2 , 1 9 9 0 , lot 1 9 5 ; a fourth sold at Galerie
Georges Petit, Paris, May 9 - 1 0 , 1 9 2 7 , lot 2 7 (reprod. upside down i n
sale cat.); a fifth sold at Sotheby's, Florence, October 1 9 , 1 9 7 0 , lot 5 1

;

and a sixth i n the Lehman Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York (Rasmussen

1989, 3 6 - 3 7 ,

70-71,

nos.

23, 40).

Another

plate in the Museo Regionale della Ceramica di Deruta exhibits the
Baglioni shield impaled with another (Busti and Cocchi 1 9 9 9 , 2 4 3 ,
no. 1 5 8 ) . The two-handled jars include one from the Blumka collection,
sold at Sotheby's, New York, January 9 , 1 9 9 6 , lot 1 2 ; another in the
Victoria and Albert Museum, London (Fiocco and Gherardi 1 9 9 4 , 1 5 3 ,
no. 16); a third in the Lehman Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art,
12C

Dish with coat of arms of the Baglioni family. Deruta, ca.

New York (Rasmussen

1515-20.

Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 4 0 cm {i$ A in.). Bequest of John Rin­
3

gling, Collection of The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, the

no.

23);

and a fourth in the Musee

3.

John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida, inv. S.N.

4.

Busti and Cocchi

State Art Museum of Florida, in v. 7 0 4 5 . The beginning of the inscrip­
tion reads "Long live the Baglioni family."

1989, 3 6 - 3 7 ,

du Louvre, Paris (Giacomotti 1 9 7 4 , 2 8 , no. 8 8 ) .
7045

no.

(Ladis

1989, 5 8 - 5 9 ,

1: 2 5 9 - 5 0 ,

no.

1987, 1 4 - 2 0 ,

nos.

152-53,-

10).

pi.

5c;

Fiocco and Gherardi

Fiocco and Gherardi

1994,

1988,

5,

144-45,

nos. 5 - 7 ; Bojani 1 9 9 2 , fig. 3 2 .
5.

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti (19 8 5 B , 9 5 , no. 6 9) discusses Luci Lenzi's
analysis

( 1 9 8 2 , 2 2ff)

of the original oral proverb or prayer on which this

inscription is based.
6.

Liverani

7.

Ballardini 1 9 7 5 , 5 3 .

8.

Documentary sources describe the movement of craftsmen as well as

i960,

22.

their products, which was probably determined as much by economic
factors as by the quest for new talent and novel styles. Although these
sources date from the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, they do not
exclude the possibility of earlier exchanges (see, for example, Ballardini
I922A,

144-47).

1 2 D Page of Comunitatis Castri Diruta, 1 4 8 9 . Deruta, Catasto del Comune,
ASP, ASCP, Catasti II gruppo, 4 3 , C.5R. The decorated initial on this
page from local communal documents prominently features a jar made
in Deruta with two rope-twist handles.

Armorial Jar

77

13

Jug with Bust Medallion

incised circles on the left side and on the area of

Savile, Rufford Abbey, Nottingham (sold, Knight,

hair below the chin some extensive repainting of

Frank, and Rutley in association w i t h Christie's,

;

Deruta or Montelupo
ca. 1460-90

the blue leaf decoration on the left side near the

on Rufford Abbey premises, October 11-20, 1938,

top. The jug underwent

lot 879); [Alfred Spero, London] (sold, Sotheby's,

thermoluminescence

analysis i n 1987, returning a result that the mate­

London, December 4, 1956, lot 24); Robert

Tin-glazed earthenware

rial is consistent with the expected age of the ob­

Strauss, England (sold, Christie's, London, June 21,

H: 34.6 cm (i3 /s in.)

ject (i.e., that the material was last fired between

1976, lot 7); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London; sold to

390 and 600 years ago). Neutron activation analy­

the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

5

Diam (at rim): 9.8 cm (3 /s in.)

sis has determined that this jug was produced w i t h

W (max.): 33 cm (13 in.)

clay originating in the lower mid-Arno Valley,

EXHIBITIONS

showing the closest similarities to examples from

None.

7

84.DE.101

Deruta and Montelupo.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
MARKS

A N D INSCRIPTIONS

None.
C O N D I T I O N

Touched-in glaze chips on the left side of the bust
near the foliate scrolls; filling and repainting at the
top and bottom of the spout; repainting around the

THIS

LARGE

OVIFORM

PROVENANCE

Christie's Review 1976, 394; Morley-Fletcher and

Ancestors of the Savile family, Rufford Abbey,

Mcllroy 1984, 26, fig. 3; GettyMusJ 13 (1985):

Nottingham, active i n collecting since the late

239, no. 154; Hess 1988A, no. 13; Fiocco and

seventeenth century,- by inheritance to John Savile

Gherardi 1994, 154, no. 18; Fiocco and Gherardi

Lumley-Savile, second Lord Savile (d. 1931),

2000, 15-16 andfig.2; Summary

Rufford Abbey, Nottingham; by inheritance to

2001, 352.

George Halifax Lumley-Savile (b. 1919), third Lord

J U G has a wide strap handle,

small m o u t h and neck, and long spout projecting almost
horizontally from the upper body. Given its rudimentary
and robust form, this jug m i g h t have been used for the
transport or serving of w i n e or water.
Based on its characteristic decoration, this piece can
be identified as an early example of the so-called Gothicfloral family dating from roughly 1460 to 1490. The area
1

below the spout is decorated w i t h a bust i n blue and olive
green reserved against a background of stylized, feathered
leaves, all enclosed i n a circular band of copper green dots
and heavily applied manganese pigment incised w i t h
scrolls l i n k i n g circles. Wide, scrolling leaves [a

cartoccio)

i n dark and light blue, manganese purple, and green sur­
round the circular band. The handle and rear t h i r d of this
vessel are undecorated. The interior is lead glazed.
A l t h o u g h the subject's style of dress, w i t h
sleeves and turned-back

full

collar, is typical of m i d -

fifteenth-century masculine fashion, the long hair w o u l d
suggest that the subject is a woman. Also ambiguous is
whether the bust depicts a young or old subject. I t is pos­
sible that, although awkward, the lines on the neck and
face of this figure were not meant to indicate wrinkles
but, rather, to shape and define the image. I n the second
half of the fifteenth century potters were just learning
the necessary techniques to render the figural decoration

78

13A

Alternate view.

Catalogue

I3B Jug, ca. 1480. Tin-glazed earthenware, H: 27 cm (io5/s in.).
Sevres, Musee National de Ceramique, inv. 21915. Photo:

© Reunion des Musees Nationaux.

13 c Jug. Probably Deruta or Montelupo, second half of the fifteenth
century. Tin-glazed earthenware, H : 31 cm (12/8 in.). Formerly
in the collection of Paul Damiron, Lyons (sold, Sotheby's,
London, November 22, 1983, lot 206). Photo: Courtesy of
Sotheby's.

13D Jug with degli Alessandri arms. Florence region, 1460-90. Tin-glazed
earthenware. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum.

80

fug with Bust Medallion

then i n fashion. Perhaps the jug's painter was beginning
to develop his skills i n rendering

three-dimensional

figures using metallic oxides on an unforgiving, twodimensional, raw glaze ground.

2

I n spring 2001 this object underwent neutron activa­
t i o n analysis under the direction of scientist Michael
Hughes, formerly of the British Museum, London. The
analysis was carried out at the University of Missouri
Research Reactor, and the data was compared against the
British Museum database. The results of the analysis
3

show that the clay of this jug originated from the lower
mid-Arno Valley, most l i k e l y from either Deruta or M o n ­
telupo. To help determine attribution, stylistic compar­
isons were made between the jug and ceramics securely
attributed to both centers.
The interesting yet somewhat frustrating results of
these comparisons show that the jug displays compelling
similarities to objects from both places. For example,
important recent finds of k i l n refuse at two sites i n
Deruta include examples w i t h similar patterns of incised

13 E

Fragments of a plate. Montelupo, 1480-90. Tin-glazed earthenware.
Montelupo, Museo Archeologico e della Ceramica.

circles and scrolls i n manganese. Other fragments dis­
4

play comparable wide, three-color leaves that curl under
at the tips. Numerous examples of completed pots and
5

plates w i t h similar decoration—scrolling leaves, incised
scrolls, busts framed i n reserve, and feathered leaves i n
blue—are currently attributed to Deruta.

6

Notes

However, of the two other jugs of this idiosyncratic

1.

shape that are known—one i n the Musee National de

2.

7

handsome figure on a Deruta plate i n the Musee Adrien-Dubouche,

formerly i n the D a m i r o n collection, Lyons (fig. 1 3 c ) —
8

wreath on the front of the jug that is typical of pieces
found i n excavations of k i l n sites at Montelupo.

9

One

jug, i n particular, at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,
and identified as from the Florence region, displays not
only a very similar wreath to the former D a m i r o n jug of

Limoges (Giacomotti 1974, 181-82, no. 591).
3.

(fig. 1 3 D ) .

10

I n addition, several Montelupo pieces dis­

play scrolling Gothic leaves i n manganese and blue, as

See conclusion of the introduction for more information on neutron
activation analysis as an analytical tool.

4.

Bojani 1992, figs. 21-25.

5.

Fiocco and Gherardi 1988, 1: pis. 5a, 6a Bojani 1992, fig. 31.

6.

See, for example, Fiocco and Gherardi 1994, nos. 5, 11-13, 19-26.

7.

Duret-Robert 1973, 129-34, no. 2; Giacomotti 1974, no. 69.

;

8.

Sale cat., Sotheby's, London, November 22, 1983, lot 206.

9.

See Berti 1998, nos. 42-44, and related pieces not found in excava­

10.

Berti 1999, no. 263.

11.

Berti 1997, nos. 79, 118-20; Berti 1999, nos. 23-27, 38-39, 45, 59;

this shape but also what appears to be the same coat of
arms belonging to the Florentine degli Alessandri family

See, for example, the awkward rendering of a woman with prominent
circles under her eyes, which was surely meant to depict a young and

Ceramique, Sevres (inv. 21915; fig. 13B), and another
the former D a m i r o n object is decorated w i t h a central

Ballardini 1975, 53-55.

tions: Berti 1998, nos. 140, 154,- Berti 1999, nos. 69, 80, 105, 263.

Berti 1998, nos. 91, 114-26; Berti 1999, nos. 23-27, 38-39.

w e l l as some inscribed blue decoration, similar to those
on the Getty example (fig. 13E). For now, the attribution
11

of this jug must include both Deruta and Montelupo.

fug with Bust Medallion

81

14

Jar with the Profile of
a Young Man

Minor glaze chips on the handles and rim; some

Sold, Christie's, London, October 3, 1 9 8 3 , lot 2 3 7

areas of glaze loss around the base that, because of

to R. Zietz; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the

their spacing and roughly oval shape, appear to be

J. Paul Getty Museum,

Deruta or Montelupo

finger marks made when the ceramist gripped the

ca. 1460-80

piece to dip it upside down into glaze. (The oil

Tin-glazed earthenware

C O N D I T I O N

PROVENANCE

1984].

EXHIBITIONS

None.

from his fingers would have kept the glaze from
adhering properly to the jar.) The object underwent

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

H: 22.9 cm (9 in.)

thermoluminescence analysis i n 1 9 8 7 , returning a

GettyMusJ

Diam (at lip): 11.2 cm [4.V16 in.)

result that the material is consistent with the ex­

no. 1 4 ; Donatone 1 9 9 3 A , pis. 4 7 , 1 6 2 bottom left;

pected age of the object (i.e., that the material was

Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 3 5 3 .

W (max.): 23.8 cm J9 /s in.)
3

84.DE.102

13

(1985): 240,

no. i 6 o Hess
;

1988A,

last fired between 4 0 0 and 6 1 0 years ago). Nuclear
activation analysis has determined that this jug
was produced with clay originating i n the lower

MARKS

A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S

Under the foot, marks inscribed after firing
(fig.

14c).

mid-Arno Valley, showing the closest similarities
to examples from Deruta and Montelupo.

1

T H I S G E N T L Y W A I S T E D JAR w i t h t w o ribbed handles is

a t t r i b u t i on remains inconclusive, as does that of the pre­

painted on one side w i t h the profile bust of a young man

ceding object. As before, to help determine attribution,

i n a feathered hat bordered by unusually slender scroll­

stylistic comparisons

ing foliage, and on the other w i t h a geometric X pattern,

handled jar and ceramics securely attributed to both

flowers, and flat leaves placed vertically surrounded by

centers.

were made between this t w o -

dots. T h e decoration on both sides is painted i n panels

Like no. 13, this jar displays similarities to objects

bordered by a vertical braid design. The jar's long and up­

from both places: for example, comparable profile busts

wardly slanting neck—an u n c o m m o n feature—displays

appear on drug jars and plates attributed to both D e r u t a

a distinctive pattern comprised of triangular sections of

and M o n t e l u p o . The decorative motifs—such as the

curved stripes interspersed w i t h areas of thinner lines.

stiff leaves surrounded by dots, the X pattern formed by

The jar's embellishment is executed primarily i n blue

four small marks extending from the sides to the middle

and ocher, although a light copper green colors the young

of a square, and the stylized twisted rope m o t i f

3

4

flanking

man's pointed hat on one side, and curving and straight

the handles—appear on objects from Deruta (fig. 14D),

bands o n the other. The interior is lead glazed.

most significantly o n fragments found i n excavations of

As w i t h the previous object, this jar underwent neu­

local k i l n sites. However, comparable elements—such

tron activation analysis i n spring 2001 under the direc­

as the profile bust w i t h hat, geometric motifs, stripe

5

t i o n of scientist Michael Hughes, formerly of the British

decoration i n triangular shapes, rosettes, curved lines re­

Museum, London. T h e analysis was carried out at the

sembling a twisted rope, and fields of dots—also show

University of Missouri Research Reactor, and the data

up on Montelupo examples, many of w h i c h originate, as

was compared against the British M u s e u m database.

well, from k i l n sites (fig. 14E). For now, the a t t r i b u t i o n

2

The results of the analysis show that the clay of this jug

6

of this jar must include both Deruta and Montelupo.

originated from the lower m i d - A r n o Valley, most l i k e l y

The depiction of the young m a n i n contemporary

from either Deruta or Montelupo. I n fact, the informa­

dress corresponds to comparable depictions o n jars data­

t i o n about this piece compared so closely w i t h that of

ble to the last decades of the fifteenth century. These i n ­

no. 13 (inv. 84.DE.101) that the t w o objects can be attrib­

clude an albarello

uted to the same center of production. Unfortunately the

Victoria and Albert Museum, London (inv. 364-1889);

82

from Pesaro of ca. 1480-90 i n the
7

14A Alternate view.

14B Alternate view.

14c

84

Underside.

Jar with the Profile of a Young Man

another albarello

of ca. 1470-1500 i n the British M u ­

seum, London (inv. M L A 1878, 12-30, 415); and a wet8

drug jar dated to the end of the fifteenth century i n the
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Lyons (from the Paul Gillet
collection).

9

Notes
1.
2.

See discussion of marks for no. 11 above.
See conclusion of the introduction for more information on neutron
activation analysis as an analytical tool.

3.

Fiocco and Gherardi 1994, 150, figs. 26 - 2 7 .

4.

Berti 1998, figs. 18, 70, 94, 118.

5.

Busti and Cocchi 1987, pi. Va-b; Fiocco and Gherardi 1988: pi. VIa

;

Bojani 1992, fig. 32; Busti and Cocchi 1999, 140, no. 20.
6.

Berti 1997, nos. 187, 243, 248; Berti 1998, figs. 9-10, 15, 18-19,

7.

Rackham 1940, 1: no. i i o 2: pi. 20; Berardi 1984, 282, fig. 70.

1500. Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 38.2 cm (15 in.). Washington,

8.

Wilson 1987A, 36-37, no. 31 (attributed to central Italian regions of

D.C., Corcoran Gallery of Art, William A. Clark Collection, inv. 26.315.

45-46, 4 9 - 5 ^ 94/ n 8 .

14D Basin w i t h dragon and concentric geometric patterns. Deruta, ca. 1480;

Emilia-Romagna, the Marches, or Umbria).
9.

Giacomotti 1962, 33.

14E Fragments of a plate. Montelupo, 1480-95. Tin-glazed earthenware,
Diam: 21.4 cm (8 /8 in.). Montelupo, Museo Archeologico e della Ceram3

ica. Compare, in particular, the triangular areas of both vertical and
horizontal lines around the rim w i t h similar patterns between the lip
and shoulder on the Getty jar.

far with the Profile of a Young Man

85

15

Dish with a Peacock
Feather Pattern

1976, lot 14, to C. Humphris),- [Cyril Humphris,

C O N D I T I O N

Glaze chips at the center and r i m some repainti n g

London, sold to R. Zietz]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., Lon­

around cracks,- six metal staples along a hairline

don, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

;

crack i n the underside.
EXHIBITIONS

Probably Deruta

Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William A.

PROVENANCE

ca. 1470-1500

Sir William Stirling-Maxwell (1818 - 1 8 7 6), Bt.,

Clark Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of

Tin-glazed earthenware

K.T., Keir (near Stirling), Scotland; by inheritance

Art, March 5-May 17, 1987.

H: 6.3 cm (2 Vi in.)

to Lt. Col. W. J. Stirling, Keir, Scotland (sold,

Diam: 39 cm (15 /s in.)
3

84.DE.103

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Sotheby's, London, June 18, 1946, lot 79, to

Rasmussen 1984, 7 1 n. 1 (attributed to "Faenza

F. D. Lycett-Green [according to sale cat. nota­

or more probably Tuscany"),- GettyMus] 13 (1985):

tion]),- F. D. Lycett-Green, Goudhurst, Kent (sold,

2 4 1 , no. 162; Hess 1988A, no. 15,- Summary

Sotheby's, London, October 14, i 9 6 0 , lot 24, wi t h
MARKS

A N D

INSCRIPTIONS

Strauss, England (sold, Christie's, London, June 2 1 ,

None.

THIS

Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 354.

incorrect provenance, to R. Strauss); Robert

I S A N U N U S U A L L Y S H A P E D D I S H w i t h a small,

slightly bossed center and wide, sloping sides. The potter

blue on a grayish w h i t e lead-glazed ground. The clay
1

body is of a p i n k i s h buff color.

pierced t w o holes i n one edge before the first firing. I t has

Very few such works—painted w i t h purely orna­

been suggested that such holes served to hang plates for

mental motifs and w i t h o u t coats of arms, animals, pro­

firing, thereby o p t i m i z i n g available k i l n space. I t seems

file busts, or pictorial scenes—have survived. Plates,

more l i k e l y that such holes were used to suspend the ob­

vases, jars, and jugs decorated i n this manner were most

ject for display, although no evidence of either practice

often produced for daily use and thus were frequently

has been found.

broken or chipped. If this dish were used solely as a dis­

Indeed, i t is not k n o w n whether this piece was used
at the dinner table or simply for show. I n fourteenthand fifteenth-century paintings, c o m m o n vessels such as

2

play piece, its function may explain its good state of
preservation.
According to legend, the peacock-feather m o t i f was

maiolica jugs occasionally appear on dinner tables or as

c o m m o n l y found on Faentine ceramics because i t was

flower vases, for example, but the more elaborate ware is

thought to refer to Cassandra Pavoni (pavona is the Ital­

entirely absent, and there is no proof that various depic­

ian word for peacock), the mistress of Galeotto Manfredi,

tions of display credenzas portray maiolica rather than

lord of Faenza i n the late fifteenth century. A l t h o u g h
3

metalwork. Moreover, the possibility that such maiolica

this m o t i f does appear on ceramics from Faenza, as

ware m i g h t have been used for eating on special occa­

confirmed by excavation shards and other documenta­

sions cannot be ruled out. Since forks were s t i l l a novelty

tion,

i n the fifteenth century, maiolica w o u l d have been largely

such as Pesaro, M o n t e l u p o , Deruta, and Naples. I n ­

preserved from scratches caused by scraping utensils.

4

i t also appears on ceramics from other centers
5

6

7

8

deed, this m o t i f appears to be of Islamic origin and w o u l d

This rare plate is b r i l l i a n t l y decorated i n dark and

have been distributed throughout Italy by Islamic crafts

light blue, copper green, bright ocher, and manganese

and craftsmen arriving from the eastern Mediterranean

purple, w i t h a star or flower medallion i n the center sur­

or N o r t h Africa or else via Spain.

rounded by a bold, eight-pointed w h o r l of stiff, tapering

A l t h o u g h the shape of this plate eludes convincing

leaves alternating w i t h peacock feathers. This embel­

association w i t h a center of production, and the peacock

lishment is filled i n w i t h small blue scrolls, foliage, and

feather m o t i f appears to be too widespread to be helpful

dots. The reverse displays a very unusual pattern of stars,

i n attribution, the tapering leaves decorated w i t h incised

scrolls, and foliate motifs i n ocher, copper green, and

scrolls and surrounded by delicate blue tendrils are

86

15A Reverse.

88

Dish with a Peacock Feather Pattern

reminiscent of several objects convincingly attributed to
Deruta.

9

I n particular, a plate fragment i n the Museo Re­
gionale delle Ceramiche di Deruta displays decoration
on the obverse and, especially, the reverse that is very
close to that on the Getty plate (figs. 15 B - c ) . A l t h o u g h
the origins of this plate fragment are u n k n o w n , i t ap­
pears to have been part of the original donation to the
Museo Regionale i n the late nineteenth century.

10

Notes
1.

Roughly similar embellishment is found on the reverse of a small plate
formerly i n the Beckerath collection, Berlin, attributed to Faenza of
ca. 1480 (Lepke 1913, lot 58).

2.

One such example is a tondino in the Hamburg Museum fur Kunst und
Gewerbe decorated, however, with scrolling leaves rather than the
''eyes" of peacock feathers (inv. 1909.256; Rasmussen 1984, no. 39).

3.

See Strocchi 1913, 105-8; Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti (correspon­
dence w i t h the author, February 1988), however, mentions Faentine
documents from which one learns that maiolica painters employed
peacock-feather decoration as early as 1460, thus predating Manfredi's
relationship with Pavoni. Therefore, although the duke might have
popularized this pattern, it could not have originated with him (see
Bettini 1991, 12-18). For a general examination of Faentine society
under the Manfredi see Gioia Tavoni 1975, 94-105.

4.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 15 3-68.

5.

Berardi 1984, figs. 41, 43-44, 4 6 - 4 9 .

6.

Donatone 1993A, for example, pis. 5, 9, 18, 45, 76, 111-64 passim.

7.

Berti 1998, 243-46.

8.

Fiocco and Gherardi 1994, figs. 5, 24, 49-50; Busti and Cocchi 1987,
pi. VIII.

15 B - C

9.

Fiocco and Gherardi 1994, figs. 23-25.

10.

Busti and Cocchi 1999, 145,110.29.

Obverse and reverse of plate fragment. Deruta, second half of the
fifteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware. Deruta, Museo Regionale
delle Ceramiche.

Dish with a Peacock Feather Pattern

89

16

Drug Jar for Syrup
of Lemon Juice

MARKS

A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On the banderole, S. ACETOSITATI

CIT[RUS].

Slightly abraded glaze at the r i m minor flaws in
;

the glaze at the base.

Naples (Naples or Sciacca)

1944; by inheritance to Paul Damiron (sold,
Sotheby's, London, November 22, 1983, lot 212);

C O N D I T I O N

Probably Pesaro or possibly Kingdom of

notation]); A. Recher,- Charles Damiron, Lyons, by

[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul
Getty Museum, 1984].
EXHIBITIONS

PROVENANCE

ca. 1480

Alfred Pringsheim, Munich, by 1913; looted from

Tin-glazed earthenware
H: 31.5 cm (i2 /s in.)
3

Diam (at lip): 11.1 cm (4 /s in.)
3

Diam (max.): 12.4 cm (4% in.)
84.DE.104

None.

Pringsheim's collection by the Nazis during

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938; stored in an an­

Falke 1914-23, 1: no. 22, pi. 15; Hannover 1925,

nex of the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich;

1: fig. 117 (mistakenly identified as i n the Louvre);

ordered exported to London by the German State

Damiron 1944, no. 27,- GettyMusf 13 (1985): 241,

in 1938 for sale at auction in exchange for allow­

no. 161; Hess 1988A, no. 17,- Cohen and Hess

ing Pringsheim and his wife to emigrate to

1993, 27,- Museum Handbook 2001, 237,- Sum­

Switzerland (sold, Sotheby's, London, June 7,

mary Catalogue 2001, no. 355.

1939, lot 9, to "A. Recher" [according to sale cat.

T H I S W A I S T E D D R U G VESSEL displays a label indicating

and ceramic shapes to those found on shards from k i l n

i t was meant to hold syrupus acetositatis

site excavations and on objects documented as belonging

cithomm,

or

syrup of lemon juice. The label is bordered above and be­

to certain centers of production. These methods bring us

low w i t h scrolling leaves [a cartoccio)

to the t w o areas mentioned above—which are remark­

i n blue, green,

ocher, and manganese purple. Meandering foliage i n blue

ably distinct politically and geographically—but no fur­

runs around the neck and the area above the foot. The i n ­

ther. I t seems plausible that there was some sort of

terior is lead glazed.

movement of ceramics or ceramists between these t w o

The lemon was widely used for pharmaceutical pur­

areas. Indeed, this matter is either explained or confused

poses throughout the Mediterranean, possibly as early as

by the fact that i n Sicily maiolica painters copied deco­

the second century, i n fever reducers, tonics, antiscorbu­

ration developed i n and typical of other parts of I t a l y —

tics, diuretics, and astringents.

1

Prospero Borgarucci

described the preparation and use of syrup of lemon juice
(which he called sciroppo

such as Urbino, Castel Durante, Faenza, and, especially
Venice—for local maiolica decoration.

3

di cedro) i n his

The Getty jar can be grouped together w i t h t w o

According to Borgarucci,

comparable drug jars because of the similarity of the

this syrup served to reduce inflammations of the viscera,

form and decoration, particularly the idiosyncratic neck

calm fevers (especially the "poisonous and pestilential

and foot motifs. One of the t w o jars, decorated w i t h pea­

Delia fabrica

d'acetosita

de gli spetiali.

fevers of the summer"), quench thirst, and help counter­

cock feathers and bearing a painted label, appeared w i t h

act drunkenness and dizziness.

the Getty piece at auction i n 1983 and is presently i n the

Tall, slender albarelli
decoration—such

as

2

w i t h so-called Gothic floral

scrolling leaves and

peacock-

Musee National de Ceramique, Sevres (inv. M N C 25141;
fig. 16 C); another, likewise w i t h painted label but w i t h

feather eyes—appear to have originated i n t w o m a i n

delicate scrolling foliage, rosettes, and dotted back­

areas of production: Pesaro and the Kingdom of Naples.

ground, was published i n 1949 as formerly i n the Gira-

The Kingdom of Naples during the late fifteenth century

sole collection, Naples (fig. I 6 D ) . This small group of

comprised the area around Naples as w e l l as Sicily (also

three jars, w h i c h must have originated i n the same cen­

united by the Kingdom of T w o Sicilies under

ter of production, share specific motifs and, i n one case,

the

4

Aragonese). A m o n g the only ways of securing the origin

the shape of an albarello

of maiolica pieces is the matching of decorative motifs

ments from a Pesarese excavation.

90

neck and l i p , found on frag­
5

i 6 A Alternate view.

92

Drug Jar for Syrup of Lemon fuice

i 6B Alternate view.

Drug Jar for Syrup of Lemon Juice

93

16c Drug jar. Probably Pesaro or possibly the Kingdom of Naples, late

1 6 D Drug jar. Probably Pesaro or possibly the Kingdom of

fifteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware, H : 31.7 cm (12/2 in.).

Naples, late fifteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware.

Sevres, Musee National de Ceramique a Sevres, inv. 25141.

Formerly in the Girasole collection, Naples, illustrated i n

Photo: © Reunion des Musees Nationaux.

J. Chompret, Repertoire de la majolique italienne (Paris,
1949), vol. 2, fig. 370 on p. 49.

However, they also share the distinct Gothic floral

described as Faentine, should be seriously reconsidered.

scroll decoration and slender jar form w i t h a preponder­

These include a jar that sold at auction i n 1990; two
9

ance of Neapolitan albarelli (that is, from the Kingdom

i n the Lehman collection, Metropolitan M u s e u m of

of Naples). The a t t r i b u t i o n of these jars is based on their

Art, New York,

distinguishing marks: they bear Neapolitan arms, the

Washington, D . C . ;

mark of a local hospital, or are inscribed either w i t h the

seum, Saint Petersburg (inv. F 1593); one i n the Musee

name of a prominent Sicilian potter from Sciacca or

du Louvre, Paris (inv. O A 5971);

w i t h a m o t t o i n Sicilian dialect. I n addition, a number

Robert Strauss collection, England;

of similarly painted and formed albarelli include profile

Fernandez collection,-

busts i n reserve that one scholar has convincingly pro­

collection, N e w Y o r k .

6

10

one i n the National Gallery of A r t ,
11

one i n the State Hermitage M u ­
12

15

13

t w o formerly i n the
14

one formerly i n the

and three formerly i n the Bak

16

posed are Neapolitan, given the resemblance of the pro­

A l t h o u g h of l i m i t e d use i n determining the place of

files to contemporary depictions of Neapolitan nobles.

production, the Gothic-floral design does serve to date

7

It must be noted, however, that, i n general, the painted

this w o r k to the second half of the

decoration on these south Italian jars appears markedly

(see also nos. 12-13). The function of these drug jars is

fifteenth

century

less sophisticated than that on the present jar and on

reflected i n their form: the waisted shape provided a good

Pesarese examples.

grasp for removing the jar from a shelf and for pouring,

8

The a t t r i b u t i o n of a dozen other comparable

tall

jars w i t h Gothic floral decoration, although traditionally

94

Drug Jar for Syrup of Lemon Juice

and the flanged l i p on its tall neck secured the string that
held a parchment or leather cover i n place (fig. 1 6 E ) .

1 6E Illustration of "siropus acetosus"
from Theatrum sanitatis (Northern
Italy, late fourteenth century).
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense,
Ms. 4182, fol. 183R. The druggist's
pharmaceuticals are stored i n what
appear to be maiolica albarelli
and wet-drug pitchers on the shelf
behind him. The preparation
illustrated here, "vinegar syrup,"
was used to calm coughs and
cure diarrhea.

Notes

jar (with the arms of Duke Alfonso), although of different shape, is deco­

1.

Grieve 1971, 474-76.

rated with scrolling leaves remarkably similar to those on the Getty

2.

Borgarucci 1567, 117.

3.

See Governale 1986, passim.

7.

Sale cat., Galardelli, Florence, Collection de Mr. Carlo Giovene de Gira-

8.

4.

albarello (Governale 1995, fig. 318); see also Navarra 2001, 50-55-

cat., Sotheby's, London, November 22, lot 2 1 1 and Chompret 1949,

9.

2: fig. 370.

10.

Rasmussen 1989, nos. 2 0 - 2 1 .

Berardi 1984, figs. 28 (especially c and n), 31 (especially 1), 37, 5 1

11.

Shinn 1982, 11, no. 10.

;

6.

See, for example, the comparable, finely rendered Gothic inscriptions
illustrated in Berardi 1984, figs. 38-39, 401-J-

sole, objets d'art et de haute curiosite, February 26, 1925, lot 189; sale

5.

Donatone 1993A, 32-38.

Sale cat., Christie's, London, July 2, 1990, lot 191.

(especially d). For more information on Pesarese maiolica production

12.

Kube 1976, no. 5.

see Bettini 1997, 31-95; Bettini 1991, 12-18.

13.

Giacomotti 1974, no. 127.

Governale 1986, figs. 449, 457, for the work of Nicola Lo Sciuto

14.

Sale cat., Sotheby's, London, June 21, 1976, lot 10.

(Luxutusu) of Sciacca, and fig. 452b, for a jar belonging to the Ospedale

15.

Chompret 1949, 2: fig. 367.

Grande di Messina, Sicily; Governale 1995, figs. 2 9 0 - 9 1 (with a motto

16.

Sale cat., Sotheby's 1965, lots 22-23, 5 2

identified as " i t must happen" i n Sicilian dialect); Donatone 1993A,
pis. 13 (with arms of Ferrante of Aragon, king of Naples), 24, 42-43
(with arms of Alfonso V of Aragon, duke of Calabria). Finally, a globular

Drug Jar for Syrup of Lemon Juice

95

17

Bust of Christ

C O N D I T I O N

Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Mu­

Minor cracks and glaze faults; proper right tip of

seum, 1987].

the beard is chipped; some original gilding has

Montelupo

worn off the neck of the tunic and the base; the

ca. 1500

crown displays holes into which thorns, possibly

EXHIBITIONS

None.

Tin-glazed earthenware

of wood or ivory, may have been inserted. The

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

H: 60.3 cm (23 A in.)

bust underwent thermoluminescence analysis in

Burlington Magazine 129 (March 1987): i

1986 that indicated that the material is consistem

II giornale dell'arte, no. 45 (1987): 90, fig. 50;

3

W: 59.7 cm (23
D: 26

cm

(IO /A
1

Vi

in.)

in.)

87.SE.148

1

;

with the expected age of the object (i.e., that

GettyMusJ 16 (1988): 180, no. 77; Hess 1988A,

the material was last fired between 370 and

no. 16; Fusco 1997, 67; Summary Catalogue

570 years ago).

2001, no. 356.

PROVENANCE
MARKS

A N D

INSCRIPTIONS

None.

Private collection, Belgium (sold, Sotheby's, Lon­
don, April 7, 1987, lot 44, to R. Zietz); [Rainer

T H I S S C U L P T U R E I S A B U S T OF C H R I S T C R O W N E D w i t h

Verrocchio (i435?-i488), and the so-called Master of the

thorns. Like devotional images of the subject i n other

Marble Madonnas (fl. ca. 1470-1500). Like the Museum's

media, the bust is half-length, terminating above the el­

example i n maiolica, busts of Christ by these artists are

bows and through the chest. As befits this image of

vigorously modeled and depict Christ w i t h curling hair,

Christ before his accusers after being scourged, his face

parted beard, and a crown of thorns (sometimes pierced

is drawn and gaunt and his bearing is righteous. Presum­

w i t h holes, perhaps to hold thorns made of another ma­

ably the sculpture was intended for an intimate devo­

terial), and always w i t h an air of authority.

tional setting such as a private chapel.

3

A l t h o u g h many of the above-named sculptors pro­

Christ's long curling hair lies flat against his head,

duced busts i n terra-cotta, sometimes

polychromed,

closely following the shape of his head, neck, and shoul­

only a Bust of Christ attributed to Sansovino i n a private

ders. He wears a tunic decorated w i t h finely drawn geo­

Aretine collection is of glazed earthenware, or maiolica

metric patterns and a cloak over his left shoulder. His

(fig. 17E). This w o r k displays a similar noble gaze, long

eyebrows, eyes, and beard are painted w i t h t h i n , blackish

and curling hair, and plain w h i t e glaze ground, w i t h only

blue lines; the crown of thorns is painted w i t h a m i x t u r e

a few details (eyes and eyebrows) picked out w i t h t h i n

of the same dark cobalt pigment and emerald green. The

dark blue lines as i n the Getty Museum's example, al­

neck of the tunic and the low, p l i n t h l i k e base have been

though i t has a gentler and less powerful aspect.

4

cold-gilded, and m u c h of this gilding has w o r n away. The

Maiolica

back of this bust is finished i n a simple, unsculptural

Verrocchio and produced i n the Florentine della Robbia

manner. Here, rather than naturalistically modeled, the

workshop also exist, although they differ considerably i n

hair is hastily rendered w i t h incised lines, and the crown

sculptural style and decoration from the present w o r k .

busts

of

Christ

probably

influenced

by

5

of thorns is l i n k e d at the back w i t h a painted cobalt loop.

It does appear that the Getty bust resulted from the

This remarkable w o r k possesses a sculptural force

collaboration of a sculptor and ceramist. From the un­

and sophistication almost never found i n maiolica.

derside one learns that the basic form of the bust was

A l t h o u g h the artist is u n k n o w n , the incisive depiction

b u i l t using coils of clay of varying lengths that were at­

of a taut and sinewy face displaying a proud, almost

tached to one another and smoothed together on the ex­

haughty demeanor can be most closely compared to the

terior surface (fig. 1 7 c ) . This method is one of the most

w o r k of late fifteenth-century Tuscan sculptors such as

basic and widespread of all pottery-building techniques,

Lorenzo Vecchietta (1412-80), Matteo C i v i t a l i (1436-

and one must assume that a potter was responsible for

1501), Andrea Sansovino (ca. 1460-1529), Andrea del

this phase of manufacture. However, the important job

2

9

6

IJA

98

Back.

Bust of Christ

1 7 B Alternate view.

Bust of Christ

tyty

17c Inside of bust.

of modeling the face appears to have been left to a tal­

Given the difficulty i n pinning down a specific cen­

ented sculptor, possibly one w h o was active or educated

ter of production, this object underwent neutron activa­

i n the circle of a Florentine master toward the end of the

t i o n analysis i n spring 2001 under the direction of

fifteenth century. Finally, to judge from the colors and

scientist Michael Hughes, formerly of the British M u ­

patterns employed, the surface decoration—its glazing,

seum, London. The analysis was carried out at the U n i ­

painting, and firing—was the w o r k of a ceramist who

versity of Missouri Research Reactor, and the data was

was w o r k i n g i n Tuscany or influenced by Tuscan sculp­

compared against the British M u s e u m database. The re­
7

ture. The w o r k displays not only a palette of v i v i d and

sults of the analysis show that the clay of this bust orig­

saturated yellow, green, and blackish blue but also pat­

inated i n Montelupo.

terns—such
Christ's

as the cube and cloverleaf patterns on

t u n i c — t y p i c a l of this

(figs. 17D, 17F).

100

6

Bust of Christ

area of production

Indeed, several scholars m a i n t a i n that the produc­
t i o n of sculptural devotional figures and altarpieces was
a specialty of Montelupine ceramic workshops i n the

i7D Detail.

Bust of Christ

101

17E Attributed to Andrea Sansovino (Italian, ca. 1467-1529). Bust of Chrisi

sixteenth century. I t is k n o w n , for example, that pot­

1502-5. Tin-glazed earthenware. Arezzo, Ivan Bruschi collection.

ters from Montelupo were active i n Pistoia i n the 1580s,

17F Single-handled albarello. Siena or Cafaggiolo, 1500-1525. Tin-glazed

8

creating figures, many i n very high relief, for the della

earthenware, H : 21.9 cm [8 A in.). Faenza, Museo Internazionale delle

Robbia frieze on the Ospedale del Ceppo (fig. 17G).

Ceramiche, inv. 24885—Donazione A. Fanfani, 1989.

Moreover, a document of 1527 confirms the association

5

9

of Florentine ceramic sculptors w i t h Montelupo potters
when clay from the quarry serving Montelupo was sent
to Giovanni d'Andrea della Robbia and Santi Buglioni,
the most famous ceramic sculptors active i n Florence at
the t i m e . More research w i l l be required to understand
10

the production of Montelupo ceramic sculptures better.
Further substantiating a t t r i b u t i o n of this bust to a
Montelupo artist is the fact that the very unusual use of
gilding around the base of the bust is actually not that
unusual i n Montelupo. The sculptural handles on a se­
ries of jars made i n Montelupo and dating to the t u r n of
the seventeenth century are similarly gilded.

102

Bust of Christ

11

Notes
1.

This theory was postulated by John Pope-Hennessy (1964, 233-34,
no. 232) to explain similar holes on Giovanni della Robbia's Ecce Homo
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

2.

In particular, his Baptism of Christ (Boucher 1991, 2: fig. 1). Sansovino's association with and possible influence on ceramic production
stems from his early career when he worked principally in terra-cotta.
Moreover, Vasari reports that Sansovino's altar depicting the Virgin in
glory with saints, Church of Santa Chiara, Monte San Savino, was
glazed by the della Robbia workshop (Boucher 1991, 1: 5-6; Batini
et al. 1986, 133-41).

3.

See, for example, Passavant 1969, fig. 37; Pope-Hennessy 1964, nos.
202-3, 227, 4 3 0 - 3 1 , 433; Middeldorf 1973, 234-36, especially pis.
1-2, 4 - 5 .

4.

Batini etal. 1986, 132, 135-37. Also close to the Getty bust is the
half-figure Saint John the Baptist by Sansovino i n the Museo Bardini,
Florence.

5.

Della Robbia figures in sculpture and relief typically appear more mild
and less vigorously modeled than the present work and display mono­
chromatic areas of pigmented glaze, without the lively tracings and geo­
metric motifs displayed by this bust (see, for example, Gentilini 1998,
nos. II.1, II.14, II.16, II.18-19; see also no. 28 below).

6.

For information on albarelli decorated with both cube and cloverleaf
patterns, see Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 117-19, no. 70; Fanfani 1984,
pis. i o 3 a - d Ricci 1988, 102-3, no. 30.
;

7.

See conclusion of the introduction for more information on neutron ac­
tivation analysis as an analytical tool.

8.

Berti 1999, i 8 i Paolucci 1985, 155.

9.

Berti 1999, 181-82.

;

10.

Berti 1999, 82.

11.

Berti 1999, 320-22, nos. 210-15.

17G Filippo Lorenzo de' Paladini (Italian, 1544-1615). Giving Drink to the
Thirsty (detail), 1583-86. Tin-glazed earthenware. Ospedale del Ceppo.
Photo: © Aurelio Amendola. Actual ceramic bowls have been included
in the fully three-dimensional portions of this relief.

Bust of Christ

103

18

Dish with Saint Peter

MARKS

A N D

[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul

INSCRIPTIONS

None.

Probably Faenza

Getty Museum, 1984].

C O N D I T I O N

EXHIBITIONS

ca. 1500-1520

Repainted cracks through the body in the area of

None.

Tin-glazed earthenware

the keys, rim, face, and blue background; minor
B I B L I O G R A P H Y

chips in the rim.

H: 4.8 cm (1 /s in.)
7

GettyMusf

3

13 (1985): 242, no. 170; Hess 1988A,

no. 20; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 357.

PROVENANCE

Diam: 27.3 cm ( i o A in.)

Private collection, Switzerland, sold to R. Zietz;

84.DE.108

T H I S U N U S U A L L Y S H A P E D P L A T E w i t h small base and

A

similar sixteenth-century

plate

attributed to

wide, sloping sides displays a finely painted, striking

Faenza, likewise decorated w i t h the portrait of an apos­

close-up portrait of Saint Peter i n blue, orange, ocher,

tle (Saint Paul; fig. I8B), is i n the Musee de la Renais­

green, and yellow against a dark blue background. The

sance, Ecouen (Cluny 2975). Another plate i n a private
4

saint is pointing w i t h his right hand to a pair of keys held

collection, of similar dimensions and w i t h a large profile

i n his left hand, w h i c h is out of view; to the right and left

bust of a woman, brings to m i n d the Getty example.

of his head are the initials SP (for San Pietro, or Saint
Peter). The r i m inventively forms part of the saint's yel­
low halo, so that the circular shapes of nimbus and r i m
complement each other. Saint Peter's cloak is decorated
w i t h a geometric interlace border. The reverse of the
plate displays t w o manganese purple bands among con­
centric lines i n blue on a p i n k i s h w h i t e ground. The clay
body is of a reddish buff color.
This plate is one of very few works painted w i t h dra­
matic close-up busts covering the entire obverse surface;
i t is v i r t u a l l y unique i n its forceful and vigorous paint­
ing. I t has been suggested that this piece was produced i n
the Tuscan center of Cafaggiolo because a few plates at­
tributed to that c i t y exist showing similarly dramatic
close-up figures rendered w i t h lively brushstrokes i n a
saturated palette.

1

Furthermore, the unusual rimless

shape of the present plate appears i n Cafaggiolo i n the
early sixteenth century.

2

Faenza is more l i k e l y to be

the source of this plate, however. Faentine workshops
excelled, even more than those of Cafaggiolo, i n vigor­
ously rendered, lively subjects painted i n an especially
b r i l l i a n t and saturated palette. Moreover, although used
i n other centers, the reverse concentric-circle design
[a calza, l i k e the threads of a stocking) (fig. I 8 A ) was
most c o m m o n i n the Faentine decorative repertory.

104

3

i 8 A Reverse.

5

i8B

Plate with Saint Paul. Faenza, early 1500s. Tin-glazed earthenware. Ecouen, France, Musee de la Renaissance,
inv. Cluny 2975/2418.

Notes
1.

See, for example, a plate w i t h the subject of Marcus Curtius attributed

close i n scale to the Getty plate but the shape—rimless with a small

to Cafaggiolo and dated ca. 1510-15 in the Herzog Anton Ulrich-

base and sloping sides—is very similar as well.

Museum, Braunschweig (inv. 837; Lessmann 1979, no. 83, pi. 1), and

4.

Giacomotti 1974, 6 0 - 6 1 , no. 240; although similar in conception, the

5.

It is uncertain whether the shape of this plate relates to the unusual one

an early sixteenth-century plate w i t h the subject of the fall of Phaeton,
also attributed to Cafaggiolo, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon­

two plates different greatly in style and could not be by the same hand.

don (inv. C.2082-1910; Cora and Fanfani 1982, no. 106; Rackham

of the Getty piece since it is described as a coppa svasata (open bowl)

1940, 1: 109, no. 314; 2: pi. 52).

with a jitta filettatura (dense line pattern) on the reverse (Studio Felsina

2.

Cora and Fanfani 1982, no. 23.

1984, 74-75) its attribution to Faenza is convincing since the profile

3.

See Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 163-64, 178, 206, 220, figs. 29g, 30c,

of the woman is rendered i n a caricature style typical of a certain type of

33b, 42b, 48b) as well as a Faentine plate of Hercules and Cerberus

Faentine ceramic painting around the turn of the sixteenth century (see

dated ca. 1520 i n the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig

Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 199-200, no. 39).

(inv. 4; Lessmann 1979, 98, no. 17.) Interestingly, not only is the latter

106

Dish with Saint Peter

;

19

Blue and White Dish
with a Merchant Ship
Cafaggiolo

C O N D I T I O N

EXHIBITIONS

Very small chips and slight rubbing on the inner

Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William

and outer borders of the r i m three stilt marks in

A. Clark Collection, Los Angeles County Museum

the well.

of Art, March 5-May 17, 1 9 8 7 .

;

PROVENANCE

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Charles Loeser (1865-1928), Villa Gattaia, Tus­

Cora and Fanfani 1982, 66, fig. 48; Morley-

Tin-glazed earthenware

cany; by inheritance in his family (sold, Sotheby's,

Fletcher and Mcllroy 1984, 44, fig. i ; GettyMusf

H: 4.8 cm (1 /s in.)

London, December 8, 1959, lot 5 5, to A. Spero

13 (1985): 242, no. 1 7 1 ; Hess 1988A, no. 2 1 ;

Diam: 24.3 cm {9V16 in.)

[according to sale cat. notation]); [Alfred Spero,

Mariaux 1995, 8o,- Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 ,

London, sold to R. Strauss]; Robert Strauss,

no. 3 5 8 .

84.DE.109

England (sold, Christie's, London, June 2 1 , 1976,

ca. 1510
7

lot 19, to R. Zietz); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London,
MARKS

A N D

sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

INSCRIPTIONS

On the reverse, in blue, f° chafagguolo.

displays a merchant

Fanfani),- a small b o w l w i t h a spotted coiling aquatic

ship w i t h i n interlocking ogival quatrefoils w i t h fleurs-

animal (Florence, Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello,-

de-lis and foliage sprays. The r i m is decorated w i t h four

fig. 1 9 D ) ; a tondino

musical trophies—a harp w i t h sheets of music, a lute

pears (Florence, Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello);

w i t h a scroll inscribed MVSICA,

T H E W E L L OF T H I S D E E P TONDINO

3

4

w i t h a small branch bearing two
5

a reed pipe and w i n d

two small dishes w i t h carracks, one erroneously said

blower, and an u r n and dulcimer—divided by stylized fo­

to be located i n storage at the Museo Nazionale, Palazzo

liage sprays and arabesques. The reverse is embellished

del Bargello, Florence (present location unknown); and

w i t h three sprays of scrolling foliage and marked i n the

the other i n the B. Hockemeyer collection, Bremen,- and

center J° chafagguolo. A l l of the painted decoration is ex­

a tondino

ecuted i n blue pigment on a thin, creamy, yellowish

(private collection, Berlin). Like the Getty Museum's

6

7

w i t h a small branch bearing three acorns
8

w h i t e ground. The clay body itself is of a very light yel­

dish, all of these works are marked J° chafagguolo

lowish buff color.

the reverse.

