i:f:7:::;::i:;i:7:77

:-

3

Theory of Groundwater Flow
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

3.1

SCOPE
T h e t e r m s subsurface water a n d groundwater h a v e b e e n g i v e n d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s b y d i f f e r ent researchers all over t h ew o r l d . T h e s e t e r m s have been used i n a broader sense t o include
all waters b e l o w t h e surface o f the e a r t h i n liquid, solid, o r v a p o r f o r m s , appearing as physically o r c h e m i c a l l y b o u n d waters, as free w a t e r i nt h e zones o f a e r a t i o n a n d s a t u r a t i o n , a n d
i n a s u p e r c r i t i c a l state i n t h e z o n e o f dense f l u i d s e x t e n d i n g b e l o w t h e z o n e o f s a t u r a t i o n
h a v i n g a p r e s s u r e g r e a t e r t h a n 2 1 8 a t m a n d t e m p e r a t u r e h i g h e r t h a n 3 7 4 °C. T h e s e t e r m s
also have b e e n used t o refer o n l y t o t h e free w a t e r that c a n m o v e t h r o u g h r o c k a n d soil,
comprising water i nt h e capillary fringe, gravitational water infiltered t h r o u g h t h e zone o f
aeration, a n d m o v i n g groundwater i nt h e zone o f saturation. Further, these terms have
been used w h e n referring t o water i nt h e zone o f saturation only. T h e use o fthese terms i n
t h e U n i t e d States, h o w e v e r , a l m o s t stabilized w h e n i n 1 9 2 3 M e i n z e r d e f i n e d subsurface
w a t e r t o designate a l l w a t e r s t h a t o c c u r b e l o w t h e earth's surface, a n d g r o u n d w a t e r t o desi g n a t e t h e w a t e r i n t h e z o n e o f s a t u r a t i o n . T h e International Glossary of Hydrology, p r e pared b y W M O a n d U N E S C O (1974), adopted t h e same meanings f o rthese terms.
M e i n z e r ' s concept o f subsurface w a t e r as all varieties o f w a t e r i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f the earth is
very broad, s o m e t h i n g v e r y similar t ot h e present definition o fsubsurface hydrosphere. I n
t h e c o m m o n s e n s e , s u b s u r f a c e flow i s m e a n t t o i n d i c a t e w a t e r m o v i n g i n t h e z o n e s o f a e r a tion a n d saturation a n dt h e deep percolation.
H y d r o g e o l o g y covers t h e study o f subsurface water i n all itsphases: origin, m a n n e r o f
deposition, laws o fm o t i o n , distribution, physical a n d chemical properties, interrelations h i p w i t h a t m o s p h e r i c a n d surface w a t e r s , effects o f h u m a n activities, e c o n o m i c values,
a n d s o o n . O nt h e other hand, civil engineers are m o r e concerned about t h e m o v e m e n t
a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g r o u n d w a t e r a n d its application, w h i c h is t h e subject matter o f this
chapter.

3.2 C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F S U B S U R F A C E W A T E R
H y d r o g e o l o g i s t s have classified subsurface w a t e r based o n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l ideas o f geological structures c o n t a i n i n g such water. FFowever, this classification scheme based o n t h e m a n ner i n w h i c h water is deposited isw i d e l y accepted b yb o t h hydrogeologists a n d engineers.
T h i s s c h e m e takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e fact t h a t physical, geographical, geological, a n d
t h e r m o d y n a m i c conditions are responsible factors i nt h e deposition o f water i nt h e interior
o f the earth. I nthis classification, zonal divisions o f subsurface water are made. N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y scientists n o t e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a l a w o f z o n a t i o n o f n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a s u c h as

121

climatic z o n a t i o n , soil zonation, a n d vertical z o n a t i o n o f the material o f the globe. A l l n a t u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y is d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h r e e z o n e s : a t m o s p h e r i c , surface, a n d s u b s u r f a c e w a t e r s .
T h e p r i n c i p l e o f z o n a t i o n w a s t r a c e d i n s u b s u r f a c e w a t e r as w e l l . F r o m 1 9 1 0 o n w a r d , a
n u m b e r o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e s b a s e d o n t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h w a t e r is d e p o s i t e d w e r e
p r o p o s e d b y S o v i e t a n d A m e r i c a n s c i e n t i s t s as w e l l as b y s c i e n t i s t s i n F r a n c e , G e r m a n y , a n d
other western E u r o p e a n nations. A v e r y o r i g i n a l classification system suggested b y M e i n z e r
( 1 9 2 3 ) is still w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t o d a y . T h i s b o o k a d o p t s t h e s a m e classification. T h i s classification, s h o w n i n Figure 3.1, established t w o broader divisions: interstitial (rock voids)
w a t e r a n d i n t e r n a l ( d e e p - l y i n g ) w a t e r . I n t e r s t i t i a l w a t e r is s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s u s p e n d e d
(vadose) water i n the zone o f aeration a n d groundwater i n the zone o f saturation. Susp e n d e d water has three further subdivisions: soil water zone, intermediate zone, and capill a r y zone. T h e w a t e r i n t h e z o n e o f s a t u r a t i o n w a s d i v i d e d b y M e i n z e r i n t o free w a t e r a n d
pressure water.
.
,
.
s^^X :
Figure

3.1

Meinzer's classification a n d modification s u g g e s t e d b y Davis a n d DeWiest

(1966).
S u g g e s t e d classification

C o m m o n classification
Soil water

Soil water

0
c
o

0

0

i

N

•SI

w
^

3
.0
0
o
o

g

c
o
N

I
.2

Gravitational
water

' Capillary water

o
•a

o

o

water

_Water
table

_Water
table
S

TO
C

Intermediate
vadose

Capillary water

c

I
Groundwater

TO

\

Phreatic water
(groundwater)