This type of delicate foliage and floral embellish­

on

A t one point this inscription was interpreted as the

ment i n blue on a w h i t e ground, typical of Chinese

signature of a certain "Jacopo," identified as Jacopo d i

porcelain, was m u c h sought after i n fifteenth- and six­

Stefano di Filippo, son and nephew of the two brothers

teenth-century Italy (fig. 19B). I t was i m i t a t e d success­

Stefano and Piero, w h o moved i n 1498 from their native

fully i n maiolica—thanks to the medium's brilliant

Montelupo to w o r k i n the Cafaggiolo workshop—rented

w h i t e ground and stable cobalt oxide pigment—and

out to them by members of the Medici family—just

called alia porcellana decoration. This w o r k is a particu­

north of Florence i n the Mugello Valley. Jacopo di Ste­
9

larly elaborate example from a group of similarly deco­

fano di Filippo, however, was born i n the 1530s, twenty

rated alia porcellana bowls executed i n Cafaggiolo i n the

years after the alia porcellana group of tondini seems to

first quarter of the sixteenth century. Eight other k n o w n

have been produced.

pieces from this group include a small b o w l or rounded

Indeed, many Cafaggiolo marks have yet to be fully

dish [tondino) decorated w i t h a long-beaked bird (Cam­

understood. For example, of the roughly seventy-five

bridge, F i t z w i l l i a m Museum); a dish w i t h a bird holding

marked objects published i n Gaelazzo Cora and Angiolo

a serpent i n its beak (Faenza, Museo Internazionale delle

Fanfani's 1982 volume La maiolica

Ceramiche);

than half are marked SP or SP , of w h i c h three also i n ­

1

2

Internazionale

a tondino

w i t h flowers (Faenza, Museo

delle Ceramiche,

donazione

Angiolo

di Cafaggiolo, more

r

clude the words in Cafaggiolo

and two the words in

107

Galiano.

10

I t is u n l i k e l y that SP refers to a single artist

since i t appears on maiolica spanning nearly a century.

11

It is possible, however, as is commonly thought, that the
mark stands for the "S[tefano di Filippo] P[iero di Fil­
ippo]" workshop and that the workshop continued pro­
duction even after the death of its founders and had, i n
addition, a branch i n nearby Gagliano.
The mark on the nine objects i n the group to w h i c h
the Getty tondino belongs is more difficult to compre­
hend. J° m i g h t refer to the same artist or workshop pre­
sumed to be named "Jacopo," given that a similar
inscription, Jac°, w h i c h is the orthographic contraction
of the name "Jacopo," appears on the back of a masterful
plate depicting Judith w i t h the head of Holofernes i n the
Victoria and Albert Museum, London. However, J° of J°
12

chafagguolo

(or, i n other instances, I , I , Jn, /.) m i g h t
1 1

more persuasively signify the word in since the inscrip­
t i o n in Cafaggiolo frequently appears either alone or i n
conjunction other marks (such as SP, Jac°, AF, c and a t r i ­
7

19A Reverse.

dent). Significantly, on one example, the mark appears as
f°n

chafaggiuolo

accompanied by SP-,

13

here the f°n

might simply indicate the word in rather than the cipher
of a "Jacopo" whose name, i n that case, w o u l d be meaninglessly followed by the letter n.
Whether all nine bowls of the present group belong
to the same or to separate services is not yet k n o w n .
A l t h o u g h all nine are of the same shape—indeed, seven
of the nine measure between 24.2 and 24.5 c m i n diame­
t e r — w i t h the same signature and reverse decoration, the
painting on the obverse displays certain variations. The
r i m patterns on seven of the nine examples are very sim­
ilar, including arabesquelike tracings interspersed w i t h
sets of rhombuses enclosing rows of small dots. A n
eighth bowl, one of the t w o i n Faenza, encloses the
rhombuses i n an elegant circle of interlacing ogives. This
same pattern appears i n the w e l l of the Getty example,
surrounding the merchant ship.
Indeed, i t is only the r i m of the Getty example that
differs i n any significant way from the others. Here, i n ­
stead of rhombuses, the blue tracings surround groups of
finely drawn musical instruments. Similar musical i n ­
struments, along w i t h spotted coiling creatures i n the
w e l l like the one on the Bargello tondino,

appear on a

Blue and White Dish

109

19B
Andrea Mantegna (Italian, ca.
1431-1506). The Adoration of the
Magi (detail), ca. 1495-1505. Dis­
temper on linen, 48.5 x 6 5.6 cm
(19 A x 25 /s in.). Los Angeles,
l

7

J. Paul Getty Museum, 8 5 .PA.417.
The Magus offers his gift to the
Christ Child i n a small blue and
white bowl, an early example of
Chinese porcelain imported to
Europe.

19c
Dish with arms of the Gonzaga.
Cafaggiolo, early sixteenth century.
Tin-glazed earthenware. London,
Victoria and Albert Museum,
inv. C.2145-1910.

110

Blue and White Dish

very elaborate Cafaggiolo plate i n the Victoria and Albert
Museum, London, w i t h the arms of the Gonzaga of Man­
tua and signed / chafagguolo on the reverse (fig. 19c).

14

Notes
1.

Inv. C.4-1960; Poole 1997, 42-43, no. 16; Poole 1995, 132-33, no.

2.

Inv. 21224; Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 113, figs. 68c-d Bojani,

190; Cora and Fanfani 1982, no. 43; Bellini and Conti 1964, 75.
;

Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani 1985, no. 389; Cora and Fanfani
1982, no. 44.
3.

Inv. 24921; Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 96, 112-14, o . 68,- Cora
n

and Fanfani 1982, no. 51; Bellini and Conti 1964, 75; Liverani i960,
fig. 13 •
4.

Inv. 483; Bargello 1987; Conti 1971A, no. 483; Cora and Fanfani 1982,
no. 53; Liverani 1980, no. 42.

5.

Inv. 484,- Bargello 1987, no. 2; Conti 1971A, no. 484; Cora and Fanfani

6.

Cora and Fanfani (1982, no. 60) mistakenly describe it as in storage at

1982, no. 58.
the Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello, Florence.
7.

Mallet 1998, 148-49, 254-55, no. 22; Trinity 1992, no. 4.
19D Dish w i t h an aquatic animal. Cafaggiolo, early sixteenth century. Tin-

8.

Sale cat., Christie's, London, April 12, 1976, lot 175.

9.

Alinari 1990, 134-39; Cora and Fanfani 1982, 16-20. In summer

glazed earthenware, Diam: 24.5 cm [g A in.). Florence, Museo Nazionale

1999 an excavation campaign at the Villa of Cafaggiolo began, spon­

del Bargello, inv. 483.

5

sored by Earthwatch Institute, which supplied volunteers and the major­
ity of funding; the University of Florence, which supplied the
archeological team; the Comune of Barberino; and others, including the
four owners of the villa. The goals were to determine the range and
types of pottery produced there and the exact location of the kilns and
waster dump sites as well as to better understand the chronology of pro­
duction and the relationship of the maiolica produced at Cafaggiolo and
nearby Montelupo and Gagliano. The original plan was developed by
maiolica historian Alessandro Alinari and has been carried out w i t h the
assistance of many other experts, including Guido Vannini, Anna Moore
Valeri, Tommaso Zoppi, and Michael Brody. Although most of the exca­
vating has been completed, the project continues, now involved i n cata­
loguing, analyzing, and, hopefully, publishing the results.
10.

Cora and Fanfani 1982, nos. 1-7, 14-17, 20-22, 27-28, 31-32, 34,
38-39, 45, 47, 57, 61, 65, 73, 75-76, 87-88, 9 0 - 9 1 / 93/ 99-100,
102-3, 109, 112, 114, 117, 129-30, 132-34, 136-39, 141-42.

11.

Alinari 1990, 139.

12.

Cora and Fanfani 1982, no. 50; Rackham 1940, 1 and 2: no. 306.

13.

Cora and Fanfani 1982, no. 47.

14.

Cora and Fanfani 1982, no. 72; Rackham 1940: no. 339. Apparently
these plates were popular among the Florentine upper classes since a
number of similar pieces display the arms of Florentine families, includ­
ing Pazzi, Gaddi, Altoviti, Buonarroti, Tornabuoni, Salviati, Ridolfi,
Strozzi, and, most noteworthy, Medici (Cora and Fanfani 1982, nos. 14,
17, 27, 29, 35, 79, 99, 102, 112, 117, 123, 132,- sale cat., Finarte,
Milan, November 21-22, 1963, no. 45, pi. 27; sale cat., Drouot, Paul
Renaud, Paris, April 6, 2001, lot 5 3).

Blue and White Dish

I I I

20

Lustered Plate with
a Female Bust

MARKS

A N D

London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

INSCRIPTIONS

On the scroll, VIVIS ERO VIV[U]S E
ERO

MORTV[U]S

1984].

VIV[U]S.
EXHIBITIONS

None.

C O N D I T I O N

Deruta

Chips along the rim and base.

ca. 1510-40

B I B L I O G R A P H Y
PROVENANCE

Rackham

R. W. M . Walker, London (sold, Christie's, London,

Fletcher and Mcllroy 1 9 8 4 , 5 2 , fig. j - Getty-

copper luster

July 2 5 , 1 9 4 5 , lot 7 3 , to " N y b u r g " [according

MusJ

H : 8.8 c m ( 3 V 2 i n . )

to sale cat. notation]); Nyburg; Adda collec­

no. 2 2 ; Cohen and Hess 1 9 9 3 , 9 2 ;

tion, Paris (sold, Christie's, London, Novem­

pieces 1 9 9 7 , 1 1 , no. 4 ; Summary Catalogue

ber 2 0 , 1 9 6 7 , lot 8 7 ) ; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd.,

2 0 0 1 ,

Tin-glazed earthenware w i t h

D i a m : 42.8

c m (16%

in.)

84.DE.110

THE

CENTER

OF

THIS

BLUE

AND

GOLD

LUSTERED

PLATE displays an idealized bust of a young woman i n
profile wearing a winged headdress and tied bodice; the
background is decorated w i t h a vertical scroll and floral
spray. The whole is surrounded by a garland and an a
(quartered or sectioned) r i m of alternating scale

quartieh

patterns, formal foliage, and radiating bands. The reverse
is painted w i t h a transparent lead glaze, a less precious
m e d i u m than the t i n glaze used for the obverse. Before
the first firing, t w o holes were pierced through the foot
ring, a c o m m o n feature of plates from Deruta. The func­
t i o n of such holes is unclear, although they may have
served to hang the object for display on a w a l l or shelf.
The scroll i n s c r i p t i o n — w h i c h means "When alive, I
shall be among the living, and when dead, I shall [re­
main] among the l i v i n g " — m a y be a statement of undy­
1

ing love,- a memento m o r i signifying the patron's eternal
2

love for a woman w h o had died, depicted as the figure i n
profile; or a vanitas subject (the transitory nature of life
3

had been a dominant theme i n Italian art since the
Middle Ages).

4

Idealized female images like the one on this plate, as
w e l l as other subjects on Deruta piatti da pomp a, were
influenced by, i f not copied from, the w o r k of certain
painters from U m b r i a — t h e region i n w h i c h Deruta is lo­
cated—such as Perugino (ca. 1450-1523) and, especially,
Pinturicchio (1454-1513; figs. 20B — E ) . Some of these
plates reproduce images for w h i c h no prints exist and
w h i c h were located i n what were then

inaccessible

places, such as the Vatican, so that potters could hardly

112

20A

Reverse.

13

1959,

(1985):

no.

359.

143,

243,

no.
no.

354b,

172;

pi.

23

Hess

i

;

Morley-

1988A,

Master­

have made sketches of the works i n situ. Indeed, one
scholar has associated the female profile that appears on
the Getty plate, as w e l l as on the others listed below, to
the profile of a w o m a n w i t h horns i n the fresco of Saint

20B Bernardino Pinturicchio (Italian, 1454-1513). The Visitation (detail),
1 4 9 2 - 9 4 . Rome, Vatican Palace, Borgia Apartment, Hall of the Saints.
Photo: Vatican Museums.
2 0 c Lustered plate w i t h a female bust. Deruta, first quarter of the sixteenth

A n t h o n y and Saint Paul i n the Vatican Borgia Apart­

century. Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 44 cm [IJYS

ments.

Louvre, Cluny inv. 2 4 3 0 .

5

I t seems more likely, however, that another

image i n these apartments—the w o m a n w i t h bowed
head and loose head scarf holding a distaff i n the fresco
depicting the V i s i t a t i o n — m i g h t have influenced the
type of female profile that appears on a plate i n the
Louvre (figs. 2 0 B — c ) . A l t h o u g h i t has been suggested,
though never proven, that Pinturicchio was married to
the daughter of a ceramist from Deruta, i t seems u n l i k e l y
that he or his colleague, Perugino, w o u l d have collabo­
rated w i t h local potters. Nevertheless, some circulation
of sources, possibly drawings from drawings, must have
existed.
The images, often v i r t u a l l y identical i n pose and ap­
pearance, were presumably reproduced from a workshop's

114

Lustered Plate with a Female Bust

in.). Paris, Musee du

2 0 D Large plate with a female bust. Deruta, ca. 15 15 - 4 0 . Tin-glazed earthen­

been copied freehand or, more likely, used as a template

Art, Widener Collection, in v.

for the decoration. The cartoon as template w o u l d have

3

20E

stock repertory of cartoons. These cartoons could have

ware, Diam: 4 1 . 3 cm [i6 A in.). Washington, D.C., National Gallery of
1942.9.3 2 3 [C-48]DA.

Bernardino Pinturicchio. The Death of Saint Bernardino (detail). Rome,

been pricked w i t h holes, placed against the raw glaze

church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli. Photo: Scala/Art Resource, New York.

surface of the plate, and tapped w i t h a bag filled w i t h
dark powder. Lifted away from the ceramic, the template
w o u l d leave behind a series of dots that were then filled
i n w i t h pigment.

6

Given the often formulaic nature of the busts and
r i m embellishments, Deruta potteries probably turned
out these works at a fast pace. The Museum's plate is a
particularly fine and beautifully rendered example, how­
ever. The young woman is shown i n a self-assured pose,
w i t h her chin up. The modeling of her face is especially
subtle, and an outline of blue pigment delicately sets off
her head and the banderole from the background.
Plates very similar to this o n e — w i t h a

quartieri

r i m decoration, a vertical scroll, and a female figure

Lustered Plate with a Female Bust

115

i n profile adorned w i t h unusual headdress and tied

20F

Maggiore. Photo: Scala/Art Resource, New York.

bodice—include those i n the National Gallery of A r t ,
Washington, D.C. (inv. 1942.9.323 [C.48]; fig. 2 0 D ) ; Bos­
7

ton Atheneum (inv. A t h 307); A r t Institute of Chicago
8

(inv. 1937.843); Musee de la Renaissance, Ecouen (inv.
C l u n y 2449); Musee du Louvre, Paris (inv. O A 1238);
9

formerly

Pringsheim

collection, M u n i c h ;

Nazionale di Ravenna, collezione Classense;
Regionale della Ceramica di D e r u t a ;

13

10

12

14

suggests that the image copied on these plates was a very
popular one and that the pattern presumably used was
15

Such a source might

have copied Pinturicchio's Death

of San

Bernardino

fresco i n the church of Santa Maria i n Aracoeli, Rome
(fig- 2,OE).

[ 16

Lustered Plate with a Female Bust

2OH

OPPOSITE LEFT:

Bernardino Pinturicchio. The Enthroned Virgin and Child

and Saints (detail). Spello, Italy, Chiesa di Sant'Andrea.

Museo

and two that sold

at a u c t i o n . That a number of other similar plates exist

available i n numerous copies.

2 0 G Lustered plate with a female bust. Deruta, first quarter of the sixteenth
century. Tin-glazed earthenware. Paris, Musee du Louvre, inv. O A 1 4 3 3 .
Photo: © Reunion des Musees Nationaux.

Museo

1 1

Bernardino Pinturicchio. Eritrean Sibyl (detail). Spello, Italy, Santa Maria

201

OPPOSITE RIGHT:

Lustered plate with an angel in prayer. Deruta, first

quarter of the sixteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 4 2 cm
( 1 6 / 2 in.). Paris, Musee du Louvre, inv. O A 1 4 5 7 . Photo: © Reunion des
Musees Nationaux.

Notes
1.

concern may well have been influenced by the plague, a constant men­

Bernard Rackham, however, has posited that the inscription should be

ace in early Renaissance Italy that had at one point reduced by half the

read Vivis ero vivus ero mortuis em vivus (alive I shall be among the

population of certain centers (Braudel 1972-73, 1: 332).

living, and alive I shall be among the dead); see Rackham 1959, 143,

5.

no. 3 54b, pi. 231. Since maiolica painters often did not compose and

6.

For further information on this technique see Hess 1999, 4-22.

possibly did not even understand the words they copied for inscription,

7.

Timothy Wilson i n National Gallery 1993, 152-54.

both the abbreviated forms and the meaning of this phrase must be con­

8.

sidered open to interpretation.
2.

3.

M y thanks to Timothy Wilson for bringing this and the following object
to my attention.

Like that expressed in the amorous inscription Sogie tovesero perfihi-

9.

Giacomotti 1974, no. 516; Sarasino 1924, 61, pi. 52.

vivo epo[i]lamorte (I w i l l be subject to you as long as I live and even af­

10.

Giacomotti 1974, no. 586.

ter death) on a basin i n the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

11.

Falke 1914-23, 1: no. 124, pi. 68.

(Watson 1986, 78, no. 28.)

12.

Liverani and Reggi 1976, 58, fig. 58.

The memento mori theme also appears explicitly on maiolica plates;

13.

Busti and Cocchi 1999, 170, no. 57.

see, for example, a lustered tondino of ca. 1525 attributed to the work­

14.

Sale cat., Hotel Drouot (Piasa), Paris, June 28, 2000, lot 75; and sale

15.

See Chompret 1949, 2: figs. 200, 203-7, 820, 823-24; Giacomotti

shop of Maestro Giorgio Andreoli i n the Ringling Museum of Art, Sara­
sota (Duval and Karcheski 1983, 91-92, no. 82).
4.

Marabottini Marabotti 1982, 3 0 - 3 1 .

Other Deruta plates with similar female busts and similar inscrip­

cat., Finarte, November 21-22, 1963, pi. 80, lot 158.
1974, nos. 517, 582-85, 587.

tions concerned w i t h the transience of life include two formerly in the
Adda collection, Paris: one inscribed Non e si vago e fioie che no[n]
i[n]bia[n]ca o casca (no flower is so fair that it does not fade or fall) and
the other inscribed Um bel morire tuta la vita onoia (a beautiful death
makes honorable a whole life); see Rackham 1959, nos. 344, 354. This

Lustered Plate with a Female Bust

117

21

Jar with a Lame Peasant
a n d Jar with a Woman
and Geese

MARKS

A N D

1965, lot 54, to "Goldbaum" [according to sale

INSCRIPTIONS

On the back of each jar, B°.

cat. notation]); Goldbaum; Benjamin Sonnenberg,
New York (sold, Sotheby's, New York, June 5,

C O N D I T I O N

1979, lot 356); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold

[.1] Small chips on the rim and base.

to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

[.2] Restorations on the base, bottoms, and rim,

Deruta or Montelupo

and some painted areas (upper right corner of sky

Early sixteenth century

and woman's apron and right sleeve).

24.8

Purportedly i n the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York, 1913-16; [.2]: Italian Renaissance

Tin-glazed earthenware
[.i] H:

PROVENANCE

cm (g A in.)

Diam (max.): 15.9 cm (6 A in.)

[Duveen Brothers, New York, sold to J. Widener,

l

May 17, 1987.

;

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

1916]; Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylva­

Rackham 1915, 50,- Widener 1935, 67-68;

nia (sold, Samuel T. Freeman and Co., Philadel­

Bellini and Conti 1964, 100, pis. A, C Rasmussen

phia, June 20, 1944, lots 326-27, to R. Bak);

1984, 84, 86; GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 241, no. 163;

[French and Company, New York]; Dr. Robert Bak,

Hess 1988A, no. 24; Summary Catalogue 2001,

New York (sold, Sotheby's, London, December 7,

no. 360.

1

( 9 A in.)
3

Diam (at lip): 12.9 cm (5 V\e in.)
Diam (max.): 16.8 cm (6 /s in.)
5

84.DE.112.1-.2

Collection,

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, March 5 -

inheritance to J. Pierpont Morgan Jr., (1867-1943),
New York, by 1915 passed to Duveen, 1916

l

H : 24.8 cm

Maiolica from the William A. Clark

J. Pierpont Morgan Sr. (1837-1913), New York, by

3

Diam (at lip): 12.9 cm (5 /\e in.)
[.2]

EXHIBITIONS

;

T H E C Y L I N D R I C A L B O D I E S of these two containers are

(Washington, D.C., Corcoran Gallery of A r t , inv. 26.400,

painted i n tones of orange, blue, green, and yellow w i t h

26.404); a cupid holding a rope, referring to the bonds of

single figures—on the first a lame peasant, possibly a

love (Cologne, Kunstgewerbemuseum,

4

inv. E 1921); a
5

beggar, w i t h a crutch holding a ceramic jug, and on the

cupid whose genitals are exposed, leading a dog on a

second a woman w i t h a distaff beside three fighting or

leash, i m p l y i n g either fidelity or exemplary action (Paris,

mating geese—within panels bordered by blue lines. The

Musee du Louvre, inv. O A 2629); a cupid w i t h a v i o l i n

upper right corner of each figurative panel is painted

and a cupid bearing a tree t r u n k and rope (formerly i n the

w i t h orange rays. Decorative geometric patterns r u n

Peter Harris collection, London); a cupid w i t h a drum

around the shoulder and the base of each

and one w i t h a horn and skull (formerly i n the Pring-

albarello.

These jars belong to a set of twenty-four k n o w n
similar i n shape and decoration and, except

albarelli,

6

7

sheim collection, M u n i c h ) ; a female figure,8

9

ance, holding a wine cup and p i t c h e r ,

10

Temper­

a chivalrous

for three, inscribed B or B° on the reverse. The vessels

y o u t h holding a shield and banner and another holding

are clearly the w o r k of different hands, since they vary

a pierced heart and standing beside a fire on an anvil,

significantly i n style. Another feature distinguishing

a symbol of ardent love (Berlin, private collection);

2

3

11

a

these jars is their size, according to w h i c h the works can

woman lifting her skirt, exposing her genitals (Balti­

be roughly divided into three sets. Each piece i n the first

more, Walters A r t Gallery, inv. 48.2234);

group, including as many as eighteen of the twenty-two

ing her skirt to a winged phallus (Hamburg, Museum fur

pieces, is smaller (approximately twenty to twenty-two

Kunst und Gewerbe, inv. 1959.151);

13

12

a woman lift­

a man holding a

centimeters high) and can be characterized by predomi­

small sphere facing a woman whose right foot rests on

nantly amorous or erotic subjects. The consistency of

a larger sphere, identified as Venus protecting man

subject matter, w i t h the frequent occurrence of cupids

(Naples, Museo Nazionale della Ceramica

and other love imagery, suggests an intentional thematic

M a r t i n a / inv. 95 5),- a figure identified as G l u t t o n y rid­

program for this set of jars.

ing a p i g ;

The subjects depicted include a cupid holding a

7

"Duca di

14

15

a putto holding a t r i d e n t ;

16

and the t w i s t i n g

figure of Saint Sebastian pierced by nine arrows, i n the

pierced heart and a blindfolded cupid on a cushion beside

Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Palazzo Barberini,

his broken bow, otherwise identified as Eros and Anteros

Rome (inv. 2798).

17

OPPOSITE:

118

2i[.i]

2 1 A Alternate view of [. i ].

120

Two Jars

2 1 B Alternate view of [. i ].

Two Jars

121

21 c Alternate view of [.2].

21 D Alternate view of [.2].

The drug jars i n the second group are larger (approxi­
mately twenty-four to twenty-five centimeters high) and
fewer i n number. This group includes three jars i n the
Louvre (inv. O A 7 3 9 0 - 9 1 , O A 6306) decorated w i t h the
Annunciate Angel, a y o u t h bearing an animal on his
shoulders and probably representing either the Good
Shepherd or Abel, and Prudence—one of the four cardi­
nal virtues adopted by the Church to teach moral les­
sons—holding a compass and mirror,Museum's two

18

and the Getty

albarelli.

I n addition, i n the upper right-hand corner of the
scenes on all five jars from this second group, rays em­
anate from the sky. These rays appear on only one of the

OPPOSITE!

2l[.2]
Two Jars

123

smaller albarelli,

however.

ous contemporaneous

19

Similar rays decorate vari­

luster dishes from Deruta and

may signify God's benediction on the subject.

20

The t w o Marcantonio Raimondi prints that

are

copied on the Bo jars—Temperance (also k n o w n as
Woman

Watering

a Plant) and Venus Protecting

(also k n o w n as Man and Woman

with

Man

Spheres)—have

been dated to before 1510 and ca. 1506, respectively,

21

providing, at least, a terminus post quern for the group.
A l t h o u g h for the Louvre jars a religious theme m i g h t
l i n k the group, the figures on the final t w o albarelli

from

this group, those i n the Getty Museum, are more prob­
lematic. Indeed, they are arguably the most unusual and
perplexing of the set. They do not appear to depict
images w h i c h are religious, mythological, allegorical,
sexual,

or amorous.

Rather,

their subjects,

dressed

i n contemporary peasant clothes, seem to be genre
figures.

22

The distaff—an instrument for spinning w o o l and
therefore a symbol of domestic labor—was a conven­
tional attribute of the industrious, righteous wife i n the
sixteenth century and c o m m o n l y appears i n female por­
traiture and allegorical representations.

23

However, i t

was also used i n a negative context as a symbol of domes­
tic discord. I n sixteenth-century European art and liter­
24

ature, moreover, spinning represented erotic activity.

25

As one scholar has pointed out, i n the Renaissance a
auxilium—meaning

reciprocal assistance or

m u t u a l love—or else the biblical episode of Saint Peter
Apostle, i n w h i c h he heals a lame beggar on the steps of
the Temple,- the latter could be the interpretation of a
scene on a drug jar i n Faenza (fig. 2 I E ) .

2 6

Several other

images on jars from this group derive from prints by the
fifteenth-century painter and engraver Jacopo de' Barbari, m a k i n g i t possible that the Getty examples do so as
w e l l . De' Barbari engraved a pair of figures—a woman
w i t h a distaff holding a child and a man w i t h a maiolica
jug holding a cradle (figs. 2 1 F - G ) — t h a t m i g h t relate to
the figures on the Getty jars, although these figures ap­
pear less peaceful than those i n de' Barbari s engravings.
;

27

It appears that t w o other jars, one i n the Cleveland
M u s e u m of A r t (inv. 40.12) and one i n the Wadsworth

124

Two Jars

Vase. Deruta, end of the fifteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware,
H : 29 cm ( n Vi in.). Faenza, Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche,

lame peasant could represent the moralizing emblem of
mutuum

11 E

inv. 24909.

2IF

Jacopo de' Barbari (Italian, ca. 1460/70-before 15 16).

21 G Jacopo de Barbari. Man with a Cradle. Engraving. London,
7

Woman and Distaff. Engraving. London, British Museum,

British Museum, inv. 1895-9-15-87. Photo: © The British

inv. 1895-9-15-86. Photo: © The British Museum.

Museum.

Atheneum i n Hartford, Connecticut (inv. 1917.430),

possible thematic connection among the jars. Identifi­

comprise the t h i r d group i n the B/B° group, measuring

cation of the coat of arms on the Hartford example w o u l d

roughly t h i r t y centimeters i n height. The former is dec­

also be helpful.

orated w i t h the figure of Venus (after an engraving by

On the basis of their inscription, these works were

Marcantonio Raimondi of the b i r t h of Venus, w h i c h may

attributed almost a century ago to the Sienese workshop

have been inspired by a print by Jacopo de' Barbari); the

of Maestro Benedetto.

latter is decorated w i t h the figure of a knight holding

siderably from that of other k n o w n works by this artist.

a shield w i t h an unidentified coat of arms.

The set or

Moreover, marks like this B or B° w o u l d normally indi­

sets to w h i c h these larger jars belong are l i k e l y incom­

cate the workshop i n w h i c h the pieces were executed,

28

29

30

Their style, however, differs con­

plete, and the discovery of missing pieces and possible

the pharmacy to w h i c h they belonged, or the pharmacist

print sources for the painted images m i g h t w e l l clarify

w h o used them. A similar mark on a sixteenth-century

the iconography of the individual subjects as w e l l as a

albarello

from Deruta i n the Museo Nazionale del

Two Jars

12 5

Bargello, Florence, has been described as "probably

closely related to the B/B° set,- and variegated stripes

referring to the pharmacy [to w h i c h the jar] belonged."

running horizontally through border decoration that

31

The most recent attempt to identify the B° mark—
by associating i t w i t h a potter active i n U r b i n o — i s not
credible.

32

I t has also been suggested that the B or B°

mark m i g h t refer to the names Betini

and

Bolognesi,

w h i c h are inscribed on the hexagonal tiles i n the
Cappella San Sebastiano (also called Cappella Vaselli
after its patron) of San Petronio, Bologna.

40

appears on a number of B/B° jars.

41

Of potential interest

is a Montelupo fruit b o w l i n the Musee National de
Ceramique, Sevres, that, although of a very different
type than these pharmacy jars, is likewise marked w i t h
B° on the reverse.

42

However, the same type of geometric border patterns

There is

also appears on shards found at Deruta excavation sites

no indication that the San Petronio floor and the B/B°

and related plates,- more significantly, the unusual and

were produced by the same hand or even i n the

beautifully rendered figures on such B/B° examples as

albarelli

33

same workshop.

43

the jars i n Rome and Hartford seem to relate very closely

A previous attempt, i n the late 1980s, was made
to l i n k the B/B° set w i t h ceramics from another center

to the w o r k of the so-called Master of the San Francesco
pavement from Deruta.

44

of production: Castelli d'Abruzzo. This proposition is

Of the four pieces i n the Getty's collection that have

based on the similarity between the drug jars' form,

eluded a t t r i b u t i o n and were, therefore, subjected to neu­

34

palette, and decorative motifs and those of works of the

tron activation analysis, three were determined to origi­

"Orsini-Colonna" typology, recently and convincingly

nate from the lower mid-Arno Vallery, i n particular,

attributed to C a s t e l l i . The association of the "Orsini-

from Deruta or Montelupo. The preponderance of this

Colonna" group w i t h the Getty albarelli is unpersuasive.

unusual a t t r i b u t i o n among the least-understood works

To aid i n attributing these jars to a specific center,

i n the collection indicates not only that there is m u c h

jar .2 underwent neutron activation analysis i n spring

w o r k to be done to better understand the ceramics from

2001 under the direction of scientist Michael Hughes,

these centers of production, but also that there appears

formerly of the British Museum, London. The analysis

to have been m u c h "cross-pollination" of styles and pos­

was carried out at the University of Missouri Research

sibly also movement of potters between these t w o cen­

Reactor, and the data was compared against the British

tral Italian towns.

35

M u s e u m database.

36

The results of the analysis show

that the clay of this jar originated from the lower
mid-Arno Valley, most l i k e l y from either Deruta or
Montelupo. To help determine attribution, stylistic
comparisons were made between these t w o jars and w i t h
ceramics securely attributed to both centers.
Examples of ceramics that have been excavated from
Montelupo k i l n sites display certain characteristics that
can be found on B/B° jars or on jars related to that set.
These characteristics include geometric incised blue
decoration similar to that found on the Wadsworth
Atheneum jar,-

37

floral

rosettes similar to those on

the Museo Nazionale della Ceramica "Duca di M a r t i n a "
and the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica examples,-

38

geometric ornament and small tufts of grass i n the
background similar to those found on many B/B° ex­
amples,-

126

39

the so-called "nodo orientale" found on a jar

Two Jars

23.

Notes

For example, Maerten van Heemskerck's Portrait of Anna Pietersd

1.

Duveen 1876-1981, no. M M . 8 7 , boxes 164, 193.

Codde and Cornelis Bos's engraving The Righteous Wife, both illus­

2.

See notes 13, 16, and 27 below.

trated in Grosshans 1980, pis. 4, 147.

3.

At least four different hands can be identified, falling into the following

24.

Getty pieces; the two jars with young men in courtly costume, the jar

See, for example, Israhel van Meckenem's Battle for the Pants, repro­
duced in Marie 1971, 2: fig. 486.

groups: the jar with the Annunciate Angel in the Louvre and the two
25.

See, for example, an anonymous northeastern Italian engraving of an al­
legory of sensual pleasures (Levenson, Oberhuber, Sheehan 1973, 526-

with the figure of Gluttony, and the jar with a woman before a winged
phallus; the two jars in the Corcoran depicting Eros and Anteros,- and,

27); Barthel Beham's print Spinning Room (1524; Geisberg 1974,

finally, the jar with a putto and trident and one with a violin.

no. 154); and two sixteenth-century paintings of lovers by Pieter

4.

Watson 1986, 4 6 - 4 7 , nos. 8-9.

Pietersz. (Renger 1970, figs. 78-79). Alison Stewart (1986, 286) has

5.

Klesse 1966, 147, no. 270.

pointed out that late medieval French, English, and German words for

6.

Giacomotti 1974, 62, no. 245.

spindle could mean phallus, presumably because of their similar shapes.

7.

Rackham 1932, 343, fig. 4; the albarello with a cupid bearing a tree

Even today the Italian filare (to spin wool) colloquially refers to making

trunk is now in a private collection, Florence (see Conti 1980, no. 142).

love or courting (Cortelazzo and Zolli 1979, s.v. "fila"). Examples on

8.

Falke 1914-23, 1: nos. 86-87, pi- 5 -

maiolica objects of the distaff portrayed as sexual instrument include

9.

This work is cited as being in the Grassimuseum, Leipzig (Rasmussen

a plate by Maestro Giorgio Andreoli dated 1528 i n the Museo Civico,

1984, 84), although i n correspondence with the Getty Museum dated

Arezzo, showing Hercules suggestively pointing a distaff at Queen

1

Omphale, whom he served as a slave.

June 17, 1986, the Leipzig museum shows no record of the object.
10.

Rasmussen (1984, 84, no. 13) located this jar in the Museo Civico,

26.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 160.

Bologna, although it appeared i n a 1987 Florentine sale (Semenzato,

27.

Servolini 1944, pi. LXVIII, nos. B . i o - 1 1 .

November 11, lot 305). See also Ballardini 1934, pi. 12; Bolognesi

28.

12.

;

Raimondi entitled Young Woman Watering a Plant (Oberhuber 1978,

figure together with the passages of alia porcellana decoration on the

27: no. 383 [292]), which, i n turn, because of stylistic similarities, may

body relate this jar most directly to the Temperance albarello formerly
in the Ducrot collection, Paris (see note 10 above).

have been based on a print by Jacopo de' Barbari.
11.

Falke 1914-23, 1: nos. 85a-b, pi. 5o Fiocco and Gherardi 1986,
pi. 96a; Milliken 1940, 33-34. The subject and style of the panel

1955, pi. 3a. This figure is based on an engraving by Marcantonio

Rackham 1915, 5 1, pis. IIIo-p.

29.

Roth 1987, 72-73, no. 8.

Conti 1980, no. 130 (incorrectly described as located i n the Museum

30.

Otto von Falke i n Rackham 1915, 50.

fur Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg).

31.

Alinari and Spallanzani 1997, 3 8 - 40, no. 13.

13.

Rasmussen 1984, 85, no. 129.

32.

Gardelli 1999, 2 0 2 - 1 1 .

14.

Arbace 1996, 91-94, no. 112. The subject is based on a print by

33.

Bolognesi 1955, 8; the existence of a Betini factory in Faenza, however,

15.

Marcantonio Raimondi after Francesco Francia (reprod. in Oberhuber

was questioned by Fortnum (1896, 254) when he noted that the in­

1978, 27: no. 377-1 [286]) in which a woman holds a flaming urn,

scription BE FAVE [N]T [I]CIE following the names of three women

symbol of sexual passion.

(Chornelia, Zetila, and Xabeta) might more convincingly be read bella

Sold at Sotheby's, Zurich, December 5, 19 91, lot 6 6.

Faentina (beauty of Faenza). This pavement is illustrated i n Liverani

16.

Sold at Sotheby's, Zurich, December 5, 1991, lot 67.

17.

Mazzucato 1990, no. 35; Tittoni Monti and Guarino 1992, 84. Al­

i960, pi. 12.
34.

Rubini 1990, 27-28; Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 199-200, no. 109;

though this jar lacks the B° mark and includes, unusually, an inscrip­

Governale 1989, 72-73; Fiocco and Gherardi 1986, 290-94,

tion of its pharmaceutical contents, the similarity of its shape,

pis. 94-98.

decorative scheme, and various decorative motifs—such as the circle

3 5.

See Pompeis et al. 1985, 3-36.

and line pattern above the foot (identical to that on the Good Shepherd

36.

For more information on neutron activation analysis as an analytical

to that on the jar in Naples)—confirms its inclusion i n the group.

37.

Berti 1998, 2 8 6 - 9 1 , nos. 114-26; Berti 1999, 287, nos. 125-28.

18.

Giacomotti 1974, 62-63, nos. 234, 244, 246.

38.

Berti 1998, 271, 284, nos. 86-87,

19.

Decorated with a cupid bearing a tree trunk and rope (see note 6 above).

39.

Berti 1998, 254-58, 264, nos. 45-56, 69.

20.

Caiger-Smith 1985, 80, pi. 23.

40.

Berti 1998, 309-11, nos. 158-64. B/B° related piece is a drug jar that

21.

Hind 1909-10, 1: 369, no. 16; Faietti and Oberhuber 1988, 132-34,
41.

Berti 1998, 264, no. 69.

jar in Paris) and the foliate and rosette pattern on the reverse (identical

no. 22.
22.

tool see conclusion of the Introduction.
1 1 1

; Berti 1999, 286, no. 124.

sold at Sotheby's, London, June 29, 1964, lot 35.

A similar image of a lame peasant embellishes a jar formerly i n the Im-

42.

Giacomotti 1974, 73, no. 289; Berti 1998, 346, nos. 241-42.

bert collection (sale cat., Sotheby's, London, March 11, 1980, lot 38).

43.

Especially those with "petal-back" decoration on the reverse. See Busti

44.

Batini et al. 1986, 3 9 - 4 1 and cover,- Fiocco and Gherardi V1994, espe­

Other examples of women with distaffs adorning maiolica objects in­
clude a brocca of the early sixteenth century from Rimini that sold at
auction i n Milan (sale cat., Semenzato Nuova Geri Sri, November 5,

and Cocchi 1987, pi. Via; Busti and Cocchi 1999, 148, no. 31.
cially 241, 248-49, figs. 138, 143.

1986, lot 123; the figure is unconvincingly identified as "possibly
Atropos") and a crespina of ca. 1540 from Faenza, attributed to the
workshop of Virgiliotto Calamelli (Conti 1984, no. 37).

Two Jars

I 2 J

22

Plate with a Winged
Putto on a Hobbyhorse

CONDITION

Robert Strauss, England (sold, Christie's, London,

Minor glaze chips on the rim.

June 2 1 , 1 9 7 6 , lot 2 2 ) ; [Cyril Humphris, London],[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul

PROVENANCE

Possibly Urbino area, Venice, or Pesaro
ca. 1 5 1 0 - 2 0

Tin-glazed earthenware

Alessandro Castellani, Rome (sold, Hotel Drouot,
Paris, May 2 7 , 1 8 7 8 , lot 3 4 , to "Fanien" [according

EXHIBITIONS

to sale cat. notation]); Fanien; [Duveen Brothers,

None.

Paris (stock no.

3275), 1 9 1 4 - 1 6 ,

H : 2.4 cm ( i / i 6 in.)

no.

Diam: 23.5 cm (9V4 in.)

25892),

sold

1923

BIBLIOGRAPHY

to A. Seligmann, Rey and

Co.]; [Arnold Seligmann, Rey and Co., New
1

84.DE.116

York]; Charles Damiron, Lyons (sold, Sotheby's,
London, June 16, 1 9 3 8 , lot 60, to M . & R. Stora);

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

[M. &. R. Stora, Paris]; Luzarche d'Azay, Paris (sold,

None.

Palais Galliera, Paris, December 6, 1 9 6 2 , lot 24);

is decorated w i t h a winged

T H E W E L L O F T H I S TONDINO

1984].

transferred to

Duveen Brothers, New York, 1 9 1 6 (stock

5

Getty Museum,

Rackham

1937A;

Chompret

pi.

1 9 4 9 , 2:

13,

fig.

93;

Christie's Review 1 9 7 6 , 3 9 6 ; Morley-Fletcher and
Mcllroy

1984,

no.

Hess

174;

2001,

no.

66, fig. 3,- GettyMusJ
1988A,

no.

29;

13 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 2 4 3 ,

Summary Catalogue

361.

York, inscribed 1508 adi 12 de sete[m]br[e] facta fu i[n]
5

putto on a hobbyhorse before a lagoon landscape w i t h i n

Castel

a narrow white band. T w o male busts i n medallions are

Castel Durante by the potter G i o v a n n i M a r i a on Sep­

dura[n]t[e]

Zova[n]

maria

(made i n

v[asa]w

reserved on a ground of Harpies, monsters, cornucopias,

tember 12, 1508; fig. 2 2 E ) . T h i s signed and dated piece

and strings of beads around the wide r i m . The blue, dark

has been used as a benchmark for attributing a number

reddish amber, brown, yellow, green, purple, and opaque

of maiolica plates and bowls to the artist. A l t h o u g h

white embellishment is exceptionally brilliant and jewel­

these plates and bowls are no longer thought to form

like. T h e dark reddish amber pigment appears to be bole,

a consistent group—appearing to be the work of various

a variety of clay colored red by iron oxide, w h i c h is found

ceramic

6

painters—they

display

similarities

to

the

i n A r m e n i a and Tuscany and was used to decorate Iznik

Lehman b o w l . These similarities include the depiction

pottery. The reverse displays a band of blue and white fo­

of chubby putti, imaginative and festive grotesques, tro­

liate scrolls i n the alia porcellana

phies, masks, invented beasts, pearls, and m u s i c a l i n ­

style.

The medallions display a bald man i n classical dress

struments set against a dark blue ground. It is possible
" G i o v a n n i M a r i a " of the Lehman b o w l is

and a bearded man wearing a turbanlike hat. The appear­

that the

ance of these two figures calls to m i n d representations of

G i o v a n n i M a r i a Mariano, a man identified by documents

M o h a m m e d II (1432-1481), who became the sultan of

as being i n U r b i n o i n 1520, i n Venice i n 1523, and back

the O t t o m a n Turks i n 1 4 5 1 , and John VIII Palaeologus

i n U r b i n o i n the 1530s. It is possible, therefore, that

2

7

( 1 3 9 0 - 1 4 4 8 ) , the Byzantine emperor w h o traveled to

the maiolica objects associated w i t h the Lehman b o w l

Italy i n the early fifteenth century to discuss a possible

fall w i t h i n the sphere of G i o v a n n i M a r i a Mariano's i n ­

u n i o n between the Greek and L a t i n churches.

3

It has

also been suggested that the bald man might represent
C i c e r o . A n y identification of these medallion figures
4

fluence, that is, between the D u c h y of U r b i n o and Venice
i n the first decades of the sixteenth century.
Three tondini

form a group w i t h the Getty plate and

must be considered tentative, however, since similarities

appear to have been decorated by the same hand. They

w i t h k n o w n portraits do not appear convincing; these

include a tondino

busts may s i m p l y represent generalized Eastern types.

i n the A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m , Oxford (fig. 2 2 c ) ; one w i t h

T h i s dish was, at one time, attributed to a " G i o v a n n i

a putto riding a dolphin i n the Victoria and Albert M u ­

also showing a putto on a hobbyhorse
8

M a r i a " active i n Castel Durante because of its similarity

seum, London (inv. C . 2 0 8 7 - 1 9 1 0 ) (fig.

to a b o w l i n the Metropolitan M u s e u m of A r t , N e w

displaying a putto w i t h a shield i n the N a t i o n a l Gallery

128

22D);

9

and one

2 2 A Reverse.

130

Plate with a Winged Putto

22B Plate with a winged putto standing, armed, in a landscape. Probably
Urbino district or Venice, ca. 1510-20. Tin-glazed earthenware,
Diam: 23.2 cm (9/4 in.). Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art,
Widener Collection, inv. 1942.9.313.

22c Plate with a winged putto on a hobbyhorse. Probably made in the Urbino
region, ca. 1 5 10-20. Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 22.8 cm (8 /s in.).
7

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum.

22D Attributed to Giovanni Maria. Plate with a winged putto on a dolphin,
ca. 15 15. Tin-glazed earthenware, London, Victoria and Albert Museum,
inv. c.2087-1910.

Plate with a Winged Putto

131

of Art, Widener Collection, Washington, D . C . (fig.
That the putti on a l l four tondini

22B).

1 0

appear before a land­

scape reminiscent of Venetian lagoon settings w o u l d
support placing them w i t h i n G i o v a n n i M a r i a Mariano's
area of activity. These four pieces are so close i n size and
design w i t h comparably fine painting i n a remarkably
brilliant palette that they may w e l l have been part of a
single service; one scholar has even referred to the group
as the "playing putto s e r i e s /

711

The porcelainlike gar­

land on the reverse of three of the four plates is virtually
identical to

the

N a t i o n a l Gallery tondino

garland,

although running i n the opposite direction and rendered
w i t h a slightly finer l i n e .

12

Other tondini w i t h comparable decoration of central
figures surrounded by bust portraits or other heads or
trophies and grotesque decoration include one w i t h a
putto riding a goose i n the British M u s e u m , London (inv.
M L A 1855, 12-1, 1 0 7 ) ;

13

a dish w i t h Saint Jerome i n the

Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , London (inv. C . 2 1 4 8 HE

Giovanni Maria or his workshop. "Julius II" bowl, 1508. Tin-glazed

1910);

earthenware, Diam: 32.4 cm [n A in.). New York, The Metropolitan

boss formerly i n the Pringsheim collection, M u n i c h ;

3

Museum of Art, Lehmann Collection, inv. 1975.1.1015.

14

a tondino

w i t h a putto holding a shield i n the
1 5

another showing a young man playing a lute i n the
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Lyons,- and a plate depict­
16

ing Leda and the Swan, formerly i n the Alexander Barker
collection and currently on the Italian art m a r k e t .

17

A pitcher i n the M u s e o di Capodimonte, collezione
de C i c c i o , Naples, and a vase i n the Herzog A n t o n
U l r i c h - M u s e u m , Braunschweig (inv. 379), display a candecoration w i t h grotesques, cornucopias, putti,

delieri

18

and bead swags very similar to those on the
Museum's

Getty

tondino.

19

M o s t of the above-mentioned works have been at­
tributed to Castel Durante of ca. 1 5 1 0 - 2 0 ; Faenza and
Cafaggiolo, however, have also been suggested, as has
Venice.

20

M o s t recently, the "playing putto" series has

been attributed to Pesaro given the stylistic similarities
between the above-mentioned tondini

and fragments ex­

cavated at Pesaro and datable to the early sixteenth cen­
tury.

21

A cornucopia, round putto head, grotesques, and

scrolling foliage finely painted i n reserve on a dark
ground, as w e l l as porcelainlike motifs found on these
fragments, relate very closely to the group of tondini
w h i c h the Getty plate belongs.

132

Plate with a Winged Putto

to

Notes
1.

Duveen

1876-1981,

no.

boxes

25892,

11, 13, 15, 17, 100, 1 9 1 .

When the

plate was sent to New York in 1 9 1 6 its price was thirty-five hundred
dollars; this price was reduced in 1 9 2 3 (the year of its sale) to two thou­
sand dollars. A n invoice of February 5, 1 9 2 4 , lists the buyer as A. Seligman, Rey and Co., New York.
2.

See the portrait medal of the sultan by Costanzo da Ferrara, illustrated
in Wilson 1 9 8 3 , 4 2 , no. 2 (obverse).

3.

See Weiss

4.

See catalogues of Hotel Drouot, Sotheby's, and Christie's sales cited

1966,

frontis., pis.

6, 9 - 1 2 ,

14-16.

above under provenance and bibliography.
5.