X.
CL

Internal
water

o

°
^

122

1
1

W a t e r in
unconnected
pores

W a t e r only in
chemical
combination
with rock

Theory of Groundwater Flow

Chapter 3

P i n n e k e r t h u s suggested a classification t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e process b y w h i c h g r o u n d w a t e r deposits are f o r m e d . S u c h aquifers o f t e n have t h e advantage o f direct r e p l e n i s h m e n t b y seepage f r o m streams a n d land. Generally. A l s o . C o n f i n e d aquifers. I n Lange's classification o f1969.3 WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS F o r m a t i o n s t h a t c a n y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r a r e k n o w n a s aquifers. the upper surface o f t h e g r o u n d w a t e r b o d y i s e x p o s e d t o a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e o r a water table e x i s t s . a n d j o i n t s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y y i e l d water. Davis and D e W i e s t c o m b i n e d the collecting-rock properties. t h e d e e p . a n d(4) water o f regions o f extreme climatic conditions. A l l u v i a l deposits are thus the best f o r m o f aquifers: probably 9 0 % o f all developed aquifers are i n s u c h f o r m a t i o n s . a l t h o u g h h a v i n g a h i g h level o f p o r o s i t y . occur w h e r e g r o u n d w a t e r is u n d e r S e c t i o n 3.The F r e n c h scientist Schoeller. o n the basis o f h y d r a u l i c features • Classes: b a s i c v a r i e t i e s o f g r o u n d w a t e r according t o t h ew a y i n w h i c h they are formed • Subclasses: o n t h e b a s i s o f w a t e r . free surface a n d pressure surface are recognized. G r o u n d w a t e r b e l o w t h e o c e a n s a n d seas i s n o t c o v e r e d . T h e o r i g i n a l classification a n d suggested changes are s h o w n schematically i n Figure 3.1). (2) w a t e r o f h a r d sedimentary rocks. I nu n c o n f i n e d aquifers. w h i l e retaining Meinzer's concept (see Table 3. distinguished the following zones beneath the surface: (1) t h e e v a p o r a t i o n zone. I n the last zone. (2) t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n zone. p r o v e t o b e p o o r aquifers because t h e i r pores are t o o s m a l l a n d n o t w e l l connected. T h i s classification h a s t h e following scheme: • Groups: d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p o s i t i o n o f g r o u n d w a t e r i n t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t -' • Sections: a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f s a t u r a t i o n o f r o c k f o r m a t i o n w i t h w a t e r • ' 7}yes. a n d sandstone possess cracks. (3) t h e capillary fringe. T y p e s o f aquifers a r es h o w n schematically i n F i g u r e 3. a l t h o u g h artesian w a t e r pressured b yhydrostatic pressure has been recognized. P i n n e k e r (1983) considered that present classifications a r econcerned o n l y w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w a t e r p e r t a i n i n g t o l a n d m a s s e s . thus describing g r o u n d w a t e r as (1) w a t e r o f igneous a n d m e t a m o r p h i c rocks. D a v i s a n d D e W i e s t ( 1 9 6 6 ) o f t h e U n i t e d States suggested certain m i n o r changes i n M e i n z e r ' s classification. caverns. M a i n l y there a r e t w o types: u n c o n f m e d aquifers a n d c o n f i n e d aquifers. fissures. R o c k f o r m a t i o n s o f a volcanic nature. m e t a m o r p h i c a n d igneous rocks a r e i ns o l i d f o r m s a n d serve as p o o r aquifers. Similarly. sometimes t h e y f o r m h i g h l y permeable aquifers. three basic groups o f water a r e recognized: soil water.l y i n g w a t e r i n t h e z o n e o f s a t u r a t i o n t h a t is acted u p o n b y geostatic pressure o r o t h e r i n t e r n a l forces is n o t i d e n t i f i e d i nthese classifications. T h i s c h a r acteristic is i m p a r t e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n s b y interconnected openings o r pores t h r o u g h w h i c h w a t e r can m o v e . i n 1962. also k n o w n as pressure o r artesian aquifers.c o l l e c t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f r o c k s • Special conditions: s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f s u r r o u n d i n g s 3. T h e q u a l i t y o f such rocks as a n aquifer depends o n the extent o f such openings. l i m e s t o n e . cavities. often used b y hydrogeologists i n the f o r m e r U S S R .3 Water-Bearing Formations 123 .2. a n d (4) t h e z o n e o f g r o u n d w a t e r a c c u m u l a t i o n . clays. faults.1. subsurface water ( i n t h e f o r m e r U S S R this t e r m isc o m m o n l y used i n the sense o f g r o u n d w a t e r ) a n d interstratal water. (3) water o funconsolidated sediments.

cover water Suprapermafrost L o w e r part of lava cover Groundwater of the zone of saturation on Mainly nonpressure Groundwater water continents Aquifer nearest to Upper parts of the Interpermafrostand the surface on sta- z o n e o f i n t e n s i v e fis- intrapermafrost ble suring and karst impermeable layer Pressure water Artesian water Industrial under Deep-lying water hydrostatic Groundwater of the seas and oceans submarine zone of Mainly pressure water Water connected with the land mass mal systems under- Buried fissured zone pressure S e d i m e n t a r y layers. trating perched water perched Active layer U p p e r part o f lava water.1 Groundwater C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M a n n e r i n W h i c h it H a s B e e n F o r m e d Subclass Special Conditions W a t e r in strata o f W a t e r in f i s s u r e d W a t e r in p e r m a f r o s t W a t e r in volcanically porous rocks (pore c a v e r n o u s r o c k s (fis- regions active a n d strata! water) sure a n d vein- regions fissure water) Group Section Continental Groundwater of the groundwater zone of aeration Type Suspended water Class P e r c h e d w a t e r (in S a l t w a t e r a n d infil- S a l t w a t e r a n d infil- the broad sense) trating water. U s e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y mass Press.T a b l e 3. Water of deep-lying which are sub- faults within jected to the s p h e r e of activity of action Subpermafrost hydrostatic pressure Absent Water of under hydrostatic- pressure of geostatic pres- Groundwater below Water of hydrother- massif the volcanic structures and n e c t e d with a rising endogenic forces sure and stream from endogenic forces m a g m a Shelf and marine deposits saturation hot spring systems. rifts mid- Absent -marine hot spring systems . con- Karsted rock of the Subpermafrost shelf shelf a n d fault of the northern zones the chamber seas Submarine volcanic structures and Water not con- Water of deep Trenches and nected with the basins oceanic land S o u r c e : P i n n e k e r (1983).

T h u s . 3. :.4 Fluid Potential a n d Hydraulic Head ip [L] (3. A s p e c i a l case o f c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r s is t h e l e a k y a q u i f e r . (^-l) where 0 = fluid potential at a n y p o i n t h .x. Thus.p e r c o l a t i n g w a t e r is i n t e r c e p t e d b y t h i s s t r a t u m a n d a g r o u n d w a t e r b o d y o f l i m i t e d areal extent is t h u s f o r m e d .2 Types o f aquifers. t h e f l o w o f heat. F o r a p o r o u s m e d i u m .hydraulic head at that p o i n t F l o w o f a n y k i n d occurs f r o m a region i n w h i c h the potential has a higher value towards t h e region o f a l o w e r value.^. T h u s .3: h = Z+ S e c t i o n 3. W i t h reference to Figure 3.F i g u r e 3.4 FLUID POTENTIAL ANDHYDRAULIC HEAD Just as t h e e n e r g y h e a d is t h e e n e r g y q u a n t i t y p e r u n i t w e i g h t o f f l u i d . a l s o k n o w n as a s e m i .2) 125 . w h e r e a s t r a t u m o f relatively i m p e r m e a b l e m a t e r i a l exists above t h e m a i n b o d y o f g r o u n d w a t e r . 0 = gh [L2T-2] . o r water requires existence o f a potential gradient.-x:x. . t h e kinetic energy are extremely small a n d can be ignored. t h e f l o w velocity a n d .. pressure d u e t o a n overlaying confined layer o f a relatively A special case o f u n c o n f i n e d aquifers i n v o l v e s p e r c h e d aquifers. hence. t h e f l u i d p o t e n t i a l is the energy quantity per u n i t mass. the fluid potential a n d the hydraulic head are c o m p r i s e d o f t h e elevation head a n d t h e pressure head. T h e z o n e o f a e r a t i o n is present b e t w e e n t h e b o t t o m o f t h e perching b e d a n d t h e m a i n water table. S u c h a n a q u i f e r is e i t h e r o v e r l a i n o r u n d e r l a i n b y a s e m i p e r v i o u s layer t h r o u g h w h i c h water leaks i n o r o u t o f t h e c o n f i n e d aquifer. T h e d o w n w a r d .c o n f i n e d aquifer. Recharge area greater-than-atmospheric impermeable medium. . electricity.

D e f i n i n g s p e c i f i c d i s c h a r g e . k n o w n a s t h e D a r c y v e l o c i t y . T h i s p r o v i d e d the f a m o u s D a r c y equation Q^EAhzhl [L'T-l - (3.. (3. v. Q = Av = A.h^).y. p b e i n g t h e p r e s s u r e a b o v e a t m o s p h e r e a t t h e p o i n t 3. f r o m t h e continuity equation. or : . q. 126 Theory of GroundwaterFlow Chapter3 .3) L w h e r e K is t h e h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . as discussed i n S e c t i o n 3. w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o n s t a n t o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y . e q . o r d i s c h a r g e v e l o c i t y ..^2).5. and p r o p o r t i o n a l to head drop ( h j . AL * A n e g a t i v e s i g n i s i n s e r t e d o n t h e r i g h t s i d e o f e q . The ratio .~ ' (3.where Z = elevation o f a p o i n t w i t h reference t o a d a t u m l/r = p / 7 . t h e n . x A ^ : - • • V„ = V- M u l t i p l y i n g b o t h sides b y t h e l e n g t h o f t h e m e d i u m .4) L where q = specific discharge V = Darcy velocity or discharge velocity A l l = d r o p o f head (fi J .4) = V- V i f Ah i s t a k e n a s ( h j . H e r a n a n e x p e r i m e n t o n a p i p e f i l l e d w i t h s a n d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s s i m u l a t e d b y F i g u r e 3. ( 3 . I f is t h e s e e p a g e v e l o c i t y a n d A ^ is t h e a r e a o f v o i d s . a s d i s c h a r g e p e r u n i t c r o s s . inversely p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the length L o f the sand-filter flow path.5 7 BASIC EQUATIONOF GROUNDWATER FLOW: DARCY'S L A W T h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w o f g r o u n d w a t e r m o v e m e n t w a s discovered b y H e n r i D a r c y i n 1856.s e c t i o n a l a r e a ./ i 2) i n l e n g t h L 3. H e concluded t h a t t h e f l o w rate Q was p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e cross-sectional area A . 3 ) b e c o m e s [LT-M^ q =v =^ •. w h e r e a s t h e f l o w is a c t u a l l y l i m i t e d t o t h e p o r e s p a c e o n l y . ( 3 .6. t h u s i n d i c a t i n g f l o w i n t h e direction o f decreasing head. 4 ) .hj/L i s k n o w n a s t h e hydraulic gradient. v.1 Darcy Velocity a n d Seepage Velocity I n e q . i s a fictitious v e l o c i t y s i n c e i t a s s u m e s t h a t f l o w o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e e n t i r e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l .3.

4 Model o f river a n d c h a n n e l in E x a m p l e 3.5) where V = Darcy velocity = seepage o r interstitial velocity 77 = p o r o s i t y E X A M P L E 3. F i g u r e 3.3 Simulation o fDarcy's experiment./. 2 5 ft/hr j o i n s t h e m . T h e r i v e r a n d c h a n n e l a r e 2 0 0 0 ft a p a r t . a n d a p e r v i o u s f o r m a t i o n w i t h a n a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s o f 3 0 ft a n d h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f 0 . 1 . River S e c t i o n 3. rj = — and v = v/. e . D e t e r m i n e t h e r a t e o f s e e p a g e flow e a c h day f r o m the river to the channel. 7 . i . . Datum T h e r a t i o o f v o l u m e o f v o i d s t o t o t a l v o l u m e i s p o r o s i t y . (3. Thus. T h e w a t e r l e v e l i n t h e r i v e r i s a t a n e l e v a t i o n o f 1 2 0 f t a n d i n t h e c h a n n e l a t a n e l e v a t i o n o f 1 1 0 ft.5 Channel Basic Equation o fGroundwater Flow: Darcy's L a w 127 .F i g u r e 3.1. 4 . T] b y d e f i n i t i o n . a s d i s c u s s e d i n 3 .1 A c h a n n e l r u n s a l m o s t p a r a l l e l t o a r i v e r as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 .