Rasmussen

6.

See Rackham

7.

It is unclear whether, in addition to directing a workshop, "Giovanni

1989, 1 0 0 - 1 0 4 ,

no.

1928A, 4 3 5 - 4 5 ;

62.

Rackham

1929,

88-92.

Maria" was also a potter. For documentary references see Negroni 1 9 8 5 ,
14, 17 n. 2 8 , 18 n. 2 9 ; Berardi 1 9 8 4 , 9 .
8.

Wilson
ca.

9.

no.

1989, 2 6 - 2 7 ,

9;

Fortnum

1896,

pi.

19

(attributed to Faenza of

1520).

Rackham

1928A,

pt.

2, 90,

fig.

22;

Rackham

(attributed to Castel Durante of ca.

1 9 4 0 , 1:

no.

5 3 2 ; 2:

pi.

83

1515).

10.

Timothy Wilson in National Gallery

11.

Wilson 1 9 8 9 , 2 6 .

12.

The reverse decoration on maiolica plates is often very useful when

1993,

130-33.

attempting to identify a distinctive hand or center of production.
13.

Solon

1907,

fig. io; Rackham

1929, 90,

fig.

21;

Wilson

(attributed to "perhaps the Marches or Venice" of ca.

1987A,

no.

119

1505-25).

14.

Rackham 1 9 2 9 , 8 9 , fig. 2 0 ; Rackham 1 9 4 0 , 1: no. 5 2 9 ; 2: pi. 8 3 .

15.

Chompret

16.

Giacomotti 1 9 6 2 , 2 9 (attributed to Castel Durante or Cafaggiolo

17.

This plate is purportedly signed "Zoan Maria in Casteldurante." That

of ca.

1 9 4 9 , 2:

fig.

92;

Falke

1 9 1 4 - 2 3 , 2:

no.

157,

pi.

84.

1510).

this signature has never been reproduced and was not noted by previous
scholars when documenting the object—when the plate was on loan to
the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, in the 18 6 0 s , for example—
suggests that the signature is spurious. The plate itself was given a
thermoluminescence test at Oxford in 1 9 9 1 with results indicating it
was created between 2 5 0 and 4 0 0 years ago, consistent with its pre­
sumed date of ca. 1 5 2 0 (Magnani 1 9 9 1 , 21 and cover).
18.

Like a candelabra, that is, arranged symmetrically around a central axis.

19.

Omodeo, 1 9 7 0 , 4 8 , no. 8; Lessmann 1 9 7 9 , no. 16, pi. 17.

20.

Wilson

1987A,

no.

21.

Piccioli

2000,

65-82.

176;

Wilson

1987B, 186

n.

8.

Plate with a Winged Putto

13 3

23

Dish with Am at a and
Turnus

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

EXHIBITIONS

On the underside, a crossed circle with a smaller

None.

circle in each of the four quarters.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Probably Faenza

CONDITION

GettyMusf 13 (1985): 241, no. 164; Hess 1988A,

Small hairline crack across the kneeling woman at

no. 18; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 361.

ca. 1515-25

the lower left toward the center of the plate; minor

Tin-glazed earthenware

rim repairs; the male figure on the far right-hand

H : 5.4 cm (2 Vs in.)

edge has been restored.

Diam: 24.6 cm

J9 /i6
n

in.)

PROVENANCE

Sold, Sotheby's, London, November 21, 1978, lot

84.DE.106

42, to R. Zietz; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to
the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

falls w i t h i n

the Rutulians. Lavinia's parents favored this union, but

the transition to the so-called stile hello (beautiful style)

Latinus had been warned by his o w n father i n a dream

THIS

COPPA,

OR FOOTED

CONCAVE

DISH,

decoration

that Lavinia's husband w o u l d be a foreigner and that this

reached its height of popularity and pictorial sophistica­

of the early sixteenth century, w h e n istohato

u n i o n w o u l d produce a race destined to conquer the

t i o n . O n the obverse is a finely painted scene of a k i n g

world. T h i s foreigner was Aeneas, who, after vanquish­

seated on a high throne w i t h groups of w o m e n and men

ing Turnus i n battle, claimed Lavinia as his wife.

1

to his right and left, respectively. A winged putto stands

The coppa's scene appears to be based on a passage

i n the foreground holding a blank scroll that elegantly

(bk. 12,11. 5 4 - 8 0 ) i n w h i c h A m a t a (Lavinia's mother, the

echoes the scrolling supports of the throne. T h i s

kneeling w o m a n i n the foreground) pleads w i t h Turnus

istoh­

ato piece is painted i n blue, yellow, pale orange, pale yel­

(the young warrior before her) to refrain from fighting the

l o w i s h green, pale purple, and opaque white on a pale

Trojans for fear that he, her daughter's intended husband,

blue ground. Blue radiating leaves filled w i t h concentric

w i l l die. Lavinia (the hooded figure surrounded by at­

dark ocher lines cover the reverse, encircling the foot.

tendants), hearing her mother's entreaty, is filled w i t h

6

O n the underside of the coppa is a circle divided into

emotion, "her burning cheeks steeped i n tears, w h i l e a

four sections, w i t h a smaller circle i n each of the four

deep blush k i n d l e d its fire, and mantled o'er her glowing

quarters (fig. 2 3 A ) . Since 1858 this mark has

been

face" (11. 6 5 - 6 7 ) . Turnus then "fastens his looks upon

identified as the pyros rota (fire wheel), believed to be the

the maid; [and], fired more for the fray, briefly he ad­

mark and punning device of the Faentine Casa Pirota

dresses A m a t a : 'Nay, I beseech thee, not w i t h tears, not

workshop. However, this attribution was questioned by

w i t h such omen, as I pass to stern war's conflicts, do

2

scholars as early as 1 8 8 0 ,
cast further doubt on i t .

3

and recent scholarship has

Long misinterpreted as a betrothal scene, the coppa's
painted decoration appears to depict instead a debate
over a betrothal described i n an episode from Virgil's
Aeneid,

a w o r k from w h i c h istoriato-ware

subjects were

c o m m o n l y drawn i n the sixteenth century.
counted i n the Aeneid,

thou send me forth, O m y mother[-in-law] nor truly has
;

Turnus freedom to delay his death'"(11. 7 0 - 7 5 ) . Latinus,

4

5

A s re­

K i n g Latinus of L a t i u m was ap­

enthroned and holding a scepter, presides over the scene.
T h i s scene from the Aeneid

is so rarely depicted i n

postclassical art as to be almost untraceable. However,
thanks to recent literary exegesis, its meaning on this
plate may not be so recondite. The portrait of A m a t a i n
7

the Aeneid

is of a mother infuriated that her choice of

proaching old age w i t h o u t a male descendant. H e did

husband for her daughter is ignored. Later i n the story, af­

have one daughter, Lavinia, who was sought i n marriage

ter the scene outlined above, A m a t a becomes unhinged

by many neighboring chiefs, i n c l u d i n g Turnus, k i n g of

w h e n her husband does not take heed after she gently

i34

23A Reverse.

136

Dish with Amata and Turnus

complains to h i m of his presumption. In ancient Rome
there was a tradition of maternal prenuptual consulta­
tion, and disregard of this tradition w o u l d bring dishonor
to the mother. Rather than simply depicting an erudite
8

passage from an ancient text, this plate may represent
maternal authority and entitlement, possibly i n refer­
ence to its owner.
The posture of the flying putto i n the upper left sug­
gests that the artist intended h i m to represent C u p i d
aiming his bow and arrow, attributes the artist may have
simply forgotten to include after the figure had been
painted. In the context of this passage from the

Aeneid,

the appearance of C u p i d a i m i n g his darts at Turnus
w o u l d be appropriate both because Turnus had been
2 3B Attributed to the Saint John Painter. Plate with Hercules and
Cerberus, ca. 1520. Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 27.3 cm (10-/4 in.).
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv. Maj. 4.

promised to Lavinia i n marriage and because C u p i d was
Aeneas's brother.
It is also possible that the omission of Cupid's bow
and arrows was not an oversight but, rather, a way to
represent Anteros, Cupid's rival. In classical mythology
Anteros symbolized both reciprocity i n amorous rela­
tions and terrestrial love (as opposed to Cupid/Eros, who
represented celestial love). According to an interpreta­
9

tion current i n the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,
Anteros symbolized physical love rejected and chastised
and therefore represented amor viitutis,
tor of l o v e .

10

or the castiga-

Identification of the coppa's

figure w i t h

Anteros instead of Eros might be more appropriate,
since the intended u n i o n of Turnus and Lavinia never
came to pass.
A plate i n the Herzog A n t o n U l r i c h - M u s e u m , Braun­
schweig, depicting Hercules and Cerberus (fig. 23B); an­
other depicting Samson i n the Temple i n the M u z e u m
Narodowe, Krakow, Poland (fig. 2 3 c ) ; and a panel i n the
Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , London, depicting the
Deputation of Coriolanus (fig. 2 3 D ) display such close
stylistic parallels to the A m a t a and Turnus plate that the
three must have been produced by the same painter.

11

Such distinctive details as the men's short, curly hair,the stiff-legged poses; the delicate facial features, includ­
23c Attributed to the Master C.I. Plate with Samson in the Temple,

ing eyes composed of dots and small slants for eyebrows,-

ca. 1520-30. Tin-glazed earthenware. Krakow, Muzeum Narodowe,

the elegant feet and overly large helmets; the deep, short

inv. XIII-1712.

folds i n the drapery,- and the "abdominal" muscles on
the cuirasses, rendered as a curved row of sausagelike
shapes, l i n k the four pieces.

12

Dish with Amata and Turnus

13 7

23D Attributed to the Master C.I. Plaque with the Deputation of Coriolanus, ca. 15 15. Tin-glazed earthenware. London, Victoria and Albert
Museum, inv. 4277-1857.

138

Dish with Amata and Turnus

Notes

The plate i n Braunschweig, however, was identified
by R a c k h a m as the work of the so-called Saint John

1.

According to Ballardini

i o Ballardini

1 9 3 3 , 1: 1 3 - 1 4 ; 2 :

;

1975/ 5 9 ~ 7 i /

92.

Painter, after a plate depicting the saint i n the Victoria

2.

Robinson

and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n .

3.

See Malagola

4.

Of the two known pieces with inscriptions indicating their manufacture

13

These two plates were

then grouped w i t h a third, also attributed to the Saint

1 8 5 8 , 1: 1 3 - 1 4 .
1880, 1 4 0 - 4 1 ;

Genolini

1881, 57.

in the Casa Pirota (located in the Museo Civico, Bologna, and in the

John Painter, depicting the Erythraean Sibyl and for­

Musee National de Ceramique, Sevres) neither bears the crossed-circle

merly i n the Frassineto and Caruso collections. Under

mark. Moreover, variants of the crossed circle appear on works from

scrutiny, these three works do not appear to be painted

centers other than Faenza (such as Gubbio and Castel Durante) as

by the same individual.

simple decorative motifs or as spheres. When depicted in the hands of

14

small boys, for example, it resembles apallone (pneumatic ball). Finally,

R a c k h a m identified the panel of Coriolanus as work

if the Faentine examples were intended to represent spheres, there

of the so-called Master C . I. after a plate i n the State Her­

would be no reason to associate them with the Casa Pirota, since they

mitage M u s e u m , Saint Petersburg, inscribed w i t h those

would not also have been understood as wheels. For more information

initials (or possibly G . I.).

15

plate i n Kracow has been associated w i t h the same
artist.

16

regarding the crossed-circle mark see Ballardini

M o r e recently, the Samson

Norman
5.

Rather than the roughly eighteen objects attrib­

uted to this artist, it seems more prudent to revise
the number to between five and seven. These fewer ob­

1969, 4 4 7 - 4 8 ;

6.

Musee de la Renaissance, E c o u e n ; a plate w i t h Perseus

Grimal

r i m i n the Victoria and

10.

Alciati 1 6 2 1 , no. i n .

11.

22

i n the British M u s e u m , London,-

and a plate w i t h Judith and Holofernes i n the Musee de
la Renaissance, E c o u e n .

23

Excluded from this group is

the Coriolanus panel and the Samson plate, now associ­
ated w i t h the A m a t a and Turnus painter.
R a c k h a m also identifies and attempts to group to­

Rackham

1 9 4 0 , 1: 8 1 - 8 2 ,

no.

43.

muscles.
14.

Sale cat., Sotheby's, London, March 2 0 , 1 9 7 3 , lot 2 7 .

15.

Darcel 1 8 8 5 , pi. XLIII.

16.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1 9 9 6 , 3 6 .

17.

Giacomotti

18.

Rackham 1940, 1: nos. 258, 260; 2, pi. 41.

1974, 8 8 - 9 0 ,

no.

Faietti and Oberhuber

including the so-called A s s u m p t i o n Painter, Master

22.

Wilson

342.

1 9 8 7 A , 1 1 5 , 1 1 7 ,fig.XV.

1987A, 115-17,

1988, 311-14,

no.

184,-

no.

93.

the slightly more static grouping of

figures, more exaggerated musculature, and more adept and precise ren­

Gonela, the Lucretia Painter, and the Master of the Res­

dering of the background with buildings in perspective than in other

A l l of the pieces attributed to these

works here attributed to the Master C. I. may be explained by the fact

25

that, on this plate, the artist is copying a painter's drawing rather than
inventing the composition himself.

What is certain are the stylistic similarities shared by
cluding those i n the Casa Pirota w o r k s h o p .

pi.

Rackham 1 9 4 0 , 1: no. 2 6 6 ; 2: pi. 4 2 .

21.

artists active i n Faenza around 1520, i n ­

259; 2:

13.

i n Faenza just after the turn of the sixteenth century,

early istohato

1).

A decorative rendering of the serratas anterior and rectus abdominus

Giacomotti 1 9 6 2 , 2 5 , fig. 3.

artists are i n need of reexamination and reevaluation.

6 2 - 6 3 , 196,

12.

Wilson

24

esp.

and note

Lessmann 1 9 7 9 , 9 8 , no. 17, pi. 18; Zboinska-Daszynska 1 9 5 2 , no. 12,

19.

urrection P a n e l .

1988,

1991, 129

[1647] 1963, 2 5 8 .

20.

gether the work of several other maiolica painters active

Dixon

pis. XIV, XLI (cited in Ravanelli Guidotti 1 9 9 6 , 3 3 , 36 n. 9, fig. 4f-g);

taeon i n the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Lyons,- possi­
or Jacopo da B o l o g n a

1978, 7 0 - 7 3 ;

(as cited in Brazouski

a plate w i t h D i a n a and A c 19

21

Phillips

211, 2 1 6 - 1 7 , 2 2 7 - 2 8

Cartari

20

16-17.

1991, 1 2 9 - 3 6 .

1963, 8 9 - 9 1 ;

9.

bly a plate after a drawing attributed to Jacopo R i p a n d a

lots

scene.
8.

18

1980,

Emeritus, Stanford University, for his assistance in identifying the
Brazouski

cury surrounded by a berettino

14-17;

I would like to thank Dr. William Wesley Trimpi, Professor of English,

7.

Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n ;

pis.

7 7 ; sale cat., Sotheby's, London, March 18, 1 9 7 5 , lot 36; sale cat.,

nections—are a plate w i t h a m o n k and naked boy i n the
and Andromeda and a plate of a bearded figure and Mer­

1940, 6 6 - 7 2 ,

pis. XlVa-b.

1974, 1 2 - 1 3 ,

See, for example, Ballardini 1 9 2 9 , pi. 17,- sale cat., Sotheby's, 1 9 3 9 , lot
Sotheby's, London, March n ,

jects— displaying strong and idiosyncratic stylistic con­
17

Mallet

23.

Giacomotti

1974, 9 0 - 9 1 ,

no.

343;

this plate was attributed to the

Master C. I. by Prentice von Erdberg

1950, 2 8 3 - 8 7 .

Indeed,

24.

Rackham

their style anticipates and may w e l l have influenced that

25.

For a further discussion of this issue and for other related examples see

26

of their compatriot and fellow maiolica artist Baldassare
Manara (active ca. 1 5 2 6 - 4 7 ) (see no. 30).

Wilson
26.

1 9 4 0 , 1: 8 4 - 9 0 ; 2 :

1996, 1 0 4 - 6 ,

no.

nos.

266-78,

pis.

42-45.

48.

See, for example, Mallet 1 9 9 6 , figs. 1 - 4 .

Dish with Amata and Turnus

139

24

Drug Jar for Persian
Philonium

Sotheby's, London, November 22, 1983, lot 197);

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On the banderole, FILONIJ P[ER]SICHI.

[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul
Getty Museum, 1984].

CONDITION

Minor chips around the rim.

Faenza

EXHIBITIONS

None.

PROVENANCE

ca. 1 5 2 0 - 4 0

[M. & R. Stora, Paris, sold to W. Warren]; Whitney

Tin-glazed earthenware
H : 37 cm ( i 4 / i 6 in.)
9

Diam (at lip): 12.5 cm

(4 /i6
15

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Warren (1864-1943), New York; by inheritance to

GettyMusf 13 (1985): 242, no. 166; Hess 1988A,

his widow, New York (sold, Parke Bernet Galleries,

no. 25; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 363.

in.)

New York, October 7, 1943, lot 418); (sold,

Diam (max.): 16.5 cm (6 Viz in.)
84.DE.105

THIS

TALL A N D WAISTED CYLINDRICAL

DRUG

VESSEL

small amounts of cobalt were added to an impure

bianco

is painted w i t h a label describing its contents i n dark

i n order to produce a more gray ground rather than more

blue, surrounded by fruit, foliate arabesques, and inter­

yellow-tinted glaze ground that w o u l d result from the

lacing i n yellow, ocher, dark blue, green, and white. The

iron impurities. The "contamination" of a w h i t e ground

areas around the neck and above the base display a trian­

by the particularly strong and hard to control cobalt pig­

2

gular pattern i n dark blue and white, and around the

ment was certainly possible. However, it seems more

shoulder is a garland i n yellow, ocher, and green; a l l of

l i k e l y that berettino-coloxtd

this embellishment is painted on a light blue

produced i n i m i t a t i o n of similar colors on M i d d l e East­

berettino

ground. T h e white t i n glaze that covers the inside of this
jar is unusual; before the early sixteenth century, areas

glazes were purposefully

ern ceramics imported at the t i m e .

3

There are two general types of Faentine

berettino

that were rarely seen, such as the undersides of plates

decoration: that on w h i c h the light blue decoration of

and interiors of jars, more c o m m o n l y displayed less pre­

grotesques, cherubs, trophies, scrolls, and other motifs is

cious lead-based glazes.

painted i n reserve i n dark blue (see nos. 27, 32) and that

The jar's inscription is a variant of philonium
sicum

per-

(Persian philonium), named after the first-century

on w h i c h the light blue ground is further embellished
with

delicate

designs

of

floral

and foliate

sprays,

B . C . physician P h i l o n of Tarsus. T h i s pharmaceutical

arabesques, cherubs' heads, grotesques, garlands, inter­

electuary was prepared from o p i u m and other ingredi­

lacing knotwork, and trophies i n dark blue w i t h touches

ents, including saffron, white pepper, camphor, honey

of white (although green and yellow were sometimes

of roses, and ground bloodstone, pearls, and amber. The

used for decorative emphasis, as on this

resultant

Ceramics decorated w i t h the latter type, referred to i n

confection served to relieve pain, induce

albarello).

sleep, improve blood circulation, prevent miscarriages,

contemporary documents as gentilezze

and reduce the pain of hemorrhoids and of heavy

(refinements and embellishments), are listed i n Faentine

menstruation.

documents as being exported to Bologna i n the 1 5 2 0 s .

1

In place of the w h i t e tin-glaze ground characteristic
of most maiolica, berettino

and

vaghezze
4

In addition, shards found i n Faenza and i n areas to

works are traditionally dis­

w h i c h Faentine products were exported indicate that a

tinguished by a lavender-gray ground produced by tinting

large number of maiolica wares decorated w i t h wreaths,

the white glaze w i t h a small amount of cobalt oxide. One

flowers, and fruit on a berettino

scholar believes that this tinting first occurred inadver­

duced i n various Faentine workshops i n the third and

tently from attempts to produce a white glaze ground

fourth decades of the sixteenth century. According to

that was as neutral as possible. According to this theory,

Giuseppe Liverani, " i n this type of ornament we find the

140

ground were pro­

most highly developed use of color by the artists of the
Faventine s c h o o l /

7 5

T h e origin of the term berettino

has been a subject of

m u c h conjecture. Thanks to a mid-sixteenth-century
document belonging to a Faentine pottery that lists the
ingredients of a pigment, one does k n o w that the term
refers to a specific azzuhno

claw,

or light blue color.

6

The term, however, may be of Venetian origin since it
seems to have been used i n the Veneto region i n the early
fourteenth century to refer to a sort of ordinary fabric.

7

The relationship of such fabrics to a color found on Faen­
tine maiolica remains unclear. Nevertheless, the appeal
of berettino

decoration spread north from Faenza, be­

coming popular on mid-century Venetian (see no. 33)
and, later, Ligurian products.
Other albarelli

similarly decorated w i t h

and arabesques on a light blue berettino

festoons

ground include

those i n the State Hermitage M u s e u m , Saint Petersburg
(inv. F 3 0 8 7 ) ;

8

one formerly i n the Adda collection,

Paris; one reproduced i n 1 9 7 4 ;
9

Milan,-

11

10

one sold at auction i n

and one i n a private Italian c o l l e c t i o n .

12

The

Museum's jar is distinguished by being both the tallest of
these examples and the only one labeled w i t h an i n ­
scribed banderole. A n ovoid vase w i t h similar decoration
is i n the M u s e o Internazionale delle Ceramiche, Faenza
(inv. 2 1 2 9 7 / c ) .

13

Notes
1.

Drey 1978, 202, 222; Borgamcci 1567, 453-54.

2.

Munarini 1990, 209.

3.

Liverani 1958, 32 (cited in Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 306). For examples
of Middle Eastern ceramics see Fehervari 1973, colorpl. G Klein 1976,
;

pis. 8-10; Fehervari 2000, especially nos. 132-37, 218-20, 222-32, 290,
295-96, 302).
4.

Liverani i960, 40.

5.

Liverani i960, 40.

24A Alternate view.

6.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 306.

7.

Tassini 1961, 70 (cited in Mazzucato 1970, 17 n. 1).

8.

Kube 1976, no. 13.

9.

Rackham 1959, no. 127A; Chompret 1949, 2: fig. 563.

10.

Liverani and Bosi 1974, pi. 10.

11.

Sale cat., Semenzato Nuova Gerl Sri, Milan, November 5, 1986, lot 89.

12.

See also Wilson 1996, 112-13,

13.

Bojani, Ravanelli Guidotti, and Fanfani 1985, 57, no. n o .

142

n o s

- 51-52.

Drug Jar for Persian Philonium

24B Alternate view.

24c Alternate view.

Drug Jar for Persian Philonium

143

25

Armorial Dish with the
Flaying of Marsyas

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

Rothschild

None.

London, April 1 2 , 1 9 7 6 , lot 1 7 9 , pi. 1 3 ; [Rainer

Broken and repaired, with breaks generally

(or Sbraga), k n o w n as N i c o l a da U r b i n o

EXHIBITIONS

None.

bianco sopra bianco, and above the head of the

Urbino

H : 5.7 c m (2 A in.)
l

D i a m : 41.4 c m (i6 /i6 in.)
5

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy 1 9 8 4 , 6 5 , fig. 8;

sopra

bianco

1 9 9 7 , 2 2 , no. 1 4 ; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 ,

1

PLATE

displays a

decoration. The wide r i m is ele­

between A p o l l o and Pan and the flaying of Marsyas. The
palette consists of blue, ocher, copper green, grayish
green, yellowish green, yellow, brown, brownish orange,
black, and opaque white. A white glaze ground covers
the reverse, w h i c h is otherwise undecorated.
T h i s plate was painted by arguably the most talented
and celebrated maiolica master of the Cinquecento,
N i c o l a da U r b i n o . T h e artist has been identified thanks
to a handful of pieces that bear his signature or mono­
painted w i t h a seated king, dated 1521

(Saint Petersburg, State Hermitage inv. R 363); a plate
2

fragment w i t h a scene inspired by Raphael's

Parnassus

(Paris, Musee du Louvre, inv. O A 1244); a plate dated
3

1528 w i t h a scene inspired by Raphael's Martyrdom
Cecilia

of

(Florence, M u s e o Nazionale, Palazzo del

2 5 A Reverse.

Bargello); a plate w i t h the O l d Testament subject of
4

Joseph and H i s Brothers (Novellara, Santo Stefano); and,
5

perhaps, a plate w i t h the scene of an animal sacrifice i n
the British M u s e u m , London (inv. M L A 1855, 3-13, 2 3 ) .
According to archival documents, N i c o l a seems to be a
man k n o w n as N i c o l a di Gabriele Sbraghe (or Sbraga),
the only potter recorded i n U r b i n o whose name and
dates of activity correspond to those of the artist we have
come to k n o w as N i c o l a da U r b i n o .

144

7

1988A,

;

no.

contests, both of w h i c h involve A p o l l o : the competition

Saint

175;

to sale cat. notation] for Baron Gustave de

gantly painted w i t h two mythological scenes of m u s i c a l

gram: a coppa

13 (1985): 2 4 3 ,

March 5, 1 8 5 5 , lot 1 7 6 7 , to "Wareham" [according

coat of arms on a shield held by two putti surrounded by
bianco

Hess

GettyMusf

no. 3 0 ; Cohen and Hess 1 9 9 3 , i o Masterpieces

Rothschild),- Baron Gustave Samuel James de

WELL OF THIS LARGE A R M O R I A L

no.

PROVENANCE

Ralph Bernal, London (sold, Christie's, London,

84.DE.117

THE

1984].

confined to the top half of the piece; overpainting

putto on the right side.

Tin-glazed earthenware

seum,

in small areas of the landscape to the left, in

(ca. 1480-1537/38)
Mid-i520s

London,- sold, Christie's,

Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Mu­

CONDITION

N i c o l a d i Gabrielle Sbraghe

(1829-1911),

6

364.

Frustratingly little is k n o w n about this important
exponent of early istohato

painting. From the inscrip­
8

tion on the Saint C e c i l i a plate we k n o w that N i c o l a

appears i n a l l three services, w i t h the interpretations on
the Getty M u s e u m and the Este-Gonzaga pieces being
18

the most closely related.

worked, possibly as a visiting master, i n the large and

The classicized, circular temple favored by N i c o l a

successful U r b i n o bottega of G u i d o da Castel Durante,

was l i k e l y inspired by actual buildings of this type,

otherwise k n o w n as G u i d o D u r a n t i n o . That N i c o l a was

such as Donato Bramante's Tempietto.

9

T h o u g h sepa­

also Guido's father, a m a n mentioned i n documents as

rated by a generation, both Bramante and N i c o l a were

N i c o l o Pellipario, is no longer accepted.

born

10

Nicola's w o r k is characterized by a delicate and so­
phisticated rendering of figures and space i n a rich and

in

Castel Durante,

and

on

more

than

one

occasion N i c o l a seems to have drawn on Bramante's
achievements—such

architectural

as his

celebrated

varied palette. Because of Nicola's great s k i l l , he was

domed and niched circular structures—for his o w n archi­

m u c h admired and sought after by important patrons of

tectural inventions.

maiolica i n the sixteenth century. A b o u t 1525, for ex­
ample, he produced a splendid credenza,
for Isabella d'Este.

In addition to A p o l l o and Marsyas, Nicola's plate
presents the contest between A p o l l o and Pan. According

attributed to N i c o l a

to the ancient legend, Pan, god of woodlands and player

include the so-called Correr service of ca. 1 5 1 7 - 2 0 i n the

of the syrinx, challenged A p o l l o , god of music and mas­

11

Other credenze

or table service,

19

M u s e o Correr, V e n i c e ,

a Valenti-Gambara service of

ter of the lyre, to a test of m u s i c a l s k i l l i n w h i c h A p o l l o

ca. 1 5 1 8 - 2 5 after a plate i n the M u s e o del Castello

was judged the winner. T h i s competition represents, i n

Sforzesco, M i l a n , -

12

of the same gen­

essence, the struggle between wildness and carnal desire,

eral period after a plate listed above i n the C h u r c h of

represented by Pan, and w i s d o m and sophistication, rep­

Santo Stefano, Novellara,- and two services dating to

resented by A p o l l o . In the second scene, Athena, shown

the 1530s: one executed for D u k e Federico Gonzaga,

on the far left of the plate, made a flute that she played

Isabella's son, and another for Federico and his wife,

beside a stream. (Here, A t h e n a plays a bagpipe, w h i c h is

Margherita Paleologo.

not an unusual substitution.)

13

a M a n z o l i credenza
14

15

20

Watching her reflected

The Getty Museum's plate belongs to yet another

image i n the water, she saw her face become blue and her

service, sometimes referred to as the ladder service, that

cheeks swollen, so she threw down the instrument and

was either commissioned by or given to a member of the

laid a curse on anyone who picked it up. Marsyas stum­

Brescian C a l i n i family, whose coat of arms appears i n the

bled on the pipes, w h i c h , inspired by the memory of

central s h i e l d .

U s i n g Nicola's two signed and dated

Athena's music, made beautiful sounds. H e then invited

works together w i t h the dates ascribed to his table ser­

A p o l l o to a contest. The sly A p o l l o challenged Marsyas

vices, one may place the C a l i n i set roughly i n m i d -

to play his instrument upside down, k n o w i n g that this

career, that is, i n the mid-1520s, between the earlier,

could be done w i t h the lyre but not w i t h the pipes. The

more delicate, blue-toned style of the Correr service and

Muses declared the winner to be A p o l l o , who took cruel

the warmer, compositionally more complex painting of

revenge by flaying Marsyas alive. The figures of A t h e n a

the 1528 Saint C e c i l i a plate. T w o plates i n the Correr

and Pan on this plate (figs. 2 5 B —c) are adapted from

service—those depicting A p o l l o and Marsyas and Solo­

illustrations to the 1497 Venetian edition of Ovid's

m o n adoring an idol—display the same temple and deity

Metamorphoses.

sculpture as those depicted on the Getty plate, thereby

what conflated on the plate since Pan, rather than

associating the two services at least i n terms of the

Marsyas, is shown retrieving Athena's instrument.

16

source of these images.

11

Curiously, the two scenes are some­

However, i n both style and

Including the Museum's plate, there are eleven

palette the C a l i n i service is closest to the Este-Gonzaga

k n o w n works from the C a l i n i service. T h e i r subjects are

group. Indeed, the same subject—Apollo and Marsyas—

A p o l l o and Pan (London, British M u s e u m inv. M L A 1855,

146

17

Armorial Dish with the Flaying of Marsyas

2 5B The Contest between Apollo and Marsyas. Fol. 49V from Ovid, Metamorphoses (Venice, 1497)- Woodcut. Washington, D.C.,
Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Rosenwald cat. no. 322.

25c The Contest between Apollo and Pan. Fol. 93R from Ovid, Metamorphoses (Venice, 1497)- Woodcut. Washington, D.C., Library
of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Rosenwald cat. no. 322.

Armorial Dish with the Flaying of Marsyas

147

i 2 - i , 73);

22

the sacrifice of Iphigenia (Ecouen, Musee de

la Renaissance, inv. C l u n y 1 8 6 3 ) ;

23

the death of A c h i l l e s

Notes
1.

Bohn 1857, 185, no. 1767.

2.

Kube 1976, no. 58.

3.

Giacomotti 1974, no. 829.

and an allegorical scene w i t h Calliope and a youth

4.

Conti 1971A, no. 16.

(Washington, D . C . , Corcoran G a l l e r y of A r t , inv. 26.

5.

Liverani 1985, nos. 4-6, pi. 125; Wilson 1987A, 44-45, 49, no. 62;

Five other pieces w i t h scenes of Saint George and

6.

Wilson 1987A, 50, no. 63.

the Dragon, Perseus and Andromeda, the Brazen B u l l of

7.

Darcel 1864, 181; Berardi 1984, 17 n. 9; Negroni 1985, 15-20; Mallet

8.

For an examination of the artist's life and work see, in addition to the

(New York, Metropolitan M u s e u m of A r t , inv. 84.3.2J,-

348).

25

24

Palvarini 1994, 10-17.

1987, 284-86.

Phalaris, Cygnus changed into a swan, and an uniden­
tified subject are i n the Royal Scottish M u s e u m , Edin­
burgh.

works cited above, Rasmussen 1972, 51-64; Wilson 1987A, 44-51;

A final plate w i t h the Rape of Europa, whose

26

present whereabouts are u n k n o w n , was formerly i n the
Damiron

collection, L y o n s .

Ovid's Metamorphoses—and

27

Subjects

drawn

from

loosely based on the illus­

Palvarini 1994, 11-12.
9.

Mallet 1998, 286.

10.

Wallen 1968, 95-105; Negroni 1985, 13-20.

11.

Examples from this service are reproduced in Chambers and Martineau
1981, nos. 131-33, 135-36, 138; Rasmussen 1989, 110-11, no. 66; for

trations to the 1497 Venice edition of that book —pre­
28

the dating of this set see Mallet, "The Gonzaga and Ceramics," in

dominate on the C a l i n i service. The i n c l u s i o n of the
Brazen B u l l subject from the first-century moralizing an­

Chambers and Martineau 1981, 40.
12.

Also called the Ridolfi Service. Wallis 1905; Mariacher 1958, 8-27;
Cherido 1986, 73-79.

ecdotes of Valerius M a x i m u s (available i n Italian at the

13.

time) and the thirteenth-century Golden

Legend tale of

14.

Palvarini 1994, 10-17.

makes a unified icono-

15.

Mallet, "The Gonzaga and Ceramics," in Chambers and Martineau

16.

The arms include a ladder, whose rungs are called scalini in Italian. The

Saint George and the D r a g o n ,

29

Palvarini 1989-90, 151-64.

1981, 40; see also examples reproduced as nos. 194-95, 197.

graphic program for the C a l i n i service elusive.
A n intriguing subject for further research involves

word becomes calini when pronounced with a Brescian accent that

the possibility that a group of individuals from Brescia

drops the initial "s" sound in words where the "s" is followed by a con­

and Mantua, l i n k e d by family and politics, might have

sonant (I am grateful to Brescian architect and historian Valentino Volta
for his information regarding this and other things Brescian). For

helped to spread Nicola's fame and expand his patronage

identification of these arms see Ravanelli Guidotti 1985A, 394-99; for

i n the early 1520s. (It w o u l d not have been unusual for

a discussion of the Calini family see Schrattenhofen 1927, 243-57; and

them to discuss the appeal of maiolica table services

for the postulation that this service may have been executed for Luigi

decorated

Calini on the occasion of the 1525 birth of his first son, Muzio Calini,

w i t h beautiful

painting and intellectually

see Watson 1986, 112-14. F ° further biographical information, see
r

stimulating iconography, along w i t h other topics of

Spreti [1928-35] 1969, 2: 246, s.v. "Calini"; Dizionario biografico

artistic and humanist interest.) Certainly we k n o w that
during this period N i c o l a produced services for two M a n tuans (Isabella d'Este Gonzaga and Federico Gonzaga),
for one Brescian family (the C a l i n i , heirs to the Gambara
family),

30

The woodcuts are reproduced in Wallis 1905, 39, 51, figs. 16, 22.

18.

Mallet 1981, 175-78, in particular, no. 133.

19.

For a discussion of architecture in Nicola's work see Rackham 1945,
144-48; for a general examination of architecture painted on maiolica

and for the marriage of a M a n t u a n man (Va-

lente Valenti, who was given an important concession by
Francesco

i 9 6 0 - 725, s.v. "Calini."
17.

Gonzaga i n 1518) to a Brescian

see Bernardi 1980. See also Manara 2000, 83-101.
20.

Renaissance artists often replaced the ancient aulos (reed flute) men­
tioned in the legend with its contemporary counterpart, the zampogna

woman

(bagpipe) (Winternitz 1959, 187-89).

(Violante Gambara who, l i k e Isabella d'Este, was a

21.

The woodcuts are reproduced in Wallis 1905, 39-40, figs. 16-17.

w o m a n of letters). It is interesting to note that the M a n -

22.

Wilson 1987A, no. 53.

z o l i fragment belonging to Nicola's final service from

23.

Giacomotti 1974, no. 820.

24.

Rackham 1928B, pi. 3D.

25.

Watson 1986, no. 45.

this period ended up i n the collection of the counts of
Gonzaga of Novellara, possibly passed on by a member of

26.

the M a n z o l i family to a Gonzaga on the transfer of the
title of patriarch of Alessandria.

148

31

Armorial Dish with the Flaying of Marsyas

Curnow 1992, 59-63, nos. 62-66. Except for the Getty Museum's plate,
all the Calini pieces are illustrated in Rackham 1928B, pis. 1-4.

27.

Sale cat., Sotheby's, 1938, lot 57; Rackham 1937B, 256, fig. 9.

28.

See, for example, the comparisons made by Rackham 1928B, pi. 3D.

29.

For a further discussion of the iconography of these two plates, see

30.

It is interesting to note that at the time of this commission, the Calini

Curnow 1992, 59-60, 63, nos. 62, 66
family owned a small house on what was then called via delle
Maioliche, later renamed via Fiume because of its proximity to the local
river [fiume in Italian). Given both the original name of this street and
that a river (potential source for clays and for energy to run mills) would
have been a necessity for an active pottery, it is tempting to hypothesize
that the Calini family had a long-standing interest and was possibly in­
volved in maiolica production. The Calini were to inhabit the adjoining
Palazzo Avogadri—renamed Palazzo Calini ai Fiumi in the seventeenth
century—which presently serves as seat of the university law school.
The Calini palazzo in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was that
constructed by the family on Vicolo Borgondio and referred to as Casa
Borgondio della Corte. The palazzo's main salone was decorated with
early sixteenth-century frescoes by Floriano Ferramola, which were dis­
mantled in the 1860s and 1870s. The large fresco of a contemporary
tournament in Brescia was acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum
in 1861 (shadows of this fresco still remain in situ); the majority of the
other frescoes entered the Pinacoteca Tosio e Martinengo, Brescia,
around 1875 (see Lechi 1974, 2: 181-83, 9 i Kauffmann 1973, 1: 102I

1

3). There appears to be no connection between this fresco cycle and the
Calini maiolica subjects.
31.

For examinations of these links, see two articles by Mariarosa Palvarini
Gobio Casali (1989-90 and 1994) and the entry by Timothy Wilson
for a plate from the Valenti-Gambara service in Ausenda 2000,
182-84, no. 193.

Armorial Dish with the Flaying of Marsyas

149

26

Lustered Armorial Plate

D i a m : 39.9 c m (15 iVis in.)

EXHIBITIONS

84.DE.111

None.

Workshop of G i o r g i o d i Pietro

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A n d r e o l i , called M a e s t r o G i o r g i o
(ca. 1 4 6 5 - c a . 1553)

Gubbio

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

GettyMusf 13 (1985): 243, no. 173; Hess 1988A,

On the reverse, in the center, M°G° 1524.

no. 23; Mattei and Cecchetti 1995, I 8 I Summary

CONDITION

Small glaze fault on the inside of the rim.

1524
Tin-glazed earthenware w i t h silver

PROVENANCE

Sold, Sotheby's, London, November 21, 1978, lot

luster

41, to C. Humphris,- [Cyril Humphris, London,

H : 7.3 c m [i A in.)
7

sold to R. Zietz]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold
to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

THE

WELL OF THIS BRILLIANTLY LUSTERED PLATE

dis­

plays a shield bearing the coat of arms of the Vegerio fam­
i l y of Savona (fig. 2 6 B ) . The wide r i m is decorated w i t h
1

four heart-shaped motifs interspersed

w i t h four dol­

phins, a l l surrounded by leaf scrolls. The gold and ruby
luster embellishment fills i n the blue background deco­
ration, w h i c h is accented w i t h green and black. Four
large and four small foliate scrolls i n gold luster decorate
the reverse, w h i c h is inscribed i n the center w i t h the
mark for the workshop of Maestro Giorgio and the date
1524, also i n gold luster, a l l on a p i n k i s h white ground.
Born near Lake Maggiore, apparently i n the 1470s,

2

Giorgio A n d r e o l i moved around 1490 to Gubbio, i n cen­
tral Italy, where he became director of an active maiolica
workshop and was granted citizenship and exempted
from paying taxes and duties by the duke of U r b i n o . In
1519 Pope Leo X renewed Andreoli's exemptions " i n
consideration of the honor w h i c h accrues to the city . . .
and i n consideration of [his wares ] great usefulness and
7

profitableness i n r e v e n u e /

73

The Hispano-Moresque products that served as mod­
els for Italian lusterware display predominantly blue and
gold or monochrome decoration, color schemes imitated
i n Deruta. Lusterware from Gubbio, however, is distin­
guished not only by its characteristic red, gold, or silver
iridescence but also by the vibrant polychrome decora­
tion upon w h i c h the lusters were fired. In addition to ap­
plying the metallic lusters that appeared after a final
reduction firing (that is, i n a k i l n atmosphere rich i n car­
bon monoxide), A n d r e o l i and his workshop may also

150

;

Catalogue 2001, no. 365.

26A Reverse.

2 6B Cardinal Marcus Vigerius (Italian, 1446-15 16). Frontispiece to
Decachordum Christianum (Fano, 1507). Woodcut. Los Angeles, Getty
Research Institute, Special Collections, inv. 84-Bi 1239.

26c Artist close to Francesco Granacci (active in Florence, 1469-1543). The
Story of Tobias (detail). Cassone panel. Berlin, Bode Museum. Like the
Getty plate, the maiolica jugs and basin on this cupboard are decorated
with a prominent coat of arms. Located in a dining area, the cupboard
probably served to store useful tableware as well as display it.

152

Lustered Armorial Plate

26D Workshop of Giorgio Andreoli (active in Gubbio, ca. 1465/70-1555).

26E

Workshop of Giorgio Andreoli. Lustered armorial plate with border of

Lustered armorial plate with border of foliate scrollwork, 1524.

floriate scrollwork, dolphin heads, and cornucopias, 1524. Tin-glazed

Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 36.2 cm (14/4 in.). Washington, D.C.,

earthenware, Diam: 36.2 cm (14/4 in.). Washington, D.C., National

National Gallery of Art, Widener Collection, inv. 1 9 4 2 . 9 . 3 3 1 ( 0 5 6 ^ .

Gallery of Art, Widener Collection, inv. 1942.9.332(C-57)DA.

have applied the polychrome decoration of the second
firing to the luster products bearing his mark.

4

Because

of this s k i l l i n lustering ceramics, the Andreoli work­
shop was apparently engaged, at least i n the 1530s, to
luster the wares from U r b i n o and environs, possibly by
such famed artists as Francesco Xanto A v e l l i of Rovigo
and N i c o l a di Gabriele Sbraghe. Indeed, after adorning
5

the works of other masters w i t h his luster, Andreoli of­
ten inscribed these works w i t h his o w n mark.

6

T h i s lustered plate is one of six k n o w n pieces from a
Vegerio family service, a l l dated to 1524. These include
two i n the N a t i o n a l Gallery of A r t , Washington, D . C .
(figs. 2 6 D - E ) one formerly i n the Robert de Rothschild
7

;

collection, Paris, that sold at auction i n 1995 (fig. 2 6 F )

8
;

one i n the Cleveland M u s e u m of A r t (inv. 1943.56)
(fig. 2 6 G ) ; and one i n the Hetjens-Museum, Diisseldorf
9

Lustered Armorial Plate

15 3

(fig. 2 6 H ) .

1 0

T h e r i m s o n a l l s i x of t h e r e m a i n i n g V e g e r i o

plates display a remarkable

a m o u n t of i n v e n t i o n a n d

variety given their otherwise simple and circumscribed
d e s i g n . N o t w o r i m s are a l i k e b u t , rather, m o d i f y a n d rec o m b i n e t h e m o t i f s , w i t h s o m e of t h e p l a t e s — t h o s e i n ­
cluding

dolphins

and

grotesque

animals—appearing

m o r e finely r e n d e r e d a n d o t h e r s — w i t h t r o p h i e s — l e s s so.
M a r c o Vegerio is one

of t h e

several

noteworthy

m e m b e r s of t h i s f a m i l y . B o r n i n S a v o n a i n 1446, V e g e r i o
was a cardinal bishop, learned humanist,

and

grand-

n e p h e w of F r a n c e s c o d e l l a R o v e r e ( w h o b e c a m e P o p e S i x t us I V i n 1471). H e d i e d i n 1516 a n d so c o u l d n o t h a v e
b e e n t h e o w n e r of t h i s s e r v i c e , w h i c h m i g h t have be­
26F Workshop of Giorgio Andreoli. Lustered armorial plate with border
of foliate scrollwork and grotesques, 1524. Tin-glazed earthenware,
Diam: 36 cm (14/8 in.). Galerie Moatti, Paris.

l o n g e d to h i s n e p h e w , Stefano V e g e r i o (d. 1570). Stefano,
a w r i t e r , m o v e d f r o m S a v o n a to P e r u g i a , n e a r G u b b i o ,
e a r l y i n h i s career, w h e n h e w a s n a m e d V i c e - T r e a s u r e r of
P e r u g i a b y t h e p o p e a n d C o u n t P a l a t i n e of t h e L a t e r a n b y
his uncle. H i s wife, Caterina Gastodengo, was l i k e w i s e
n o t a b l e as a n i l l u s t r i o u s w o m a n of l e t t e r s .

26c Workshop of Giorgio Andreoli. Lustered armorial plate with border
of foliate scrollwork and trophies, 1524. Tin-glazed earthenware,
Diam: 38.5 cm (15 A in.). Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland Museum of Art,
l

inv. 1943.56.

154

Lustered Armorial Plate

11

Notes
1.
2.

Vigerius 1507, frontispiece.
Mattei and Cecchetti 1995, 43-45; for further documentary information
regarding the artist see Fiocco and Gherardi 1995, 256-61.

3.

Liverani i960, 46.

4.

For a presentation of the various hypotheses see Mattei and Cecchetti

5.

See Wilson in National Gallery 1993, 171.

1995, 132-346.

For work of these and other artists bearing Giorgio Andreoli's luster see
Fiocco and Gherardi 1998, 32-44. A plate in the Petit Palais, Paris, pro­
vides at least one example of a work that was not only lustered but also
painted by Andreoli or someone in his workshop; this piece is signed in
unlustered blue (Join-Dieterle 1984, 172-73, no. 54).

7.

Widener Collection, inv. 1942.9.331-32,- Wilson in National Gallery

8.

Ballardini 1933, 1: no. 146; sold at Hotel Drouot, Paris, November 28,

9.

Inscribed W or M on the rim: Molinier 1892, 4: no. 160 bis,- Rackham

1993. 173-76.
1995, lot 181, to Alain Moatti, Paris.
1916, 2: no. 807,- Ballardini 1933, 1: no. 147; Rothenstein 1944, 205,
pi. B William M . Milliken, "Italian Majolica," Bulletin of the Cleve­
;

land Museum of Art 31 (January 1944): n right.
10.

Formerly in the museum at Treves; Rothenstein 1944, 205, pi. A Klein
;

1980, 133, fig. 140.
26H Workshop of Giorgio Andreoli. Lustered armorial plate with border
of foliate scrollwork and trophies, 1524. Tin-glazed earthenware,
Diam: 27 cm (io /s in.). Diisseldorf, Hetjens-Museum, inv. 38/67.
s

11.

Information on this family is meager. Details about certain Vegerio fam­
ily members are available in Baldassare and Bruno 1981, 246-49, s.v.
"Vegerio" (I am endebted to Guido Farris for bringing this source to my
attention); Moroni i860, 97-98; D. R. Campbell in New Catholic Ency­
clopedia, s.v. "Vigerio."

Lustered Armorial Plate

15 5

27

Plate with Hero
and Leander

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

1959, lot 142, to R. Strauss); Robert Strauss,

On the reverse, in the center, a swan.

England (sold, Christie's, London, June 21, 1976,
lot 24, to R. Zietz); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London,

CONDITION

sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

Minor repair to the upper border; several chips in

Faenza

the rim.

ca. 1525

None.

PROVENANCE

Tin-glazed earthenware
H : 3.8 c m (1V2 in.)
D i a m : 44 c m (IJVIS

EXHIBITIONS

Henri Gautier, Paris (sold, Hotel Drouot, Paris,

BIBLIOGRAPHY

May 4, 1929, lot 28, to G. Durlacher [according to

Chompret 1949, 2: fig. 458; Christie's Review

sale cat. notation]); [Durlacher Bros., London]

in.)

84.DE.113

J

976, 397; Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy 1984, 36,

(sold, Christie's, London, April 6-7, 1938, lot 26,

fig. 5; GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 241, no. 165; Hess

to H . S. Reitlinger); H . S. Reitlinger, Maidenhead

1988A, no. 26; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 366.

(sold by his executors, Sotheby's, London, April 27,

THE

WELL

pompa)

OF THIS

LARGE

DISPLAY

PLATE

[piatto

da

i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a scene f r o m t h e s t o r y of H e r o

illustrates that once the artist applied pigments

and

glazes, c h a n g e s — i f t h e y w e r e n o t to be p e r c e p t i b l e —

a n d L e a n d e r i n p i g m e n t s of green, y e l l o w , b l a c k , o c h e r ,

c o u l d be m a d e

orange, g r a y i s h green, o p a q u e w h i t e , a n d gray ( p r o d u c e d

p a i n t e d scene a n d a p p l y i n g t h e c o l o r s a n e w .

o n l y b y c o m p l e t e l y w a s h i n g off

the

by p a i n t i n g w h i t e o n black). T h e w i d e r i m is decorated

In b o t h s t y l e a n d c o l o r t h e p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n o n t h i s

w i t h s c r o l l i n g foliage, c h e r u b s heads, a n d " m a n - i n - t h e -

p l a t e i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o n w o r k s a t t r i b u t e d to t h e " G r e e n

m o o n " m o t i f s r e s e r v e d i n l i g h t b l u e w i t h t o u c h e s of

M a n . " F i r s t i d e n t i f i e d i n 1873, t h i s a r t i s t w a s g i v e n h i s

w h i t e a n d c o b a l t b l u e o n a berettino

glaze ground. A cen­

s o b r i q u e t b e c a u s e h e p a i n t e d h i s figures w i t h y e l l o w p i g ­

t r a l s w a n , p o s s i b l y a m a k e r ' s m a r k c o n s i s t i n g of t h e

m e n t over a l i g h t b l u e g r o u n d , r e s u l t i n g i n g r e e n - t o n e d

artist's or w o r k s h o p ' s rebus, s u r r o u n d e d b y t w o c o n c e n ­

f l e s h . B e r n a r d R a c k h a m a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s a r t i s t a series

7

t r i c b a n d s of alia porcellana

decoration i n light and dark

b l u e a n d w h i t e (fig. 27A), e m b e l l i s h e s t h e reverse.

2

of w o r k s d a t i n g f r o m 1524 to 1 5 5 0 ,

3

including a bowl

d a t e d 1529 a n d i n s c r i b e d " m a d e i n t h e w o r k s h o p of M a e ­

scene o n t h e o b v e r s e t e l l s t h e sad s t o r y

stro P i e r o B e r g a n t i n o . " M o r e t h a n o n e a r t i s t is a l m o s t

of H e r o , p r i e s t e s s of V e n u s , w h o f e l l i n l o v e w i t h L e a n ­

certainly represented i n R a c k h a m ' s G r e e n M a n group.

T h e istoriato

4

myth,

S t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s a l s o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r of

L e a n d e r w o u l d s w i m across t h e D a r d a n e l l e s f r o m A b y ­

this plate and other artists active i n Faentine potteries i n

dos to Sestos e v e r y n i g h t t o v i s i t h i s b e l o v e d i n h e r

t h e first decades of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s u c h as t h o s e

tower. W h e n Leander was d r o w n e d one n i g h t i n a t e m ­

R a c k h a m n i c k n a m e d t h e " M a s t e r C . I." a n d " M a s t e r

pest, t h e d e s p a i r i n g H e r o t h r e w h e r s e l f f r o m t h e t o w e r

G o n e l a " (see n o . 23), as w e l l as w o r k s f r o m t h e " C a s a

i n t o t h e sea a n d p e r i s h e d . O n c e t h o u g h t a n i m p o s s i b l e

P i r o t a " w o r k s h o p . T h i s l o o s e c o n f o r m i t y of s t y l e i s n o t

feat, t h e s w i m m i n g of t h e s t r a i t b e t w e e n A s i a a n d E u ­

s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e a c t i v e y e t i n s u l a r n a t u r e of p o t t e r i e s

r o p e w a s p r o v e d p o s s i b l e w h e n L o r d B y r o n a c t u a l l y per­

w o r k i n g i n the same s m a l l t o w n .

der, a y o u t h f r o m A b y d o s . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s

formed it himself and recounted it i n his p o e m
B r i d e of A b y d o s . "

"The

1

L e a n d e r i s p a i n t e d t h r e e t i m e s o n t h i s p l a t e , so t h a t

5

6

The

figure

of L e a n d e r i n t h e left f o r e g r o u n d of t h e

G e t t y p l a t e d e r i v e s f r o m t h e figure of a s t r u g g l i n g n u d e
w o m a n i n a d r a w i n g by L u c a Signorelli i n the M u s e e d u

his story unfolds i n a continuous narrative. T h e tower

L o u v r e (fig. 2 7 B ) . T h e d r a w i n g l o o s e l y relates to

f r o m w h i c h H e r o gazes s e e m s to project a w k w a r d l y f r o m

i n t h e Preaching

figures

t h e sea, e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e a r t i s t m i s c a l c u l a t e d t h e c o m ­

i n t h e S a n B r i z i o c h a p e l of O r v i e t o c a t h e d r a l .

p o s i t i o n a n d a t t e m p t e d to r e c t i f y t h e error b y p a i n t i n g

n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r t h e F a e n t i n e m a i o l i c a a r t i s t of t h e

7

of the Antichrist

fresco of 1 5 0 0 - 1 5 0 4
8

It is

o v e r t h e b o t t o m p o r t i o n of t h e t o w e r w i t h b l u e p i g m e n t

G e t t y p l a t e h a d t h e a c t u a l S i g n o r e l l i d r a w i n g i n f r o n t of

to w i d e n t h e e x p a n s e of w a t e r . T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g m i s t a k e

h i m w h e n h e d e c o r a t e d t h e plate,- i t m a y be m o r e l i k e l y

156

27A Reverse.

that he used a d r a w i n g made f r o m the original. N e v e r ­

donazione Fanfani, inv. 2 5 0 0 9 ;

theless, t h i s e x a m p l e of a m a i o l i c a p l a t e c o p y i n g a d r a w ­

Anton

i n g b y an i m p o r t a n t U m b r i a n artist is remarkable and

M u s e u m fur K u n s t u n d K u t u r g e s c h i c h t e der Stadt D o r t ­

m a y h e l p s h e d l i g h t o n t h e m e t h o d s of a n a c t i v e R e n a i s ­

m u n d , Schloss Cappenberg, inv. C 6 9 0 9 ) ;

sance p o t t e r y .

scene of t h e R a p e of E u r o p a ( T o r o n t o , G e o r g e R . G a r d i n e r

9

T h e M u s e u m ' s p l a t e f o r m s part of a g r o u p of t h i r t e e n
large piatti

da pompa

w i t h berettino

t h a t c o m b i n e istohato

subjects

d e c o r a t i o n , a l l of w h i c h m e a s u r e be­

Ulrich-Museum,

1 4

Braunschweig, Herzog

inv. 1155;

M u s e u m of C e r a m i c A r t ) ;

1 7

1 5

and
1 6

Dortmund,

a plate w i t h a

o n e w i t h t h e R a p e of H e l e n

that was recently sold f r o m the R o t h s c h i l d c o l l e c t i o n ,
London,-

18

and two plates—one w i t h an architect hand­

t w e e n f o r t y a n d fifty c m i n d i a m e t e r . T h i s g r o u p i n ­

i n g t h e m o d e l of a c h u r c h to a R o m a n g e n e r a l , n o w i n t h e

c l u d e s t w o p l a t e s w i t h t h e subject of A l e x a n d e r a n d

M u s e e d u L o u v r e , Paris,- a n d the s e c o n d w i t h the T e m p ­

D i o g e n e s ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , C o r c o r a n G a l l e r y of A r t ,

t a t i o n of A d a m a n d E v e , n o w i n t h e State H e r m i t a g e ,

inv. 26.309,
K1834);

1 1

10

and formerly Berlin, Schlossmuseum, inv.

t h r e e p l a t e s w i t h t h e J u d g m e n t of P a r i s ( L o n ­

don, V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t M u s e u m , inv. C.2110-1910;

1 2

a n d E c o u e n , M u s e e de l a R e n a i s s a n c e , C l u n y n o s . 2 4 3 6 37);

13

t h r e e p l a t e s w i t h t h e subject of D i a n a a n d A c t a e o n

(Faenza,

158

Museo

Internazionale

Plate with Hero and Leander

delle

Ceramiche,

Saint Petersburg—that

h a v e b e e n a t t r i b u t e d to t h e so-

c a l l e d M a s t e r of t h e Taft O r p h e u s , p o s s i b l y i n t h e F a e n t i n e w o r k s h o p of C a s a P i r o t a .

1 9

T h e fact t h a t m a n y subjects are repeated

suggests

t h a t a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of p r i n t or d r a w i n g s o u r c e s w e r e
u s e d , f r o m w h i c h t h e c e r a m i c scenes w o u l d h a v e b e e n

copied. A l t h o u g h

the

Alexander and Diogenes

plates

s e e m t o b e r e w o r k i n g s of t h e c o m p o s i t i o n b y t h e s a m e
a r t i s t , p i e c e s i n o t h e r g r o u p s — s u c h as t h e J u d g m e n t of
P a r i s a n d t h e D i a n a a n d A c t a e o n p l a t e s — a p p e a r t o be b y
different hands. O n s t y l i s t i c grounds, the G e t t y e x a m p l e
c a n be g r o u p e d m o s t c o n v i n c i n g l y w i t h t h e s m a l l e r of
t h e t w o J u d g m e n t of P a r i s p l a t e s i n t h e L o u v r e (fig. 27c).
G i v e n t h a t v a r i o u s p i e c e s b e a r dates r a n g i n g f r o m

1524

t o 1535 a n d t h a t f o u r of t h e m bear f o u r different c o a t s of
arms,

2 0

t h e s e t w e l v e p l a t e s b e l o n g e d t o a n u m b e r of dif­

f e r e n t credenze.

T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e G e t t y p l a t e , t h e ex­

amples i n Faenza and Braunschweig display identical
reverse d e c o r a t i o n w i t h the c e n t r a l swan, i n d i c a t i n g that
these three, a l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y n o t p a i n t e d b y the same
person, were u n d o u b t e d l y made i n the same w o r k s h o p .
27B Luca Signorelli (Italian, ca. 145 o -15 2 3). Four Struggling Nude Figures,
Notes

ca. 1500. Paris, Musee du Louvre, inv. 1794. Photo: © Reunion des
Musees Nationaux.

1.

Byron 1813.

2.

Fortnum 1873, 479.

3.

Rackham 1940, 1: 99-100.

4.

Liverani 1939, 3-9; Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 351-55, no. 86.

5.

Rackham 1940, 1: 81-84, 86; 2: nos. 258-65, 270, pis. 41-42.

6.

For example, the tondino of 1525 with Casa Pirota mark in the Musee

7.

Bacou 1968, no. 1 o; I would like to thank Laurence Kanter for help­

de Ceramique, Sevres, inv. M N C 24734 (Mallet 1996, figs. 1-2).
ing make this important connection by bringing this drawing to my
attention.
8.

Baldini 1966, pi. X La Coste-Messeliere 1975, pis. 70-144. Bringing to­
;

gether this drawing with the Getty plate confirms a connection between
Signorelli and Faentine maiolica production in the very early sixteenth
century. This connection was first 'minted at" as early as 1907 (Solon
1907, caption to pi. VI); the quote is from Rackham (1951, 106-n), who
also discusses this connection; see also Verlet 1937, 13-184; Wilson
1987A, 42, no. 45; Massing 1991, 150-56.

27c Plate depicting the Judgment of Paris. Faenza, ca. 1525. Tin-glazed
earthenware. Paris, Musee du Louvre, Cluny inv. 2438. Photo: © Reu­

9.

For further information on this topic see Hess 1999.

10.

Watson 1986, 48-49, no. 10.

11.

Ballardini 1938, 2: fig. 165.

12.

Rackham 1940, 1: no. 297.

13.

Chompret 1949, 2: figs. 462, 464; Giacomotti 1974, nos. 335-36.

14.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 284-86, no. 146.

15.

Lessmann 1979, 29, 99, no. 19.

16.

Lepke 1930, lot 155.

17.

Falke 1914-23, 2: pi. 94, fig. i8o Palmer and Chilton 1984, 26.

18.

Sale cat., Christie's, London, July 8, 1999, lot 143.

;

19.

McNab 1995, 2: 521-25, figs. 2-3.

20.

The plates in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D . C . Victoria
;

and Albert Museum, London; former Schlossmuseum, Berlin; and that
which sold at auction in London in 1999.

nion des Musees Nationaux.

Plate with Hero and Leander

15 9

28

Bust of a Man
G i r o l a m o della Robbia (1488-1566)

nose that has been repaired and several smaller

Figeac, in the south of France; remained in situ on

losses to the beard, mouth, ear, and curls. A fine

the courtyard facade of Chateau d'Assier under

crack runs 24.1 cm diagonally from the top of the

successive owners, until the late eighteenth cen­

head to the proper left side. Two small angular

tury; Plantade printing house, Cahors, from the

Florence or southern France

protrusions at the back of the head have been col­

1860s until at least 1902,- [Guy Ladriere, Paris,

1526-35

ored with a grayish violet glaze, possibly indicat­

sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1995].

1

ing the color of the background medallion into

Tin-glazed earthenware

which the bust was set; an iron bolt set into the

H : 46.4 c m (18 A in.)
l

bottom of the bust during manufacture must have

EXHIBITIONS

None.

W: 40 c m (i5 /4 in.)

been part of the original mounting system. The

BIBLIOGRAPHY

D : 19.7 c m (7 A in.)

bust underwent two thermoluminescence analyses

Vitry and Briere [1904-11] 1969, 13, pi. 42, no. 3;

in 1995, returning results that the material is con­

Gentilini 1992, 2: 366-67; Burlington Magazine

3

3

95.sc.21
MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

sistent with the expected age of the object (i.e.,

136 (September 1994): i l l . x "Acquisitions/1995,"

that the material was last fired between 315 and

GettyMusf 24 (1996): 136, no. 85; Crepin-Leblond

615 years ago).

1996, 16; Bassett and Fogelman 1997, 42; Fusco

None.

1997, 42; Alfredo Bellandi in Gentilini 1998, 306;

PROVENANCE
CONDITION

There is a loss to the bottom left portion of the

BUST

OF A MAN

Commissioned by Jacques, called Galiot, de
Gourdon de Genouillac, Chateau d'Assier, near

DEPICTS A H A N D S O M E BEARDED

male

dressed i n R o m a n - s t y l e a r m o r a n d drapery, r e n d e r e d i n
three-quarter

relief. T u r n i n g h i s h e a d s l i g h t l y to

;

Peggy Fogelman in Masterpieces 1998, 24; Fogel­
man and Fusco 2002, no. 4.

a n d a f e a t h e r e d h e l m e t , a l s o set i n t o a m e d a l l i o n , n o w
lost.

A m a l e b u s t , p r e s u m a b l y i n stone, i s set i n t o a

7

the

w r e a t h e d m e d a l l i o n a n d is s t i l l i n s i t u o n t h e c o u r t y a r d

r i g h t , h e appears to l o o k u p f r o m u n d e r n e a t h h i s expres­

w a l l of t h e C h a t e a u d ' A s s i e r ' s w e s t w i n g . A n o t h e r w o r k
8

s i v e l y m o d e l e d b r o w . T h e e n t i r e f r o n t surface of t h e b u s t

t h a t has b e e n r e l a t e d to t h e A s s i e r g r o u p is a w h i t e - g l a z e d

has b e e n c o l o r e d w i t h a w h i t e glaze, p e r h a p s i n i m i t a t i o n

t e r r a - c o t t a b u s t of a w o m a n i n t h e Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y A r t

of m a r b l e , e x c e p t for t h e p u p i l s of t h e eyes, w h i c h w e r e

G a l l e r y , N e w H a v e n (fig. 28F), w h i c h is i d e n t i c a l to t h e fe­

painted black.

m a l e bust i n the L o u v r e .

9

P a u l V i t r y a n d G a s t o n B r i e r e first i d e n t i f i e d a g r o u p

A l t h o u g h a n e x a c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of subject c a n n o t

of s i x b u s t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e G e t t y Bust of a Man, as c o m ­

be f o u n d for e v e r y b u s t i n t h i s g r o u p , t h e c r o w n e d m a n

i n g f r o m t h e C h a t e a u d ' A s s i e r a n d a t t r i b u t e d t h e m to

i n a toga a n d t h e c u r l y - h a i r e d y o u t h i n a r m o r appear to

G i r o l a m o della Robbia. T h i s provenance and attribution

represent, r e s p e c t i v e l y , C o n s t a n t i n e a n d A l e x a n d e r t h e

have been accepted b y G i a n c a r l o G e n t i l i n i and Alfredo

Great. This, along w i t h

Bellandi.

2

the

c l a s s i c i z i n g or

military

T h e G e t t y b u s t a n d a n o t h e r of t h e g r o u p , a

n a t u r e of t h e c o s t u m e s , suggests t h a t t h e series as a

w h i t e - g l a z e d t e r r a - c o t t a b u s t of a beardless m a l e fig­

w h o l e d e p i c t e d l e g e n d a r y figures of t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d .

ure, c r o w n e d a n d d r a p e d i n a toga, n o w o w n e d b y M a r v i n

The

a n d J a c q u e l i n e K o s o f s k i i n L o s A n g e l e s (fig. 28E), w e r e

t o o w a s i n t e n d e d to p o r t r a y a R o m a n or G a l l i c h e r o .

3

c l a s s i c a l a r m o r of t h e G e t t y b u s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t

b o t h i n the same Paris c o l l e c t i o n i n 1995. T h e other

T h e b u i l d i n g of t h e C h a t e a u d ' A s s i e r , near F i g e a c , i n

b u s t s p u b l i s h e d b y V i t r y a n d B r i e r e are a w h i t e - g l a z e d

s o u t h e r n F r a n c e , w a s b e g u n i n 1524 b y Jacques, c a l l e d

t e r r a - c o t t a b u s t , n o w l o s t , of a y o u n g m a n i n c l a s s i c a l ar­

G a l i o t , de G o u r d o n de G e n o u i l l a c , a n d i t s d e c o r a t i o n

mor

c o m m e n c e d i n 1526 after h i s a p p o i n t m e n t

4

w i t h a b u n d a n t c u r l y hair,- a d r a p e d m a l e b u s t i n
5

as

grand

stone, c r o w n e d w i t h a l a u r e l w r e a t h a n d set i n t o a r o u n d

ecuyer

m e d a l l i o n , a c q u i r e d b y t h e L o u v r e i n 1 9 i o a b u s t of a

c o m p l e t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to a w a t e r c o l o r

w o m a n w i t h b r a i d e d h a i r a n d a d r a p e d chest, cast i n re­

by

c o n s t i t u t e d stone, w h i c h w a s a c q u i r e d b y t h e L o u v r e i n

c h a t e a u w a s d e s i g n e d as a large q u a d r a n g u l a r e d i f i c e

1 9 3 6 ; a n d a s t o n e b u s t of a m a n w e a r i n g e l a b o r a t e a r m o r

w i t h a central courtyard and round towers punctuating

;

6

160

to F r a n c i s I .

1 0

A n i n s c r i p t i o n of 1535 m a r k s t h e

F r a n c o i s - R o g e r de G a i g n e r e s of a b o u t

1680,

the

28A Alternate view.

162

Bust of a Man

28B Alternate view.

28c Back view.

28D Alternate view.

Bust of a Man

163

n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n for d e l l a R o b b i a n art. A f t e r a b r i e f re­
t u r n to F l o r e n c e i n 1525 (the year of h i s father's d e a t h
a n d F r a n c i s I's i m p r i s o n m e n t ) , G i r o l a m o r e c e i v e d c o m ­
m i s s i o n s for the p o l y c h r o m e - g l a z e d t e r r a - c o t t a

decora­

t i o n s of t h e C h a t e a u de M a d r i d , t h e C h a t e a u de Sansac,
a n d t h e C h a t e a u d ' A s s i e r . G a l i o t de G e n o u i l l a c m a y
h a v e b a s e d h i s d e c i s i o n to e m p l o y G i r o l a m o o n h i s o w n
k n o w l e d g e of a n d taste for I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c ­
ture and ornament

(acquired d u r i n g F r e n c h m i l i t a r y

c a m p a i g n s i n I t a l y i n 1494, 1501, a n d 1515), as w e l l as o n
t h e o f f i c i a l , r o y a l s a n c t i o n i n g of G i r o l a m o ' s s t y l e at t h e
C h a t e a u de M a d r i d , w h i c h w a s r o u g h l y c o n c u r r e n t w i t h
G a l i o t ' s b u i l d i n g . I n fact, i t is l i k e l y t h a t G i r o l a m o ' s
designs for o n e c h a t e a u

i n f l u e n c e d h i s ideas for

the

other. L i k e the C h a t e a u d'Assier, the s o u t h e l e v a t i o n
of the C h a t e a u de M a d r i d f e a t u r e d g l a z e d

terra-cotta

p o r t r a i t m e d a l l i o n s i n h i g h relief, set i n t o t h e s p a n d r e l s
b e t w e e n t h e a r c h e s of t h e first t w o stories, as c a n be
28E

Girolamo della Robbia. Bust of a Man (Constantine?), between 1526

seen

i n Jacques

and 1535. Glazed terra-cotta, H : 47 cm (18I/2 in.). Los Angeles, collec­

For t h e C h a t e a u de Sansac, G i r o l a m o c r e a t e d a g l a z e d

tion of Marvin and Jacqueline Kosofski.

t e r r a - c o t t a b u s t of F r a n c i s I, the s u r r o u n d of w h i c h bears
t h e date 1 5 2 9 .

Androuet

du Cerceau's

engraving.

15

16

For h i s d e c o r a t i o n of t h e C h a t e a u d ' A s s i e r , G i r o l a m o
d r e w o n s e v e r a l p r e c e d e n t s f r o m t h e w o r k of t h e F l o r e n ­
the four c o r n e r s .
wing—the

11

T h e c o u r t y a r d facade of t h e

o n l y i n t e r i o r facade

fully visible i n

west

t i n e d e l l a R o b b i a s t u d i o . M o s t r e l e v a n t i s t h e series of

the

s i x t y - s i x p o r t r a i t m e d a l l i o n s of s a i n t s a n d p r o p h e t s p r o ­

e n g r a v i n g a n d t h e o n l y o n e to s u r v i v e to t h e p r e s e n t

d u c e d i n 1523 b y t h e w o r k s h o p u n d e r G i o v a n n i d e l l a

d a y — i n c o r p o r a t e d portrait m e d a l l i o n s i n h i g h relief

R o b b i a for t h e c l o i s t e r of t h e C e r t o s a i n V a l d ' E m a .

b e t w e e n t h e engaged c o l u m n s a n d p i l a s t e r s of t h e s e c o n d

p r o b i n g gazes, d r a m a t i c f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , n a t u r a l i s t i c

story. T h i s facade m a y h a v e p r o v i d e d t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t

modeling, animated

1 2

hairstyles, and costumes

1 7

of

The
the

for t h e G e t t y b u s t ; t h e r e i t s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d reflec­

C e r t o s a h e a d s s e e m to h a v e i n f l u e n c e d G i r o l a m o d u r i n g

t i v e surface w o u l d h a v e c r e a t e d a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t w i t h

h i s v i s i t to F l o r e n c e i n 1525. G i r o l a m o rejected

t h e flat, gray w a l l s a g a i n s t w h i c h i t w a s set. T h e t o u c h e s

v a n n i ' s b r i g h t p a l e t t e i n favor of t h e a l m o s t u n i f o r m

of p u r p l e - g r a y g l a z e at t h e b a c k of t h e G e t t y b u s t , a l s o

w h i t e of the G e t t y Bust of a Man

present o n the K o s o f s k i and Yale busts, m a y recall the

heads, h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t i n g h i s preference

c o l o r u s e d to f i l l i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d s of t h e m e d a l l i o n s .

c l a s s i c i z i n g a p p r o a c h to a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n at t h e

1 3

G i r o l a m o d e l l a R o b b i a m a y h a v e c o m e to F r a n c e at
t h e e n d of 1517, s i n c e b y M a y 1, 1518, h e w a s r e c e i v i n g
a royal stipend.

1 4

P r e c e d i n g o t h e r F l o r e n t i n e a r t i s t s re­

c r u i t e d b y t h e F r e n c h k i n g — s u c h as A n d r e a d e l Sarto,
G i o v a n n i Francesco Rustici, Rosso Fiorentino, and Benv e n u t o C e l l i n i — G i r o l a m o w a s a p i o n e e r i n s p r e a d i n g the
i n f l u e n c e of I t a l i a n s t y l e a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g a m o r e i n t e r ­

164

Bust of a Man

Chateau d'Assier.
PEGGY FOGELMAN

Gio­

and the other related
for a m o r e

28F Attributed to Girolamo della Robbia. Bust of a Young Girl, ca. 1530.

28c Back view of fig. 28F.

Glazed terra-cotta, H (without socle): 47 cm (18/2 in.). New Haven,
Yale University Art Gallery purchased through the Maitland F. Griggs
(BA 1896) Fund, inv. 1950.138.

date by stating that, even if some construction began in 1524 or 1525,

Notes
1.

Crepin-Leblond 1996, 19 n. 57.

the decoration of the palace cannot date before 1526, the year Galiot

2.

Vitry and Briere [1904-11] 1969, 13, pi. 42, no. 3.

was named grand ecuyer, since the emblem of his position appears on

3.

Gentilini 1993, 2: 366-67; Bellandi in Gellandi 1998, 306-7, no. IV.12.

4.

Guy Ladriere, Paris; reproduced in Vitry and Briere [ 1904-11] 1969,

the exterior. See also Tollon 1993.
11.

pi. 42, no. 8; Gentilini 1993, 2: 367. Most recently, see Bellandi in
Gellandi 1998; Crepin-Lablond (1996) accepts both these busts as part

12.

of the group associated with Chateau d'Assier but is uncertain that they

seventeenth century but was abandoned by the family after the death of
Francois de Crussol, duke of Uzes, in 1680. By the end of the eighteenth

orative program, since both bear traces of a grayish violet glaze on the

century the palace was given away to avoid maintenance costs, the con­

back, likely from the background of the medallions into which they

tents and the exterior decorations were sold or stripped away, and parts

were originally set. Unless further information becomes available, it

of the building were demolished. Not until 1841 was the building

seems reasonable to accept Vitry and Briere's association of these busts
5.

Vitry and Briere [1904-n] 1969, pi. 42, no. 6; Gentilini 1993, 2: 367.

6.

For the two Louvre busts, see Beaulieu 1978, 64-65, nos. 104-5; Tollon

classified as a historic monument. See Galabert 1902, 54.
13.

left ear of the bust at Yale.
14.

7.

Vitry and Briere [1904-11] 1969, pi. 42, no. 5.

15.

8.

Visible in a photograph reproduced in Gebelin 1927, pi. 5, no. 9; see also
Tollon 1993 144.

I am grateful to Mark Aronson of the Yale University Art Gallery for as­
certaining the presence of a small drop of purple glaze above the proper

1993/ 137-49/ esp. 144.

10.

The Chateau d'Assier was apparently owned by the dukes of Uzes in the

can be traced to the chateau itself. They surely came from the same dec­

with the Chateau d'Assier.

9.

Reproduced in Gebelin 1927, pi. 93, no. 175, and Galabert 1902, oppo­
site 50.

Lesueur 1937, 200; Gentilini 1993, 362.
See Chatenet 1987, 196, 212, 215, figs. 13-14, 40, 44, for images by Jean
Marot as well as by du Cerceau.

16.

The bust is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the sur­

The Yale bust was first associated with the Assier group by McGraw

round is in the Louvre,- see Gentilini 1993, 366-67; Bellandi in Gen­

1955, 4-7; see also Gentilini 1993, 367; Bellandi in Gentilini 1998, 306.

tilini 1998.

Galabert (1902, 50) gives 1524 as the date of initial construction on the

17.

Marquand 1920, 167-74. See also Domestici 1998, 39.

building, but Gebelin (1927, 48) and Vitry (1938, 332-33) qualify the

Bust of a Man

16 5

29

Plate with the
Abduction of Helen
Francesco X a n t o A v e l l i (Rovigo,
ca. 1 4 8 6 / 8 7 - c a . 1544)
Urbino

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

PROVENANCE

On the reverse, in blue,
M.D.XXXIIII/Quest'el
pastor che mal mird'l bel/volto/D'Helena Greca,
e, quel famoso rapto/pel qua! fu'l mondo sotto
sopra volto. /.Fra[ncesco]:Xa[n]to. A[velli]. Ida
Rovigo, i[n]lUrbino.

Sold, Sotheby's, London, November 21, 1978,
lot 44; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the
J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].
EXHIBITIONS

Objects for a "Wunderkammer," P. D. Colnaghi
and Co. Ltd., London, June 10-July 31, 1981.

CONDITION

1534

Minor cracks and repairs, partly overpainted, on
the rim break in the upper-left section of the dish,
with moderate to heavy overpainting; some glaze
faults; seven stilt marks on the obverse along the
rim (originally there were eight, but one is missing
because of the repair).

Tin-glazed earthenware

;

H : 6.3 c m (2V2 in.)
D i a m : 46.1 c m (18 Vs in.)
84.DE.118

T H E ENTIRE

OBVERSE SURFACE OF THIS LARGE

istoh-

ato p l a t e i s p a i n t e d w i t h a s c e n e of t h e A b d u c t i o n of H e ­

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Christie's Review 1976, 397; Gonzalez-Palacios
1981A, 124-25, no. 65; GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 243,
no. 176; Bojani 1988, 129; Hess 1988A, no. 31;
Roseo 1995, fig. 19; Summary Catalogue 2001,
no. 367.

e v e n t s a n d therefore assist i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a b i o g r a p h y of
t h e artist, as w e l l as a c h r o n o l o g y of h i s w o r k .

l e n b y t h e T r o j a n s i n b r i l l i a n t b l u e , y e l l o w , b r o w n , ocher,

4

B o r n i n R o v i g o , X a n t o m o v e d to U r b i n o b y 1530, t h e

buff, orange, m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e , t u r q u o i s e , s e v e r a l t o n e s

y ear i n w h i c h h e b e g a n i n s c r i b i n g in

of green, b l a c k , a n d o p a q u e w h i t e . T h e w a r m , orange-

wares,

5

a n d for t h e

following

on his

Urbino

decade a n d a h a l f

he

t o n e d p a l e t t e of t h i s w o r k i s t y p i c a l of X a n t o ' s p r o d u c ­

e x e c u t e d a vast n u m b e r of s i g n e d w o r k s e x h i b i t i n g a n ex­

t i o n a n d of istohato

p a i n t i n g i n U r b i n o a b o u t 1530. T h e

c e p t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of s t y l e . T i m o t h y W i l s o n has sug­

c e n t e r of t h e reverse i s i n s c r i b e d i n b l u e w i t h t h e date

g ested t h a t a trade d i s p u t e of 1530 i n w h i c h X a n t o w a s

a n d artist's s i g n a t u r e as w e l l as a verse, a d a p t e d

e m b r o i l e d m a y have i n d u c e d the artist to b e g i n s i g n i n g

P e t r a r c h ' s " T r i u m p h of L o v e , "

1

from

describing the painted

m y t h o l o g i c a l scene: 1534 —This is the shepherd

who

fatedly

Greece—

and

admired

the beautiful

that famous

abduction

thrown
Rovigo

into

confusion.

in Urbino

face of Helen
for which

Francesco

the

Xanto

of

world
Avelli

illwas
da

(fig. 29A).

X a n t o w a s t h e m o s t t a l e n t e d a n d p r o l i f i c r i v a l of t h e
2

A l t h o u g h an abundance

have c o m e d o w n to u s — m a n y

of X a n t o ' s w o r k s

of w h i c h are

signed,

dated, a n d o t h e r w i s e i n s c r i b e d — l i t t l e i s k n o w n a b o u t
t h e a r t i s t . H e appears t o h a v e b e e n a n e d u c a t e d
m u l t i t a l e n t e d m a n . F o r h i s istoriato

6

A c c o r d i n g to d o c u m e n t s , X a n t o w a s c l e a r l y a w o r k ­
s h o p e m p l o y e e at t h e t i m e of t h i s d i s p u t e . H e a t t e m p t e d
to i m p r o v e h i s p o s i t i o n b y b a n d i n g together w i t h other
employees

(dipendenti

delVarte

figulina)

to

demand

h i g h e r wages,- i n response, a g r o u p of w o r k s h o p heads

celebrated early sixteenth-century ceramic artist N i c o l a
da U r b i n o .

h i s plates w i t h his full n a m e .

[capi-bottega]
o t h e r capiJ

It i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e t h a t b y s i g n i n g h i s

w a r e s X a n t o w a s a t t e m p t i n g to w r e s t c o n t r o l of h i s p r o d ­
ucts f r o m the w o r k s h o p directors.

and

works and their i n ­

agreed to r e s i s t t h e e m p l o y e e s ' d e m a n d s

a n d s i m p l y n o t h i r e t h e m w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t of t h e

X a n t o ' s w o r k s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y d y n a m i c a n d v i g ­
orously modeled

figures

i n c r o w d e d c o m p o s i t i o n s fre­

s c r i p t i o n s , h e d r e w u p o n a v a r i e t y of i m p o r t a n t a r t i s t i c

q u e n t l y based o n engravings by M a r c a n t o n i o R a i m o n d i

and l i t e r a r y sources, w h i c h he often i n v e n t i v e l y m o d i ­

a n d others, w h i c h h e o f t e n i n v e n t i v e l y a n d e c l e c t i c a l l y

fied to s u i t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s a n d verse. X a n t o w a s a l s o a

e x c e r p t e d a n d r e c o m b i n e d . F o r t h e p r e s e n t plate's

poet, w r i t i n g a series of s o n n e t s i n h o n o r of F r a n c e s c o

ato

M a r i a I d e l l a R o v e r e , D u k e of U r b i n o (r.

3

s a m e subject e i t h e r b y M a r c a n t o n i o or b y M a r c o D e n t e ,

T h e s e s o n n e t s c o n t a i n n u m e r o u s a l l u s i o n s to h i s t o r i c a l

c a l l e d M a r c o da R a v e n n a (active 1 5 1 0 - 2 7 ) , after R a p h a e l

166

1508-38).

istori­

d e c o r a t i o n , X a n t o d r e w u p o n a n e n g r a v i n g of t h e

2 9 A Reverse.

168

Plate with the Abduction of Helen

29B
Marcantonio Raimondi (Italian,
ca. 1470/82-1527/34) after
Raphael (Italian, 1483-1520).
The Abduction of Helen,
ca. 1510-20. Engraving. Vienna,
Graphische Sammlung Albertina,
inv. 1970/425.

(fig. 2 9 B ) .

T h i s image was

a p p a r e n t l y a f a v o r i t e of

a r t i s t a n d h i s peers, i n c l u d i n g N i c o l a da U r b i n o , s i n c e i t
appears w i t h s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s o n n u m e r o u s p l a t e s of
early sixteenth century. T h e

Notes

the
1.

the

c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e s e A b ­

volto."
2.

d u c t i o n of H e l e n s c e n e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n s t e a d of c o p y i n g

Maiolica of Francesco Xanto Avelli" (Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State
University, 1996); "Francesco Xanto Avelli's Pucci Service (1532-1533):

punched

A Catalogue," Faenza 74 (1988): 37-44, 228-84;

w i t h holes, t h r o u g h w h i c h p o w d e r was f o r c e d — t o trans­
fer t h e i m a g e to t h e c e r a m i c p l a t e s .

O t h e r v e r s i o n s of t h i s s u b j e c t e i t h e r s i g n e d b y or
t r i b u t e d to X a n t o i n c l u d e t w o

plates i n the

Musee

an<

3 her entries in the

forthcoming Castello Sforzesco, Milan, catalogue.
3.

8

See no. 30 below. For information on Xanto Avelli see the various and
informative publications by Julia Triolo, including "The Armorial

the engraving freehand, the artists m a y have u s e d a t e m ­
p l a t e of s o m e s o r t — p r o b a b l y e i t h e r t r a c e d or

"Trionfo d'amore," bk. i , 11. 136-38: "Seco e '1 pastor che mal i l suo bel
volto /miro si fiso, ond'uscir gran tempeste,/e funne i l mondo sottosopra

These sonnets are presently in the Vatican Library; see Cioci 1987. For
other examples of Xanto as a literary amateur see Wilson 1990, 321-27,-

at­

Holcroft 1988, 225-34.

du

4.

See Mallet 1984, 384-402.

L o u v r e , P a r i s (inv. C l u n y 915, O A 1 8 3 9 ) ; o n e f o r m e r l y i n

5.

According to a plate dated 1530 in the Castello Sforzesco, Milan

6.

Wilson 1987A, 52; see also Mallet 1987, 33.

9

the S c h l o s s m u s e u m , B e r l i n (probably destroyed); o n e i n

(inv. M232).

1 0

the C o l o c c i H o n o r a t i c o l l e c t i o n , J e s i ;
i n the P r i n g s h e i m c o l l e c t i o n , M u n i c h .
the

subject

formerly

a t t r i b u t e d to N i c o l a

in

the

1 1

1 2

and one

da U r b i n o ;

and

collection

two

others,

m e r l y a t t r i b u t e d to X a n t o , are n o w g i v e n to t h e
P a i n t e r of

the

Apollo

Basin.

1 4

In

addition,

p l a t e s b y X a n t o c o p y p o r t i o n s of t h e
t h a n the

entire scene.

1 5

7.

A n o t h e r p l a t e of

Pringsheim
1 3

formerly

Sbraghe (Negroni 1986, 18, no. 33).

is
for­

8.

numerous

M a n y of t h e s e p l a t e s b e a r i n ­

s c r i p t i o n s t h a t are i d e n t i c a l or n e a r l y so to t h a t o n

For further information on this topic see Hess 1999, 14-19; Rondot
1994, 18-49; Talvacchia 1994, 121-53; Petruzzellis-Scherer 1980,

so-called

engraving rather

Interestingly, these documents indicate that the workshop heads in­
volved in the dispute included Guido Durantino and Nicola di Gabriele

321-71.
9.

Chompret 1949, 2: figs. 988, 995; Giacomotti 1974, nos. 856, 866.

10.

Ballardini 1938, 2: no. 191.

11.

Ballardini 1938, 2: no. 41.

12.

the

Sale cat., Christie's, London, February 28, 1994, lot 130; Ballardini 1938,
2: no. 192, fig. 182; Falke 1914-23, 2: no. 267, pi. 138.

G e t t y ' s plate, w h i c h is a m o n g the largest and m o s t faith­

13.

Sale cat., Christie's, New York, October 6, 1993, lot 24.

f u l to t h e o r i g i n a l e n g r a v i n g .

14.

One in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (inv. c. 2232-1910;
Rackham 1940, 1: no. 634; 2: pi. 100), and the other in the Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche, Faenza ("Accessioni al Museo," Faenza 32
[1946]: pi. 19a). For this new attribution see J. V. G. Mallet's forthcoming
publication of a paper given in Gubbio.

15.

See, for example, Poole 1995, 340-42, no. 392.

Plate with the Abduction of Helen

169

30

Dish with Saint Clare

the scroll, PETRE DILIGIS ME; on the underside,
Baldasara Manara fa[e]n[tino] or Baldasara Man­
ara fa[e]n[za],

Baldassare M a n a r a (active ca. 1526-47)
Faenza

EXHIBITIONS

Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William A.
Clark Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of
Art, March 5-May 17, 1987.

CONDITION

Minor chips around the rim, repainted; one chip in
the base.

ca. 1535
Tin-glazed earthenware

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Damiron 1944, no. 79; Chompret 1949, 1: 77; 2:
fig. 500; Sotheby's 1983-84, 290; GettyMusJ 13
(1985): 242, no. 167; Hess 1988A, no. 19; Ravanelli
Guidotti 1991, figs. XXIXd, XXXVId, XXXVIIIe,
XLIa; Ravanelli Guidotti 1996, 206-9, o . 34;
Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 368.

PROVENANCE

H : 3.8 c m (1V2 in.)

[M. &. R. Stora, Paris, sold to C. Damiron]; Charles
Damiron, Lyons (sold, Sotheby's, London, June 16,
1938, lot 20, to "Recher" [according to sale cat.
notation]),- A. Recher Paul Damiron (sold,
Sotheby's, London, November 22, 1983, lot 209);
[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul
Getty Museum, 1984].

D i a m : 21.5 c m (8 /i6 in.)
7

84.DE.107

n

;

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On the obverse, at the top, a shield with a holy
cross flanked by M and C below the annulets,- on

PAINTED

I N OLIVE

GREEN,

BLUE, YELLOW,

OCHER,

g r a y i s h y e l l o w , o p a q u e w h i t e , a n d b l a c k , t h i s coppa

de­

1228 and, later, to I n n o c e n t I V i n 1 2 5 3 . B o t h r e q u e s t s
3

were granted.

picts three saints i n a m o u n t a i n o u s landscape w i t h a c i t y

B a l d a s s a r e M a n a r a w a s a m e m b e r of a f a m i l y of pot­

or large c a s t l e i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d . I n t h e c e n t e r i s a fe­

ters l i v i n g i n F a e n z a i n t h e first h a l f of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n ­

m a l e s a i n t w e a r i n g a b l a c k v e i l over a w h i t e h o o d w i t h

tury. In Faentine

an u r n i n one h a n d and a l i l y i n the other. She is f l a n k e d

(potter) of t h e p a r i s h of S a i n t T h o m a s . M a n a r a ' s n a m e ap­

b y S a i n t P e t e r — i d e n t i f i a b l e b y h i s k e y s : t h e d a r k k e y of

pears as e a r l y as 1526, a n d h e i s k n o w n to h a v e d i e d be­

h e l l a n d g o l d e n k e y of h e a v e n — a n d

fore June 15, 15 4 7 .

a generic

martyr

s a i n t h o l d i n g aloft h e r a t t r i b u t e of a p a l m f r o n d . T w o
p u t t i appear above t h e s a i n t s s u p p o r t i n g a s h i e l d b e a r i n g

records

he

is described

as

figulus

4

T h i r t y - s i x p i e c e s are a t t r i b u t e d — p e r h a p s overgenero u s l y — t o this artist;

5

thirteen

are s i g n e d . W i t h

the

a cross h e l d b y t w o n a i l s a n d flanked b y t h e l e t t e r s M a n d

G e t t y plate, these signed pieces i n c l u d e a plate w i t h

C b e l o w a n n u l e t s ( p r o b a b l y t h e m a r k of a r e l i g i o u s or­

N a r c i s s u s and another w i t h the Resurrection, i n

der). T h e reverse of t h e d i s h i s p a i n t e d w i t h a y e l l o w a n d

V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , London,- a p l a t e w i t h t h e

ocher scale p a t t e r n and is signed b y the artist i n the cen­

Vestal T u c c i a and a plaque

ter of t h e r a i s e d foot.
1

A s s u m i n g a l i f e of

p o v e r t y a n d prayer, she f o u n d e d a n o r d e r of F r a n c i s c a n
women—the

Battistone

C a s t e l l i n i , i n t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m , London,- a p l a t e w i t h

T h e c e n t r a l figure has b e e n c o n v i n c i n g l y i d e n t i f i e d
as S a i n t C l a r e of A s s i s i (fig. 30B).

with Captain

the

O r d e r of P o o r L a d i e s , or

A e s a c u s and Hesperia, formerly i n the P r i n g s h e i m col­
lection, M u n i c h ; a plate w i t h A t a l a n t a and H i p p o m e n e s ,
in

t h e F i t z w i l l i a m M u s e u m , Cambridge,- a p l a t e w i t h

Clares—hence

P y r a m u s a n d T h i s b e , i n t h e P e t i t P a l a i s , Paris; a p l a t e

h e r F r a n c i s c a n h o o d . O n t h e p l a t e she faces S a i n t Peter,

w i t h Joseph F i n d i n g t h e G o l d C u p , i n t h e M u s e u m of In­

directing t o w a r d h i m the words o n the scroll—"Peter,

d u s t r i a l A r t , Prague; a p l a t e w i t h t h e T r i u m p h of T i m e

do y o u l o v e m e ? " — t h e q u e s t i o n Jesus p o s e d to Peter

a n d a n o t h e r w i t h C a e s a r R e c e i v i n g t h e H e a d of P o m p e y ,

2

t h r e e t i m e s (John 21). T h e p l a t e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n of C l a r e

i n the A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m , Oxford; and a plate w i t h

w i t h Jesus m i g h t be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t b y t h e fact t h a t

A p o l l o and Pan, i n a private c o l l e c t i o n . O f these signed

C l a r e , o n t w o o c c a s i o n s , m a d e a p p e a l s to p a p a l a u t h o r i t y

plates, f o u r are d a t e d 1534, o n e i s d a t e d 1535, a n d o n e

to a l l o w h e r to p r a c t i c e t h e a b s o l u t e , C h r i s t - l i k e p o v e r t y

is d a t e d 1536.

p r e s c r i b e d b y S a i n t F r a n c i s , first to P o p e G r e g o r y I X i n

170

6

3 OA

172

Reverse.

Dish with Saint Clare

Notes
1.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1996, 206.

2.

I am grateful to Hannes Piitz, Monchengladbach, and Frederick
Hammond, Annandale-on-Hudson, for helping me understand this
inscription.

3.

Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "Clare of Assisi."

4.

See Ravanelli Guidotti 1996, 89-91; Grigoni 1932, 181.

5.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1996.

6.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1996, 108-21 5, nos. 1-36; signed examples are
nos. 2-4, 12, 16, 21, 23, 25, 27-28, 32, 34, 36.

30B Alvise Vivarini (Italian, 1442/5 3-1503/5). Saint Clare (detail). Venice,
Accademia. Photo: Alinari/Art Resource, New York.

Dish with Saint Clare

17 3

31

Molded Dish with an
Allegory of Love
Faenza
ca. 1535

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

EXHIBITIONS

None.

None.

CONDITION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Glaze chip on the underside; minor chips

GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 242, no. 168; Hess 1988A,

at the rim.

no. 27; Cohen and Hess 1993, 62; Summary Cata­
logue 2001, no. 369.

PROVENANCE

Tin-glazed earthenware

Prince Thibaut d'Orleans, Paris (sold, Sotheby's,

H : 7.3 c m (2% in.)

London, February 5, 1974, lot 30); [Rainer Zietz,

D i a m : 28 c m ( n in.)

Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

84.DE.114

1984].

C E R A M I C

CRESPINE

— FROM

T H E ITALIAN

CRESPA,

p i e c e , Medol

limfamio

tua: piu

ch[e] [i]l morire

(your

m e a n i n g p l e a t or w r i n k l e — w e r e f o r m s m o l d e d i n i m i t a ­

disgrace [of me] h u r t s m o r e t h a n death), expresses a par­

t i o n of g a d r o o n e d m e t a l w o r k d e s i g n s w h i c h w e r e p o p u ­

t i c u l a r l y p a i n f u l v i e w of l o v e . I n c o n t r a s t to t h e g l o r i f i e d

lar f r o m r o u g h l y t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r of t h e

i m a g e s of l o v e p o p u l a r o n c e r a m i c coppe amatorie,

sixteenth

c e n t u r y o n . T h e s h a l l o w b o d y of t h i s f o o t e d crespina

is

m o l d e d w i t h flutes t h a t i s s u e f r o m a l o w c e n t r a l boss.

crespina

T h i s c o n v e x boss, s u r r o u n d e d b y a p a i n t e d rope m o t i f ,

holds its v i c t i m s captive.

b e l o n g s p o r t r a y s l o v e as a b i t t e r s w e e t force t h a t

d i s p l a y s a y o u t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c o u r t l y dress seated
a g a i n s t a n d b o u n d to a tree p a i n t e d i n o c h e r , y e l l o w , a n d
blue, heightened w i t h w h i t e on a light blue ground.
L i g h t b l u e leaves, f o l i a t e s c r o l l s , a n d s t y l i z e d d o l p h i n s ,
accented w i t h w h i t e and reserved o n alternately dark
b l u e and ocher grounds, decorate
quartieh

the petal-shaped

a

(sectioned) p a n e l s a r o u n d t h e boss. T h e reverse

is g l a z e d w i t h t h e

s a m e l i g h t b l u e berettino

is

and

p a i n t e d w i t h a l t e r n a t e l y d a r k b l u e a n d o c h e r dashes f o l ­
l o w i n g t h e m o l d e d p a n e l s shapes a r o u n d t h e foot.
7

T h e c e n t r a l figure o n t h e r a i s e d boss r e p r e s e n t s a n a l ­
l e g o r y of l o v e : t h e y o u n g m a n i s t i e d t o l o v e m u c h as h e
is b o u n d to t h e tree. L o v e p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s m a n n e r w a s a
p o p u l a r subject of t h e t i m e . T h e s a m e a l l e g o r y appears,
for e x a m p l e , i n a F l o r e n t i n e e n g r a v i n g o f c a . 1 4 6 5 - 8 0 en­
t i t l e d Woman

and Captive's

Heart,

m a d e for t h e decora­

t i v e c o v e r of a w o m a n ' s t o i l e t r i e s b o x or w o r k b o x , i n
w h i c h a s t a n d i n g y o u t h b o u n d to a tree faces a y o u n g
w o m a n w h o h o l d s h i s h e a r t i n h e r h a n d (fig. 3 1 B ) .