-h.t 1 5 ) . S i n c e t h e w a t e r t a b l e is a b o v e t h e p i e z o m e t r i c surface a n d a s e m i p e r v i o u s ( l e a k y ) layer e x i s t s . (h^ . B e t w e e n p o i n t s a a n d b. 40(90-h.1 5 ) (2) 15 6 . 4 ) . aquifer.f t w i d t h o f r i v e r a n d c h a n n e l p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e paper.( 8 0 .) q = (1) 90 5 .t a b l e a q u i f e r t o t h e c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r .2 A semipervious layer (aquitard) separates a n o v e r l y i n g water-table aquifer f r o m a n underl y i n g c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 .3) Q = KA(h. ( 3 . . 7 0 ft 128 Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 . T h e area o f cross section o f the aquifer n o r m a l to flow A = ( 3 0 ft X 1 ft) = 3 0 f t ^ 2. 3. e . e . ( h ^ . i . B e t w e e n p o i n t s b a n d c. ( 8 0 + 1 5 ) . F l e a d loss w i l l take place w h e n w a t e r m o v e s t h r o u g h t h e water-table ( t o p ) w h i c h is n o t k n o w n . ( 3 . ^ ft^ 2 4 h r K = 0. F r o m e q . 4 ) . T h e h e a d a t b e q u a l s h ^ p l u s d a t u m h e a d o f 1 5 ft a b o v e c. a n d c o n s i d e r t h e u n i t h o r i z o n t a l a r e a t h r o u g h w h i c h flow t a k e s p l a c e .25— = 6 ft/day hr 1 day 3. i . 2. C o n s i d e r a l . (3. A s s u m e t h a t t h e h e a d at p o i n t b s h o w n i n t h e f i g u r e is lij. D e t e r m i n e t h e r a t e o f f l o w t a k i n g p l a c e between the aquifers. f r o m e q . .M 5 ) . " 4 . = 8 8 . w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o d a t u m a t c: T h e h e a d a t c e q u a l s t h e p i e z o m e t r i c l e v e l a b o v e c. 9 ft ^ / d a y / f t w i d t h E X A M P L E 3. E q u a t i n g ( 1 ) a n d ( 2 ) p r o v i d e s h^.l . 5 .) or ' ft ^ (30ft2) (120-110 day ft) 2 0 0 0 ft = 0 .SOLUTION 1. SOLUTION 1 . flow w i l l t a k e p l a c e from t h e w a t e r . F r o m eq.

S e e p a g e v e l o c i t y : v„ = — = r] S e c t i o n 3.500 A ' 1 m- day ^ = 0. ( 3 . F F y d r a u l i c g r a d i e n t 1000 m 1 k m = 15x10'^ m ^ =^^^—^ = 5x10"^ 1000 3 .58 ft^/day per square f o o t E X A M P L E 3. SOLLTTION 1 . A r e a o f c r o s s s e c t i o n o f flow = ( 3 0 m ) ( 5 k m ) 2. (b) D e t e r m i n e t h e t i m e o f t r a v e l f r o m t h e h e a d o f t h e a q u i f e r t o a point 4 k m downstream (assume n o dispersion or diffusion). 500 m V d a y 4.5 = 1. T h e h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e a q u i f e r is 5 0 m / d a y a n d its p o r o s i t y is 0. T h e p i e z o m e t r i c h e a d i n t w o w e l l s 1 0 0 0 m a p a r t is 5 5 m a n d 5 0 m .25 15x10^ m/day m ^ 5.2. 10ft 80 ft 15ft F r o m eq.3 A c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r h a s a s o u r c e o f r e c h a r g e as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 . 3 ) : Q = ( 5 0 m / d a y ) ( 1 5 x 1 0 ^ m^){5 x 10"^) = 37. q = 0.5 Vertical downward flow through a s e m i p e r v i o u s layer. T h e average t h i c k n e s s o f t h e a q u i f e r i s 3 0 m a n d t h e a v e r a g e w i d t h i s 5 k m .2. f r o m e q . 6 . E x a m p l e 3.2 Basic Equation of Groundwater Flow: Darcy's L a w 129 . R a t e o f flow. D a r c y v e l o c i t y : .25 m/day 0.3^y 37. ( 1 ) .F i g u r e 3. ( a ) D e t e r m i n e t h e r a t e o f flow t h r o u g h t h e aquifer. respectively. f r o m a c o m m o n d a t u m .

w h i c h h a s a d i m e n s i o n o f L ^ . a n d s p e c i f i c w e i g h t . w h i c h is a c o n stant o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y between the rate o f flow and the energy gradient causing that flow in accordance w i t h Darcy's law. a n d shape o f the grains. T h e m e d i u m properties comprise porosity.F i g u r e 3.6 . A basic parameter connected w i t h water m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h a p o r o u s m e d i u m is t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i l i t y o r h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . e x p r e s s e d as: K = k^ (" [LT-i] (3. T i m e t o t r a v e l 4 k m o r 4 0 0 0 m d o w n s t r e a m : t = 4000 m 1. T h e difference i n energies a t various locations is caused b y a c o n t i n u o u s process o f infiltration and extract i o n o f water u n d e r g r o u n d . Recharge 6.s i z e d aquifer.25 m/day ^^^^ . p.1 H y d r a u l i c C o n d u c t i v i t y Hydraulic conductivity combines the properties o f a porous m e d i u m and the fluid flowing t h r o u g h i t .6 Travel t i m e In a u n i f o r m . grain-size distribution. 3. W h e n f l u i d a n d m e d i u m p r o p e r t i e s are c o m b i n e d . PARAMETERS OFGROUNDWATER MOVEMENT Besides s e r v i n g as a n u n d e r g r o u n d storage reservoir.6.6) where 130 Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 . a n aquifer acts as a c o n d u i t t h r o u g h w h i c h w a t e r is t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m a h i g h e r l e v e l t o a l o w e r level o f energy.77 years This demonstrates that water moves very slowly underground. 3. A t e r m used t oc o m m u n i c a t e the effectiveness o f the p o r o u s m e d i u m alone as a t r a n s m i t t i n g m e d i u m i s t h e intrinsic ( s p e c i f i c ) permeability k. y . t h e t e r m is c a l l e d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i l i t y o r h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . = 3 2 0 0 days o r 8. T h e r e l e v a n t f l u i d p r o p e r t i e s a r e d y n a m i c v i s c o s i t y .

a m e d i u m is s a i d t o h a v e an intrinsic permeability o f 1 ( u n i t o f length squared) i f it transmits a u n i t discharge o f fluid o f u n i t k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y t h r o u g h a c r o s s .2 Equivalence o f Intrinsic Permeability.0124 T h e u n i t s used for h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y are ft/day. a n d d a r c y a r e u s e d f o r i n t r i n s i c p e r m e a b i l i t y .s e c t i o n o f u n i t a r e a u n d e r a u n i t p o t e n t i a l g r a d i e n t . ( 3 . 3 ) . T h e u n i t s o f c m ^ .4 D e t e r m i n e the hydraulic conductivity o f a m e d i u m w i t h intrinsic permeability o f 1 darcy a n d t h r o u g h w h i c h w a t e r flows a t 6 0 °F. a n d f r o m field t e s t s . ( 3 .7) w h e r e v = k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y = p /p a n d i = Ah/L.2. T h e l a s t u n i t . F r o m r e l a t i o n ( 3 . t o d e f i n e t h e i n t r i n s i c p e r m e a b i l i t y . Values o f hydraulic c o n d u c t i v i t y can be obtained f r o m empirical f o r m u l a s .2. w h e r e a s t h e a c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e field i s u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e field c o e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i l i t y . 9 8 7 x 10"^ 1. h a s b e e n a d o p t e d b y t h e U .041 Transmissivity gpd/ft fU/day m^/day 1 0. a m e d i u m has a hydraulic conductivity o f 1 (having a d i m e n s i o n o f length per unit time) i f it transmits a u n i t discharge t h r o u g h a cross-section o f u n i t area under a hydraulic gradient o f u n i t c h a n g e i n h e a d t h r o u g h a u n i t l e n g t h o f flow. Hydraulic Conductiv- ity. T h e i r e q u i v a l e n c e is s h o w n i n T a b l e 3. S . E X A M P L E 3.K = hydraulic conductivity k = intrinsic permeability 7 = specific w e i g h t o f . a w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e o f 6 0 °F i s c o n s i d e r e d s t a n d a r d . m/day. G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y . 4 ) .134 0. A c c o r d i n g l y . a l s o k n o w n a s meinzers. F o r l a b o r a t o r y m e a s u r e m e n t . a n d k thus becomes • k = ^ [L^] ''^^^ " (3. a n d gallons per day/ft^. ft^. 6 ) is s u b s t i t u t e d i n eq. fluid jil = d y n a m i c v i s c o s i t y o f fluid D a r c y ' s l a w is u s e d t o d e f i n e h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a l u e s f o r v a r i o u s a q u i f e r m e d i u m s are g i v e n i n Table 3.3. f r o m labor a t o r y m e a s u r e m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y . T h e e q u i v a l e n c e o f t h e s e t e r m s is also i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 3.134 0. S e c t i o n 3. T a b l e 3. ' ft/day m/day 0. a n d T r a n s m i s s i v i t y Intrinsic P e r m e a b i l i t y darcy cm^ ft^ 1 0 .062x10-" Hydraulic Conductivity meinzer or gpd/ft^ 1 . eq.6 Parameters of Groundwater Movement 131 .

8 X 1 0 -6 cm^ I m s e c J\_ 1 0 0 24x60x60 cm 1 day sec 1 meinzer 0.T a b l e 3.2 Till.999 0. 132 Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 . 8 x l 0 " 5 cm/sec T from T a b l e 3. Formations 1000-8600 Gravel.2 m e i n z e r s T h u s 1 d a r c y = 1 8 .^ P o r g / c m . fine 0. c l a y e y < 10-5 < 0. 20-50 fine Sand. 1 2 x I Q . m e d i u m Gravel.987x10"^ cm2 1 darcy 1 cm 980 c m 5 yV sec' cm-sec 1 . K = k ^ = k ^ p p K= {I darcy) 0.1-500 Sand.2-1 Till. (3. 6 °C.2 Conversion to meinzers: K = 8 6 2 . F r o m eq. s a n d y 1-4 Silt.001 Siitstone SOLUTION A t 6 0 °F o r 1 5 .1-50 Sand. medium 0. coarse 20-1000 Gravel. 9 9 9 g / c m ^ a n d /7 = 1 .041 m/day = 18.3 a n d Representative Values o f Hydraulic Conductivity for Soils Rocks Formation Unconsolidated Hydraulic Conductivity. 1 2 c P o r 1 .0005 Clay Sedimentary m/day * Rocks Limestone IQ-USOO Sandstone 10-5-3 10-5-0. coarse 0.s e c . g a v e l 30 Till. 1 2 x 1 0 -2 = 8 6 2 . s a n d y 0.01-20 Silt. 2 m e i n z e r s f o r w a t e r a t 6 0 °F. p = 0 .6). c l a y e y 0.

4). f r o m l i q u i d t o liquid.7. W h e n i t v a r i e s i n s p a c e . 1 ft/day.5 A t s t a t i o n A t h e w a t e r . T h e m e d i u m i s t h e n c a l l e d anisotropic.+K^b.56T day = 41. t h e m e d i u m i s homogeneous. Kdz [LT-i] (3.6 3 2 ) 7 1 0 0 0 = 0. SOLUTION F r o m eq. t h e m e d i u m i s s a i d t o b e heterogeneous.t a b l e e l e v a t i o n i s 6 5 0 ft a b o v e s e a l e v e l .1/0.E X A M P L E 3. as s h o w n i nE i g u r e 3.+-F o r flow p e r p e n d i c u l a r + K^b„) (3. E v e n i n a h o m o g e n e o u s m e d i u m .9) t o stratifications. w h i c h i s 1 0 0 0 ft a p a r t f r o m A .b.6.2 V a r i a t i o n o f H y d r a u l i c C o n d u c t i v i t y H y d r a u l i c conductivity varies f r o m aquifer t o aquifer.6 [LT-i] Parameters of Groundwater Movement + / (3.b. as s h o w n i n E i g u r e 3.8) where b is the thickness o f the m e d i u m . W h e n the hydraulic conductivity is a continuous function o f depth. W h e n flow d i r e c t i o n i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t r a t i f i cations. a n d a t B . K c a n v a r y w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f flow.8.018 thus.10) b^/K^ 133 . t h e average v a l u e o f h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y can b eg i v e n b y K = ^(K. f r o m location t o l o c a t i o n . K = [LT-i] bJK^+b^/K^+b^/Ky Section 3. T h e a v e r a g e v e l o c i t y o f f l o w i s o b s e r v e d t o b e 0 . W h e n a m e d i u m is stratified. t w o c o n d i t i o n s c a n exist: t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f l o w i s either p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s o r n o r m a l t o i t .9 1 meinzer 0. D e t e r m i n e the coefficient o f permeability i n meinzers.134 ft/day meinzers 3. t h e e l e v a t i o n i s 6 3 2 ft.018 = 5.1 Ah/L ft/day = hydraulic gradient = ( 6 5 0 .+K. (3.56 ft/day Conversion t o meinzers: K = 5. f r o m d i r e c t i o n t o d i r e c t i o n . a n d f r o m t e m p e r a t u r e t o t e m p e r a t u r e . K = Ah/L where V = specific discharge = v e l o c i t y = 0. K = 0. W h e n K is t h e s a m e i n a l l p l a c e s ( s p a c e ) .