1

A

l u s t e r e d p l a t e f r o m t h e w o r k s h o p of G i o r g i o A n d r e o l i of
G u b b i o ( N e w Y o r k , M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m of A r t , i n v .
65.6.10) p o r t r a y s a m a n b o u n d to a tree c o n f r o n t e d b y a
w o m a n w i t h a k n i f e . W h e t h e r she i n t e n d s to l i b e r a t e or
w o u n d the m a n is unclear, but the i n s c r i p t i o n o n this

174

the

series of m o l d e d d i s h e s to w h i c h t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s

31A

Reverse.

to F a e n z a is c o n f i r m e d

m o l d e d b o w l s w i t h J u d i t h a n d t h e h e a d of H o l o f e r n e s

b y t h e e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l s u c h b o w l s w i t h F a e n t i n e

A t t r i b u t i o n of s u c h crespine

(a subject t h a t m a y h a v e m e a n t to flatter i t s f e m a l e re­

m a r k s . S i m i l a r shapes a n d designs appear o n l a t e r p r o d ­

c i p i e n t ; Paris, M u s e e d u L o u v r e , i n v . O A 1760; a n d L o n ­

ucts f r o m M o n t e l u p o , a l t h o u g h these T u s c a n examples

don, Victoria and A l b e r t M u s e u m , inv.

display a warmer

3

a n o t h e r w i t h a h a l b e r d i e r (Sevres, M u s e e N a t i o n a l de

w e r e p r o b a b l y u s e d for t h e d i s p l a y of f r u i t , as

Ceramique, inv. 2317); a dish w i t h C u p i d leaning o n an

numerous pictorial and trompe-Poeil ceramic examples

u r n a n d a n o t h e r w i t h a t h r e e - q u a r t e r i m a g e of a y o u t h

attest (fig. 3 1 c ) .

b o u n d to a tree a n d p i e r c e d t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t b y a n a r r o w

2

Crespine

palette and looser drawing

style.

4

T h e m o s t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d crespine

to t h e G e t t y ex­

4343-1857);

7

8

( L o n d o n , V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , i n v . 1611-1855

a m p l e i n c l u d e o n e w i t h t h e i m a g e of a s t a n d i n g y o u t h

a n d 4 6 2 6 - 1 8 5 8 ) ; four crespine

b o u n d to a tree ( L o n d o n , W a l l a c e C o l l e c t i o n ) ; o n e dis­

h o l d i n g a staff (or a n a r r o w or javelin); a p l a t e w i t h

p l a y i n g a s t a n d i n g w o m a n b o u n d to a tree ( H a m b u r g ,

Venus and C u p i d i n a private Italian collection,-

M u s e u m fur K u n s t u n d G e w e r b e , i n v . 1 8 8 0 . 5 1 1 ) ;

w i t h a seated w o m a n h o l d i n g a h e a r t a n d dagger, t h e

5

6

two

9

London, British Museum, inv. 1852-4-24-7. Photo: © The British Museum.

Molded Dish with an Allegory of Love

figures

1 0

3 I B Unknown artist. Woman and Captive's Heart, ca. 1465-80. Engraving.

176

w i t h single female
11

three—

Notes
1.
2.

Hind 1938-48, 2: pi. 144, A.IV.15.
Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 366-67, figs. 1-2; Rackham 1959, no. 317 in
fig. 125; Kube 1976, no. 17.

3.

It is possible that either Faentine potters brought these designs with
them on their transfer to Montelupo or else that ceramic clientele
influenced local pottery production to provide them with examples of
objects they had seen elsewhere and desired for themselves. For ex­
amples see Berti 1998, 350-56, nos. 252-64.

4.

See, for example, crespine farcite (filled) created in Faenza and then later
in Montelupo, Ravanelli Guidotti 1990, 287-88, 298, 304-5, no. 148;
Berti 1998, 345~47, figs. 239, 242-43, 245.

5.

Norman 1976, 1: 126-27, no. C56.

6.

Rasmussen 1984, 110-12, no. 72.

7.

Giacomotti 1974, 305-7, no. 935; Rackham 1940, 1: no. 302; 2: pi. 50.

8.

Giacomotti 1974, 305-6, no. 934.

9.

Rackham 1940, 1: nos. 300-301; 2: pi. 50.

10.

Rackham 1959, no. 318, fig. 124; Watson, 50-51, no. n

;

Falke 1907,

114, fig. 52; Hausmann 1972, 174-76, no. 131.
11.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1992, fig. 34m

12.

Wilson 1996, 128-34,

13.

Lessmann 1979, 102, no. 24.

14.

The other two bowls are those at Sevres (Giacomotti 1974, no. 934) and

n o s

- 60-62.

the piece published by von Falke (1907, 114, fig. 52).

3 i c Vincenzo Campi (Italian, i 5 30/35-1 591). La fruttivendola (detail),
1583. O i l on canvas. Sold Sotheby's, London, December 9, 1987.
Photo: Courtesy of Sotheby's.

figure

of F o r t i t u d e e m b r a c i n g a c o l u m n (her

attribute),

and a w o m a n seated against a tree h o l d i n g a

distaff—in

another private Italian collection,a w o m a n h o l d i n g a dog,
Museum, Braunschweig.

i n the
1 3

1 2

a n d a crespina

Herzog A n t o n

with
Ulrich-

A l l of t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s d i s ­

p l a y a r e m a r k a b l e v a r i e t y of s h a p e a n d d e c o r a t i o n . T h r e e
of t h e m — i n c l u d i n g t h e G e t t y crespina—appear
b e e n created i n the same m o l d .

to h a v e

1 4

Molded Dish with an Allegory of Love

IJ "J

32

Jug with a Musical
Theme
Faenza
1536

CONDITION

EXHIBITIONS

Restorations around the rim and neck on either
side,- glaze faults (crawling), particularly in
areas of yellow glaze; chips on the handle and
around the rim.

Loan Exhibition of the J. Pierpont Morgan Collec­
tion, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
1914-16; Catalogue of a Group of Old Masters,
Renaissance Italian Furniture, Majolika, Vases,
and Other Objects from the Collection of Carl W.
Hamilton, New York, California Palace of the Le­
gion of Honor, San Francisco, September 1, 1927January 6, 1928.

PROVENANCE

Alessandro Castellani, Rome (sold, Hotel Drouot,
Paris, May 27-29, 1878, lot 230); J. Pierpont
Morgan Sr. (1837-1913), New York, passed to
Duveen, 1916; [Duveen Brothers, New York, sold
to C. W. Hamilton, 1919]; Carl W. Hamilton,
New York, at least until 1936; George R. Hann,
Sewickley Heights, Pennsylvania (sold, Christie's,
on the Hann premises, Treetops, Sewickley
Heights, May 19, 1980, lot 91, to R. Zietz); [Rainer
Zietz, Ltd., London, sold to the J. Paul Getty
Museum, 1984].

Tin-glazed earthenware
H : 32.5 c m ( i 2 / i 6 in.)
13

D i a m (at lip): 13.3 c m (5 A in.)
l

W (max.): 26 c m (10V4 in.)

1

84.DE.115
MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On each of the four tablets under the medallions,
IS36; in one medallion, Elixeo beside a bearded
and turbaned old man.

THIS JUG HAS A N OVOID BODY WITH PINCHED

SPOUT

a n d b r o a d , r i b b e d h a n d l e . T h r e e large m e d a l l i o n s o r n a ­

may connect
figures

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Metropolitan 1914, 56-57 and illus.; Legion of
Honor 1927, 15, no. n GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 242,
no. 169; Hess 1988A, no. 28; Ravanelli Guidotti
1998, 289-90, fig. 20; Summary Catalogue 2001,
no. 370.
;

the popular, m y t h o l o g i c a l , and

biblical

i n t h e m e d a l l i o n s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p a t r o n for

m e n t t h e body. T h e y d e p i c t a b e a r d e d a n d t u r b a n e d o l d

w h o m t h e j u g w a s e x e c u t e d w a s a l o v e r of m u s i c or per­

m a n reading a book; a m a n , perhaps Orpheus, p l a y i n g a

haps a m u s i c i a n h i m s e l f .

lira da braccio

(fig. 3 2 A ) ; a n d a m u s i c i a n i n c o n t e m p o ­

r a r y dress p l a y i n g a l u t e (fig. 3 2 B ) .

2

L a u r e l g a r l a n d s en­

circle the m e d a l l i o n s and r u n d o w n the handle.

The

o c h e r , y e l l o w , green, b l a c k , a n d o p a q u e w h i t e d e c o r a t i o n

A s i m i l a r i m a g e of E l i s h a appears o n a crespina
crespina

g r o u n d , w h i c h c o v e r s t h e rest of t h e b o d y

d r e w u p o n t h e same, as y e t u n i d e n t i f i e d , p r i n t

s o u r c e for t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e i r d e c o r a t i o n .

is s u r r o u n d e d b y a d a r k b l u e reserve set a g a i n s t a l i g h t
b l u e berettino

pub­

l i s h e d i n 1999 (fig. 3 2 E ) . B o t h t h e G e t t y j u g a n d t h i s
3

T h i s j u g i s rare b e c a u s e of i t s large s i z e , u n u s u a l
form, and exceptionally beautiful painting. There

are

a n d c o n s i s t s of c h e r u b s , d o l p h i n s , b o o k s , a n d f o l i a t e

v e r y f e w k n o w n v e s s e l s f r o m t h e large g r o u p of F a e n t i n e

s c r o l l s . S m a l l l a b e l s i n s c r i b e d w i t h t h e date 1536 appear

berettino

wares w i t h c o m p a r a b l y elaborate

grotesque

under each m e d a l l i o n and under the handle, and a w a v y

d e c o r a t i o n . O r p h e u s p l a y i n g t h e lira da braccio

r i b b o n p a t t e r n e m b e l l i s h e s t h e areas a r o u n d t h e r i m a n d

h a v e b e e n a p o p u l a r subject for berettino

base. T h e i n t e r i o r i s t i n g l a z e d .

t h a t t h e figure appears o n a p a i r of jars a n d a p l a t e i n L o n ­

The
Old

o l d m a n l a b e l e d Elixeo

(fig. 3 2 D ) r e p r e s e n t s t h e

T e s t a m e n t p r o p h e t E l i s h a (or E l i s e u s i n t h e N e w

Testament
prophet's

[ L u k e 4:27]). Indeed, a n i n c i d e n t f r o m
life

may

establish

a thematic

the

connection

don,
on

o n a p l a t e i n P a r i s , and, i n m o n o c h r o m e
a crespina

s e e m s to

ceramics, given
berettino,

i n Faenza. H o w e v e r , the G e t t y Orpheus
4

s e e m s to h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d m o r e b y a B e n e d e t t o M o n tagna p r i n t

5

than by the M o d e r n o plaquette c o n v i n c ­

a m o n g t h e t h r e e m e d a l l i o n figures o n t h e j u g . Before

i n g l y p r o p o s e d b y C a r m e n R a v a n e l l i G u i d o t t i as

f o r e t e l l i n g t h e s u c c e s s of t h e i r e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t M o a b

s o u r c e for t h e o t h e r f o u r e x a m p l e s .

to t h e a l l i e d k i n g s of Israel, J e h o s h a p h a t

and

Edom,

the

6

In a p r i v a t e F l o r e n t i n e c o l l e c t i o n i s a F a e n t i n e j u g of

E l i s h a a s k e d for a m i n s t r e l to p e r f o r m m u s i c ; t h e m u s i c

s i m i l a r height (thirty-eight centimeters) and f o r m but

i n d u c e d an ecstatic

his

d e c o r a t e d w i t h d e l i c a t e f r u i t , f l o w e r s , a n d leaves; i t w a s

p r o p h e c y (2 K i n g s 3:1 sff.). S u c h m u s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s

e x e c u t e d i n t h e w o r k s h o p of V i r g i l i o t t o C a l a m e l l i a n d i s

178

state i n w h i c h E l i s h a m a d e

32A Alternate view.

32B Altenate view.

d a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d h a l f of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .
other

comparable

jug,

slightly

taller

than

the

7

Getty

e x a m p l e b u t of s i m i l a r s h a p e a n d w i t h v e r y s i m i l a r l a u ­
rel w r e a t h e n c i r c l i n g a decorative m e d a l l i o n , is i n
V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t M u s e u m ,

London.

Notes

An­
1.

Duveen 1876-1981, no. M . M . 15 (29054), box 193, where the price is
listed as $1,250.

2.

A similar figure of a musician, also wearing a contemporary cap and dis­
playing rugged, chiseled features, appears in the sixteenth-century por­

the

trait engraving of Philotheo Achillini by Marcantonio Raimondi after

8

Francesco Francia (Hind 1923, fig. 37,- Oberhuber 1978, 27: no. 469 [349]).
3.

Gardelli 1999, 116-17, no. 59 (identified as on the art market).

4.

Rackham 1940, 1: nos. 303-4; 2: pi. 50; Join-Dieterle 1984, 124-25,
no. 35; Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 333-34, no. 80.

5.

Hind 1909-10, 1: no. 6,fig.22.

6.

Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 334,fig.8oe.

7.

Liverani 1975, 140, pis. 88a-b, 89a, 9oa-b.

8.

Rackham 1940, 1: no. 286; 2, pi. 46; Ravanelli Guidotti 1998, 289,
fig- 19-

180

Jug with a Musical Theme

3 2 D Detail of inscription.

32c Alternate view.

32E Workshop of Francesco Mezzarisa (Italian, 1527-1581). Crespina, sec­
ond half of the sixteenth century. Tin-glazed earthenware, Diam: 20 cm
[j A in.). Lugano, Collection ITALIKA inv. no. M259. Reproduction
7

kindly granted by EDIT, Faenza.

Jug with a Musical Theme

181

33

Plate with Grotesques
Venice
ca. 1 5 4 0 - 6 0

CONDITION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hairline cracks on the right edge and on the left

Marryat 1857, 34, fig. 18 (described as "probably

side, with retouching.

after a design of B. Franco"); Fortnum 1873, 596;
Christie's Review 1976, 400; Morley-Fletcher and

PROVENANCE

Collection of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837-1901),

Tin-glazed earthenware

London, by 1857 and at least until 1873; Robert
1

H : 5.7 c m (2 A in.)
l

Strauss, England (sold, Christie's, London, June 21,

D i a m : 47.7 c m (18% in.)

1976, lot 52, to R. Zietz); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., Lon­

84.DE. 120

don, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

Mcllroy 1984, 86, fig. 1 (unconvincingly attributed
to the master of the Venetian dish of ca. 1520 with
arms of the Imhof and Schlaudersbach families,
formerly in the Adda collection, Paris ) i Getty ;

MusJ 13 (1985): 244, no. 178; Hess 1988A, no. 33
and cover; Conti and Grosso 1990, fig. 54; Mariaux

EXHIBITIONS

1995, 82; Melegati 1996A, 42; Masterpieces 1997,

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On loan to the Victoria and Albert (South Kensing ­

24, no. 16; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 371.

On the obverse, .S.P.Q.R.

ton) Museum, London, by 1873 (Fortnum 1873,
596).

T H I S P L A T E I S E M B E L L I S H E D w i t h a c e n t r a l m a l e figure,

cherubs,

cherubs'

heads,

griffins,

cornucopias,

are s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e larger V e n e t i a n e x a m p l e .

bead

T h i s k i n d of d e c o r a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n asso­

swags, drapery, a n d d o l p h i n s , a l l e l e g a n t l y i n t e r t w i n e d

c i a t e d w i t h C a s t e l D u r a n t e , a n d objects d e c o r a t e d i n t h i s

a n d a r r a n g e d a candelieri

s t y l e are o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as p a i n t e d i n t h e maniera

b e n e a t h a s w a g of d r a p e d fab­

r i c . T h e c e n t r a l figure s u p p o r t s a b a s k e t o n h i s h e a d

rantina.

flanked

of d e c o r a t i o n — g r o t e s q u e s

b y b i r d s a n d s u r m o u n t e d b y the i n s c r i b e d p a n e l .

2

4

du-

J o h n M a l l e t traces t h e h a b i t of c a l l i n g t h i s t y p e
p a i n t e d i n reserve b l u e o n a

T h e grotesque decoration is p a i n t e d i n greenish grisaille

l i g h t b l u e or w h i t e g r o u n d — t o

(that i s , i n v a r i o u s t o n e s of gray as a t r o m p e l ' o e i l m a r b l e

l o n g e r a c c e p t e d b e l i e f t h a t N i c o l a da U r b i n o d e v e l o p e d i t

relief) e n r i c h e d w i t h w h i t e a n d r e s e r v e d o n a d a r k b l u e

w h i l e he was i n C a s t e l D u r a n t e .

g r o u n d . T h e reverse d i s p l a y s a r o w of r a d i a t i n g dashes
a n d a b o r d e r of s c r o l l i n g alia poicellana
b l u e o n a l i g h t b l u e berettino

foliage i n d a r k

ground.

O t t o v o n Falke's no

5

In h i s s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t r e a t i s e o n c e r a m i c p r o d u c ­
tion, Cipriano Piccolpasso writes i n a caption below a
d r a w i n g of g r o t e s q u e d e c o r a t i o n v e r y s i m i l a r to t h a t o n

T h i s p l a t e appears to be a u n i q u e m a s t e r p i e c e . N o

t h e G e t t y plate, " L e g r o t e s c h e . . . g l i e u n a d e l i c a t a p i t -

o t h e r k n o w n w o r k of t h e p e r i o d a p p r o a c h e s i t s M a n n e r ­

t u r a , l ' u s o d e l l a q u a l ' i o n o ' so d i dove s i d i v i n i . Q u e s t e

ist elegance a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e n d e r i n g of figures a n d

p a g a n s i d o i f i o r n i n i per i l s t a t o [di U r b i n o ] i l c e n t o , e l a

decoration. O n e finds the m o s t c l o s e l y related t r o p h y

Vinegia 8 lire.

a n d a candelieri

d e s i g n s — o f t e n i n g r i s a i l l e , o n a l i g h t or

d a r k b l u e g r o u n d a n d w i t h " f i l l e d - i n " b a c k g r o u n d s of
w h i t e s c r o l l i n g r i b b o n s — o n w a r e s f r o m t h e first h a l f

7 / 6

Piccolpasso's statement m a y i m p l y that

the d e c o r a t i o n w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m m o n i n t h e d u c h y of
U r b i n o and i n Venice.
S i m i l a r s t y l i s t i c e l e m e n t s , s u c h as t h e f a c i a l features

of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y f r o m U r b i n o a n d V e n i c e . T w o

and background scrolling ornament,

b o w l s — o n e i n t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of A r t , W a s h i n g t o n ,

p i e c e s a t t r i b u t e d to G i o v a n n i M a r i a , a c e r a m i s t a c t i v e i n

D . C . , and the other i n the M u s e o Internazionale delle

C a s t e l D u r a n t e w h o t r a v e l e d b e t w e e n the U r b i n o a r e a —

C e r a m i c h e , F a e n z a — p r o b a b l y m a d e i n t h e U r b i n o dis­

w h e r e C a s t e l D u r a n t e i s l o c a t e d — a n d V e n i c e i n t h e first

t r i c t p r o v i d e e s p e c i a l l y c l o s e a n a l o g i e s to t h e

Getty

decades of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y (see n o . 22). W h i l e t h i s

A l t h o u g h t h e i r s t y l e predates t h a t of t h e G e t t y

plate's s t y l e is U r b i n a t e , i t s shape a n d c o l o r are c h a r a c ­

plate.

3

example

b y t w e n t y - f i v e years

or m o r e ,

their

finely

c a n be f o u n d o n

7

t e r i s t i c a l l y V e n e t i a n . It i s a l t o g e t h e r p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e

p a i n t e d , s y m m e t r i c a l l y p l a c e d designs i n g r i s a i l l e i n ­

a r t i s t w h o p a i n t e d t h i s p i e c e w a s b o r n or t r a i n e d a r o u n d

clude fantastic animals, ribbons, and

U r b i n o a n d m o v e d to V e n i c e to create t h i s p l a t e a r o u n d

beads—modeled

u s i n g s m a l l l i n e s t h a t f o l l o w t h e shape of t h e e l e m e n t s —

182

the m i d d l e of the c e n t u r y .

U n u s u a l l y large p l a t e s w i t h w i d e , s h a l l o w w e l l s
were produced i n Venice, and b o t h the blue-and-white
e n a m e l o n a l i g h t g r a y i s h b l u e g r o u n d a n d t h e reverse
alia porcellana

b o r d e r o n t h e s a m e berettino

t y p i c a l of V e n e t i a n w a r e s .

8

g r o u n d are

A n a l o g o u s to t h e

present

w o r k i s a g r o u p of f o u r s m a l l V e n e t i a n d i s h e s or b o w l s
datable to t h e 1530s a n d 1 5 4 0 s . T h e s e p i e c e s , p o s s i b l y
9

part of a s i n g l e s e r v i c e , share w i t h t h e G e t t y p l a t e i t s e l ­
egant g r i s a i l l e d e c o r a t i o n as w e l l as a s i m i l a r s t y l e : f i n e
f a c i a l features, sharp n o s e s a n d c h i n s , s m a l l m o u t h s , a n d
d o t l i k e eyes, w i t h objects u n c o m m o n l y w e l l s i t u a t e d i n
space (albeit l i m i t e d space). I n p a r t i c u l a r , o n e of t h e s e
four d i s p l a y s a m a l e h e a d w i t h a n o p e n - m o u t h e d
33A Reverse.

ex­

p r e s s i o n of s u r p r i s e a n d a c u i r a s s t h a t a c c e n t u a t e s t h e
a n a t o m y of a n e l o n g a t e d a n d t w i s t i n g m a l e b a c k ; t h e s e
elements

c a n a l s o be f o u n d o n t h e c e n t r a l figure of

the G e t t y p l a t e .

10

T h e d e c o r a t i o n o n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k i s of s u c h h i g h
q u a l i t y , a n d t h e s t y l e of p a i n t i n g i s so r e m a r k a b l y c u r ­
r e n t w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g M a n n e r i s t t e n d e n c i e s of t h e first
h a l f of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h a t o n e w o u l d w i s h to at­
t r i b u t e i t s d e s i g n to a c o n t e m p o r a r y m a s t e r .

11

Around

the m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y artists Battista Franco ( 1 4 9 8 1561) a n d T a d d e o Z u c c a r o ( 1 5 2 9 - 1 5 6 6 ) b o t h p r o d u c e d
designs for m a i o l i c a p l a t e s f r o m w h i c h s e v e r a l p i e c e s
w e r e c o m m i s s i o n e d b y D u k e G u i d o b a l d o II d e l l a R o v e r e
of U r b i n o (r. 1 5 3 8 - 7 4 ) a n d e x e c u t e d b y s u c h w o r k s h o p s
as t h a t of t h e F o n t a n a i n U r b i n o .

1 2

A l t h o u g h Joseph M a r -

r y a t suggested t h a t t h e G e t t y p l a t e c o p i e s a d e s i g n b y
Franco,

1 3

F r a n c o ' s as w e l l as Z u c c a r o ' s m a i o l i c a designs

e m p h a s i z e t h e o f t e n c o m p l i c a t e d p l a c e m e n t of figures i n
t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space, a n i n t e r e s t a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y
l a c k i n g i n the M u s e u m ' s p l a t e .

14

T h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s p l a t e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y i t s ex­
ceedingly mannered and refined p a i n t i n g style. T h e cen­
t r a l figure i s a l m o s t a s t o n i s h i n g l y b i z a r r e , a f a v o r i t e
effect of M a n n e r i s t a r t i s t s . T h i s figure's e x p r e s s i o n of
surprise, elongated proportions, and t w i s t e d torso that
ends i n foliage a n d leafy s c r o l l s at t h e t h i g h s a n d s h o u l ­
ders a l l c o n t r i b u t e to i t s f a n t a s t i c n a t u r e . A l s o f a v o r e d b y
33B Marcantonio Raimondi (Italian, ca. 1470/82-1527/34). Ornamental
panel, late fifteenth-early sixteenth century. Engraving. London,
British Museum, inv. 1873-8-9-758. Photo: © The British Museum.

t h e M a n n e r i s t s w a s a n e x t r e m e elegance i n surface dec­
oration,

e xe mplif ie d i n the

present

work

by

d e t a i l s as t h e elegant d r a p e r y a l o n g t h e plate's

184

Plate with Grotesques

such
upper

Notes
1.
2.

As cited in Marryat 1857, 34; Fortnum 1873, 596.
S.P. Q.R. [Senatus populusque romanus) does not indicate specific
Roman patronage but, rather, serves a decorative and generalized sym­
bolic function, since it commonly appears on maiolica wares, most of­
ten with trophy motifs, from pottery centers throughout Italy.

3.

Timothy Wilson in National Gallery 1993, 136-37; Ravanelli Guidotti
1990, 2 1 0 - n , 230, no. 116. These bowls belong to a group of roughly
ten similarly painted examples (listed in National Gallery 1993); they
are among the finest of the group and are, therefore, more closely com­
parable to the later, extraordinary Venetian plate.

4.

For examples of comparable decoration on works believed to be from
Castel Durante see Giacomotti 1974, nos. 747-72; Chompret 1949, 2:
figs. 65-101; Ballardini 1933, 1: pi. 28, figs. 213, 217-20, 223; Rackham
1940, 1: no. 615; 2: pi. 97; Corradi 1982, no. 50; della Chiara 1979,
nos. 83, 85. One finds similarly mannered grotesque decoration on the
rim of a plate of uncertain origin in the Victoria and Albert Museum,
London, which according to Rackham, "points to Castel Durante"
(Rackham 1940, 1: no. 994), as well as around the rim of a large plate
of about the mid-sixteenth century in the Museo Civico, Pesaro, also
attributed to Castel Durante (della Chiara 1979, no. 79).

5.
6.

Mallet 1996, 230, no. 14; Falke 1917, no. 1.
"Grotesque painting . . . is very refined; I don't know where its use origi­
nates. It costs two florins per hundred in the State of Urbino and, in
Venice, it costs eight" (Lightbown and Caiger-Smith 1980, 1: folio 67
recto; 2: 113).

3 3 c Design depicting the Getty plate with grotesques, Cantagalli manufac­
tory Florence, late nineteenth century. Watercolor, 52.5 x 57 cm

7.

See, for example, Rackham 1940, 2: nos. 535-37, pi. 84.

(20/4 x 22 VA in.). Faenza, Fondo Cantagalli. Even in the late 1800s the

8.

For Venetian plates that are similar in shape and decoration see Alvera
Bortolotto 1981, pis. 36c-d, 43a, 46a, 48a-e, 51, 55a; Alvera Bortolotto

Getty plate was still being used as a workshop pattern for Cantagalli

1980, 154, figs. 1-2; Wilson 1987B, pis. 3-8. For a discussion of Venet­

ceramics, an indication of the high esteem in which it was held.

ian wares with berettino glaze and alia porcellana motifs see ibid. [Wil­
son 1987B ?], 63-66; Alvera Bortolotto 1983, 310-12, pis. 82-85;
Wilson 1987A, 184-89.
9.

Sale cat., Christie's, London, October 3, 1983, lot 215; Alvera Bortolotto
1988, 43 (identified as in a private Venetian collection); sale cat.,
Sotheby's, March 22, 1977, lot 51, dated 1544; a fourth example is in a

edge a n d t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e g r o t e s q u e figure o n t h e

private Italian collection, perhaps made in the workshop of Jacomo da

r i g h t g r a c e f u l l y crosses h i s left h a n d over h i s r i g h t a r m ,

Pesaro (Wilson 1996, 424-26, no. 164).

t h r o w i n g a s h a d o w o n h i s e x t e n d e d f o r e a r m . T h e t y p e of

10.

Wilson 1996, 424-26, no. 164.

g r o t e s q u e s o n the p r e s e n t p l a t e m i g h t i n s t e a d h a v e b e e n

11.

In general maiolica designs were somewhat old-fashioned in relation to

i n s p i r e d b y p r i n t s of c o n t e m p o r a r y

contemporary oil and fresco painting; for example, the depiction of

o r n a m e n t , s u c h as

three-dimensional space in maiolica painting was only attempted about

t h o s e e x e c u t e d b y t h e engravers A g o s t i n o M u s i ( c a l l e d

1500, two centuries after Giotto and nearly a century after Alberti's per­

A g o s t i n o V e n e z i a n o ; ca. 1 4 9 0 - c a . 1 5 4 0 ) ,

spective studies. Ceramic artists were apparently fully occupied with

15

Giovanni A n ­

mastering the new and difficult techniques of maiolica production—

t o n i o da B r e s c i a (active ca. 1 4 9 0 - a f t e r 1525), or M a r c a n ­

including the particularly demanding tasks of glaze manufacture, paint­

t o n i o R a i m o n d i (ca. 1 4 8 0 - 1 5 3 4 ) (fig. 3 3 B ) .

ing, and firing—and were less concerned with rivaling the stylistic in­
novations of other art forms.
12.

The painting style, however, differs significantly from any of the artist's
known maiolica designs. For a discussion of Battista Franco and
maiolica see Fagiolo 1981, 245-48; Clifford and Mallet 1976, 387-410.
For an examination of Taddeo Zuccaro's maiolica designs see Gere 1963,
306-15; Laskin 1978, 2: 281-84, pis. 1-2; Watson 1987, 177-82.

13.
14.

Marryat 1857, 34, fig. 18.
See, for example, the nude man seen from the rear on the left-hand side
of Zuccaro's design for Banquet in a Piazza (Laskin 1978: pi. 1).

15.

Oberhuber 1978, 27: nos. 564-II [396], 579-II [399].

Plate with Grotesques

185

34

Pilgrim Flask with
Marine Scenes
Fontana w o r k s h o p (possibly

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

EXHIBITIONS

None.

None.

CONDITION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cracks and restorations on the side loops and on

GettyMusJ 13 (1985): 243-44, no. 177; Hess

the screw top.

1988A, no. 32; Summary Catalogue 2001, 372.

Orazio; 1510-71)
PROVENANCE

Urbino

Thomas F. Flannery Jr., Winnetka, Illinois,- by in­

ca. 1 5 6 5 - 7 0

heritance to Joanna Flannery, Winnetka, Illinois;

Tin-glazed earthenware

Chicago (sold, Sotheby's, London, November 22,
1983, lot 160, to E. Lubin); [Edward Lubin, New

H : 44.1 c m (17 Vs in.)

York, sold to R. Zietz],- [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London,

W (max.): 28.6 c m (11 A in.)
l

sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1984].

84.DE.119.1-.2

T H I S V E S S E L I S M O L D E D I N T H E F O R M of a p i l g r i m f l a s k

N i c o l a a n d h i s n e p h e w F l a m i n i o w e r e a l s o m a i o l i c a pot­

w i t h a t a l l , t a p e r i n g n e c k a n d s c r e w top s u r m o u n t e d b y

ters, a l t h o u g h O r a z i o appears to h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t c e l ­

a v a s e - s h a p e d k n o p (figs. 3 4 C - D ) . C i p r i a n o P i c c o l p a s s o

e b r a t e d of t h e F o n t a n a c e r a m i s t s .

clever

S t y l i s t i c a n a l o g i e s e x i s t b e t w e e n t h i s flask a n d a vase

m e t h o d u s e d b y p o t t e r s to create s c r e w tops (figs. 3 4 E —

discusses

i n the B r i t i s h Museum,- its i n s c r i p t i o n establishes that

F).

and

illustrates

with

specificity the

H i s particular interest i n this technique m a y have

t h e vase w a s " m a d e i n t h e w o r k s h o p of M a s t e r O r a z i o

b e e n d u e t o t h e fact t h a t h e w a s w r i t i n g h i s t r e a t i s e at

F o n t a n a . " B o t h flask a n d vase are d e c o r a t e d w i t h r i c h l y

1

2

around the same t i m e that these screw-top flasks were

c o l o r e d istoriato

most popular.

ments,- o n t h e flask t h e y are t h e " b e a r d s " a n d h o r n s of

B o t h n e c k a n d c o v e r of t h e f l a s k are d e c o r a t e d w i t h
b l a c k b i r d s a m o n g c l o u d s . T h e h a n d l e s , i n t h e f o r m of

scenes, a p p l i e d m a s k s , a n d c o i l i n g ele­

t h e m a s k s , o n t h e vase t h e s e are t h e s n a k e h a n d l e s . T h e
n a r r a t i v e scenes o n t h i s

flask

a l s o b r i n g to m i n d

the

that

scene of t h e l a n d i n g of t h e G r e e k s before T r o y o n a

b e c o m e r e l i e f v o l u t e s c o m p l e m e n t i n g t h e shape of t h e

m o l d e d w i n e c o o l e r t h a t s o l d at a u c t i o n i n 1 9 5 0 . T h i s

flask

p i e c e of ca. 1 5 6 5 - 7 1

h o r n e d grotesque
body. T h e

masks, have c u r l i n g "beards"
ceramic pilgrim-flask

form

reflects

3

i n c l u d e s a b a n d of

t h e i n f l u e n c e of m e t a l p i l g r i m flasks p a t t e r n e d after t h e

a r o u n d t h e istoriato

dried gourds used b y travelers to carry d r i n k i n g water,

s i g n e d o n t h e reverse Fatto in Urbino

w h i c h were suspended

tio

f r o m side l o o p s . T h e

horned

m a s k s o n t h e sides of t h e M u s e u m ' s flask a n d t h e h o l e s

grotesques

scene a n d o n t h e u n d e r s i d e a n d i s
in Botega

di

Ora-

Fontana.
O r a z i o w o r k e d i n h i s father's s h o p at least u n t i l t h e

c u t f r o m e i t h e r side of t h e base w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n

1540s. E v i d e n c e of h i s c e r a m i c a c t i v i t y i s l a c k i n g for t h e

u s e d to s u s p e n d t h e object; t h e y w e r e r e t a i n e d as decora­

e n s u i n g t w e n t y years, d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e h e appears to

t i v e r e m i n i s c e n c e s of t h e e a r l i e r f u n c t i o n a l f o r m s .

have been traveling around N o r t h e r n Italy.

The

flask

i s p a i n t e d o n b o t h sides w i t h

marine

O r a z i o f i n a l l y set u p h i s o w n bottega

In

4

1565

n o t far f r o m t h a t of

scenes: a T r i t o n a b d u c t i n g a N e r e i d o n o n e a n d t w o fight­

h i s father i n U r b i n o ' s B o r g o S a n P a o l o , a n d i t r e m a i n e d

i n g T r i t o n s o n t h e o t h e r . T h e p a l e t t e c o n s i s t s of b l u e ,

a c t i v e for s e v e r a l years after h i s d e a t h i n 1 5 7 L .

buff, d a r k m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e , c o p p e r green,

yellowish

5

During

this time Orazio occupied himself m a i n l y w i t h luxuri­

green, b r o w n i s h o c h e r , y e l l o w , t u r q u o i s e , b l a c k , a n d

o u s c e r a m i c s (fig. 3 4 F ) , o f t e n c o m b i n i n g istoriato

opaque w h i t e . O r a z i o Fontana (1510-1571) was the eld­

w i t h g r o t e s q u e o r n a m e n t , p r o b a b l y l e a v i n g to h i s father

est s o n of t h e m a s t e r p o t t e r G u i d o D u r a n t i n o , w h o t o o k

the plainer, and probably m o r e profitable, w h i t e and

t h e F o n t a n a f a m i l y n a m e after h e m o v e d to U r b i n o f r o m

c o m m o n w a r e s . W h e t h e r O r a z i o c o n t i n u e d to p a i n t t h e

his native C a s t e l Durante. Orazio's brothers C a m i l l o and

p i e c e s p r o d u c e d i n h i s w o r k s h o p after 1565 or w h e t h e r

186

scenes

6

34A Alternate view.

188

Pilgrim Flask with Marine Scenes

34B Alternate view.

Pilgrim Flask with Marine Scenes

189

34c Detail of screw threads.

34D Detail of top.

34E Cipriano Piccolpasso (Italian, 1523-1579). Folio 5R from Li tre libri
dell'arte del vasaio (1557). London, Victoria and Albert Museum.

h e t h e n f u n c t i o n e d s o l e l y as capo-bottega
rector) is not
Fontana

(workshop di­

known.
flasks

with

very

similar

marine-inspired

d e c o r a t i o n a n d of i d e n t i c a l s h a p e a n d s i z e , v e r y p o s s i b l y
m a d e f r o m the

s a m e m o l d as t h e p r e s e n t w o r k , i n c l u d e

e x a m p l e s i n the H e r z o g A n t o n U l r i c h - M u s e u m , B r a u n ­
s c h w e i g (inv. 9 1 9 ) ,
34F Cipriano Piccolpasso (Italian, 1523-1579). Detail of folio 5v from Li tre
libri dell'arte del vasaio (1557). London, Victoria and Albert Museum.

190

flask

of t h e

of M y r r h a

threads to screw a top securely onto a flask or bottle. Parallel strips

Art,

and shifted to create spiral threads. The Getty flask uses a male neck

and i n the H e l e n F o r e s m a n Spencer

M u s e u m of A r t , L a w r e n c e , K a n s a s (inv. 6 0 . 7 6 ) .

Piccolpasso illustrates the manner in which tops could be made with
would be formed using a toothed instrument; they would then be cut

7

same shape but
and

e x a m p l e s of t h e

decorated w i t h the

A d o n i s is i n t h e

Washington, D . C .
same

9

Another
subject

Corcoran Gallery

S t i l l other Fontana
flask

8

form

but

with

of

workshop
grotesque

that fits into a female top, whereas Piccolpasso illustrates the reverse

d e c o r a t i o n are i n t h e V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n ­

method.

don

Pilgrim Flask with Marine Scenes

(inv.

8408-1863,

8409-1963),

1 0

and

formerly

in

the B a s i l e w s k i c o l l e c t i o n , P a r i s .
flasks

1 1

Five s i m i l a r l y shaped

p r o d u c e d i n a F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p are i n t h e

Nazionale,

Palazzo

del

Bargello,

Florence.

Getty M u s e u m ' s example, a pilgrim
15 60s

e a r l y 1570s i n t h e

or

flask

1 2

Museo

Like

of t h e

Nationalmuseum,

the
late

Stock­

h o l m (inv. N M 60), d i s p l a y s m a r i n e s u b j e c t s ( A m p h i t r i t e
or

Galatea crowned by

a putto, a T r i t o n abducting

a

N e r e i d , a n d o t h e r sea c r e a t u r e s , a g a i n s t a n o v e r a l l b a c k ­
g r o u n d of b l u e w a v e s ) .
A r g u a b l y the

1 3

c l o s e s t i n s t y l e to t h e

Getty

flask

are

the p h a r m a c y c o n t a i n e r s m a d e i n the F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p
at t h e e n d of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y for t h e S a n t a C a s a d i
Loreto.
with
flask)

1 4

C e r t a i n of t h e s e jars a n d t h e flask are d e c o r a t e d

c o m p a r a b l y rendered horses (hippocampi on

the

w i t h a n i m a t e d facial expressions, finely propor­

t i o n e d f i g u r e s i n t h e a t r i c a l p o s e s , a n d d r a m a t i c s w a t h s of
drapery. A l t h o u g h t h e
v e n t o r y of 1608,

jars are f i r s t m e n t i o n e d i n a n i n ­

e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t t h e y w e r e a gift

of G u i d o b a l d o II, d u k e of U r b i n o , a n d so m u s t h a v e b e e n
p r o d u c e d before t h e d u k e ' s d e a t h i n 1 5 7 4 .

1 5

Notes

34G Jan Roos or Roosen (known as Giovanni Rosa or Rosso Genovese)

1.

Lightbown and Caiger-Smith 1980, 1: folios 5 recto and verso.

2.

Wilson 1987A, 64, no. 91.

3.

Sale cat., Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, March 9, lot 183.

4.

He marries a Venetian woman and is documented in the service of the

5.

It is known that Orazio's brother, Flaminio, produced several important

(Antwerp 1591-Genoa 1638). Pirates with Loot (detail), seventeenth
century. Rome, Galleria Colonna. This sixteenth-century Urbino vase

duke of Savoy (Liverani 1957, 133, no. 6).

decorated with narrative scenes is shown grouped together with other

pieces of maiolica between the years 1571 and 1574, including a signed

precious objects—such as small bronzes, metalwork, and jewelry—

rinfrescatoio in the Wallace Collection, London (Norman 1976, 218-23,

attesting to the value given such maiolica ware at the time.

no. 107).
6.

Mallet 1987, 287-88.

7.

Lessmann 1979, no. 230

8.

Broun 1978, 28-29,- Cole 1977, no. 37; Chompret 1949, 1: 194; 2: 130,

9.

Watson 1986, 158-59, no. 62.

fig. 1033;

s a i

e cat., Christie's 1884, lot 376.

10.

Rackham 1940, 1: nos. 840-41; 2: pi. 133.

11.

Darcel and Delange 1867, pi. 97; Darcel and Basilewsky 1874, 158,
no. 410.

12.

Conti 1980, figs. 291-92; these flasks figure among the wares tradition­
ally thought to have been executed for the table service of Duke
Guidobaldo II della Rovere of Urbino, although proof of this commis­
sion has not yet come to light. See also Conti I97IA, nos. 25, 27, 46,
50, 52..

13.

Dahlback-Lutteman 1981, no. 20.

14.

I am grateful to Timothy Wilson for bringing this comparison to my

15.

Grimaldi and Bernini 1979, 10-11.

attention. See, for example, Grimaldi and Bernini 1979.

Pilgrim Flask with Marine Scenes

191

35

Basin with Deucalion
and Pyrrha
Fontana w o r k s h o p (Orazio or F l a m i n i o )

CONDITION

EXHIBITIONS

Broken and repaired at the top and in the proper

Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William A.

right lobe; a small area of crawled glaze at the

Clark Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of

lower right of the medallion has been repaired.

Art, March 5-May 17, 1987.

PROVENANCE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Urbino

Baron Adolphe (Carl) de Rothschild (1823-1900),

Antiquitaten-Zeitung,

ca. 1 5 6 5 - 7 5

Paris, between 1870 and 1890; by inheritance to

Musf 15 (1987): 216, no. 114; Hess 1988A, no. 34;

Tin-glazed earthenware
H : 6.3 c m (2 Vi in.)
D i a m : 4 6 . 3 c m ( 1 8 A in.)
l

no. 25 (1985): 6 i i ; Getty-

Maurice (Edmond Charles) de Rothschild, Paris

Mariaux 1995, 130; Masterpieces 1997, 21, no. 13;

(1881-1957), sold to Duveen 1913/14; [Duveen,

Museum Handbook 2001, 243; Summary Cata­

New York, inv. 26967; sold to N . Simon,

logue 2001, no. 373

March 1965]; Norton Simon Foundation, Fullerton
(sold, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 1971, lot

86.DE.539

81); private collection, Stuttgart (sold, Reimann
and Monatsberger, Stuttgart, January 1986);

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

[Alain Moatti, Paris, sold to the J. Paul Getty

None.

BASINS

Museum, 1986].

O F T H I S T Y P E W E R E G E N E R A L L Y U S E D to

hold

of t h e h a n d l e s — w a s

apparently

a sought-after

form,

s c e n t e d w a t e r , w h i c h w a s offered to guests at t h e d i n i n g

g i v e n t h e p r i c e D u v e e n a s k e d for t h e e w e r

t a b l e so t h a t t h e y c o u l d w a s h t h e i r h a n d s b e t w e e n

the

w i t h t h e o n e h e a s k e d for i t s b a s i n . T h e e w e r w a s s o l d

elaborate

o n J a n u a r y 2 5 - 2 7 , 1926, to H e n r y E . H u n t i n g t o n for t e n

courses

of a m e a l . T h i s t r i a n g u l a r basin's

compared

1

m o l d e d a n d p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n , h o w e v e r , suggests t h a t i t

t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s a n d has b e e n o n d i s p l a y at t h e H u n t ­

m a y also, i f n o t s o l e l y , h a v e s e r v e d for d i s p l a y . T h e t h r e e

i n g t o n A r t C o l l e c t i o n s i n c e 1929; t h e b a s i n w e n t u n s o l d

m o l d e d l o b e s are p a i n t e d to r e s e m b l e s h e l l s . D e l i c a t e

u n t i l the 1960s.

grotesques o n a p a i n t e r l y w h i t e ground fill these lobes
a n d r u n a r o u n d t h e r i m , w h e r e t h e y are d i s p e r s e d a can-

2

T h e c e n t r a l m e d a l l i o n of t h e b a s i n d i s p l a y s t h e s c e n e
of D e u c a l i o n a n d P y r r h a ( O v i d , Metamorphoses,

b k . 1,11.

around cameo-like medallions s h o w i n g single

3 1 5 - 4 1 5 ) , c o p i e d f r o m t h e L y o n s e d i t i o n of 1559 (fig.

figures i n s i l h o u e t t e . A f i s h e r m a n c a t c h i n g a large f i s h ,

3 5 D ) . D e u c a l i o n , s o n of P r o m e t h e u s a n d C l y m e n e , w a s

a sea n y m p h r i d i n g a sea m o n s t e r , a n d a N e r e i d e i t h e r

the N o a h of G r e e k m y t h o l o g y . A f t e r s u r v i v i n g the d e l u g e

r i d i n g or b e i n g a b d u c t e d b y a T r i t o n are p a i n t e d o n a

sent b y Z e u s , D e u c a l i o n a n d h i s w i f e , P y r r h a , w i t h ­

delieri

b a c k g r o u n d of b l u e w a v e s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e s h e l l - l i k e

d r e w to a t e m p l e o n M o u n t P a r n a s s u s to a s k t h e gods

cartouches. T h e blue wave decoration continues o n the

how

t h e t w o m i g h t r e n e w t h e h u m a n race. T h e o r a c l e

reverse, o n w h i c h s i x s w a n s are m o l d e d i n r e l i e f f o l l o w ­

t o l d t h e c o u p l e to cast b e h i n d t h e m t h e b o n e s of t h e i r

i n g t h e c o n t o u r s of t h e basin's t h r e e l o b e s (fig. 3 5 A ) .

mother. Pyrrha was horrified, but D e u c a l i o n understood

Molded

pairs

t h a t the o r a c l e w a s r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r m o t h e r the earth.

of s w a n s a n d i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s p r i ­

strapwork

encircles each

of t h e

three

T h e t w o b e g a n to cast stones, w h i c h , u p o n h i t t i n g t h e

m a r i l y i n o c h e r , orange, a n d b l a c k . T h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e

g r o u n d , a s s u m e d h u m a n shape. T h e s t o n e s t h r o w n b y

d e c o r a t i o n i s e x e c u t e d i n t o n e s of ocher, y e l l o w , b l u e ,

D e u c a l i o n b e c a m e m e n a n d t h o s e t h r o w n b y P y r r h a be­

g r a y i s h green, y e l l o w i s h green, t u r q u o i s e , buff, b l a c k ,

came w o m e n .

and opaque w h i t e .
T h i s basin was accompanied by its m a t c h i n g trilobed

T h i s basin's t y p e of g r o t e s q u e o r n a m e n t (fig. 3 5 B ) —
d e l i c a t e a n d s i n u o u s f a n t a s t i c figures a n d a n i m a l s i n t e r ­

e w e r w h e n b o t h objects e n t e r e d t h e s t o c k of D u v e e n

t w i n i n g against a w h i t e g r o u n d — b e g a n

to appear o n

B r o t h e r s , N e w Y o r k , i n e i t h e r 1913 or 1914 (fig. 3 5 c ) .

U r b i n o c e r a m i c s of t h e 1560s a n d w a s a s p e c i a l t y of t h e

T h e u n u s u a l , r e m a r k a b l y a n i m a t e d f o r m of t h i s e w e r —

F o n t a n a and, later, P a t a n a z z i w o r k s h o p s . T h e o r n a m e n t

w i t h b i z a r r e griffins w h o s e e l o n g a t e d m o u t h s f o r m p a r t

w a s i n s p i r e d b y R a p h a e l ' s frescoes of ca. 1520 i n t h e

192

35A Reverse.

194

Basin with Deucalion and Pyrrha

3 5 B Detail.

Basin with Deucalion and Pyrrha

195

e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e g r o t e s q u e s o n at least f o r t y U r b i n o
c e r a m i c s of t h i s p e r i o d c o p y e n g r a v i n g s — t h e
grotesques—by

Petites

Androuet du Cerceau

Jacques

(active

1 5 4 9 - 8 4 ) that, i n t u r n , appear to c o p y e n g r a v i n g s b y
E n e a V i c o of ca. 1 5 4 0 .

3

T h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s p r i n t

s o u r c e , p u b l i s h e d first i n 1550 a n d l a t e r i n 1562 a n d
k n o w n to h a v e b e e n u s e d o n U r b i n o c e r a m i c s b y 1 5 6 3 /
m u s t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e p r e v a l e n c e a n d p o p u l a r i t y of
U r b i n o grotesques.
N o t o n l y the painted e m b e l l i s h m e n t but also the
f o r m s of F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p c e r a m i c s reflect t h e n e w , or­
n a t e s t y l e of t h e m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . O v a l trays, re­
freshment

coolers, basins,

a n d jars w e r e

molded in

h i g h l y d e c o r a t i v e , s c u l p t u r a l , a n d o f t e n f a n t a s t i c shapes,
m u c h l i k e t h e elegant g r o t e s q u e s t h a t o r n a m e n t

them.

T h e M u s e u m ' s b a s i n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t h o u g h t
to b e l o n g to a s e r v i c e of m a i o l i c a w a r e e x e c u t e d

by

O r a z i o for D u k e G u i d o b a l d o II d e l l a R o v e r e of U r b i n o ,
a l t h o u g h n o p r o o f of t h i s c o m m i s s i o n has c o m e to l i g h t .

5

It is k n o w n t h a t O r a z i o a n d F l a m i n i o s e n t m a i o l i c a to
F r a n c e s c o de' M e d i c i i n 1569 a n d 1573, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n ­
cluding examples

decorated

with

grotesques.

6

Three

m o l d e d o v a l b a s i n s e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h c o m p a r a b l e narra­
t i v e scenes a n d g r o t e s q u e s o n a w h i t e g r o u n d are i n t h e
M u s e o Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello, Florence,
3 5 c Fontana workshop (Orazio or Flaminio). Ewer, ca. 1565-75. Tin-glazed
earthenware. Courtesy of the Huntington Library Art Collections, and
Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California.

7

and

appear to h a v e e n t e r e d t h e B a r g e l l o f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i o n s
of F r a n c e s c o I, C a r d i n a l F e r d i n a n d o , a n d D o n A n t o n i o
de' M e d i c i .

8

A fourth s u c h b a s i n was i n the S c h l o s s m u -

s e u m , B e r l i n , u n t i l t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , at w h i c h t i m e
it was destroyed.
V a t i c a n Logge, w h i c h , i n t u r n , were i n s p i r e d by w a l l
paintings i n ancient

R o m a n houses,

s u c h as

Nero's

9

T h i s b a s i n is o n e of a g r o u p of s i x of i d e n t i c a l f o r m
d e c o r a t e d w i t h s o m e c o m b i n a t i o n of a n a l o g o u s g r o t e s q u e

G o l d e n H o u s e , t h a t h a d b e e n d i s c o v e r e d a r o u n d 1500.

o r n a m e n t a n d n a r r a t i v e scenes. I n a d d i t i o n to t h e G e t t y

T h a t these houses were excavated f r o m beneath

basin, these i n c l u d e examples i n the B r i t i s h M u s e u m ,

the

g r o u n d i n g r o t t o - l i k e s e t t i n g s gave r i s e to t h e n a m e of

London; Wadsworth A t h e n e u m , Hartford, Connecticut;

t h e i r w a l l d e c o r a t i o n . T h e s e s o - c a l l e d R a p h a e l e s q u e or

A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m , O x f o r d ; M u s e e d u L o u v r e , Paris;

g r o t e s q u e m o t i f s b e c a m e g r e a t l y s o u g h t after for l u x u r y

a n d a f i f t h t h a t s o l d at a u c t i o n i n 1995 a n d h a d b e e n p a r t

ceramic decoration.

of t h e V e n e z i a n i c o l l e c t i o n , R o m e .

1 0

W i t h i n this group,

painted

t h e l o b e s of g r o t e s q u e o r n a m e n t s u r r o u n d e d b y m a r i n e

d e c o r a t i o n of e l a b o r a t e c e r a m i c f o r m s , f o r c i n g t h e m o r e

m o t i f s of t h e G e t t y b a s i n m a t c h m o s t c l o s e l y t h o s e of

T h e s e g r o t e s q u e s b e g a n to d o m i n a t e

the

t r a d i t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e n a r r a t i v e scenes i n t o c i r c u m ­

t h e b a s i n i n H a r t f o r d , w h e r e a s s e v e r a l of t h e f r a m i n g

s c r i b e d m e d a l l i o n s or c a r t o u c h e s . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h

m o t i f s , i n c l u d i n g t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the l o b e s i n t o

196

Basin with Deucalion and Pyuha

has

i n h e r i t e d the Fontana materials w h e n O r a z i o died i n
1571 i s n o t k n o w n .
O t h e r b a s i n s of t h i s s h a p e — e i t h e r p r o d u c e d i n t h e
s a m e or a s i m i l a r m o l d as t h e s i x l i s t e d above b u t w i t h
less p r e c i s e l y r e n d e r e d p a i n t i n g — i n c l u d e e x a m p l e s i n
t h e M u s e o C o r r e r , Venice,- M u s e o N a z i o n a l e d i S a n
M a r t i n o , Naples,- M u s e e d u L o u v r e , P a r i s , d e p o s i t e d at
t h e C h a t e a u d ' A z a y - l e - R i d e a u ; a n d o n e t h a t s o l d at auc­
tion i n 1981.

1 4

Notes
1.

When the objects entered the stock of Duveen Brothers in 1913 or 1914,
the price of the ewer was $5,000 and that of the basin was $719.44 (Du­
veen 1876-1981, no. 960015, box 10, New York Stock, 1914-15, 153).

2.

Duveen 1876-1981, no. 960015, box 20, New York Stock, 1926, sales
book folio 783.

3.

3 5D Deucalion and Pyrrha. P. 23, fol. 1 I R from Ovid, Metamorphoses
(Lyons, 1559). Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute, Special
Collections, inv. 85-B8407.

Poke 2001, 332-44.

4.

Poke 2001, 332, 334.

5.

Spallazani 1979, i n .

6.

Spallazani 1979, 115-18.

7.

Conti 1971 A , nos. 21, 48, 54. The Bargello collection includes twentynine other related Urbino basins, pitchers, vases, plates, coolers, and

s h e l l s , r e s e m b l e t h e e x - V e n e z i a n i e x a m p l e . T h e gro­

flasks traditionally identified as belonging to a service made for

tesques o n t h e b a s i n s i n t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m , London,-

Guidobaldo II (Conti 1971A, nos. 2-13, 15, 17-18, 24-25, 27, 34, 39,

the A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m , Oxford; and the M u s e e d u L o u ­

44-46, 49-52, 57-58).

vre, P a r i s , c o p y v a r i o u s p o r t i o n s of d u C e r c e a u ' s
grotesques

Petites

8.

p r i n t s , w i t h t h e grotesques o n t h e f o r m e r t w o

being identical.

vere on the occasion of her marriage to Ferdinando II de' Medici in 1637

S o u r c e s for t h e grotesques o n t h e G e t t y

1 1

(Passeri 1758, chap. 13; Vita 1924-25, 171, 182 n. 15; Rackham 1940,
no. 846. See also Fortnum 1873, 321 Falke 1907, n - 1 3 ; Spallanzani

basin have not been identified.

;

O f great i n t e r e s t i s t h e fact t h a t t h e b a s i n i n t h e
L o u v r e b e l o n g e d to a s e r v i c e m a d e for D u k e A l f o n s o II

1979, 111-12).
9.

Hausmann 1974, pi. 35a.

10.

Wilson 1987A, 153, 241; Rasmussen and Watson 1987, no. 14; Louvre
inv. O A 1467; Giacomotti 1974, 358, 361, no. 1081; sale cat., Christie's,

d ' E s t e of F e r r a r a w h i c h i s c o n v i n c i n g l y a t t r i b u t e d to t h e
s l i g h t l y l a t e r P a t a n a z z i w o r k s h o p of U r b i n o , r a t h e r t h a n
the

Fontana.

1 2

Spallanzani 1978, n 1-26; Spallanzani 1980, 78, 80-81, 84, 86. Other
pieces may have arrived in Florence from Urbino with Vittoria della Ro-

T h e relationship between

these

two

London, June 12, 1995, lot 367.
11.

Poke 2001, 336, 341, 343-44, nos. 13, 18, 36.

12.

The loose, sketchy quality of this work's painted decoration is quite dif­

w o r k s h o p s has y e t to be f u l l y e x a m i n e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d .

ferent from the more precise designs of the Fontana and is associated,

P r o f e s s i o n a l as w e l l as p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s

rather, with ceramics made in the Urbino Patanazzi workshop

among

p o t t e r s w e r e c o m m o n . It i s k n o w n , for e x a m p l e , t h a t
Giovanni
Sbraghe's
Antonio,

Patanazzi

married

Nicola

di

Gabriele

s i s t e r i n 1515 (see n o . 25) a n d t h a t h i s s o n ,
appears

to

have

collaborated w i t h

F o n t a n a o n at least o n e o c c a s i o n .

1 3

Orazio

W h e t h e r the t w o

w o r k s h o p s shared tools and materials (including

(ca. 1580-1625).
13.

Negroni 1998, 105-7.

14.

Correr inv. no. 789 CI IV, no. n o ; Fittipaldi 1992, no. 652; Giacomotti
1974, 258 (cited in entry for no. 1081); sale cat., Christie's, London, Feb­
ruary 23, 1981, lot 130. This list of the so-called swan-back basins was
compiled by Timothy Wilson, and I thank him for allowing me to pub­
lish it.

the

m o l d for t h i s b a s i n , for e x a m p l e ) as w e l l as a s i m i l a r
p a i n t i n g s t y l e ( c o m p o s e d of d e l i c a t e grotesques

on a

w h i t e ground) or w h e t h e r t h e P a t a n a z z i t o o k o v e r or

Basin with Deucalion and Pyrrha

197

36

Pilgrim Flask
M e d i c i P o r c e l a i n Factory (1575-early

bisque firing but before the decoration had been

EXHIBITIONS

applied. (That the ceramists found no need to

Exposition retrospective du Trocadero, Paris, 1878

mend or redo the chipped body is proof that they

(Darcel 1878, 762).

were well satisfied with such a successfully

seventeenth century)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

formed and fired, albeit blemished, object in this

Florence

Jacquemart 1859, 276; Jacquemart and Blant 1862,

experimental medium.)

15 80s

644, no. 5; Foresi 1869, 1511, 29 (erroneously lists

PROVENANCE

Baron Gustave de Rothschild, Paris, as owner),

Soft-paste p o r c e l a i n

William Blundell Spence, Florence, sold to

reprint from Piovani Arlotto (July 1859); Darcel

H : 26.4 c m (io /s in.)

A. Foresi, 1857; Alessandro Foresi, Florence, sold

1878, 762; Davillier 1882, 39-41, 114-15, no. 29;

to G . Freppa; [Giovanni Freppa, Florence, sold to

Grollier 1914, 1: no. 2309; Ricci 1919, 29, no. 22

3

D i a m (at lip): 4 c m (1V16 in.)

E. Piot]; Eugene Piot, Paris (sold, Hotel des Com-

W (max.): 20 c m (7% in.)

(also states erroneously that flask belonged to

missaires-Priseurs, Paris, March 19, i860, lot 82,

Gustave de Rothschild and was passed to his son,

86.DE.630

to M . A . de Rothschild); Baron (Mayer) Alphonse

Robert); Liverani 1936, 31, no. 28; Lane 1954, 5,

de Rothschild (1827-1905), Paris,- by inheritance to

pi. 3C; GettyMusJ 15 (1987): 216-17, no. 115;

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On the underside, the dome of Santa Maria dei
Fiori accompanied by F a mark resembling 3
}

scratched under the glaze and painted with blue

Baron Edouard (Alphonse James) de Rothschild

Hess 1988A, no. 36; Le Corbeiller 1988A, 119-26;

(1868-1949), Paris; appears to have been looted

Masterpieces 1997, 27, no. 18; Mariaux 1995, 118;

from Rothschild's collection by the Nazis and then

Thornton 1998, 29, pi. 47; Museum Handbook

restituted to him after the war by the French gov­

2001, 244; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 374.

ernment; by inheritance to Baron Guy (Edouard

glaze; on the rim, three hatch marks inscribed

Alphonse Paul) (b. 1909) and Baroness Marie-

before the glaze firing.

Helene (i927-1999) de Rothschild, Paris, sold
to Curarrow Corp.; [Curarrow Corporation N . V ,

CONDITION

Firing crack in the lip (fig. 36c) and small chip on

Curacao, Antilles, sold to the J. Paul Getty

the rim of the foot, which occurred after the

Museum, 1986].

THIS

FLASK

IS O N E O F T H E E A R L I E S T

porcelain made i n Europe.

EXAMPLES

Produced i n the

of

n e v e r u s e d to s u s p e n d t h e object f r o m a p i l g r i m ' s s h o u l ­

Medici

der, a s s u m e t h e f o r m of s a t y r s ' m a s k s (fig. 3 6 B ) , reflect­

p o r c e l a i n f a c t o r y i n F l o r e n c e , i t i s o n e of o n l y s i x t y - o d d

i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e of m a i o l i c a w a r e s f r o m U r b i n o d a t i n g

objects t h a t r e m a i n t o d a y f r o m p e r h a p s t h e t h r e e h u n ­

to t h e 1560s a n d 1570s (see n o . 34). T h e flask c o m b i n e s

d r e d t h a t w e r e m a d e at t h i s f a c t o r y .

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of

this typically Italian Renaissance form w i t h decoration

M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n w a r e s are t h e s i g n s of t h e i r e x p e r i m e n ­

f r o m t h e East, s p e c i f i c a l l y C h i n e s e b l u e a n d w h i t e p o r c e ­

t a l n a t u r e : t h e w h i t e c l a y base o f t e n d i s p l a y s a p i n k or

l a i n of t h e e a r l y M i n g d y n a s t y ( 1 3 6 8 - 1 6 4 4 ) (fig. 3 6 E ) a n d

gray cast; t h e p i g m e n t i s f r e q u e n t l y b l u r r e d , w i t h s m a l l

T u r k i s h I z n i k w a r e d a t i n g f r o m a b o u t 1500 (fig. 3 6 F ) .

1

2

5

b u b b l e s or a w i d e crackle,- a n d t h e c l a y b o d y is s o m e ­

M i n g p o r c e l a i n w a s a p a r t i c u l a r f a v o r i t e i n Italy,

t i m e s m i s s h a p e n , h a v i n g sagged o u t of s h a p e w h e n t h e

p a r t l y b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r e d to u n i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b o t h

object w a s f i r e d . T h e M u s e u m ' s f l a s k is a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y

p o t t e r y (sturdiness, c o l o r f u l n e s s ) a n d glass

b e a u t i f u l p i e c e s i n c e i t d i s p l a y s t h e f i n e s t q u a l i t i e s of

t r a n s l u c e n c y ) , t w o crafts I t a l i a n a r t i s t s h a d m a s t e r e d b y

M e d i c i porcelain, including a well-formed,

the late fifteenth century.

translucent

6

(refinement,

I n d e e d I t a l i a n m a i o l i c a ce­

w h i t e body decorated w i t h clear designs i n b l u e under-

r a m i s t s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y a w a r e of t h e s e C h i n e s e w a r e s

glaze, e v i d e n c e of a r e s t r a i n e d a n d s e n s i t i v e t o u c h . T h e

to a t t e m p t to i m i t a t e t h e m i n t h e i r alia porcellana

p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e q u a l i t y of t h i s f l a s k c a n be a s s o c i a t e d

e n w a r e d e c o r a t i o n (see, for e x a m p l e , n o . L 9 ) .

w i t h a p a i r of s i m i l a r l y d e c o r a t e d b o t t l e s d a t e d 15 8 1 .

3

A l t h o u g h i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t p l a t e s of M e d i c i p o r c e ­

However,

the

predominant

arabesques and the s t y l i z e d

floral

decoration

earth­
of

blue

embellishment—in­

l a i n w e r e u s e d at t h e d i n n e r t a b l e , g i v e n i t s p r e c i o u s n e s s

c l u d i n g rose, c a r n a t i o n , t u l i p , a n d p a l m e t t e

and

have

pears to be d e r i v e d f r o m a t y p e of p o t t e r y m a d e at I z n i k

s e r v e d as a d i s p l a y p i e c e . T h e a p p l i e d s i d e l o o p s , c e r t a i n l y

i n T u r k e y ( n o r t h e a s t of I s t a n b u l ) t h a t i s c o m p o s e d of a

4

198

chiefly

ornamental

shape, t h i s

flask

must

motifs—ap­

36A Alternate view.

200

Pilgrim Flask

36c Detail of mouth of flask.

36B Alternate view.

w h i t e , s l i p - c o v e r e d f r i t paste r a t h e r t h a n p o r c e l a i n . T r a d e
w i t h the O t t o m a n Empire, extending throughout
M i d d l e East a n d N o r t h A f r i c a ,

brought

the

ornamented

goods, p o s s i b l y i n c l u d i n g c e r a m i c s , t o I t a l y .

7

I n docu­

m e n t s , I z n i k w a r e s a n d C h i n e s e p o r c e l a i n can be i n d i s ­
t i n g u i s h a b l e , b o t h b e i n g referred t o i n v a r i o u s
o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , as porcellana

or

ways,

domaschino.

8

B y t h e m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , these p o r c e l a i n a n d
p o r c e l a i n l i k e c e r a m i c s f r o m t h e East w e r e m a k i n g t h e i r
w a y i n t o c o l l e c t i o n s of t h e E u r o p e a n e l i t e . I n Italy, l a t e
fifteenth-century and early sixteenth-century

invento­

ries of t h e S t r o z z i , P o r t i n a r i , M a r t e l l i , a n d o t h e r i m p o r ­
tant Florentine families include porcelain among

the

objects l i s t e d . M o s t n o t a b l e w a s t h e c o l l e c t i o n b e g u n b y
9

Piero a n d h i s s o n L o r e n z o de' M e d i c i . B y m i d - c e n t u r y
t h e M e d i c i c o l l e c t i o n of p o r c e l a i n n u m b e r e d i n t h e h u n ­
dreds of objects, m a n y of w h i c h h a d b e e n sent as d i p l o ­
m a t i c gifts f r o m i m p o r t a n t Far a n d M i d d l e E a s t e r n e r s .

10

T h e a r r i v a l of f i n e c e r a m i c s f r o m C h i n a a n d t h e I s l a m i c
w o r l d m u s t have f u r t h e r fostered t h e taste for these l u x ­
u r i o u s a n d h a r d - t o - c o m e - b y objects. I t is n o t s u r p r i s i n g ,
therefore, t h a t m o r e t h a n one I t a l i a n c o u r t endeavored t o
36D Underside.

manufacture porcelain locally.

Pilgrim Flask

201

In the late

fifteenth

and early sixteenth centuries,

V e n e t i a n a t t e m p t s at p o r c e l a i n p r o d u c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n
e x a m p l e s t h a t appear t o be n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a
lana

contrefacta

glass p a i n t e d w i t h e n a m e l c o l o r s .

lattimo

porcel-

( c o u n t e r f e i t p o r c e l a i n ) of opaque w h i t e
11

Contempo­

r a r y sources suggest t h a t Ferrarese p o t t e r s

produced

p o r c e l a i n i n t h e 1560s a n d 1570s, a l t h o u g h n o n e of these
vessels have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d , a n d a r e c i p e of 1583 f r o m
Ferrara i n t h e M o d e n a a r c h i v e s i d e n t i f i e s t h e " p o r c e l a i n "
m a t e r i a l as m a d e of t h e same w h i t e t i n glaze a n d
clay t h a t were used to m a k e earthenware m a i o l i c a .

fine
1 2

A f t e r h e h a d p u r c h a s e d t h e Palazzo P i t t i i n 1550,
G r a n d D u k e C o s i m o I de' M e d i c i b u i l t w o r k s h o p s be­
h i n d i t t o encourage t h e r e c o n d i t e arts of t a p e s t r y w e a v ­
ing,

c r y s t a l c a r v i n g , pietra

dura

mosaic, and porcelain

p r o d u c t i o n . B e r n a r d o B u o n t a l e n t i w a s a p p a r e n t l y t h e su­
p e r v i s o r f o r m o s t of t h e g r a n d duke's a r t i s t i c v e n t u r e s ,
a n d G i o r g i o Vasari, w r i t i n g of B u o n t a l e n t i i n 1568, pre­
d i c t e d t h a t he " w i l l be m a k i n g vessels of p o r c e l a i n i n a
s h o r t t i m e , " i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n o n e y e t e x i s t e d . O n l y after
t h e g r a n d duke's d e a t h i n 1574 w a s p o r c e l a i n finally p r o ­

36E Vase. China, beginning of the sixteenth century. Hard-paste
porcelain, H : 36 cm ( 1 4 in.). Florence, Palazzo Pitti, Museo
degli Argenti. Photo: Antonio Quattrone. This Chinese blue
and white vase was the type of porcelain collected by the
Medici. It appears to have entered the Medici collection i n
the sixteenth century and was only recently rediscovered in
an armoire in the Palazzo Pitti.

d u c e d i n t h e B o b o l i G a r d e n w o r k s h o p s u n d e r t h e pa­
t r o n a g e of h i s son, Francesco I . I n 1575 A n d r e a G u s s o n i ,
a V e n e t i a n ambassador t o Florence, w r o t e t h a t Francesco
h a d r e d i s c o v e r e d t h e m e t h o d of m a k i n g p o r c e l a i n a n d
t h a t a " L e v a n t i n e " (elsewhere referred t o as "a G r e e k
w h o had traveled to the Indies") helped teach h o w to pro­
duce i t .

1 3

T h i s porcelain production apparently contin­

u e d f o r a f e w decades f o l l o w i n g Francesco's d e a t h i n
1587,

after w h i c h i t f e l l i n t o o b l i v i o n . S u r p r i s i n g l y , a l ­

m o s t a c e n t u r y passed before soft-paste p o r c e l a i n was
r e i n v e n t e d at R o u e n — b y L o u i s P o t e r a t — a n d
Saint-Cloud i n the 1670s.

t h e n at

14

I t w a s t h e G e t t y f l a s k t h a t , c e n t u r i e s later, h e l p e d
M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n r e g a i n i t s f a m e . W h i l e v i s i t i n g t h e Flo­
r e n t i n e s t u d i o of t h e E n g l i s h a r t dealer, c o l l e c t o r , a n d
p a i n t e r W i l l i a m B l u n d e l l Spence i n 1857, t h e

dealer

A l e s s a n d r o Foresi n o t i c e d t h e G e t t y f l a s k s i t t i n g o n a
chest of drawers, w h e r e i t was b e i n g u s e d t o h o l d p a i n t
brushes.

15

A l t h o u g h Spence t h o u g h t i t was a piece of

m a i o l i c a f r o m Faenza, Foresi r e c o g n i z e d t h e m a t e r i a l as
p o r c e l a i n , t h i n k i n g i t m i g h t be f r o m t h e G i n o r i f a c t o r y
at D o c c i a w h o s e objects h a d once b e e n l i k e w i s e m a r k e d

202

Pilgrim Flask

36F Plate. Turkey (Iznik), ca. 1 5 7 0 . Earthenware, Diam: 3 2 . 8 cm (13/4 in.).
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, inv. x . 3 2 6 7 .

w i t h Brunelleschi's cathedral cupola.

1 6

He consulted

passage o n G i n o r i p o r c e l a i n i n M a r c o L a s t r i ' s

L'osserva-

of native (Faentine and Urbinate) ceramics.
7.

to discover t h a t the M e d i c i had produced

tore fiorentino

o b j e c t s o f p o r c e l a i n at t h e e n d o f t h e s i x t e e n t h
"non

numbered around four hundred i n 1 5 5 3 and far exceeded their collection

a

senza

merito"

(not

without

merit)

"v'e ancora c h i ne conserva qualche
segno d e l l a C u p o l a

lain designs (M. Rogers as cited i n National Gallery 1 9 9 3 , 2 3 8 n. 9 ) .

century

and

that

8.

many Chinese wares arrived i n Italy via the Islamic world and were of­

rovescio,

ten not distinguished from the Islamic ceramics that accompanied them
to Italy. See Spallanzani 1 9 7 8 , especially chaps. 2 - 3 .

c o l l a l e t t e r a F " (fig. 3 6 D ) (a f e w pieces, m a r k e d w i t h t h e
c a t h e d r a l ' s d o m e a n d t h e l e t t e r F, are s t i l l k e p t i n p r i v a t e
collections).

Foresi p u b l i s h e d his discovery,

1 7

arousing
and

a passion for t h i s rare p o r c e l a i n a m o n g European
American collectors.

1 8

O n e finds t h e largest c o l l e c t i o n s of M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n
in

the

Victoria

and

Albert

Museum,

London

9.

Spallanzani 1 9 7 8 , 4 9 - 5 5.

10.

Spallanzani

11.

Lorenzetti 1 9 2 0 , 2 4 8 ; Schmidt 1 9 2 2 , fig. 5 6 .

12.

Campori

Lane 1 9 5 4 , 3 .

14.

A curious addendum to Medici porcelain production before the late sev­

Metropolitan Museum

pieces).
flasks

19

are

Only

three

other

of

Art, New

Medici

York

porcelain

k n o w n t o e x i s t : t w o are

L o u v r e , Paris, a n d d i s p l a y t y p i c a l l y

i n the

1638 (Lane

1954, 6 - 7 ,

figs. 4 a - b ) . Arthur Lane

(1954, 6 - 7 )

believes that

proving either their origin or date has been found.
15.

Spence recounts that Foresi "got from me a very valuable specimen of
the very early blue and white Florentine china. It was brought to my
studio by a man for sale. I thought i t was Chinese and kept my brushes

du

in it. Nobody seemed to notice or value it. Now, Foresi had read about

Chinese-influenced

the china made by the Grand Duke Francesco and the mark of the

l a n d s c a p e decoration,- o n e is i n t h e V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t
M u s e u m , L o n d o n , w i t h a candelieh

1954, 2 - 3 .

they may have been executed in Padua, but no evidence proving or dis­

pilgrim

Musee

Lane

enteenth century consists of two small porcelaneous bowls in the Victo­

and
(four

1871, 31-33;

ria and Albert Museum, London, inscribed I.G.P.F. 1627 and G.C.P.F.

pieces); t h e M u s e e N a t i o n a l de C e r a m i q u e , Sevres ( e i g h t

the

1978, 5 5 - 6 8 .

13.

(nine

pieces); t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m , L o n d o n ( f o u r pieces);

These terms most often indicate Far Eastern and Near Eastern (via the
market in Damascus) ceramics, respectively. Further confusing matters,

pezzo, e p o r t a i l

della M e t r o p o l i t a n a n e l

One scholar believes that Egyptian ceramics, rather than Turkish,
might have been a more probable source of inspiration for Medici porce­

cupola of Florence and had examined the piece once or twice and saw

g r o t e s q u e decora­

the mark. He comes to the studio one day and, after praising my paint­

t i o n and, l i k e t h e present w o r k , a p p l i e d m a s k s for t h e lat­

ing, says, 'What do you do w i t h that bit of china? It w i l l be broken very

eral loops. O n l y the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s

flask

displays

the

M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n f a c t o r y m a r k of a c a t h e d r a l d o m e

and

t h e l e t t e r F (for F r a n c e s c o I d e ' M e d i c i ) o n t h e

soon. Sell i t to me.' I said, 'It cost me 3 0 lire. You may have i t for the
same.' 'Thirty-five lire/ said he and pulled out the money. He wrapped
up the bit of china—a sort of hunting flask—and departed in a great

underside.

hurry. A few days later I heard he had sold i t to Freppa for 1,500 francs.
Rothschild bought i t from Freppa for, I think,

T h e c a t h e d r a l - d o m e m a r k is p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e a n d b e a u ­
tifully painted, w i t h exceptional attention to detail. The

more information on Spence see Fleming

o t h e r flasks are u n m a r k e d , a l t h o u g h t h e u n d e r s i d e o f o n e
of t h e L o u v r e flasks ( i n v . O A 3103) is i n s c r i b e d w i t h
w o r d prova

the

999/

1

16.

338-48;

Kerr-Lawson

or

4,000

francs" (British

1979, 4 9 2 - 5 0 8 ;

Callmann

1904, 3 1 0 - 1 1 ) .

Such as on a large plate of ca. 1 7 4 5 i n the Musee des arts decoratifs,
Paris (Ginori Lisci

(trial), suggesting t h a t i t was an early experi­

mental piece.

3

Museum Add MSS.89900.270, as cited in Fleming 1 9 7 9 , 505 n. 8 1 . For

1963, 48, 2 4 8 - 4 9 ,

fig.

24,

no.

6).

The mark on a

Medici porcelain plate in the Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche,

2 0

Faenza, was even misidentified as belonging to the Doccia factory as re­
cently as 1 9 9 8 (Burresi 1 9 9 8 , 1 9 ) .

1.

Notes

17.

Lastri

1 8 2 1 , 1: 1 9 4 - 9 5 .

For a concise discussion of the history and development of Medici

18.

Foresi

1869, 1 5 - 1 8

porcelain and its appeal i n sixteenth-century Italy see Lightbown 1 9 8 0 ,

19.

Most of the Medici objects known to exist are reproduced i n Cora and

20.

Other Medici porcelain marks include F surrounded by the letters

Spallanzani

1990, 3 1 6 - 1 7 , 319.

3.

Le Corbeiller 1 9 8 8A, 1 2 6 .

4.

See Spallanzani 1 9 9 4 , 1 3 0 ; Mallet 1 9 9 8 , 2 6 0 , no. 2 4 .

5.

See, for example, Rackham

6.

1859]).

Fanfani 1 9 8 6 .

458-65.
2.

(reprinted from Piovano Arlotto [July

M.M.D.E. II, for "Franciscus Medicis Magnus Dux Etruriae Secundus"
1959,

pis.

20-96;

Fiocco et al.

(on a ewer i n the Louvre), and six balls inscribed F M M E D II, for
1986, 6 6 - 6 9 ;

"Franciscus Medicis Magnus Etruriae Dux Secundus" (on a plate in the

Savage and Newman 1 9 8 5 , 1 5 9 .

Metropolitan Museum of Art and on a large ewer in the Baron Elie de

For an incisive and thorough examination of the Medicis' love for and

Rothschild collection, Paris).

extensive collection of Eastern, especially Chinese, ceramics, see
Spallanzani

1978;

Spallanzani

1980, 7 3 - 9 4 ;

according to these sources,

documents establish that the Medicis' collection of Chinese ceramics

Pilgrim Flask

203

37

Drug Jar for Mithridate
and Drug Jar for Theriac
A t t r i b u t e d t o A n n i b a l e Fontana
(1540-1587)

1

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

ered with a layer of Prussian blue, the latter in use

None.

only after the early eighteenth century.

CONDITION

PROVENANCE

The two lids exhibit a number of breaks and

[Mario Tazzoli, London, sold to Siran Holding

repairs. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that ini­

Corporation],- [Siran Holding Corporation, Geneva,

tially the jars were completely oil-gilded; this

sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

1990].

surface was later completely covered w i t h lead-

N o r t h e r n I t a l y (possibly M i l a n )

white paint; finally the figural elements were oil-

ca. 1580

gilded (rendering its present white and gilt

Terra-cotta w i t h w h i t e paint and gilt

surface). The objects underwent thermolumines-

EXHIBITIONS

None.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

exterior and lead-glazed interiors

cence analysis in 1 9 9 0 , returning a result that the

GettyMusf

[.1] H ( w i t h lid): 60 c m (23 /s in.)

material is consistent with the expected age of the

logue 1 9 9 3 , 2 i i , no. 3 6 7 ; Fusco 1 9 9 7 , 2 3 ; Master­

objects (i.e., that the material was last fired be­

pieces 1 9 9 7 , 2 3 , no. 15; Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 ,

tween 3 2 0 and 4 9 0 years ago [.1] and between 3 2 0

no.

5

D i a m (max.): 39.4 c m c m (15 Vi in.)
[.2] H ( w i t h lid): 60 c m (23 /s in.)

and

D i a m (max.): 39 c m (15 % in.)

on both jars have two layers of white oil-paint cov­

5

500

years ago

[.2]).

375;

19 ( 1 9 9 1 ) : 1 6 4 ,

no.

Fogelman and Fusco

57

;

Summary Cata­

2002,

no.

13.

The lower front cartouches

90.SC.42.1-.2

T H E S E E L A B O R A T E L Y M O D E L E D D R U G JARS were made

w r o t e t h e r e c i p e d o w n i n t h e f o r m o f verse, w h i c h w a s

t o c o n t a i n specific m e d i c i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n s .

preserved a n d discussed b y G a l e n of P e r g a m u m

2

T h e prepara­

(A.D.

t i o n s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d t h a n k s t o t h e jars' r e l i e f scenes de­

1 2 9 - ca. 2 1 6 ) . G a l e n p r e s e n t s t h e r i a c , as w e l l as h i s o w n

p i c t i n g t h e o r i g i n s of t h e d r u g each w a s i n t e n d e d t o store.

v e r s i o n o f t h e a n t i d o t e c a l l e d G a l e n e , i n several b o o k s .

T h e s e scenes m a y w e l l c o p y a s - y e t - u n i d e n t i f i e d p r i n t
sources. T h e

first

Mithhdaticum,

jar was made t o h o l d

4

5

T h e w o r k o f G r e e k w r i t e r s a n d p h y s i c i a n s , s u c h as

antidotum

D i o s c o r i d e s ( A . D . 4 0 - c a . 90) a n d C l a u d i u s G a l e n ( A . D .

or m i t h r i d a t e , named for i t s inventor,

1 3 0 - ca. 201), g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d m e d i c a l t h e o r y a n d

M i t h r i d a t e s Eupator V I , k i n g of Pontus (120-163 B . C . ;

practice

reigned f r o m i n B . C . ) , whose image surmounts t h e l i d .

seventeenth century. T h e late medieval revival of inter­

i n Europe

from

the twelfth

to the m i d -

A n amateur pharmacist fearful of being poisoned b y h i s

est i n c l a s s i c a l b o t a n y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e c o v e r y o f

e n e m i e s , as w a s c o m m o n i n a n c i e n t p o l i t i c a l warfare,

ancient texts o n t h e m e d i c i n a l value of plants, l e d t o a

M i t h r i d a t e s concocted h i s o w n antidote. H e ingested

r e n e w e d i n t e r e s t i n p h a r m a c o l o g y . I m p o r t a n t f o r t h e de­

t h i s a n t i d o t e o n a d a i l y basis after first t e s t i n g i t s p o w e r s

v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s materia

on criminals condemned

was the retrieval of

medica

t o death. F o l l o w i n g a failed

p l a n t s d i s c u s s e d b y t h e a n c i e n t scholars, m o s t o f w h i c h

m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n against t h e R o m a n E m p i r e , t h e k i n g

c a m e f r o m t h e e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n . For t h i s r e a s o n

decided t o c o m m i t suicide rather t h a n become a R o m a n

Venice, w i t h i t s c o m m e r c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l ties t o t h e

subject. B u t because o f h i s d i e t o f m i t h r i d a t e , t h e k i n g

M i d d l e East, b e c a m e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c e n t e r f o r t h e

w a s n o t affected b y t h e p o i s o n h e h a d s w a l l o w e d , a n d so

r e c u p e r a t i o n o f t h e r i a c a n d m i t h r i d a t e (figs.

M i t h r i d a t e s was forced t o have h i m s e l f slain b y one of

C o n c e r n over t h e q u a l i t y a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e s e drugs

his o w n guards.

l e d V e n e t i a n officals i n 1172 a n d a g a i n i n 1258 t o o r d e r

3

T h e second j a r h e l d theriaca

Andromachi,

or the­

37E —F).

t h a t t h e drugs be p r e p a r e d i n t h e presence o f m u n i c i p a l

riac, n a m e d f o r A n d r o m a c h u s , c o u r t p h y s i c i a n t o t h e

authorities.

R o m a n e m p e r o r N e r o (reigned A . D . 5 4 - 6 8 ) . C o m m a n d e d

cally featured l a v i s h ceremony, w i t h t h e city's p o l i t i c a l

b y N e r o t o revise M i t h r i d a t e s

elixir, Andro­

and religious authorities present. I n h i s diary entry for

m a c h u s added dozens o f n e w i n g r e d i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e

M a r c h 2 3 , 1646, B r i t i s h g e n t l e m a n a n d w r i t e r J o h n Eve­

7

famous

6

T h e c o m p o u n d i n g o f these a n t i d o t e s t y p i ­
7

f l e s h of v i p e r s . A s a r e s u l t t h i s a n t i d o t e was b e t t e r - s u i t e d

l y n w r i t e s , " H a v i n g packed u p m y purchases of books,

t h a n m i t h r i d a t e t o counteract snake bites. A n d r o m a c h u s

p i c t u r e s , glasses, t r e a c l e [i.e., t h e r i a c ] ( t h e m a k i n g a n d

O P P O S I T E : 37

204

[.1]

3 7 A Alternate view of [. i ].

206

Drug Jars

3 7 B Alternate view of [. i ].

Drug Jars

2QJ

37c Alternate view of [.2].

37D Alternate view of [.2].

extraordinary ceremony whereof I had been curious to

figures o n t h e jar a n d aspects of t h e l a t e w o r k of Jacopo

observe, for ' t i s e x t r e m e l y p o m p o u s a n d w o r t h seeing) I

Sansovino ( i 4 8 6 - 1 5 7 0 ) ,

departed V e n i c e /

p r o d u c e d i n t h e V e n e t o b y one of Sansovino s f o l l o w e r s .

7

The resulting compounds

i n paste

1 0

i t is p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e jars w e r e
7

1 1

f o r m w e r e d r i e d " f o r fifteen days . . . i n a vessel of lead,

T h e figures

glass, or g o l d /

a n d t h e v i g o r o u s l y f o r m e d y e t elegant n u d e s of s l i g h t l y

7 8

T h e G e t t y jars, w i t h t h e i r lead-glazed i n ­

7

d a n c e l i k e poses, t h e a n i m a t e d r e l i e f scenes,

teriors, c o u l d have been used i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u m p t u ­

a t t e n u a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s — a t once sensuous a n d b i z a r r e —

ous p r e p a r a t i o n c e r e m o n y .

are t y p i c a l of M a n n e r i s m a n d are m o s t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d

T h e elaborate s t r a p w o r k , m a s k s , a n d t h e r e l i e f a n d
figural

o r n a m e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e a r i c h s a m p l i n g of I t a l i a n

t o t h e w o r k of t h e M i l a n e s e s c u l p t o r A n n i b a l e F o n t a n a
(fig. 3 7 G ) .

1 2

(By t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r i a c h a d

e m b e l l i s h m e n t a r o u n d t h e t u r n of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h cen­

b e c o m e a great a r t i c l e of c o m m e r c e i n several I t a l i a n

t u r y . G i v e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s d r u g t o t h e c i t y of

cities, i n c l u d i n g M i l a n . )

1 3

Venice ( w h i c h had a long-standing m o n o p o l y o n its pro­
duction)

9

O P P O S I T E : 37

and

the

stylistic similarities between

the

[.2]

Drug Jars

209

Notes
1.

This attribution results from research done by Peter Fusco and Victoria
Avery.

2.

I would like to thank Simon Stock, Jennifer Montagu, and Richard
Palmer, London, for their assistance in studying these jars.

3.

Other contemporary accounts blame Mithridates' son and successor
Pharnaces, for Mithridates' death (Cassius Dio, Roman History, bk. 3 7 ,

37E

Georg Melich and Orazio Guarguanti. Frontispiece to Avertimenti

11 1 iff.). One source proposes that the more quixotic version was meant

nelle compositioni de' medicamenti per uso della spetiaria . . . (Venice,

to divert accusations of patricide away form the new king (McGing

1605).

Fondo Berio; Be.XVII.A.471. National Union Cat; fol.

5246.

Mithridates w i t h his mithridate and Andromachus w i t h his theriac

1986, 166

98).

C. Galen, On Antidotes, bk. 1, chaps. 1 - 2 (translated in Brock 1 9 2 9 ,

5.

These include Antidotes I, Antidotes II, and Theriake to Pamphilianus

dominate this frontispiece to a text on drug preparations that was
compiled for the dello Struzzo pharmacy i n Venice.

n.

4.

196-200).

(Watson 1 9 6 6 , 3).
37F

Salomon Kleiner (German,

1703-1761).

Illustration of a pharmacy

from Christopheri De Pauli pharmacopoei camera materialum ad
vivum delineata

(1751),

Special Collections, no.

p.

11.

Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute,

861133.

Mithridate and theriac, stored in

large and elaborate containers, are prominently displayed i n the eigh­

6.

Palmer

7.

Swann 1 9 8 5 , 4 5 7 .

8.

Carosi et al. 1 9 8 8 , 1 2 0 .

9.

Micca 1 9 7 0 , 7 0 6 .

10.

teenth-century Red Crawfish pharmacy i n Vienna designed for the

1985,

100-117.

See, for example, the elegant contortion of figures and the male facial
type in Sansovino's Resurrection relief of the Porta della Sagrestia, San

De Pauli family.

Marco, Venice, or the dynamic yet linear quality of drapery i n his Saint
Mark Dragged by Infidels relief on the Cantoria, San Marco, Venice.
11.

Suggested by Manfred Leithe-Jasper, former director, Kunsthistorisches
Museum, Vienna, in correspondence, 1 9 9 0 .

12.

This artist is not related to the Fontana family of ceramists mentioned
in nos.

34-35.

See, in particular, Fontana's Birth of the Virgin relief

in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan; Nativity relief in the ContiniBonacossi collection, Florence; and figures in cartouches on the shafts
of the candlesticks in the Certosa, Pavia.
13.

210

Drug Jars

Watson 1 9 6 6 , 1 0 2 .

37G After Annibale Fontana (Italian, 1 5 4 0 - 1 5 8 7 ) . The Adoration of the Shepherds (detail). Terra-cotta, 109.2 X 5 7 . 2 cm (43 x 22 Vi in.). Washington,
D.C., National Gallery of Art, Samuel H . Kress Foundation, inv. 1939.1.319.

Drug Jars

211

38

Candelabrum
with
Mercury and Argus and
Candelabrum
with
Perseus and Medusa

W: 34.5 c m (13 Vi in.)

sockets had been broken off; they were reattached,

D : 28 c m (11 in.)

and the joins were repaired.

[.2] H ( w i t h socle): 45.5 c m (17 A in.)

PROVENANCE

W: 33 c m (13 in.)

Private collection, England, sold to D. Katz

3

;

[Daniel Katz, London, sold to A. Moatti]; [Alain

D : 28 c m (11 in.)

Moatti, Paris, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

94.SE.76.1-.2

1994].

G i n o r i Porcelain Factory
EXHIBITIONS

(founded 1737)

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

[.1] On the underside, against the wall, I, written

Doccia (near Florence)
Gaspero Bruschi (1701-1780) after
models by G i o v a n n i Battista Foggini
(1652-1725)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[.2] On the underside, against the wall, 11, written

[.1]

after manufacture.

1996B, 2 6 - 3 7 ,

[.1] H ( w i t h socle): 45.5 c m (17 A in.)
3

SUBJECTS OF B O T H

i n O v i d ' s Metamorphoses.

GettyMusf

no. i o i ; Melegati

23 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 122,

pis.

1,

ia,

2, 2 a

;

Fusco

1997, 22.

[.2] Masterpieces 1 9 9 7 , 8 4 , no. 6 4 ; Summary

Firing cracks through the undersides of bases

Hard-paste porcelain, p a r t i a l l y g i l t

THE

after manufacture.

CONDITION

ca. 1750

None.

(figs. 38E, j). Mercury's caduceus and sword and

Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 3 7 6 ; Fogelman and Fusco
2 0 0 2 , no.

33.

Perseus's sword are missing. The candlestick

episodes

T h e figures w e r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e p o r c e l a i n f a c t o r y

T h e scene of M e r c u r y a n d A r ­

f o u n d e d at D o c c i a , near Florence, b y M a r q u i s C a r l o

G R O U P S derive f r o m

gus ( 1 : 6 6 8 - 7 2 1 ) is t a k e n f r o m t h e s t o r y of Jupiter's l o v e

G i n o r i ( 1 7 0 1 - 1 7 5 7 ) . I n 1735 G i n o r i began
1

experiments

affair w i t h t h e p r i n c e s s I o . W h e n Juno, Jupiter's w i f e , be­

t o p r o d u c e p o r c e l a i n f r o m I t a l i a n clays, a feat t h a t h a d

c a m e s u s p i c i o u s of t h e l o v e r s , J u p i t e r c h a n g e d h i s m i s ­

n o t b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d since t h e days of t h e M e d i c i fac­

tress i n t o a c o w t o disguise h e r i d e n t i t y . T o v e x t h e

t o r y i n t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y (see n o . 36). A r o u n d

c o u p l e , Juno a s k e d J u p i t e r for t h e c o w as a g i f t .

t h a t t i m e he l u r e d A n r e i t e r v o n Z i r n f e l d away f r o m the

After

agreeing t o h i s w i f e ' s request, J u p i t e r a p p o i n t e d t h e h u n ­

V i e n n e s e D u Pacquier f a c t o r y t o set u p a n d r u n

dred-eyed g i a n t A r g u s as Io's g u a r d i a n . I o w a s so t o r ­

p a i n t i n g studio, w i t h the F l o r e n t i n e sculptor Gaspero

m e n t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t J u p i t e r sent M e r c u r y t o k i l l A r g u s

B r u s c h i as c h i e f m o d e l e r .

b y l u l l i n g h i m t o sleep a n d t h e n c u t t i n g off h i s head.
Eventually,

after

p r o m i s i n g Juno t h a t

he

would

Giovanni Battista Foggini—sculptor to the

the

grand

no

duke

l o n g e r pay I o a n y a t t e n t i o n , J u p i t e r r e t u r n e d h e r

to

these g r o u p s for e x e c u t i o n i n b r o n z e (fig. 3 8 L ) .

h u m a n f o r m . T h e figures of Perseus a n d M e d u s a

de­

p i c t i o n s of v i o l e n t s t r u g g l e i n a s c e n o g r a p h i c landscape

r i v e f r o m t h e f a m o u s episode (54: 7 7 3 - 8 0 3 ) i n w h i c h t h e

w i t h gestures a n d d r a p e r y t h a t a m p l i f y t h e t h e a t r i c a l i t y

hero surprised the snake-haired m o n s t e r Medusa i n her

of t h e scene, t h e y are t y p i c a l of Foggini's l a t e Baroque

of T u s c a n y — f i r s t

created

the

c o m p o s i t i o n s of
2

A s de­

sleep and, a v o i d i n g h e r d e a d l y gaze b y l o o k i n g at h e r

s t y l e . A f t e r t h e a r t i s t ' s d e a t h i n 1725 t h e p i e c e - m o l d s of

reflection i n his polished shield, decapitated her w i t h

m o s t of Foggini's b r o n z e s passed t o h i s s o n V i n c e n z o ,

his curved sword.

w h o also served as r o y a l s c u l p t o r . B y 1741 G i n o r i h a d be­

T h e figures of these groups, c a u g h t

at t h e

most

g u n t o c o l l e c t m o d e l s a n d m o l d s t h a t h e i n t e n d e d t o use

d r a m a t i c m o m e n t of t h e a c t i o n , are p l a c e d o n r o c k y p l a t ­

i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of p o r c e l a i n figures, a n d h i s a c c o u n t

f o r m s w i t h t u f t s of grass t h a t s i t o n p o l y c h r o m e a n d par­

b o o k s r e v e a l t h a t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t w e l v e years h e re­

t i a l l y g i l t bases of elaborate s c r o l l s , a c a n t h u s leaves, a n d
rocaille

elements. Small urns embellished w i t h

green

leaves a n d g o l d d e c o r a t i o n at each of t h e f o u r c o r n e r s
served as c a n d l e s o c k e t s .

p e a t e d l y c o m m i s s i o n e d V i n c e n z o F o g g i n i t o cast w a x or
p l a s t e r m o d e l s f r o m h i s father's m o l d s .