89 cm/hr 3.214 134 = 0.7 Flow parallel to stratifications. (3.F i g u r e 3.0 0.0 4.8 Flow n o r m a l to stratifications.^ t \t \ F i g u r e 3.10).0 W h a t is t h e a v e r a g e v e r t i c a l ( p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o f l o w ) c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s o i l ? SOLUTION F r o m e q .0/2 + 18.89 cm 1 h T y L100 = 0.0 + 18. ' ' 4.0 + 3.0 1. - h1 1 Direction o f flow K.6 T h e s o i l u n d e r a d a m c o n s i s t s o f f o u r l a y e r s as Layer follows: Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/hr) Depth(m) 5 4.0/0. ^ b2 63 Direction of flow E X A M P L E Kz 3.0/1 m 24 hr cm 1 day m/day Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 .8 2 8.6 + 0.0 3.6 18.8 + 8.8/5 + 8.

F i g u r e 3. 7 2 7 x 1 0 .9 2 X 10-5 c m / s 3 m Stratum with uniformly varying hydraulic c o n d u c t i v i t y . t 22 m 4 X 10-4 cm/s (l4M44^MiM"^44^ SOLUTION F o r l i n e a r v a r i a t i o n .942 m/day day Transmissivity Transmissivity determines t h e ability o fa n aquifer t o transmit water t h r o u g h its entire thickness.3 SeCy 1 m 2 4 x 6 0 x 6 0 sec L100 c m 1 = 0. E x a m p l e 3.9x10-4 cm/sec Jo or r cm K = 10.9x10-4 V 3.E X A M P L E 3.9. as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3. (3. 7 2 7 x lO-^'x F r o m eq.4 19 1 L Jo = 10.727 X 1 0 . T = Kb S e c t i o n 3. 135 ' .4 X 1 0 22 or ^ : = 4 x 10-'' + 0 . I f t h e w a t e r table is 3 m b e l o w the surface.8). t h eh y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h e surface is 2 x 10"^ cm/sec.6 [L^T-i] Parameters of Groundwater Movement (3. I t u n i f o r m l y reduces t o 4 x 10"^ c m / s e c a t a d e p t h o f 2 2 m .^ x ) d x k = 4 nl9 1 = —<! 4 x 1 0 .6. t h e h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y a t a h e i g h t x ( b o t t o m as d a t u m ) can b e expressed as JC = 4 x l O .4 + 2x10-5 . I n a n aquifer o f u n i f o r m thickness.7.11. d e t e r m i n e the average h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s t r a t u m . "^^^(4x10-4 + 0.7 I n a soil s t r a t u m .4 [ x l i ^ + 0 .

D e f i n e d .12) where = leakance or coefficient o f leakage ' J C ' = coefficient o f permeability o f semipervious layer o f thickness b' O t h e r factors.0) = 7. were the retardation c o e f f i c i e n t . (3. as f o l l o w s .4 L e a k a n c e .6. i n t r o d u c e d b y F i a n t u s h to indicate areal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f leakage and used for the s o l u t i o n o f the equation o f f l o w t h r o u g h a leaky aquifer.0 + 3. 2 1 4 (4. fl = — ^ K'/b' [L] . (b) r e t a r d a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . iC = 0.11).23 m^/day 3.0 + 18. a. a n d (c) l e a k a g e f a c t o r o f t h e s t r e a m b e d . .^ w h e r e K\s E X A M P L E [L] ^ : the coefficient o f permeability o f aquifer o f thickness ' (3.where ^ ' . r = m/day 0 . T h e u n d e r l y i n g aquifer o f line s a n d has a n average t h i c k n e s s o f 2 0 m . E X A M P L E 3. d e f i n e d a s . ^^ ^^^ (3. D e t e r m i n e t h e (a) c o e f f i c i e n t o f l e a k a g e .8 + 8. 5 m / d a y . R e t a r d a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t } a n d L e a k a g e F a c t o r (for L e a k y Aquifer) F i a n t u s h ( 1 9 6 4 ) i n t r o d u c e d l e a k a n c e o r c o e f f i c i e n t o f l e a k a g e as a t e r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e m i p e r v i o u s c o n f i n i n g l a y e r t h r o u g h w h i c h w a t e r l e a k s o u t f r o m a n a q u i f e r . 0 0 8 ml day h a v i n g a n average d e p t h o f 150 c m .14) b.9 T h e b a n k s a n d b o t t o m o f a s t r e a m c o n s i s t o f s i l t y c l a y o f h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y 0 . 3. a n d l e a k a g e f a c t o r .214 F r o m eq.8 W h a t is t h e t r a n s m i s s i v i t y o f t h e s o i l i n E x a m p l e 3.13) and B = 4 . 136 Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 . (3.6.6 w h e n t h e w a t e r table is at t h e ground surface? SOLUTION F r o m E x a m p l e 3. • • T = transmissivity JC = a v e r a g e h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y b = thickness o f aquifer F i e l d tests t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t r a n s m i s s i v i t y o f a m e d i u m are described i n C h a p t e r 4. B. H y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f fine s a n d = 2 . i t is a m e a s u r e o f t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n f i n i n g layer t o t r a n s m i t v e r t i c a l leakage: Le=y [T-i] ^ .

12).7 PARAMETERS OFGROUNDWATER STORAGE T w o i m p o r t a n t aspects o ft h e s t u d y o fg r o u n d w a t e r a r e t h em o v e m e n t o f w a t e r u n d e r g r o u n d t o s t r e a m s a n d w e l l s a n d u n d e r g r o u n d s t o r a g e i n w h i c h a n a q u i f e r serves as a storage reservoir.10. a= ^'^ =471. T h ev o l u m e o f w a t e r t a k e n o r released f r o m storage w i t h c h a n g e s i n w a t e r l e v e l s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f specific yield o r s p e c i f i c r e t e n t i o n f o r w a t e r .1 Porosity A n e l e m e n t o f soil.10 Three p h a s e s in a soil element.13).(3.0053 perd a y 1.S O L U T I O N Fromeq.7 P a r a m e t e r s o fG r o u n d w a t e r S t o r a g e 137 .008 = 0.15) [dimensionless] F i g u r e 3.5X20 B =J =97. o r 77 = (3. 2. 3. T h e f u n d a m e n tal p a r a m e t e r o fg r o u n d w a t e r p h e n o m e n a .0053 3. Porosity is d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o o f t h e v o l u m e o f v o i d s t ot h e t o t a l v o l u m e . iss h o w n schematically i nF i g u r e 3. h o w e v e r . b' = {l50 c m ) 1 c m = 1. -Z-Z-Z-3/VaterE W Solid S e c t i o n 3. Air Weight Volume W.14).7 m 0.1 m 0. is porosity. w h i c h allows soil t o b e considered a porous m e d i u m ..0053 F r o m eq.t a b l e a q u i f e r s a n d b y specific storage o r s t o r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r s . (3. (3.5 F r o m eq.7.5 m 100 m I„ = 0. separated i nthree phases.

•• Pj = grain density Vj = dry soil v o l u m e F r o m these relations a n d eq. I t is defined as t h e r a t i o o f t h e v o l u m e o f v o i d s t o the v o l u m e o f solids i n a soil sample. « " — U.17) B u l k ( d r y ) d e n s i t y . E X A M P L E 3. p^ i s e q u a l t o t h e m a s s o f s o i l s o l i d s p e r u n i t v o l u m e o f soil solids. F o r the s a m e mass o f soil solids.b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y o f a f o r m a t i o n . P o r o s i t y a n d v o i d ratio are interrelated b y the expression e = —^ l-T] [dimensionless] (3. W h e n t h e soil isp o u r e d i n t o a g r a d u a t e d cylinder. respectively. i t displaces 30. o r effective porosity. P j . ( 3 . where p^ = dry (bulk) density = total soil v o l u m e •<. °^ — and V.10 A s a m p l e o f s a n d y s o i l is c o l l e c t e d f r o m a n aquifer. Specific y i e l d .T h e t e r m void ratio i s c o m m o n l y u s e d i n s o i l m e c h a n i c s t o p r o v i d e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f v o i d s o r pores i n t h e soil. i t is n o t j u s t the total m a g n i t u d e o f porosity that isi m p o r t a n t f r o m the consideration o f water extraction a n d t r a n s m i s s i o n . 1 5 ) . pj^. o f s o i l i s t h e m a s s o f s o i l s o l i d s ( d r y s o i l ) p e r u n i t g r o s s v o l u m e o f s o i l . T h e s a m p l e r w i t h a v o l u m e o f 5 0 c m ^ is filled w i t h t h e soil. however. t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n emerges: Pb = 1-77 Ps or G = 1-77 [dimensionless] (3. a n d specific r e t e n t i o n . as discussed b e l o w .16) T h i s t e r m .18) Gs w h e r e Gj. israrely used i n groundwater flow. H o w e v e r . are i m p o r t a n t f r o m this consideration. W h a t are the p o r o s i t y a n d the v o i d ratio o f the sand? 138 Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 . a n d G^ are b u l k specific g r a v i t y a n d specific g r a v i t y o f soil solids. F o r instance. a n d t h e d e n s i t y o f s o i l p a r t i c l e s ( g r a i n s ) . P o r o s i t y is a m e a s u r e o f t h e w a t e r . a clay f o r m a t i o n m a y h a v e a v e r y h i g h p o r o s i t y b u t i t is a p o o r m e d i u m as a n aquifer. o r V e=— [dimensionless] (3.5 c m ^ o f water. b u t t h e size o f v o i d s a n d t h e e x t e n t t ow h i c h t h e y are i n t e r c o n n e c t e d since pores m a y b e o p e n (interconnected) o r closed (isolated).

= 119 7 119 7 '— = = 3. c a l c u l a t e (a) t h e b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e s o i l . r .30. .65)(62. 15 8 D r y u n i t w e i g h t = — ^ = 119. O t h e r s t e p s a r e t h e s a m e as a b o v e .14 slugs/ft-' 5.39 or 50. t h e n a t u r a l ( w e t ) w e i g h t o f 18 I b / f t ^ w i t h a m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . 7? V = — = 19 5 ^ = 0.11 A soil s a m p l e occupies 0. ( 3 . W = ' 18 = 1+CO/100 = 15. CO. ( 3 .39 e = —G. 6 5 . ] S e c t i o n 3.7 Ib/ft^ ' ^ 0.36 lb/ft 5 . p^. ( 3 . 71 0. I n s u c h a case.SOLUTION T h e v o l u m e o f w a t e r d i s p l a c e d is e q u a l t o t h e v o l u m e o f s o i l p a r t i c l e s ( s o l i d s ) . W.7 Parameters of Groundwater Storage 139 . SOLUTION 1. W h e n d r i e d . a n d (b) t h e p o r o s i t y o f t h e s o i l .= = 0. 1 8 ) .0 39% F r o m eq. jy = l 6.36 .5 cm5 while 7^= 50 cm^ Hence . 165.276 or 5. t h u s = 30.36 165. 1 7 ) .39 E X A M P L E 3.6% [ I n s t e a d o f d r y w e i g h t . F r o m e q .5 c m ^ F r o m eq.5 = 19. : . I f the specific g r a v i t y o f soil s o l i d s is 2 .8lb 1+ 14/100 X .64 ^ ~ l . D e n s i t y o f soil grains.8 lb. _ l ^= 0. i t w e i g h s 15.14 27. 4. p^ = = ^ = 5. U n i t w e i g h t o f s o i l g r a i n s = G ^ 7 ^ = (2. 1 5 ) .72 slugs/ft ^ 3.4) = 165. = = v^ - = 50 . D r y ( b u l k ) d e n s i t y .132 2 .132 ft^. o f 1 4 % c o u l d h a v e b e e n g i v e n i n t h e p r o b l e m .7 7 1-0.