3

T h e s e groups m a y h a v e served as t h e candelabra ele­
m e n t i n a larger t a b l e c e n t e r p i e c e . Scenes of d e c a p i t a t i o n

O P P O S I T E : 38

212

[.1]

38A Alternate view of [. i ].

214

Candelabra

38B Alternate view of [. i ].

38c Detail of [.1].

3 8 E Underside of [. 1 ].

38D Detail of [.1].

Candelabra

215

3 8 F Alternate view of [. 2 ].

O P P O S I T E : 38

[.2]

Candelabra

2 1 J

3 8 G Alternate view of [. 2 ].

2l8

Candelabra

38H Alternate view of [.2].

387

381

Detail of [.2].

Underside of [.2].

Candelabra

219

3 8 K After Giovanni Battista Foggini. Mercury and Argus. Wax model from
the Doccia porcelain manufactory. Museo di Doccia, inv. D 3 5 8 [41 ].

3 8 L Giovanni Battista Foggini (Italian, 1652-1725). Perseus Slaying
Medusa, ca. 1690. Bronze, 40 x 3 8 . 1 x 22.2 cm (15 A x 15 x 8 /4 in.).
Courtesy of the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University Art Museums,
Annie Swan Coburn Fund.
3

m i g h t s e e m a n o d d c h o i c e for d i n i n g t a b l e

3

ornament.

H o w e v e r , r a t h e r t h a n e m p h a s i z i n g t h e g r i s l i n e s s of t h e
scenes, t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s d e p i c t A r g u s a n d M e d u s a n o t
as m o n s t e r s b u t as a m a n a n d w o m a n i n distress, t h e r e b y
emphasizing the drama rather t h a n the horror. A closely
r e l a t e d w o r k is t h e D o c c i a g r o u p of t h e T h r e e Fates (fig.
3 8 M ) , p r o d u c e d a r o u n d t h e same t i m e . A l t h o u g h i t s can­
4

d l e - s o c k e t u r n s are m i s s i n g , t h e base is i d e n t i c a l t o t h e
bases of t h e t w o G e t t y groups, as are t h e paste q u a l i t y
a n d p a l e t t e . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e t h r e e f i g u r e g r o u p s
w o u l d have b e l o n g e d t o t h e same t a b l e c e n t e r p i e c e . Pay­
m e n t w a s m a d e t o V i n c e n z o F o g g i n i i n 1749 for w a x
m o d e l s of M e r c u r y a n d A r g u s (fig. 3 8K) a n d of Perseus
a n d M e d u s a a n d i n 1750 for t h e figures of t h e
Fates.

220

Candelabra

5

Three

Notes
1.

For information on the Doccia factory see Ginori Lisci 1963; Lane 1954,Le Corbeiller 1985. A version of Mercury and Argus (in a private collec­
tion), made from the same model but not polychrome (i.e., in white),
was recently exhibited in Lucca (Lucca 2001, 215, no. 154).

2.

The bronzes are described in the 1713 inventory of Grand Prince Ferdi­
nand de' Medici. Two bronze versions of the Mercury group (Museo
Nazionale del Bargello, Florence [with sword intact], and another for­
merly on the Paris art market, present location unknown) and one of the
Perseus group exist (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge).
For the Mercury group see Lankheit 1962, fig. 122; Bargello 1989, 26,
no. 20. For the Perseus group see Metropolitan 1969, no. 78); Heim
Gallery 1980, no. 36. The late Leonardo Ginori Lisci thought, and Jen­
nifer Montagu currently concurs, that the composition of Mercury and
Argus derived, at least in part, and as was common for the artist, from a
print by Antonio Tempesta (Buffa 1984, 37: no. 647 [151]; see Detroit
1974, 416-17, no. 244).

3.

Under the date September 9, 1749, i n the Florentine Archivio

Ginori

Lisci are the entries regarding payments made to Vincenzo Foggini "per
gettare di cera i l gruppo di Perseo e Medusa" and "per gettare di cera . . .
i l gruppo di Mercurio che taglia la testa ad Argo" (C. R. 1749-50), which
refer to the creation of the original wax models for the Getty groups.
The models, and the molds taken from them, are also listed i n the 1780
inventory of the Doccia factory—where they remain today—as
"Gruppo di Perseo che taglia la testa a Medusa. D i Gio. Batta. Foggini i n
cera con forma" and "Gruppo di Mercurio che taglia la testa a Argo. D i .
Gio. Batta. Foggini i n cera con forma" (Lankheit 1982, 121, nos. 22:16,

38M Doccia porcelain manufactory. The Three Fates, ca. 1750. Hard-paste

22:18, figs. 131-32).

porcelain. Private collection, Florence.

4.

Private collection (see Melegati 1996, fig. 3; and Lucca 2001, 216,
no. 155).

5.

Lankheit 1982, 160 (87:2) and fig. 232. These figures were also used for
representations of the parts of the world on the renowned 1756 Doccia
group of the Temple Dedicated to the Glories of Tuscany, now in the
Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca, Cortona (see Ginori Lisci 1973, pi. 38).

In

the

same w a y

that

G i o v a n n i Battista Foggini

reused m o d e l s of figures for different bronzes,

slightly

6.

Lankheit 1982,fig.128.

7.

Liverani 1967, fig. 22; Morazzoni i960.

8.

Liverani 1967, pi. 36; Morazzoni i960, 2: pi. 248, where i t is attributed
to Piamontini.

c h a n g i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i m b s as n e e d e d , D o c c i a
craftsmen r e c o m b i n e d elements f r o m different m o d e l s —
o c c a s i o n a l l y b y different a r t i s t s — t o create n e w c o m p o ­
sitions.

For

example,

B e a u t y i n h i s Rape

Foggini's

of Beauty

Medusa

reappears

as

I n like manner

by Time.

6

D o c c i a c r a f t s m e n c h o s e F o g g i n i ' s T h r e e Fates t o create
t h e t a b l e c e n t e r p i e c e d i s c u s s e d h e r e as w e l l as t o o r n a ­
ment

the

spandrels

of Doccia's

large

Temple

of

the

G l o r i e s of T u s c a n y p o r c e l a i n group i n t h e M u s e o dell ' A c c a d e m i a E t r u s c a , C o r t o n a , w h e r e t h e y are a l l e g o r i c a l
figures,-

7

a n d F o g g i n i ' s Perseus w a s c o m b i n e d w i t h M a s -

similiano

Soldani-Benzi's

Andromeda

for the

Perseus a n d A n d r o m e d a p o r c e l a i n g r o u p .

Doccia

8

Candelabra

221

39

Tabletop with
Scenes

Hunting

TENUS SPICIS REDEMITA
FORTUNAE

CAPILLOS

and

March 4, 1 9 8 6 , lot 2 4 [listed without mention

FABER; on the

SUAE QUISQUE

of Warwick ownership], to W. Williams); [Winifred

horse's haunch i n the scene of Europeans hunting

Williams, London, sold to the J. Paul Getty

a deer, SGP on the horse's haunch in the scene of

Museum,

}

1986].

Francesco (or Filippo) Saverio M a r i a

Moors hunting ostriches, FSG.

Grue, called Saverio M a r i a or

CONDITION

Saverio Grue (1731-after 1802)

Several chips and glaze faults.

Castelli

PROVENANCE

Norman

ca. 1760

Most likely acquired in Italy and brought to

Guillaumin 1 9 8 7 , 12, fig. 4; Donatone 1 9 8 8 ,

Tin-glazed earthenware

Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England, by

17-18,

George Greville, second earl of Warwick (1746-

1988B, 1 7 - 2 8 ;

1 8 1 6 ) or his son, Henry Greville, third earl of

Summary Catalogue 2 0 0 1 , no. 3 7 7 .

EXHIBITIONS

None.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

H : 3.2 c m (1 A in.)
l

D i a m : 59.7 c m (23 V2 in.)

Warwick

86.DE.533

Castle and placed in another residence of the earls

(1779-1853);

1

1986;

GettyMusJ

fig. i ; Hess

15 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 2 1 7 ,

1988A, 1 1 6 - 1 9 ,

Masterpieces

no.

1997, 87,

35;

no.

no.

116;

Hess
66;

removed from Warwick

of Warwick; by inheritance to David Greville,
eighth earl of Warwick, i n one of the residences

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

On the obverse, i n two cartouches, FLAVA

THIS

rate

MAIOLICA

Rococo

of the earls of Warwick (sold, Sotheby's, London,

CERES

T A B L E T O P is p a i n t e d w i t h f o u r elabo­

cartouches

interspersed

with

landscape

T h i s w o r k is s i g n e d w i t h t w o m o n o g r a m s of t h e
a r t i s t : 5[averio] G [ r u e ] P [ i n x i t ] o n t h e horse's h a u n c h i n

scenes of b i r d s a n d hares i n t h e i r n a t u r a l h a b i t a t ; i n t e r ­

t h e scene of Europeans h u n t i n g a deer a n d P[rancesco or

t w i n i n g v e g e t a t i o n ; a n d floral a n d f r u i t swags i n a p a l e t t e

i l i p p o ] S[averio] G [ r u e ] o n t h e horse's h a u n c h i n t h e

t y p i c a l of t h e G r u e w o r k s h o p : ocher, y e l l o w , p u r p l e , l i g h t

scene of M o o r s h u n t i n g o s t r i c h e s (figs. 3 9 B , D ) . T h e t w o

a n d d a r k g r a y i s h b l u e , b l a c k , a n d several

c a r t o u c h e s o n t h e obverse are i n s c r i b e d i n L a t i n w i t h

shades of

g r e e n — i n c l u d i n g g r a y i s h green, y e l l o w i s h green,

and

" b l o n d Ceres, w h o s e h a i r is e n w r e a t h e d w i t h g r a i n / re­

olive

car­

f e r r i n g t o t h e R o m a n goddess w h o is p r o t e c t o r e s s of agri­

green—on

a

creamy

white

ground.

The

7

t o u c h e s — c o m p o s e d of s c r o l l s , shells, a c a n t h u s e s , a n d

c u l t u r e a n d of a l l f r u i t s of t h e e a r t h , a n d " e a c h m a n is t h e

vegetal motifs—enclose M o o r i s h and European h u n t i n g

m a k e r of h i s o w n f o r t u n e , " a n a n t i q u e p r o v e r b .

scenes after e n g r a v i n g s b y A n t o n i o T e m p e s t a . T h e t w o

T h e r e is c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o p e r n a m e of t h i s

figures i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d of Saverio's deer h u n t scene are

artist: Francesco

based o n t h e t w o figures i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d of T e m p e s t a ' s

t h a t h e w a s c a l l e d Saverio, w a s b o r n i n 1 7 3 1 , a n d w a s t h e

f r o m H u n t i n g Scenes I I I (fig. 3 9 1 ) ; t h e car­

s o n of t h e p o r c e l a i n p a i n t e r Francesco A n t o n i o G r u e .

t o u c h e d i s p l a y i n g a n o s t r i c h h u n t is based o n T e m p e s t a ' s

T h e r e n o w n e d Grue f a m i l y was l o n g connected w i t h the

e n g r a v i n g Ostrich

m a n u f a c t u r e of p a i n t e d m a i o l i c a at C a s t e l l i , i n t h e I t a l ­

Deer

Hunt

Hunt

f r o m t h e same series (fig. 391);

3

or F i l i p p o . Sources do agree, h o w e v e r ,
4

t h e e l e p h a n t h u n t scene is a c o n f l a t i o n of t w o separate

i a n A b r u z z i r e g i o n ; Saverio w a s t h e l a s t t o p l a y a n i m ­

e n g r a v i n g s e n t i t l e d Elephant

portant role i n maiolica production. Born i n A t r i ,

he
he

Hunt,

also f r o m

Hunting

5

Scenes I I I (figs. 3 9 K — L ) . A l t h o u g h t h e source has y e t t o

m o v e d w i t h his parents to nearby Castelli, where

be i d e n t i f i e d , i t is l i k e l y t h a t t h e deer h u n t i n t h e b a c k ­

l e a r n e d t o p a i n t . I n 1747 h e a n d h i s b r o t h e r , V i n c e n z o ,

g r o u n d of t h i s c a r t o u c h e is based o n a n o t h e r

received honorary N e a p o l i t a n citizenships f r o m

Tempesta

King

e n g r a v i n g . T h e f i n a l c a r t o u c h e scene, a boar h u n t , is also

C a r l o I I I i n h o n o r of t h e i r father, Francesco A n t o n i o , a

l i k e l y t o be based o n o n e or m o r e T e m p e s t a h u n t en­

r e n o w n e d m a i o l i c a p a i n t e r w h o h a d d e c o r a t e d a large se­

g r a v i n g s (boar h u n t s w e r e a f a v o r i t e subject of t h e en­

ries of jars f o r t h e h o s p i t a l " d e g l i i n c u r a b i l i " i n N a p l e s .

g r a v e r ) . T h e reverse is u n g l a z e d .

F r o m 1754 t o 1756 Saverio w o r k e d i n t h e r o y a l m a i o l i c a

2

222

39A Detail.

224

Tabletop with Hunting Scenes

39B Detail.

Tabletop with Hunting Scenes

22 5

39C Detail.

39D Detail.

factory at Caserta. T w o years later he applied to enter the
royal porcelain factory at Capodimonte, but the factory's
manager refused his application on the grounds that the
technique of miniature painting on porcelain was differ­
ent from that on maiolica, the m e d i u m to w h i c h he was
accustomed. Saverio finally entered the royal porcelain
6

factory i n 1772, at that t i m e under Ferdinand I V / even­
tually becoming director of the gabinetto

di

(painting studio) and, later, director of the tornanti
ramists w h o worked on the potter's wheel).
In

porcelain Saverio

executed

pittura
(ce­

8

statuettes,

small

busts, and reliefs painted i n a refined style inspired by
Pompeian figures and ornament. O n maiolica objects
such as this tabletop, however, he painted m a i n l y land­
scape and genre scenes i n a loose, almost sketchy style,
emphasizing the "rustic" quality of the m e d i u m . The
decorative cartouches, i n t e r t w i n e d vegetal motifs, and

226

Tabletop with Hunting Scenes

39F Detail of table base.

39E

Underside.

3 9 G Detail of table base.

39H Table base.

Tabletop with Hunting Scenes

2 2 J

39i

Antonio Tempesta. Ostrich Hunt from Hunting Scenes III, 1 5 9 8 .
Engraving. London, British Museum, in v.

1980-U.43

i-no.

39j

Antonio Tempesta (Italian,
Scenes III,

412.

1598.

15 5 5 - 1 6 3 0 ) .

Deer Hunt from Hunting

Engraving. London, British Museum, inv.

1980-U.438-

Photo: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. © The British

no. 4 1 9 . Photo: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum.

Museum.

© The British Museum.

charming pastoral scenes on the tabletop exemplify the
eighteenth-century Rococo emphasis on freely handled
naturalistic

motifs

and

fanciful

curvilinear forms.

According to a chronology of style established

by

L. Moccia, this tabletop, executed during Saverio's stay
at the royal porcelain factory, falls w i t h i n his t h i r d pe­
riod of production, w h i c h is typified by predominantly
"French" subjects rendered i n a delicate palette on a
w h i t e ground. One scholar has suggested that Saverio's
9

mature style was formed as the artist, inspired by his
travels abroad, attempted to decorate maiolica w i t h the
delicate designs more typical of porcelain.

10

Maiolica plaques, favored by the Grue family, were
developed as supremely pictorial objects from an origi­

3 9 K Antonio Tempesta. Elephant Hunt from Hunting Scenes III, 1 5 9 8 .

nally functional plate form. Saverio Grue's tabletop is

Engraving. London, British Museum, inv. i 9 8 o - u . 4 3 7 - n o . 4 1 8 .

particularly innovative since i t is an adaptation of the

Photo: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. © The British

circular maiolica plaque to serve a functional purpose.
The only other tabletop comparable to this one is a rect­
angular example measuring approximately 76.2 by 106.7
cm attributed to the workshop of Carlo A n t o n i o Grue
that sold at auction i n 1 9 8 6 .

11

Other objects by Saverio

Grue that are similar to this tabletop include t w o
plaques decorated w i t h classical scenes i n a private

228

Tabletop with Hunting Scenes

Museum.

Notes
1.

A notice in the Gazzetta toscana of December 10, 1 7 7 4 , mentions that
a Lord Warwick was visiting Florence (Ingamells 1 9 9 7 , 5 1 ; my thanks go
to John Mallet for bringing this source to my attention).

2.

For a discussion of Tempesta engravings as sources for a Sevres plaque
and a plate attributed to Candeloro Cappelletti of Castelli see Jestaz
1973,

117-18,

figs.

19-22;

for an examination of iconographic sources

for Castelli maiolica, including Tempesta engravings, see Moro 1 9 8 1 ,
399-400.

3.

Thieme and Becker 1 9 0 7 , 1 5 : 1 2 4 ; Benezit 1 9 5 1 , 4 : 242,- Donatone

4.

Cherubini 1 8 6 5 , n

1971B, 3 6 - 3 7 ;

5.

Fittipaldi
;

1992,

102.

Arbace 1 9 9 3 , LV-LVI.

For a brief discussion of the artist and his fame see Rosa

1981,

44-46,

no. 5 6 ; Arbace 1 9 9 3 , XXIX-XLVII, as well as relevant information i n her
forthcoming catalogue of the Papparella-Treccia collection.
6.

Minieri-Riccio 1 8 7 8 , 2 6 .

7.

The Bourbon Capodimonte factory closed in 1 7 5 9 , and the royal factory
reopened a year later i n Buen Retiro, Madrid, under Charles III.

39L

Antonio Tempesta. Elephant Hunt from Hunting Scenes III, 1 5 9 8 .

Charles's son, Ferdinand IV, opened a royal porcelain factory in 1 7 7 1 i n

Engraving. London, British Museum, inv. i 9 8 o - u . 4 3 3 - n o . 4 1 4 .

the Reale villa di Portici. For more information see A. Carola-Perrotti.

Photo: Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. © The British

8.

Thieme and Becker

Museum.

9.

Moccia 1 9 6 8 ,

collection, Pescara,

12

and a plate i n the Victoria and

Albert Museum, London (inv. 241-1876) likewise deco­

15: 124;

Donatone

197IA,

10.

Levy

11.

Sale cat., Sotheby's, London, November 2 8 , lot 2 1 8 .

12.

Levy

13.

Gonzalez-Palacios
no.

14.

1964,

24-37.

62-63.

pis.

1964,

1 1 5 2 ; 2:

pi.

80-81.
1981B, 657,

pi.

2;

Rackham

1940,

1: 3 8 2 - 8 3 ,

184.

Indeed, the framing of maiolica bowls, plates, as well as plaques—par­
ticularly eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century pieces from

rated w i t h a scenic landscape i n w h i c h distant figures are
occupied w i t h activities of country l i f e .

1907,

24-25.

Castelli—in ninteenth-century giltwood frames seems to have been a

13

popular decorating scheme, reflecting stylistic predilections and serving

When the tabletop entered the M u s e u m i t was ac­

to display plaques and otherwise functional tableware as hanging ce­

companied by a giltwood base bearing a paper label i n ­

ramic paintings (see, for instance, Ravanelli Guidotti 1 9 9 2 , 3; Arbace

scribed Lord

1 9 9 3 , nos.

Warwick

(fig. 3 9F), indicating that i t and its

tabletop had come from Warwick Castle, Warwickshire.
Physical analysis indicates this base started out as a gilt
frame of mahogany or similar dark, tropical wood, possi­
bly made i n I t a l y ,

14

35-37/ 4 0 - 4 1 , 5^

1 2 8 - 3 2 , 1 3 4 - 3 6 , 140, 1 4 7 - 5 1 ,
65, 2 9 5 - 9 9 ;

15.

5 9 ~ 6 i / 6 6 , 7 ^ - 7 7 / 9^,

9 4 / 119,

123-25,

153, 168, 1 8 4 - 8 9 , 1 9 7 - 2 2 7 , 2 3 5 - 4 0 ,

Bojani and Vossilla

1998,

no.

257-

10).

I would like to thank Arlen Heginbotham for his help in analyzing the
structure of the base.

that was used to hang the tabletop

against a w a l l (fig. 39G). The style of this framing ele­
ment and the fact that i t was produced w i t h the aid of a
banding saw indicate that i t was made sometime i n the
early nineteenth century. I t is possible that Lord War­
w i c k sent the framed piece of maiolica back to England
and subsequently decided to add the less expensive
poplar or pine legs i n order to use the ceramic as a tabletop (fig. 3 9 H ) .

15

Tabletop with Hunting Scenes

229

40

Vase with Neptune and
Vase with an Allegory of
Venice

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

ily, Rome, sold to E. de Unger, 1988; [Edmund

[.2] On one side, inscribed, Primo Esperimento

de Unger, The Manor House, Surrey, England, sold

in Grande fatto li 15 Maggio 1769 Nella

to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988].

Privil[egiata] fabbrica di Geminiano Cozzi in
Canalregio; on the other side the Cozzi factory
mark, an anchor.

Factory of Geminiano Cozzi

EXHIBITIONS

Arte ceramica e vetraria, Museo ArtisticoIndustriale, Rome, 1889 (Gheltof 1889).

CONDITION

(active 1764-1812)

Several hairline cracks and two large firing cracks

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Venice

through the underside. A portion of the inscribed

1769

mark underwent repair and has been overpainted.

Hybrid soft-paste porcelain

PROVENANCE

1993, 213, no. 369; Museum Handbook 2001,

[.1] H: 30 cm (11 /i6 in.)

Centanini collection, Venice, by 1889; private col­

266-67; Summary Catalogue 2001, no. 378.

Diam: 26.7 cm (10V2 in.)

lection, Budapest, until the end of the 1930s and

13

Gheltof 1889, 151; Molfino 1976, 27; Stazzi 1982,
53; GettyMusJ 17 (1989): 146, no. 85; Battie 1990,
102; Hess 1990B, 141-56; Summary Catalogue

then stored i n Switzerland during World War II;

[.2] H: 29.8 cm (n /4 in.)
3

recovered by the owners after World War II and

Diam: 27.3 cm (io /4 in.)
3

brought to Rome; by inheritance in the same fam­

88.DE.9.1-.2

THE

BROAD,

OVOID

BODIES

OF T H E S E VASES

taper to

l o w rims that w o u l d have been surmounted by lids, now
lost, i n i m i t a t i o n of Eastern or Eastern-influenced forms
1

such as potiches

2

from China or baluster vases from the

German Meissen factory. That their forms are not the
most elegant is understandable, given the exigencies of
w o r k i n g i n the m e d i u m on such a large scale. Their
3

painted decoration, however, is executed w i t h a delicate
mastery. One vase displays the figure of Neptune holding
his trident and riding a throne pulled by dolphins. T w o
Nereids flank h i m , offering plates or baskets of riches.
Four p u t t i cavort above h i m , one of w h o m holds aloft
Neptune's drapery, w h i c h elegantly encircles the god's
crowned and bearded head. The other side is painted
w i t h a river t o w n landscape w i t h a clock tower and a
foreground scene of longshoremen at w o r k (fig. 4 0 A ) . A n
undulating rocaille border surrounds the r i m , w h i l e a
sawtooth pattern rings the base. Butterflies, delicate
4

bunches of fruit and flowers, and swags of rocaille ele­
ments fill i n the remainder of the surface (fig. 40B).
The allegorical figure of Venice ornaments the sec­
ond vase. She is shown w i t h her traditional attributes:
regal ermine cape and scepter, corno

hat (worn by the

Venetian doge during public ceremonies), and recumbent

40A Alternate view of [.1 ].

l i o n . A male nude kneels below, facing her. Beside h i m
5

projects a staff resembling a trident or caduceus. These
OPPOSITE: 4 0 [.1]

230

attributes refer to Neptune and Mercury, respectively,
and either god w o u l d have been an appropriate symbol
for "La Serenissima," given her location by the sea and
her mercantile activities. Above the figure of Venice,
four p u t t i support an elaborate cartouche w i t h an i n ­
scription that identifies the object as the "first largescale experiment

executed

M a y 15, 1769, i n

the

privileged factory of Geminiano Cozzi i n Cannareggio"
(fig. 40E). A panorama of the Piazzetta di San Marco
w i t h foreground ships decorates the other side (fig. 4 0 D ) .
The piazzetta is viewed from the southwest across the
Grand Canal, roughly from the Isola d i San Giorgio.
Above, three p u t t i hold up a large anchor, the mark of the
Cozzi factory. The remainder is decorated i n a manner
similar to the Neptune vase.
A Modenese banker, Geminiano Cozzi first became
involved i n the business of ceramics as a partner of the
Hewelcke porcelain factory that was based i n Venice
from 1761 to 1763. After the factory moved back to its
native Dresden at the close of the Seven Years' War,
40B Alternate view of [.i].

Cozzi founded his o w n factory i n Venice, located i n the
Cannaregio parish of San Giobbe. Cozzi was a shrewd
businessman and i n the ensuing dozen years managed to
create a prosperous enterprise w i t h the support of the
Venetian Senate as w e l l as the board of trade (I cinque
savi alia mercanzia). Also fortunate was the factory's lo­
6

cation down river from sources of kaolin, the w h i t e clay
essential for producing hard-paste porcelain. By 1767
7

the factory included four porcelain kilns, forty-five em­
ployees, six apprentices, and a m i l l at Treviso.

8

The Cozzi factory turned out small-scale pieces such
as tea- and coffeepots, plates, cups, saucers, and figures,
as w e l l as the occasional large-scale tureen, w i n e cooler,
or vase. Compared w i t h other large-scale Cozzi porce­
9

lain, the form of the Getty vases appears less refined:
they are bottom-heavy, their walls are of uneven thick­
ness, their shoulders are rather l o w (creating a squat
appearance), and their undersides reveal significant firecracks and chips (fig. 40F). Their inscription can be
trusted, therefore, since the vases are convincing as a
"first large-scale experiment" i n the newly discovered
4 0 c Underside of [.1 ].

porcelain material.

OPPOSITE: 4 0 [.2]

232

Two Vases

4-OD AUernate view of [.2].

234

Two Vases

40F Underside o f [.2].

4-OE Detail o f [.2].

The Cozzi artist or artists w h o painted these vases

power was based on control of the A d r i a t i c — i s likewise

drew upon contemporary p r i n t sources for their principal

shown triumphant, accompanied by her attributes of

scenes. The scene of the river t o w n conflates t w o prints

power and authority. Opposite her, the cityscape of the

of similar subjects—one of a t o w n w i t h a clock tower,

Piazzetta di San Marco supplies a quintessential view, at

the other w i t h longshoremen,

once scenographic and descriptive, of the political and

10

rina—designed

ships, and distant ma­

by Marco Ricci ( 1 6 7 6 - 1 7 2 9 ) and en­

cultural heart of the Republic. The pairing of Venice and

graved by Giuliano Giampiccoli ( 1 7 0 3 - 1 7 5 9 ) , Ricci's

Neptune—female and male, land and sea—was a com­

son-in-law, and published i n 1750 (figs. 40 G — H ) .

m o n theme i n Venetian cultural and political life,- i n ­

1 1

The

view of the Piazzetta di San Marco reproduces a p r i n t

deed, the u l t i m a t e expression of Venetian state liturgy

by Francesco Z u c c h i ( 1 6 9 2 - 1 7 6 4 ) published i n 1740

was Venice's "marriage to the Sea." O n this yearly occa­

(fig. 4 0 1 ) .

The ships i n the foreground of the Z u c c h i

sion the doge w o u l d ride his ceremonial barge i n t o the la­

p r i n t have been shifted, apparently to conform to the

goon, and w i t h the words "We espouse thee, o sea, as a

12

shape of the vase, yet the distant v i e w of the piazzetta is

sign of true and perpetual d o m i n i o n , " he w o u l d throw a

reproduced w i t h delicate precision. The figure of Venice

gold wedding ring i n t o the water. I n marrying the sea, ac­

appears to derive from the figure i n a colophon of the

cording to Venetian law, the "husband," or doge, repre­

Venetian publisher Giovanni Battista A l b r i z z i ( 1 6 9 8 -

senting the city of Venice w o u l d establish legitimate

1777) (fig. 4OJ).

A source for the Neptune has yet to be

rights over his " w i f e " the sea, represented by Neptune,

identified. God of the sea and personification of the A d r i ­

i n this way supporting the doge's claim to sovereignty

atic, he is shown triumphant, accompanied by the sea's

over trade routes.

13

riches. Opposite h i m , an invented landscape, or

capric-

14

A l t h o u g h this proposed political schema of the vases

cio, illustrates a typical and picturesque river t o w n of

celebrates the Veneto's urban and rural settings as w e l l as

the Veneto. Venice—personification of a republic whose

the Republic's imperial and mercantile

prerogatives,

Two Vases

235

40G
Giuliano Giampiccoli (Italian,
1703-i759) and Giambattista
Tiepolo (Italian, 1696-1770)
after Marco Ricci (Italian, 16761730). River Town with Clock
Tower, 1743-44. Engraving.
Venice, private collection.
Photo: Courtesy Foligraf s.n.c,
Mestre.

more than anything else i t honors the innovations and
talents of the factory that produced i t . The exaltation of
the Republic's beauty and d o m i n i o n becomes a backdrop
for their more obvious message: that the Venetian fac­
tory of Geminiano Cozzi, as early as 1769 and w i t h the
support of the Republic, could produce such large and
gloriously painted porcelain. As such, the vases m i g h t
have served as gifts given to the Venetian state i n grati­
tude. They m i g h t also have served as reminders of the
Republic's continued financial and legislative support
and been used as promotional display pieces for the
Cozzi establishment.
Notes
40H Giuliano Giampiccoli and Giambattista Tiepolo after Marco Ricci.

1.

Marina with Longshoremen, 1743/44. Engraving. Photo: Courtesy

When the Museum acquired these vases, they were accompanied by lids
that, because of differences i n paste and pigment as well as i n painting

Foligraf s.n.c, Mestre.

quality, were determined to be modern replacements.
2.

This French term refers to a type of handleless jar or vase w i t h a small

3.

Indeed, below one vase is a sizable fire-crack (fig. 40F). This crack would

lid produced i n the Far East.
have resulted from imperfect drying or firing of the thick wall that was
made to sustain the form of the vases without having the malleable clay
collapse on itself.
4.

While the geometric pattern appears to have been inspired by similar
designs on Vezzi porcelain of the 1720s, the rocaille decoration more
closely relates to scrollwork on other Cozzi pieces of the 1760s, reflect­
ing the current Rococo taste. Compare Lane 1954, figs. 11b, 12a; Molfino
1976, pis. 25, 35, 38-39, 52-66, 8o with Lane 1954, figs. i8a-c, 19a.
;

5.

The winged lion, an apocalyptic beast, is associated with Saint Mark,
who came to personify the Venetian polity. According to legend, the
saint became fond of the city during an evangelizing trip through Italy.

236

Two Vases

401 Francesco Zucchi (Italian, 1692-1764). Prospetto della Piazza verso il

40J

piu rare . . . della citta di Venezia (Venice, 1740). Los Angeles, Getty

Sua Eccellenza il Signor Lodovico Manin (Venice, 1764). Engraving. Los

Research Institute, Special Collections, inv. 85-B4274.

Angeles, Getty Research Institute, Special Collections, inv. 85-B20471.

Although he died in Egypt, his body was supposedly transferred from

for painting the colored circle around the r i m of a piece of porcelain, an­

Alexandria to Venice i n the early ninth century, and it was i n Saint

other would draw the flowers that yet a third would paint; some would

Mark's honor that the eponymous Venetian basilica was built (Cham­

paint nothing but water and mountains, others nothing but birds and
other animals, and yet others would execute human figures."

bers 1970, 16-17; Zorzi 1983, 243). For the allegorical representation of
Venice see, for example, Muir 1981, 229-30, 239, 295.
6.

For more information on the factory see Hess 1990A, 141-56.

7.

Kaolin—a silicate of aluminum that, when combined with feldspathic

11.

G. B. Albrizzi's edition Forestiere illuminato intorno le cose piu rare,
e curiose, antiche, e moderne della citta di Venezia (Venice, 1740) (fig.

Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847), first classified the Cozzi product as a

401); it ostensibly copies a print designed and executed by Luca Carl-

"hybrid soft-paste porcelain" because it was fired at lower temperatures

evarijs (1663-1730)—Veduta della Piazza S. Marco verso l'horologio—

than German or French hard-paste wares but, nevertheless, contained

published i n G. B. Finazzi's edition Le fabriche e vedute di Venetia

2001, 28-47).

(Venice, 1603).
13.

Found, for example, at the end of Componimenti poetici per 1'ingresso

A report documenting these figures was sent by arts inspector Gabrielle

solenne alia dignita di proccuratore di S. Marco per merito di Sua Ecce-

Marcello to the board of trade (cited i n Molfino 1976, 26-27; Stazzi

lenza il Signore Locovico Manin (Venice, 1764) (fig. 407).

1982, 47, with an erroneous date).

10.

The Zucchi print is entitled Prospetto della piazza verso il mare i n

Vicenza hills near Venice. The director of the Sevres manufactory,

kaolin. The Cozzi factory also produced maiolica (see Gobbi and Alpi

9.

From the model book for artists Raccolta di paesetti intagliati in rame,
published by Albrizzi in 1750.

12.

rock, fuses into a glassy matrix when fired i n a kiln—was found in the

8.

Colophon to Giovanni Battista Albrizzi, Componimenti poetici per
1'ingresso solenne alia dignita di proccuratore di S. Marco per merito di

mare i n Giovanni Battista Albrizzi, Forestiere illuminate intorno le cose

See, for example, Morazzoni i960, 1: figs. 46b, 51, 58, 61a, 68a-c, 69a-

14.

Pope Alexander clearly defines this relationship when he says, while
giving Doge Ziani the ritualistic ring, "Take this [ring] . . . so that pos­

b, 70-71, 72a-b, 73a-c, 74-75, pi. 6.

terity knows . . . that the sea was placed under your dominion, as a wife

Easily, more than one painter could have contributed to the decoration

is to a husband" (Francesco Sansovino, Venetia [Venice, 1663], 501; as

of these works. In a painters' guidebook Roger de Piles (1772, 95) explains

cited i n Muir 1981, 124, n. 53). It is not surprising, therefore, that the

that for porcelain painting, "The work . . . is distributed among a large

term for "the sea" in Venetian dialect changes the masculine and Latin-

number of craftsmen in the same workshop: one would be responsible

derived il mare into the feminine la mar.

Two Vases

237

41

Saint Joseph with the
Christ Child

cracks evident on the exterior are found: across

Possibly i n the William Charlesworth Collection,

Joseph's left ankle,- sloping diagonally downward

Naples (sold, Galleria Sangiorgi, Rome, Janu­

from left to right across the lower part of Joseph's

ary 29-February 3, 1901, lot 631 ); Bauza collec­

After a m o d e l by Giuseppe Sanmartin o

yellow cloak near his right ankle and continuing

tion, Madrid, by 1953, and by descent in the same

(1720-1793)

across the ankle; across the upper left thigh of the

family, sold to Same Art Ltd.; [Same Art Ltd.,

Christ Child; and under the left arm of the Christ

Zurich, 1990, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum,

Child, beginning at the front and continuing

1991].

Probably modeled by Gennaro Laudat o

visible primarily on the interior surface. Hairline

(active 1790s)

around to the back of his upper chest. There are

Naples

some minor losses of glaze near these cracks as

PROVENANCE

2

EXHIBITIONS

Possibly shown at Esposizione nazionale di belle

well as small chips in several places, for example,

1790s
Polychrome terraglia (white-bodied,
glazed earthenware)

1

H : 53.8 c m J2i /8 in.)
3

91.SE.74

arti, Naples, 1877.

at the tip of the second toe of Christ's right foot,

3

the back of Joseph's left hand, and along the edges

BIBLIOGRAPHY

of Joseph's cloak. Several minor chips occur along

Olivar 1953, 2: 109, 340, fig. 241; Martinez Caviro

the base of the piece.

1973, 20; Fittipaldi 1986, 2: 654-55, 699-700; Re­

The piece is open at the back (fig. 41c), where

port 1991-92, 15; Catherine Hess in J. Paul Getty

the paste was scooped out to ensure safe drying

Museum Calendar (summer 1992): cover, i Getty -

and firing; paste was removed from underneath

MusJ 20 (1992): 179, no. 78; Donatone 1993B, 40;

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS

the base for the same reason. Close examination

Donatone 1996, 32-33, 42, fig. 4; Donatone 1997,

None.

of the areas where the piece has been chipped (i.e.,

49; Fusco 1997, 45; Masterpieces 1997, 91;

Joseph's left hand and an area of his cloak on his

Museum Handbook 1997, 263; Summary

CONDITION

There are no losses, breaks, or old repairs in the
piece. There are some firing cracks, which are

}

proper left side) shows that the clay is covered

Catalogue 2001, no. 380; Fogelman and Fusco

with a white lead glaze over which colored glazes

2002, no. 42.

were applied.

JOSEPH

T h e piece was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1953 b y M a r c a l

w i t h t h e C h r i s t C h i l d . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e g r o u p c o n ­

O l i v a r D a y d i as a p r o d u c t of t h e B u e n R e t i r o porce­

veys

lain factory i n Madrid, w i t h a tentative a t t r i b u t i o n to

THE

PIECE REPRESENTS T H E S T A N D I N G S A I N T

a sense of i n t i m a c y b e t w e e n

the

t w o figures.

Joseph e m b r a c e s a n d s u p p o r t s t h e c h i l d w i t h h i s left

G i u s e p p e G r i c c i a n d a date of ca. 1 7 6 5 .

hand, h o l d i n g Christ's r i g h t foot i n his r i g h t hand. T h e

f i c a t i o n was accepted b y B a l b i n a M a r t i n e z C a v i r o i n

i n f a n t Jesus reaches a r o u n d Joseph's b a c k a n d p o i n t s

1 9 7 3 . I n 1986 T e o d o r o F i t t i p a l d i n o t e d t h a t Saint

5

This identi­

6

Joseph

t o w a r d h i m w i t h h i s left h a n d . B o t h figures l o o k d o w n ­

with

w a r d as i f t o engage a spectator b e l o w t h e m . S a i n t Joseph,

m e n t a l m a r b l e s c u l p t u r e of 1 7 9 0 - 9 2 of t h e same subject

dressed i n a p u r p l e u n d e r g a r m e n t a n d a b r i g h t y e l l o w

b y G i u s e p p e S a n m a r t i n o i n T a r a n t o c a t h e d r a l (fig. 41E)

c l o a k , stands f i r m l y o n h i s r i g h t leg, w i t h h i s l e f t f o o t

a n d for t h i s reason c o u l d n o t have b e e n a p r o d u c t of t h e

s u p p o r t e d o n a s m a l l , c o l o r f u l , r o c k y ledge. T h e n u d e

B u e n R e t i r o f a c t o r y d a t e d t o t h e 1760s.

C h r i s t C h i l d sits o n a b u r g u n d y r e d p i l l o w w i t h a y e l l o w

n o t e d t h a t the G e t t y ceramic was closely related to a

tassel, p l a c e d a t o p a p e d e s t a l c o m p o s e d of b r i l l i a n t l y p i g ­

p o l y c h r o m e terra-cotta M a d o n n a and C h i l d signed b y

mented, r o c k y forms. T h e artist achieved

G e n n a r o L a u d a t o (active 1790s) a n d d a t e d 1 7 9 1 , p o i n t i n g

remarkable

the Christ

Child

w a s a c e r a m i c v e r s i o n of a m o n u ­

7

F i t t i p a l d i also

v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n t h e flesh t o n e s of t h e figures: buff p i n k

out

d a r k e n s t o r o s y orange i n t h e areas of t h e flesh t h a t are

Taranto sculpture.

m o r e d e e p l y m o d e l e d a n d t o r e d i n t h e l i p s of b o t h

proposed

f i g u r e s . A l l t h e c o l o r s u s e d i n t h e figures, drapery, a n d

Joseph a n d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of w o r k s b y t h i s o t h e r ­

4

that

both

objects
8

depended

upon

Sanmartino's

T h i s was t h e f i r s t step b o t h i n t h e

a t t r i b u t i o n to Laudato

of t h e

Getty

Saint

c u s h i o n appear i n b r i g h t , s a t u r a t e d , p a t c h y areas i n t h e

wise undocumented Neapolitan artist. G u i d o Donatone,

r o c k y f o r m a t i o n s of t h e base a n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n f a n t Je­

f o l l o w i n g Fittipaldi's argument, presented the ceramic i n

sus,- i n a d d i t i o n , a b r i g h t copper green is i n c l u d e d a m o n g

p u b l i c a t i o n s i n 1991 a n d 1993 as t h e w o r k of L a u d a t o ,

these b r i l l i a n t c o l o r s . T h e f a n t a s t i c s u g g e s t i o n of l a n d ­

gathering

scape is u n i f i e d b y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of b r o w n p i g m e n t s .

238

together

several

pieces

that

either

bear

4 1 A Alternate view.

240

Saint Joseph with the Christ Child

4 1 B Alternate view.

4 1 c Alternate view.

4 I D Base.

Saint Joseph with the Christ Child

241

4I E

Giuseppe Sanmartino. Saint Joseph with the Christ Child, 1790-92.
Marble. Taranto, cathedral, Chapel of San Cataldo.

4IF

Gennaro Laudato. Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist,
1794. Terraglia. H : 34.6 cm (13 Ys in.). London, British Museum.
Photo: © The British Museum.

2^.2

Saint Joseph with the Christ Child

Laudato's s i g n a t u r e or c a n be g r o u p e d s t y l i s t i c a l l y w i t h

the H o l y Family. H i s i n t i m a t e relationship w i t h Christ

t h e s i g n e d w o r k s . D o n a t o n e also asserted t h a t t h e G e t t y

was seen as a s i g n of h i s h o l i n e s s , a n d Joseph c a m e t o be

S a i n t Joseph was p r o d u c e d i n t h e R e a l Fabbrica, N a p l e s ,

seen as a p r o t e c t o r of t h e f a i t h f u l as he h a d been p r o t e c ­

a n d c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a c e r a m i c g r o u p represent­

t o r of Jesus. T h e G e t t y c e r a m i c stresses Joseph's h a n d ­

9

i n g S a i n t Joseph w i t h t h e C h r i s t C h i l d once i n t h e

s o m e v i g o r , as S a n m a r t i n o d i d i n h i s T a r a n t o s c u l p t u r e .

Charlesworth

T h e r e t h e i m a g e c o n v e y e d t h e idea t h a t Joseph w o u l d act

Esposizione

collection,

Nazionale

Naples,

di Belle

Arti

1877, a n d s o l d i n R o m e i n 1 9 0 1 .
a date for t h e piece after 1 7 9 4 .

1 0

exhibited

in

the

held i n Naples i n

Recently he proposed

as p r o t e c t o r of h i s n a m e s a k e , A r c h b i s h o p
b i s h o p w o u l d act as p r o t e c t o r s of Taranto's

11

D o n a t o n e , w h o is c u r r e n t l y r e c o n s t r u c t i n g Laudato's

Giuseppe

C a p e c e l a t r o , a n d t h a t t h e s a i n t and, i n t u r n , t h e a r c h ­
faithful.

G i v e n t h e p e r s o n a l resonance of t h e T a r a n t o c o m m i s ­

oeuvre, sees h i m as a s c u l p t o r a n d c e r a m i s t w o r k i n g i n

s i o n , one m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t C a p e c e l a t r o

t h e c i r c l e of S a n m a r t i n o .

also c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e c e r a m i c piece as a p r i v a t e r e c o r d

1 2

H i s conclusions derive f r o m

s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of L a u d a t o r s i g n e d works,- t h e G e t t y

of t h e m a r b l e s c u l p t u r e .

1 8

group's dependence o n a s t a t u e b y Sanmartino,- a n d t h e

T h e c e r a m i c v e r s i o n differs f r o m t h e m a r b l e (and

fact t h a t a n o t h e r piece i n t e r r a g l i a s i g n e d b y L a u d a t o is

p r e s u m a b l y f r o m t h e m o d e l for t h e statue) i n w a y s t h a t

based o n a d r a w i n g b y S a n m a r t i n o for a s i l v e r g r o u p of

i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was r e w o r k e d s p e c i f i c a l l y for p r o d u c t i o n

Tobias a n d t h e A n g e l (executed b y t h e

silversmiths

i n the n e w m e d i u m , t a k i n g into account the possibilities

Giuseppe and Gennaro D e l G i u d i c e and completed i n

offered b y p o l y c h r o m y , t h e l i g h t e r m a t e r i a l , s m a l l e r

1797, after S a n m a r t i n o ' s death), i n t h e c h a p e l of t h e

scale, a n d p r i v a t e f u n c t i o n of t h e g r o u p as a d e v o t i o n a l

T h e terraglia

object. For e x a m p l e , t h e figure of C h r i s t is b r o u g h t closer

M a d o n n a a n d C h i l d w i t h S a i n t John t h e B a p t i s t , s i g n e d

T r e a s u r y of San G e n n a r o

i n Naples.

t o Joseph, h i s r i g h t l e g b e n t s h a r p l y a n d h i s l e f t f o o t

and dated

1 3

Museum

h a n g i n g free, w h e r e a s i n t h e h e a v i e r m a r b l e he presses

(fig. 4 I F ) , also derives f r o m S a n m a r t i n o ' s T a r a n t o S a i n t

1794 b y L a u d a t o i n t h e B r i t i s h

his left foot i n t o the r o c k y support w h i l e f u l l y extending

Joseph, p r o b a b l y k n o w n t o L a u d a t o f r o m a t e r r a - c o t t a

h i s r i g h t leg. A b o v e a l l , t h e p o l y c h r o m y enhances t h a t

model by the master.

c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e f a n t a s t i c c o l o r s a c t i n g as a f o i l for t h e

14

I n 1790 t h e a r c h b i s h o p of T a r a n t o , t h e N e a p o l i t a n

f l e s h tones. T h e fine m o d e l i n g of t h e f o r m s a n d t h e cre­

noble Giuseppe Capecelatro, c o m m i s s i o n e d the marble

a t i v e r e w o r k i n g of t h e m o d e l , i n t e c h n i c a l a n d expressive

s t a t u e of S a i n t Joseph (fig. 4 1 E ) f r o m S a n m a r t i n o for h i s

t e r m s , encourage

seat at T a r a n t o c a t h e d r a l .

w o r k of s c u l p t u r e i n i t s o w n r i g h t .

15

S a n m a r t i n o p r o d u c e d a terra­

seeing t h e piece as a n
1 9

independent

Perhaps S a n m a r t i n o

c o t t a m o d e l for t h e s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h w a s seen a n d

p l a y e d a d i r e c t r o l e i n i t s c r e a t i o n , b u t s u r e l y i t was

a p p r o v e d b y C a p e c e l a t r o before N o v e m b e r 1 7 9 0 .

L a u d a t o w h o f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d a n d e x p l o i t e d t h e possi­

16

Thus

L a u d a t o c o u l d have k n o w n t h e S a n m a r t i n o m o d e l as
e a r l y as 1790 a n d c e r t a i n l y k n e w i t b y 1 7 9 1 , t h e date of

b i l i t i e s of t h e c e r a m i c m e d i u m .
WITH MARIETTA

CAMBARERI

h i s t e r r a - c o t t a M a d o n n a a n d C h i l d , w h i c h is c l e a r l y
based o n t h e T a r a n t o c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s also p r o v i d e s a
l i k e l y t e r m i n u s p o s t q u e r n for t h e G e t t y S a i n t Joseph.
T h e G e t t y piece e m p l o y s a f o r m u l a t y p i c a l for i m ­
ages of t h e s t a n d i n g M a d o n n a a n d C h i l d b u t s u b s t i t u t e s
S a i n t Joseph for t h e V i r g i n . T h i s m a n n e r of p r e s e n t i n g
S a i n t Joseph b e c a m e p o p u l a r i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y
a n d is a clear i n d i c a t i o n of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c u l t of
the saint.