m o i s t u r e content a n d capillary pressure head o n a saturated sample. T h e v o l u m e o f water thus retained against the force o f gravity. I f w e f o l l o w the relationship o f Figure 3. w i t h reference t o t h e w a t e r table as a d a t u m . the same curve indicates m o i s t u r e content ( i n v o l u m e t r i c terms) o f the soil at various heights above t h e w a t e r table.12b. T h e p o r e w a t e r p r e s s u r e a t a n y d e p t h h b e l o w t h e w a t e r t a b l e i s e q u a l t o yh l i k e h y d r o static pressure. t h e m o i s t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e w i l l b e as s h o w n b y t h e o u t e r s o l i d c u r v e i n F i g u r e 3. T h e area u n d e r t h e curve represents t h e m o i s t u r e i n t h e soil. A s i m p l e d e v i c e c o n s i s t i n g o f a p o r o u s p l a t e . I t i s a l s o k n o w n a s t h e field capacity o r w a t e r .m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t * d e c r e a s e s . T h e b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e s o i l i s 1. c o m p a r e d to the total v o l u m e o f rock (soil).7.11 between capillary pressure a n d m o i s t u r e content. T h u s .2 S p e c i f i c R e t e n t i o n (of W a t e r . 1 2 A 2 0 0 . viscosity.m o i s t u r e content tends t o w a r d a constant value because o f adhesion and cohes i o n ( e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r ) a n d t h e g r a d i e n t Aco/AP^ a p p r o a c h e s z e r o .12a a t level 1. As stated above. a n d l e v e l i n g b o t t l e s is u s e d t o measure v o l u m e t r i c . m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f w a t e r .T a b l e A q u i f e r ) W h e n t h e w a t e r table is l o w e r e d .5 g / c c a n d a t s a t u r a t i o n t h e w e i g h t m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l i s 2 9 .m o i s t u r e content o f the soil for each capillary pressure * M o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . P^. density o f water or v o l u m e t r i c m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t = w e i g h t m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t x b u l k specific g r a v i t y 140 Theory of Groundwater Flow Chapter 3 . P^. S u p p o s e t h a t t h e w a t e r table d r o p s d o w n t o l e v e l 2 . T h e differe n c e o f a i r p r e s s u r e a n d w a t e r p r e s s u r e i s k n o w n a s capillary pressure. 3 . s u c h as t e m p e r a t u r e . (a)Calculate the v o l u m e t r i c . T h e following relation holds: . w h i c h a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n the pressure difference b e t w e e n the air pressure a n d the w a t e r pressure. T h i s process occurs because t h e pressure o f w a t e r inside t h e pores b e c o m e s less t h a n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a i r p r e s s u r e . T h e shaded area b e t w e e n the t w o curves o r a t the base between the t w o water-table lines represents the a m o u n t o f water d r a i n e d from t h e s o i l w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n o f w a t e r t a b l e f r o m l e v e l 1 t o l e v e l 2 . t h e v o l u m e t r i c . 1 1 . a n d s o o n . o rs i m p l y h i n t e r m s o f w a t e r head. H o w e v e r .A s i n c r e a s e s .11. t h e v o l u m e t r i c . T h i s n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e i s s i m p l y t h e c a p i l l a r y p r e s s u r e . W h e n e q u i l i b r i u m is a c h i e v e d . H e r e t h i s t e r m i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e q u a n t i t y o f w a t e r i n s i d e t h e pores i n terms of volume. i s a w e i g h t p a r a m e t e r . pressure above the w a t e r table. w i l l b e negative a n d e q u a l t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p o i n t f r o m t h e w a t e r t a b l e . T h e n e g a t i v e ( c a p i l l a r y ) p r e s s u r e h e a d a n d the i n c r e m e n t a l a m o u n t o f w a t e r released f r o m the s a m p l e are indicated below. Specific r e t e n t i o n is t h u s d e p e n d e n t o n b o t h p o r e characteristics a n d factors affecting t h e surface t e n s i o n . T h i s i sa m e a s u r e o f t h e w a t e r . d u e t o f o r c e s o f adhesion ( a t t r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p o r e w a l l s a n d a d j a c e n t w a t e r m o l e c u l e s ) a n d cohesion ( a t t r a c t i o n b e t w e e n m o l e c u l e s o f w a t e r ) . as s h o w n b y t h e d o t t e d c u r v e i n F i g u r e 3.3.11 t oo b t a i n t h e specific r e t e n t i o n o f t h e representative sample. b u l k density o f soil v o l u m e t r i c m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t = w e i g h t m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t x —. A t a l a r g e v a l u e o f P^. C o n s i d e r t h e w a t e r table i n F i g u r e 3. E X A M IM F . as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 .r e t a i n i n g capacity o f t h e p o r o u s m e d i u m .12b. c a p i l l a r y t u b e . w a t e r d r a i n s f r o m t h e p o r e spaces o f a n aquifer a n d is replaced w i t h air. 3 3 % . .g d r y s o i l s a m p l e is tested b y a p o r o u s p l a t e test. a p a r t o f t h e w a t e r i s r e t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e p o r e s . the a m o u n t o f water drained f r o m the saturated soil is a f u n c t i o n o f capillary pressure. T h e data are p l o t t e d as i n F i g u r e 3. . CO. i s c a l l e d t h e specific retention. t h e m o i s t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e w i l l b e s i m i l a r t o level 1 b u t w i l l b e displaced t o level 2. . T h e v o l u m e t r i c m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a t t h i s state is e q u a l t o t h e specific r e t e n t i o n . A characteristic curve o f this f u n c t i o n is s h o w n i n Figure 3. .h o l d i n g c a p a c ity.