17

Joseph w a s r e v e r e d for h i s p r i v i l e g e d r o l e as

h u s b a n d of M a r y , stepfather of C h r i s t , a n d p r o t e c t o r of

Saint Joseph with the Christ Child

243

Notes
1.

13.

97-98, fig. 132; Catello and Catello 1979, 2: 227, no. 484, and 218,

material, so this identification remains tentative. Visual analysis sug­

fig. XIV; Catello 1987, 23, 38, 74. The ceramic version (private collec­

gests that the piece is made of terraglia, the Italian version of white-

tion), signed by Laudato, is illustrated i n Donatone 1993B, 44-45,

bodied, glazed earthenware made famous by Josiah Wedgwood i n the

figs. 1-2.

later eighteenth century and known i n England as creamware to de­

14.

scribe its creamy white color. In late eighteenth-century Naples the
medium was called "creta alFuso inglese" (earthenware i n the English

"Selected Acquisitions, Sep ember-November 1987," British

Museum

Society Bulletin, no. 57 (spring 1988): 30.
15.

manner). Later called terraglia, this ceramic material was covered with

2.

For the silver group, see Catello and Catello 1978, 49-51; Catello 1988,

The piece has not yet been scientifically analyzed to determine the

For Capecelatro, see Dizionario biografico 1975, 18: 136-94, w i t h bibli­
ography; Croce [1927] 1943, 159-82. For Sanmartino's sculpture of Saint

white or transparent lead glaze and sometimes, as in the case of the

Joseph w i t h the Christ Child in the Cappellone di San Cataldo in

Getty piece, polychromy. The medium was developed in the second half

Taranto cathedral, see Carducci 1975; Marciano and Pasculli 1985, 103-

of the eighteenth century as an alternative to hard- and soft-paste porce­

5. According to the terms of the contract, Sanmartino was to finish the

lain. It was less expensive and less difficult to work and could achieve

marble statue by April 1792; see Marciano and Pasculli 1985, 158,

the whiteness valued i n porcelain, although it does not have the same

doc. 20. No documents are known that relate to the execution, trans­

quality of translucency. For terraglia, see Morazzoni 1956; Borrelli 1985,

port, or installation of the statue, but we may assume that it was com­

30-44; Carola Perrotti 1986, 586-87; Biavati 1988, 100-120; Donatone

plete or nearly so by Sanmartino's death i n 1793. Certainly it was

1991; Fittipaldi 1992, 202-7.

in place before 1799, when Capecelatro was removed from his arch­

See note 10 below for Donatone's theory about the Charlesworth

bishopric in the aftermath of a short-lived revolt against the Bour­

provenance.

bon monarchy.

3.

See note 12 below for this theory.

4.

The ability to achieve verisimilitude in polychromy was noted in the

lated to the commission, execution, and approval of Sanmartino's terra­

nineteenth century as a characteristic of terraglia; see Donatone 1991,

cotta model (e.g., 158, doc. 20, dated November 25, 1790: "E risapendosi

5.
6.
7.

16.

12, citing Giuseppe Novi, a nineteenth-century historian of Neapolita n

che i l piu celebre scutore di marmi in oggi sia i l detto signor Sanmartino

ceramics.

molto rinomato per le sue opere statuarie i n marmi a cui avendo

Olivar 1953, 2: 109, 340, fig. 241. At this time the piece was i n the

l'anzidetto monsignor Arcivescovo [Capecelatro] fatta la richiesta per

Bauza collection, Madrid.

costituzione della suddetta statua con suo piedistallo ed iscrizzione i l

Martinez Caviro 1973, 20.

medesimo si e offerto eseguirle talche avendone a richiesta dello stesso

Sanmartino's sculpture decorates a niche in the vestibule of the Chapel

monsignor Arcivescovo formato i n creta ed avendoglielo rimesso i n

of San Cataldo i n Taranto cathedral, where it is paired with another

Taranto dal medesimo e stato approvato i n tutte le sue parti").

marble sculpture by Sanmartino, representing San Giovanni Gualberto

17.

Marciano and Pasculli 1985.

scenes from the life of Mary (the Marriage of the Virgin) or the infancy

Fittipaldi 1986, 2: 603-707, esp. 651-57 n. 66. The Madonna and Chil d

of Christ (the Nativity) and then generally as a doddering old man. In

by Laudato is illustrated i n Borrelli 1970, 118, fig. 214; he locates it in

the sixteenth and especially the seventeenth centuries he came to be

the Hermanin collection, Rome; it is also illustrated in Donatone 1991,

represented as a strong young man capable of protecting Christ and the

fig. 3. Fittipaldi (1992, no. 464) notes that the Madonna and Child is

Virgin. Beauty, a sign of grace, became one of his features. See Male
1932, 313-25. See also Filas 1962, esp. 544-75.

dated 1791; this is important because it demonstrates that Laudato
knew Sanmartino's model for the Taranto figure by that date and so may
9.
10.

U n t i l the later fifteenth century Saint Joseph rarely appeared as the
principal subject of images. He was generally depicted i n narrative

(1788-90). For the S. Giovanni Gualberto, see Carducci 1975, 135-58;
8.

See Marciano and Pasculli Ferrara 1985, 158-60, for the documents re­

18.

Capecelatro was also directly involved i n the commission for the other

have worked directly w i t h the master, who died i n 1793.

statue, the San Giovanni Gualberto by Sanmartino i n the Chapel of

Donatone 1991, 43, fig. 4; Donatone 1993B, 39-46.

San Cataldo, Taranto cathedral: he suggested the sculptor to the patron,

A group representing Saint Joseph and the Christ Child shown i n the

negotiated the terms of the contract, and, most interesting, kept

Esposizione nazionale di belle arti in Naples in 1877 was described in

Sanmartino's terra-cotta model for himself; see Carducci 1975, 154-55,

the catalogue (394) as a "gruppo in porcellana i n colori. Epoca IV.

esp. 155, doc. 2, a letter from Capecelatro in Naples to the patron in

Porterebbe la marca N coronata." Donatone (1991, 43) associated this

Taranto, dated January 26, 1788: "Ho ricevuto la procura e si e con-

citation w i t h the Getty Saint Joseph, which he had seen only in a photo­

venuto che debba i l Signor S. Martino mandare a voi i l disegno della
statua di S. Giovanni e lasciarne anche un modello i n poter mio."

graph. Because the piece does not have the mark of the crowned N ,
doubt must be cast on it being the piece exhibited i n Naples i n 1877.

19.

For recent tendencies toward considering ceramic figures and groups as

Donatone also asserts that a group described as "S. Giuseppe a Bam­

works of sculpture and the evaluation of ceramic artists alongside con­

bino" [sic] offered at the 1901 sale at the Galleria Sangiorgi i n Rome of

temporary sculptors in marble, bronze, wood, and terra-cotta, see

the Charlesworth collection, and listed as no. 631, a "groupe en faience

Gonzalez-Palacios 1988; this issue is emphasized i n Nicholas Penny's

coloriee vieux Naples," is the Getty group, providing a possible prove­

review of the book i n Burlington Magazine 132 (December 1990): 880-

nance for i t i n a famous Neapolitan collection.

81. See also Schmidt 1932, esp. 186-291, and, more recently, Le

11.

Donatone 1997, 9.

Corbeiller 1988B, 22-28; Poole 1986; Tabakoff 1992, 12-20.

12.

See, especially, Donatone 1993B and Donatone 1996, 31-43. For San­
martino, see Borrelli 1966; Fittipaldi 1980, 136-94; Catello 1988, with
additional bibliography,- Ferrari 1996, 27: 756-57.

244

Saint Joseph with the Christ Child

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N o . 33 (84.DE.120)

N o . 6 (84.DE.94)

N o . 18 (84.DE.108)

N o . 23 (84.DE.106)

N o . 19 (84.DE.109)

N o . 30 (84.DE.107)

N o . 22 (84.DE.116)

Profiles

261

N o . 35 (86.DE.539)

N o . 31 (84.DE.114)

262

Profiles

INDEX

Page numbers for i l l u s t r a t i o n s are i n
boldface.
a calza design, 104, 104
a candelieri design, 132, 182, 192, 203
Agricola, Georgius (ne Bauer), 5
Agrigento, Mateo de, 24
albarelli, 42, 82, 118. See also drug jars
covered, 10, 10, 45
p i c t u r e d i n a pharmacy, 95
single-handled, 102
w i t h incised flat-leaf m o t i f , 68
w i t h Kufic script, 2, 69, 71
A l b r i z z i , G i o v a n n i Battista
235, 237
Componimentipoetici,
Forestiere illuminate
intorno le cose
piu rare, 235, 237
20
alfardones,
A l f o n z o V (king), 13
alia porcellana design, 6, 46, 107, 128, 156,
182, 184, 198, 202
A n d r e o l i , Giorgio, w o r k s h o p . See under
Gubbio
A n d r o u e t d u Cerceau, Jacques, 164, 196, 197
Arezzo
Bruschi, Ivan, c o l l e c t i o n
Bust of Christ, 96, 102
Museo C i v i c o
plate, 127n. 25
Augustus the Strong (king), 13
Baglioni family, dish w i t h coat of arms of,
74, 77
Baltimore, Walters A r t G a l l e r y
albarello,
118
bamboo, 10, 17n. 19
Barbari, Jacopo de', 124, 125, 126n. 10
Man with a Cradle, 125
Woman and Distaff, 125
Barcelona
M u s e u d'Arts Industrials
tiles, 23
Museus de A r t e de Barcelona
Santa Tecla and San Sebastian
with
a Donor, 22, 23
B a r t h o l o m e w the E n g l i s h m a n
The Proprietor, 54
Basel
Hoffmann-La Roche c o l l e c t i o n , 72
Roche c o l l e c t i o n , 5 5
basins
f r o m Deruta, 85
Hispano-Moresque, 24, 2 5 - 2 7 , 29, 29
w i t h D e u c a l i o n and Pyrrha, v, 192,
193-95, 1 9 6 - 9 7
Beham, Barthel
Spinning Room, 127n. 25
berettino glazes, 6, 139, 140, 142, 156, 158,
174, 178, 182, 184

Berlin
Beckerath ex-collection, 89n. 1
Bode, W i l h e l m von, ex-collection, 15, 36
Bode M u s e u m
Story of Tobias, 152
Kunstgewerbemuseum
jars, 55, 71
tiles, 20
private collections, 107, 118
albarello,
118
tondino, 107
Schlossmuseum ex-collection, 158, 159n.
20, 169, 196
Bernardino of Siena, Saint, 24
The Death of Saint Bernardino, 115, 116
drug jar w i t h monograms of, 60, 61n. 2
Saint Bernardino of Siena, 27
Biringuccio, Vannoccio
De la pirotechnia,
5, 5
boccali, 42
Bode, W i l h e l m von, 64m 1. See also under
Berlin
Bologna, 140
Biblioteca U n i v e r s i t a r i a
An Apothecary's
Shop, 72
Cappella San Sebastiano
tiles, 126
Museo C i v i c o , 139n. 4
Bonacossi, plate w i t h arms of, 20
bone china, 13
Borgarucci, Prospero
Della fabrica de gli spetiali, 90
Boston
Boston A t h e n e u m
plate, 116
M u s e u m of Fine A r t s
drug jar, 60
Branca, A n t o n i o d i , 40
Braunschweig
Herzog A n t o n U l r i c h - M u s e u m
crespina, 177
flask, 190
plates, 106nn. 1, 3, 137, 137, 139, 158,
159
vase, 132
Vieweg ex-collection, 24
Bremen, Hockemeyer, B., c o l l e c t i o n
dish, 107
plate, 30
Brescia, 148
Pinacoteca Tosio e M a r t i n e n g o , 149n. 30
Brunelleschi, Filippo, 203
Bruschi, Gaspero
candelabra, 212, 2 1 3 - 1 9
B u g l i o n i , Santi, 102
Bust of Christ, 96, 97-99, 100, 100-101,
102-3
Bust of a Man, 160, 1 6 1 - 6 3 , 164-65
Cafaggiolo, ceramics f r o m , 104, 132
dish, 107, 1 0 8 - 1 1 , 109, 111

C a l a m e l l i , V i r g i l i o t t o , w o r k s h o p . See under
Faenza
C a l i n i f a m i l y service, 146, 148, 148n. 16,
149n. 30
Cambridge, F i t z w i l l i a m M u s e u m
dish, 46, 49
jars, 55, 60, 73m 1
tondino, 107
Cambridge, Mass., Fogg A r t M u s e u m
Perseus Slaying Medusa, 220, 220
C a m p i , Vincenzo
La fruttivendola,
177
candelabra, 212, 2 1 3 - 1 9
Capodimonte, porcelain manufactory, 13,
226, 229m 7
235
capriccio,
Carlevarijs, Luca, 237n. 12
cartoons, 8, 9, 115
Caruso, Enrico, 64n. 1
Caserta, 226
cassone panels, 7, 152
Castel Durante, 6, 90, 132, 139n. 4, 146, 182
Castelli, 222, 229n. 14
p r i c k e d cartoon made i n , 8, 9
tabletop made i n , 222, 2 2 3 - 2 7
C a s t e l l i d'Abruzzo, 126
Cecilia, Saint, plate w i t h , 144, 146
Centaur Painter, style of
cup, 2
C i v i t a l i , M a t t e o , 96
Charles I I I (king), 13, 229m 7
C h a r l o t t e (queen), 13
Chicago, A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago
plate, 116
tile, 23
Chinese. See also M i n g dynasty; Y u a n
dynasty
"classic s c r o l l " m o t i f , 68n. 2, 73n. 3
porcelain, 3, 107, 110, 198, 201, 202,
203m 6, 230
Clare, Saint
dish w i t h , 170, 171-72
p o r t r a i t of, 173
Cleveland, Cleveland M u s e u m of A r t
jars, 60, 124
plate, 153, 154
cluster analysis, 16
Cologne, Kunstgewerbemuseum
albarello,
118
compendiario
decoration, m a i o l i c a jug w i t h ,
10, 10
Comunitatis
Castri Diruta, page of, 77
confinement dishes, 11, 11
coperta glaze, 4
coppa svasata, 106n. 5
coppe amatorie, 11, 174
corno hat, 230
Cortona, Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca
Temple of the Glories of Tuscany, 2 2 1 ,
221n. 5

263

Cozzi, G e m i n i a n o , 13, 232
C o z z i factory. See under Venice
crazing, 6
cream ware, 13
credenza, 17n. 15, 146
crespine, 10, 174, 175, 1 7 6 - 7 7 , 177n. 4, 178
C r i v e l l i , Taddeo
The Annunciation
with Saint Emidius, 45
Saint Bernardino of Siena, 27
c r u t c h e m b l e m , jars w i t h , 56, 60

Mercury and Argus, 220, 220
domaschino,
201
D o r t m u n d , M u s e u m fur K u n s t u n d
Kulturgeschichte
piatto dapompa,
158
drug jars, 29m 2, 40, 42, 50, 54, 56, 66, 7 1 ,
94. See also
albarelli
for m i t h r i d a t e s , 204, 2 0 5 - 7
for Persian p h i l o n i u m , 140, 141, 142,
142-43
for syrup of l e m o n juice, vi, 90, 9 1 - 9 3 ,

Damascus, Syria, 203
degli Alessandri arms, jug w i t h arms of, 80,
81
D e l l a Robbia, G i r o l a m o
Bust of a Man, 160, 1 6 1 - 6 3 , 164-65
Bust of a Man (Constantine!),
160, 164,
164
Bust of a Young Girl, 160, 164, 165
D e l l a Rovere, Francesco M a r i a (duke),
11-12, 166
D e l l a Rovere, Guidobaldo (duke), 184, 191,
196
Deruta
Catasto del C o m u n e
Castri Diruta, 77
page of Comunitatis
Museo Regionale della Ceramica
plate fragment, 89
Deruta, objects f r o m , 6, 124, 125, 126, 150
basin, 85
dishes, 74, 77, 86, 8 7 - 8 8 , 89
jars, 74, 7 5 - 7 6 , 82, 8 3 - 8 4 , 85, 118,
1 1 9 - 2 3 , 124
jug, 78, 7 8 - 8 0 , 81
page of Comunitatis
Castri Diruta, 77
plate fragment, 89
plates, 77n. 2 , 1 1 2 , 1 1 2 - 1 3 , 1 1 4 - 1 7 , 1 1 4 - 1 7
vase, 124
d i s c r i m i n a n t analysis, 16
dishes
a r m o r i a l , 144, 1 4 4 - 4 5 , 146, 1 4 8 - 4 9
blue and w h i t e , w i t h m e r c h a n t ship, 107 ,
108, 109, 109, 111
confinement, 11, 11
green-painted, w i t h interlace pattern, 46,
4 7 - 4 8 , 49
molded, w i t h allegory of love, 174,

94-95
for theriac, title page, 204, 2 0 8 - 9
D u r a n t i n o , G u i d o , 146, 186
plate, 8
Durer, A l b r e c h t , 8
Diisseldorf
Hetjens-Museum
plate, 153, 155
Kunstmuseum
dish, 24
D u v e e n Brothers, 64m 1, 118, 128, 178, 192,
197n. 1

174-75
w i t h A m a t a and T u r n u s , 134, 135-36,
137, 139
w i t h aquatic a n i m a l , 107, 111
w i t h arms of the Gonzaga, 110, 111
w i t h peacock-feather pattern, 86, 8 7 - 8 8
w i t h Saint Clare, 170, 171-72
w i t h Saint Peter, 104, 1 0 4 - 5 , 106
distaffs, 124, 127nn. 22, 25, 177
Doccia, 13, 221, 221n. 3
G i n o r i porcelain factory, 13, 202, 203
candelabra, 212, 2 1 3 - 1 9 , 2 2 0 - 2 1
Museo di Doccia

264

Index

fitta filettatura pattern, 106n. 5
flasks, 190, 191, 203
p i l g r i m , 186, 198, 199-200, 201, 201,
202-3
fleurs-de-lis, 29n. 5, 60
Florence
Bardini, Stefano, ex-collection, 62, 64m 1
Cantagalli factory
w o r k s h o p pattern, 185
Chiesa d i Ognissanti
The Last Supper, 39
Contini-Bonacossi, Alessandro,
ex-collection, 50
Fondazione H o m e
The Madonna and Child with Six
Saints, 39
Foresi, Alessandro, ex-collection, 198,
202-3

plates, 106, 156, 157, 158, 159, 159
faience, 6, 13, 17n. 2
Ferdinand I (king), 13
Ferrer I , Jaime

Galleria Palatina, Palazzo P i t t i
vase, 202
Young Bacchus, 10
Grassi, L u i g i , ex-collection, 20, 42
Mazzeo, Piero d i , w o r k s h o p
jar probably f r o m , 36, 3 6 - 3 8 , 3 9 - 4 1
M e d i c i porcelain factory, 212
p i l g r i m flask, 198, 199-200, 201, 201,
202-3
Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello
basins, 196, 197n. 7
bronzes, 221n. 2
closed vessels, 40
dishes, 107, 109, 111
flask, 191
jars, 7 1 , 76, 126
plate, 144
Museo Statale della Casa Fiorentina
A n t i c a , 64n. 1
Ospedale degli I n n o c e n t i , 41
Palazzo D a v a n z a t i
display cabinet, 64n. 1, 65
ex-collection, 62
private collections
jars, 42, 71
The Three Fates, 221, 221
Santa M a r i a N o v e l l a
The Birth of Saint John the Baptist, 10
Santa M a r i a N u o v a , drug jars w i t h
e m b l e m of, 56, 60
Spence, W i l l i a m B l u n d e l l , ex-collection,
198, 202
V o l p i , Elie, ex-collection, 60, 62, 64n. 1
Florence, ceramics f r o m , 6, 24
Bust of a Man, 160, 1 6 1 - 6 3 , 164-65
dishes, 46, 4 7 - 4 8 , 49, 49
jars, 36, 3 6 - 3 8 , 3 9 - 4 2 , 43—44, 50, 5 0 - 5 3 ,

The Last Supper, 28
Figdor, A l b e r t , 64n. 1
Filippo, Jacopo d i Stefano d i , 107, 109
fiordalisi decoration, 29n. 6
fire-crack, 236n. 3

56, 5 6 - 5 9 , 6 0 - 6 2 , 6 2 - 6 4 , 64, 65
p i l g r i m flask, 198, 199-200, 201, 201,
202-3
Foggini, G i o v a n n i Battista, after
Mercury and Argus, 220, 220

Ecouen, Musee de la Renaissance
plates, 104, 106, 116, 139, 148, 158
Edinburgh, Royal Scottish M u s e u m
plates, 148
Egyptian ceramics, 203m 7
Evelyn, John, 204
ewer, 196
fabrics. See textiles
Faenza
C a l a m e l l i , V i r g i l i o t t o , w o r k s h o p , 178
Casa Pirota w o r k s h o p , 134, 139, 139n. 4,
158
Museo Internationale della Ceramiche
bowls, 182
closed vessel, 40
jars, 29m 2, 7 1 , 76, 102
plates, 158, 169n. 14
tondino, 107
vases, 124, 124, 142
Museo Nazionale delle Ceramiche
drug jar, 60, 61n. 2
Faenza, ceramics f r o m , 6, 86, 90, 132
dishes, 104, 1 0 4 - 5 , 107, 134, 135—36, 170,
171-72, 174, 1 7 4 - 7 5 , 1 7 6 - 7 8 , 1 7 9 - 8 1
drug jar, 140, 1 4 1 - 4 3
jug, 178, 1 7 9 - 8 1

Perseus Slaying Medusa, 220, 220, 221
Foggini, Vincenzo, 212, 220
foglia di prezzemolo
pattern, 66
foglie di gelso pattern, 66
Fontana, A n n i b a l e , a t t r i b u t e d to
The Adoration of the Shepherds,
211
drug jars, 204, 2 0 5 - 8 , 209, 209, 210
Fontana, F l a m i n i o , 186, 191n. 5, 192, 196
Fontana, Orazio, 186, 192, 196, 197
Fontana w o r k s h o p . See under U r b i n o
forks, use of, 86
Fountaine, Andrew, c o l l e c t i o n , 15, 15
f r a m i n g of m a i o l i c a pieces, 229, 229n. 14
Frederick I (king), 13
Gardner, Isabella Stewart, 64m 1
Genouillac, G a l i o t de, ex-collection, 160
G e n t i l e da Fabriano
Madonna and Child, 69, 73
Ghirlandaio, D o m e n i c o , 69
The Birth of Saint John the Baptist, 10
The Last Supper, 39
G i a m p i c c o l i , G i u l i a n o , and G i a m b a t t i s t a
Tiepolo
Marina with Longshoremen,
236
River Town with Clock Tower, 236
G i n o r i , Carlo (marquis), 13, 212
G i n o r i porcelain factory. See under D o c c i a
Gonzaga, Federico (duke), 146, 148
Gonzaga arms, dish w i t h , 100, 111
Granacci, Francesco, circle of
The Lapiths and the Centaurs, 7
The Story of Tobias, 152
"Green M a n , " 156
G r i c c i , Giuseppe, 238
grotesque embellishments, 6, 17n. 13, 18 2,
192, 196, 197
Grue, Carlo A n t o n i o , 228
Grue, Francesco A n t o n i o , 222
Grue, Francesco Saverio M a r i a
tabletop w i t h h u n t i n g scenes, 222,
2 2 3 - 2 5 , 226, 2 2 6 - 2 7 , 2 2 8 - 2 9
Guardia, Gabriel, 23
Gubbio, 6, 139n. 4
A n d r e o l i , Giorgio, w o r k s h o p
plates, 117n. 3, 127n. 25, 150, 1 5 0 - 5 1 ,
153-55, 174
Gussoni, Andrea, 202
Hainauer, Oscar, 64n. 1
H a m b u r g , M u s e u m fur K u n s t u n d Gewer be
albarelli,
118
crespine, 176
tondino, 89n. 2
Hartford, Wadsworth A t h e n e u m
basin, 196
jars, 55, 124-25, 126
Hearst, W i l l i a m Randolph, 64n. 1
Hispano-Moresque ceramics, 38, 39, 42, 50,
66, 69, 150

basin, 24, 2 5 - 2 7 , 29
i n The Last Supper, 28
hospitals, 4 0 - 4 1 , 56
Huguet, Jaume
Santa Tecla and San Sebastian
Donor, 22, 23
H u n t i n g t o n , H e n r y E., 192

with a

Imhof, Andreas, 12
Isabella d'Este (marchesa), 8, 11, 146, 148
Islamic wares, 2, 3, 16, 33, 86
istoriato ware, 6, 8, 134, 139, 146, 156, 158,
166, 186
I z n i k pottery, 6, 128, 198, 201, 202
jars. See also albarelli; drug jars
armorial, 74, 75, 76, 76, 77
relief-blue, 36, 3 6 - 3 8 , 3 9 - 4 2 , 4 3 - 4 4 , 50,
5 0 - 5 3 , 55-56, 5 6 - 5 9 , 6 0 - 6 2 , 6 2 - 6 3 ,
64, 64
w i t h foliate decoration, 66, 6 6 - 6 7 , 68
w i t h Kufic pattern, 69, 70, 7 1 , 71, 7 2 - 7 3
w i t h lame peasant, 118, 1 1 9 - 2 1 , 123-27
w i t h profile of a y o u n g man, 82, 8 3 - 8 4 , 85
w i t h w o m a n and geese, 118, 1 2 2 - 2 2 , 123,
123, 124-27
Joseph, Saint, 243, 244n. 17
representations of, 238, 2 3 9 - 4 2 , 2 4 3 - 4 4
jugs, 40, 80, 81
green-painted, half-title page, 30, 3 1 - 3 2 ,
33, 33, 35
probably f r o m D e r u t a or M o n t e l u p o , 80
w i t h bust m e d a l l i o n , 78, 7 8 - 7 9 , 81
w i t h degli Alessandri arms, 80, 81
w i t h m u s i c a l theme, 178, 179, 180, 180-81
Julius I I (pope), 11
k a o l i n , 12, 232, 237n. 7
Karlsruhe, Badisches Landesmuseum
cup, 2
Kleiner, Salomon
i l l u s t r a t i o n of a pharmacy, 210
Krakow, M u z e u m Narodowe
plate, 137, 137, 139
Kufic script, 69, 73m 4
jars decorated w i t h , 2, 7 1 , 72
lattimo glass, 202
Laudato, Gennaro, 243
Madonna and Child with Saint John the
Baptist, 238, 242, 243, 244m 8
Lawrence, Kans., H e l e n Foresman Spencer
M u s e u m of A r t
flask, 190
Lazio, n o r t h e r n , ceramics possibly f r o m
jug, 30, 3 1 - 3 2 , 33, 33, 35
Leo X (pope), 11, 150
Liguria, 6, 33n. 1, 142
Limoges, Musee A d r i e n - D u b o u c h e
plate, 81n. 2

lira da braccio, 178, 180
London
British Museum
basin, 196, 197
Deer Hunt, 222, 228
dish, 24
Elephant Hunt, 222, 228, 229
jars, 55, 85
Madonna and Child with Saint John the
Baptist, 238, 242, 243
Man with a Cradle, 125
M e d i c i porcelain, 203
o r n a m e n t a l panel, 184, 185
Ostrich Hunt, 222, 228
plates, 7, 8, 139, 144, 146, 170
tondino, 132
vase, 186
Woman and Captive's Heart, 174, 176
Woman and Distaff, 125
National Gallery
with Saint
Emidius,
The Annunciation
45
Rothschild, Gustave (baron),
ex-collection, 144
V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t M u s e u m
bowl, 3
dishes, 24, 110, 111, 132, 176
Ecce Homo, 103n. 1
flask, 190, 203
fresco, i 4 9 n . 30
illuminated initial " M , " 3
jars, 2, 60, 62, 65, 68, 7 1 , 73n. 1, 77n. 2,
82
jug, 180
Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio, 4, 5, 5,
9, 11, 14, 190
plaque w i t h D e p u t a t i o n of Coriolanus,
137, 138, 139
plates, 60, 106n. 1, 128, 131, 139, 158,
159n. 20, 169n. 14, 170, 185n. 4, 229
tiles, 23
Wallace C o l l e c t i o n
crespine, 176
Lorenzo M o n a c o
The Madonna and Child with Six Saints,
39
Los Angeles
G e t t y Research I n s t i t u t e
C h r i s t o p h e r i De Pauli
pharmacopoeia,
210
Componimenti
poetici, 235, 237
Decachordum
Christianum,
152
De la pirotechnia,
5
Deucalion
and Pyrrha, 197
p r i c k e d cartoon, 9
Prospetto della Piazza verso il mare,
235, 237
Kosofski, M a r v i n and Jacqueline,
collection
Bust of a Man (Constantine!),
160, 164,
164

Index

265

Lucretia Painter, 139
Lugano, C o l l e c t i o n , I T A L I K A
crespina, 178, 181
Lyons
D a m i r o n family, ex-collection, 77m 2, 80,
81, 90, 128, 170
Musee des A r t s Decoratifs
plate, 139
tondino, 132
w e t - d r u g jar, 85
Madrid
Buen Retiro porcelain factory, 13, 229m 7,
238
I n s t i t u t o de Valencia de D o n Juan
jar, 72
Museo A r q u e o l o g i c o N a c i o n a l
t i l e , 23
Maestro Benedetto, 125
Maghrib, 2
majolica,
17n. 1
Majorca, 1, 23n. 2
Malaga, 1, 2, 17n. 2, 24, 69
M a m l u k s , 39
Manara, Baldassare, 139, 170
Dish with Saint Clare, 170, 171-72
182
maniera durantina,
Manises, ceramics f r o m , 20, 50, 69
basin, 24, 2 5 - 2 7 , 29
jars, 2, 68, 72
plates, 7, 50, 55
M a n n e r i s t style, 182, 184, 209
Mantegna, Andrea
The Adoration
of the Magi, 110
M a n t u a , 148
M a r i a , G i o v a n n i , 128, 182
"Julius I I " b o w l , 131
plate, 131
M a r k , Saint, 236n. 5
marzocco e m b l e m , 50
Master C. I . , 156
plaque w i t h D e p u t a t i o n of Coriolanus,
137, 138, 139
plate w i t h Samson i n the Temple, 137,
137, 139nn. 22, 23
Master Gonela, 139, 156
Master of the M a r b l e Madonnas, 96
Master of the Resurrection Panel, 139
Master of the Taft Orpheus, 158
materia medica, 204
Mazzeo, Piero d i , w o r k s h o p . See under
Florence
M c N a b , Jessie, 15
M e d i c i , C o s i m o I de' (grand duke), 11, 202
M e d i c i , Ferdinand de' (grand prince), 221n. 2
M e d i c i , Francesco I de' (grand duke), 12, 196,
202, 203
M e d i c i porcelain factory. See under Florence
Meissen porcelain factory, 230
figure of Beltrame d i M i l a n o , 12

266

Index

M e l b o u r n e , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of V i c t o r i a
drug jar, 60
M e l i c h , Georg, and Orazio G u a r g u a n t i
Avertimenti,
210
m e m e n t o m o r i theme, 117n. 3
Messina, Spano ex-collection, 72
Mezzarisa, Francesco, w o r k s h o p
crespina, 181
Milan
Biblioteca Ambrosiana, 210n. 12
Museo del Castello Sforzesco
plate, 146
private c o l l e c t i o n
drug jar, 60
Rossi, Guido, c o l l e c t i o n
drug jar, 60
M i l a n , ceramics possibly f r o m
drug jars, 204, 2 0 5 - 9 , 209, 209, 210
M i l a n o , Beltrame d i , figure of, 12
M i n g dynasty, 6, 73m 3, 198
M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e a p o l i s M u s e u m of A r t
jar, 76
M i n t o n factory, 17n. 1
M i t h r i d a t e s Eupator V I (king), 204, 210n. 3
m i t h r i d a t e s , 204
Modena, 202
M o h a m m e d I I (sultan), 128
Montagna, Benedetto, 178
M o n t e f e l t r o , Guidobaldo da (duke), 11
M o n t e l u p o , Museo Archeologico e della
Ceramica
fragments of a jug, 66, 68
fragments of a plate, 81, 85
M o n t e l u p o , ceramics f r o m , 6, 66, 86, 126,
176
Bust of Christ, 96, 97-100, 100, 101, 102- 3
dish, 46, 4 7 - 4 8 , 49
fragments of a jug, 66, 68
fragments of a plate, 81,85
jars, 66, 6 6 - 6 8 , 69, 7 0 - 7 0 , 7 1 , 71, 7 2 - 7 3 ,
82, 8 3 - 8 4 , 85, 118, 1 1 9 - 2 3
jugs, 78, 7 8 - 8 0 , 8 1 , 81
M o n t m o r e n c y , A n n e (duke), 12
M o r g a n , Sr., J. Pierpont, 15, 64n. 1
ex-collection, 118, 178
M u n i c h , Pringsheim, Alfred, ex-collection,
46, 74, 90, 116, 118, 132, 169
M u r c i a , 1, 2, 24
M u s i , Agostino, 185
Naples, 13, 86
Charlesworth, W i l l i a m s , ex-collection,
238, 243, 244n. 10
Girasole ex-collection
drug jar, 90, 94
Museo Nazionale della Ceramica
albarello,
118
M u s e o Nazionale d i C a p o d i m o n t e
jars, 60, 72
pitcher, 132

Museo Nazionale d i San M a r t i n o
basin, 197
Real Fabbrica, 243
Naples, ceramics f r o m
drug jar, 90, 9 1 - 9 3 , 94, 94, 95
Saint Joseph with the Christ Child, 238,
239-41, 243-44
narrative scenes, 8, 196. See also
istoriato
ware
Nasrid kingdom, 2
Nazis, ceramics looted by, 36, 42, 46, 74, 90,
198
n e u t r o n a c t i v a t i o n analysis, 16, 8 1 , 82, 100,
126
N e w Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y
Bust of a Young Girl, 160, 164, 165
Madonna and Child, 73
N e w York
Bak, Robert, ex-collection, 24, 94, 118
B l u m k a , R u t h , ex-collection, 20, 77m 2
Hispanic Society of A m e r i c a
dishes, 24, 68
plate, 20
t i l e , 23
M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m of A r t , 64n. 1
bust, 165n. 16
dish, 148
jars, 48, 60, 94
"Julius I I " b o w l , 128, 131
M e d i c i porcelain, 203
plates, 77n. 2, 174
tile, 60
N i c c h i a d i s t r i c t , 33n. 1
N i c o l a d i Gabriele Sbraghe da U r b i n o
w o r k s h o p . See under U r b i n o
Norfolk, Narford Hall
m a i o l i c a c o l l e c t i o n , 15
N u r e m b e r g , 12
obra de mdlequa,
1, 17n. 2
orciuoli, 42
orciuolo biansato, 36
O r v i e t o , cathedral, 30, 156
O t t o m a n Empire, 201
Ovid
Metamorphoses,
146, 147, 148, 192, 197
Oxford, A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m
basins, 196, 197
jug, 80, 81
plates, 128, 131, 202
Painter of the A p o l l o Basin, 169
Paladini, F i l i p p o d i Lorenzo
Giving Drink to the Thirsty, 103
Palaeologus, John V I I I (emperor), 128
Paris
Adda ex-collection, 77n. 2, 112, 117n. 4,
142
Basilewski ex-collection, 191
Bibliotheque N a t i o n a l e

The Proprietor, 54
Boy, M . , ex-collection, 24
D u c r o t ex-collection, 7 1 , 127n. 28
Gaillard, E m i l e , ex-collection, 24
Galerie M o a t t i
plate, 154
Musee des A r t s Decoratifs
albarello, 73n. 9
Musee de C l u n y
dish, 24
plate, 55
Musee d u Louvre
basin, 1 9 6 - 9 7
bowls, 176
bust, 160
bust surround, 165n. 16
dish, 24
Four Struggling Nude Figures, 156, 159
jars, 40, 60, 77n. 2, 94, 118, 123, 124
M e d i c i porcelain, 203
plate fragment, 144
plates, 8, 114, 114, 116-17, 159, 159,
Petit Palais, 170
R o t h s c h i l d ex-collection, 153, 192, 198
p a r t u r i t i o n set, 11, 11
Patanazzi, G i o v a n n i , 197
Patanazzi w o r k s h o p . See under U r b i n o
Paterna, 20, 50
Paul, Saint, plate w i t h , 104, 106
pavements, 20, 21, 23
Pavia, Certosa, 210n. 12
Pavoni, Cassandra, 86, 89m 3
Pergola, Jacopo della
i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l " M " a t t r i b u t e d to, 3
Perugino, 112, 114
Pesaro, Museo C i v i c o
plate, 185n. 4
Pesaro, ceramics f r o m , 86
drug jar, 90, 9 1 - 9 3 , 94, 94, 95
plate, 128, 129-30, 132
Pescara, private c o l l e c t i o n
plaques, 229
Peter, Saint
dishes w i t h , 104, 1 0 4 - 5 , 106, 170, 1 7 1 7 2
pharmacology, 204
Pharnaces, 210n. 3
P h i l o n of Tarsus, 140
Piccolpasso, Cipriano, 8, 182, 184
Li tre libri delVarte del vasaio, 4, 5, 5, 8,
9, 11, 14, 190
Pietersz, Pieter, 127n. 25
Piles, Roger de, 237n. 10
p i l g r i m flasks. See under flasks
P i n t u r i c c h i o , Bernardino
The Death of Saint Bernardino,
115, 116
The Enthroned Virgin and Child and
Saints, 117
Eritrean Sibyl, 116
The Visitation,
114, 114
_

Pisa, 2
Pistoia, Ospedale del Ceppo
Giving Drink to the Thirsty,
plague, 117n. 4
plates
lustered, 112, 1 1 2 - 1 3 ,

102, 103

114, 115, 116,

117, 117, 150, 1 5 0 - 5 1 , 153-55, 153-55
piatti da balata, 11
piatti da pompa, 6, 158
w i t h abduction of Helen, 166, 167-68, 169
w i t h A p o l l o and Daphne, 8
w i t h arms of the Bonacossi, 20
w i t h female bust, 115, 116
w i t h grotesques, 182, 183, 184, 184, 185
w i t h Hero and Leander, 156, 157, 158,
158, 159
w i t h w i n g e d p u t t o , viii, 128, 129-31,
132-33
" p l a y i n g p u t t o " series, 132
Poliziano, Angelo, 9
Pomposa, C h u r c h of Santa M a r i a
Saint Guido, 34
Poterat, Louis, 202
potiches, 230, 236n. 2
Prague, M u s e u m of I n d u s t r i a l A r t
plate, 170
Prato, cathedral
The Birth of the Virgin, 29
Pringsheim, Alfred, 15, 74. See also under
Munich
p r i n t images, 8, 124, 158, 166, 185, 196
protomaiolica, 2
pyros rota mark, 134
Quadrone, G i o v a n n i Battista
Vergognosa, 14
Queen's ware, 13
R a i m o n d i , M a r c a n t o n i o , 8, 124, 125, 127nn.
10, 14, 180n. 2
The Abduction
of Helen, 166, 169
o r n a m e n t a l panel, 184, 185
rajoles, 20
Ravenna, Museo Nazionale d i Ravenna
plate, 116
Rene of A n j o u (king), 24
Reni, G u i d o
Young Bacchus, 10
repousse vessels, 10
retable, 22
Ricci, Marco, 235
rigoletes de puntes, 20
Ripanda, Jacopo, 139
Rococo style, 222, 228
Rome, 137
Biblioteca Casanatense
Theatrum sanitatis,
95
Castellani, Alessandro, ex-collection, 15,
128, 178
C h u r c h of Santa M a r i a i n A r a c o e l i

The Death of Saint Bernardino, 115, 116
Galleria Colonna
Pirates with Loot, 191
Galleria Nazionale d ' A r t e A n t i c a , Palazzo
Barberini
albarelli, 118, 126
Hermanin collection
Madonna and Child, 244m 8
Vatican, 112, 196
The Visitation,
114, 114
Veneziana ex-collection, 196, 197
Roos, Janoosen
Pirates with Loot, 191
Rotterdam, M u s e u m Boijmans-Van
Beuningen
t i l e , 23
Rouen, 12, 202
Saint-Cloud, 12, 202
Saint John Painter
plate a t t r i b u t e d to, 137, 137
Saint Petersburg, State Hermitage M u s e u m
jars, 60, 94, 142
plates, 139, 144, 158
San M a r i n o , Calif., H u n t i n g t o n Library, A r t
Collections, and Botanical Gardens
ewer, 196
Sanmartino, Giuseppe, 244n. 18
Saint Joseph with the Christ Child, 238,
242, 243, 244nn. 7, 8
Sansovino, Andrea
Bust of Christ a t t r i b u t e d to, 96, 102
Sansovino, Jacopo, 209, 210n. 10
Sarasota, T h e John and M a b l e R i n g l i n g
M u s e u m of A r t
dish, 77
tondino, 117n. 3
scented water, 192
Schongauer, M a r t i n , 8
Sciacca, ceramics possibly f r o m
drug jar, 90, 9 1 - 9 3 , 9 4 - 9 5
scodelle da parto, 11
screw tops, 186, 190
Semifonte, plate excavated at, 49
Sevres
Musee N a t i o n a l de Ceramique
b o w l , 176
jars, 55, 7 1 , 90, 94, 126
jug, 8o, 81
M e d i c i porcelain, 203
tiles, 20
porcelain factory, 13, 237n. 7
Siena, private c o l l e c t i o n
jug, 40, 40
Signorelli, Luca
Four Struggling Nude Figures, 156, 159
Simon, N o r t o n , ex-collection, 192
Soderini, plate w i t h arms of, 7
Soldani-Benzi, M a s s i m i l i a n o , 221
Solsona, M u s e u Diocesva i Comarcal

Index

267

The Last Supper, 28
Spain, 2, 16, 46, 50, 69, 86
Spello
Chiesa d i Sant'Andrea
The Enthroned
Virgin and Child, 117
Santa M a r i a Maggiore
Eritrean Sibyl, 116
Spilimbergo, cathedral
Niche of the Sacred Oils, 35
spinning, 124, 127n. 25
Staffordshire, 13
statistical analysis, 16
stile hello, 134
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum
72
albarello,
p i l g r i m flask, 191
Strauss, Robert, ex-collection, 78, 86, 94,
107, 128, 156, 182
Strozzi family, 111n. 14, 201
Taranto, cathedral
Saint Joseph with the Christ Child, 238,
242, 243
Tempesta, A n t o n i o , 2 2 m . 2, 222
Deer Hunt, 222, 228
Elephant Hunt, 222, 228, 229
Ostrich Hunt, 222, 228
terraglia, 13, 15, 238, 243, 244nn. 1, 4
testa di cavallo shield, 74
textiles, 39, 55, 55n. 8, 69, 73n. 6
Theatrum sanitatis,
95
theriac, 204, 209
thermoluminescence, 133n. 17
Toledo, Toledo M u s e u m of A r t
dish, 24
drug jar, 60
tondini, 10, 89n. 2, 107, 128
Toronto, George R. Gardiner M u s e u m of
Ceramic A r t
plate, 158
T o u r n o n , Francois de, 5
Tschirnhaus, Ehrenfried Walter von, 13
Tugio, G i u n t a d i , 50, 56, 62
T u r i n , Galleria C i v i c a d ' A r t e M o d e r n a e
Contemporanea
Vergognosa, 14
Tuscany, southern, ceramics possibly f r o m
jug, 30, 31-33, 33, 33, 35
U c c e l l o , Paolo
The Birth of the Virgin, 29
U m b r i a , 33n. 1, 112
U n k n o w n artists
An Apothecary's
Shop, 72
Niche of the Sacred Oils, 35
Saint Guido, 34
Woman and Captive's Heart, 174, 176
U r b i n o , N i c o l a da. See under U r b i n o
U r b i n o , 6, 90, 150, 182
Fontana w o r k s h o p , 184

268

Index

basin, 192, 1 9 3 - 9 5 , 1 9 6 - 9 7
ewer, 196
p i l g r i m flask, 186, 187-89, 190, 190, 191
N i c o l a d i Gabriele Sbraghe da U r b i n o
(Nicola da U r b i n o ) workshop, 153,
166, 169, 182, 197
dish, 144, 1 4 4 - 4 5 , 146, 148
plate, 8
Patanazzi workshop, 192
basin, 197, 197n. 12
U r b i n o , ceramics f r o m , 198
basins, 192, 1 9 3 - 9 5 , 1 9 6 - 9 7
dish, 144, 1 4 4 - 4 5 , 146, 1 4 8 - 4 9
p i l g r i m flask, 186, 187-89, 190, 190, 191
plates, 128, 1 2 9 - 3 2 , 133-34, 166,
167-68, 169
Vaduz, princes of Liechtenstein c o l l e c t i o n
jars, 55, 60
Valencia, 23n. 7
M a r t i , Gonzalez, c o l l e c t i o n
dish, 24
Museo N a c i o n a l de Ceramica
t i l e , 23
Valencia region, ceramics f r o m , 39
albarello, 2
basin, 24, 2 5 - 2 7 , 29
dish, 68
t i l e floor, 20, 21, 23
Vasari, Giorgio, 202
vases, 230, 2 3 0 - 3 1 , 232, 2 3 2 - 3 4 , 235, 235,
236-37
Vecchietta, Lorenzo, 96
Vegerio, Marco, 154
Vegerio f a m i l y service, 150, 153
Veneto, 33n. 1, 142, 235
Veneziano, A g o s t i n o . See M u s i , A g o s t i n o
Venice, 90, 132, 204, 209
Accademia
Saint Clare, 173
C o z z i factory, 13
vases, 230, 2 3 0 - 3 1 , 232, 2 3 2 - 3 4 , 235,
235, 2 3 6 - 3 7
H e w e l c k e factory, 13, 232
Museo Correr
basin, 197
Correr service, 146
tiles, 23, 23n. 7
private c o l l e c t i o n
River Town with Clock Tower, 235, 236
San Marco, 210n. 10, 232, 235
Venice, ceramics f r o m
plates, 128, 129-30, 132, 132, 133, 182,
183, 184, 184, 185
vases, 230, 2 3 0 - 3 1 , 232, 2 3 2 - 3 4 , 235,
235, 2 3 6 - 3 7
Venice, figure of, 232, 2 3 5 - 3 6
Verrocchio, Andrea del, 96
Vezzi, Francesco and Giuseppe, 13

Vico, Enea, 196
V i c t o r i a (queen), ex-collection, 182
Vienna, 13
D u Pacquier factory, 212
Graphische S a m m l u n g A l b e r t i n a
The Abduction
of Helen, 169
dsterreichisches M u s e u m fur
angewandte K u n s t
drug jar, 60
Vigerius, Marcus (cardinal)
Decachordum
Christianum,
152
Villani, Matteo
Cronica, 56
Virgil
Aeneid, 134, 137
Viterbo, 30, 35m 12, 40, 42
private c o l l e c t i o n
plate w i t h a bird, 30, 33
Vivarini, Alvise
Saint Clare, 173
Volpi, Elie, 64n. 1. See also under Florence
W a r w i c k s h i r e , W a r w i c k Castle, 222, 229
Washington, D . C .
Corcoran G a l l e r y of A r t
basins, 85, 117n. 2
flask, 190
jars, 118
plates, 148, 158, 159n. 20
Library of Congress
The Contest between Apollo and
147
Marsyas,
The Contest between Apollo and Pan,
147
N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of A r t
The Adoration
of the Shepherds,
209,
211
b o w l , 182
jar, 94
plates, 115, 116, 128, 132, 132, 153, 153
Wedgwood, Josiah, 13, 244n. 1
Widener, Joseph, 64n. 1
ex-collection, 118
W i l t s h i r e , Longleat
The Lapiths and the Centaurs, 7
X a n t o A v e l l i , Francesco, 153, 166, 169
Y u a n dynasty, 73n. 3
zaffera wares, 64n. 5
a rilievo, 6, 30, 36, 42, 50
diluita, 35nn. 9, 12
zampogna, 148n. 20
Z i r n f e l d , A n r e i t e r von, 212
Zuccaro, Taddeo, 184
Z u c c h i , Francesco, 235
Prospetto della Piazza verso il mare, 237,
237m 12
Z u r i c h , Forrer, Robert, ex-collection, 20