1

Running Head: Issue Investigation

The Effects of Home Environments on Children
Donna DiPreta
Post University
EDU604.90: Diversity in Twenty-First Century Education
Professor Jennifer Wojcik

Running Head: Issue Investigation

2

The Effects of Home Environments on Children
A home environment refers to where someone lives and how they are raised. A student’s
home environment can sway both ways either negative or positive. A home environment for a
child living in a suburban area may be different than a child living in an urban area. One might
consider socioeconomic status as the foundation of a home environment. Others might consider
parental involvement as the foundation of a home environment. Either way, a home is where that
student and child goes to bed every night and wakes up every day. “A home environment
characterized by risk, such as controlling parenting or conflict in the presence of children,
especially with the added burdens of low income, low education, or a lack of additional
caregivers, models inadequate methods of managing negative emotions and behaviors”
(Swanson, Valiente, Lemery-Chalfant, 2012, p. 397). A child’s home environment is the most
important aspect of their success. When there are home environment issues, there are issues in
the classroom. A child’s home environment has an effect on the child physically, academically,
and socially. It is important to look at the effects of the home environment so that educators can
understand and work around the problems arising.
When looking at multicultural education, educators need to analyze situations that affect
students learning and achievement. One of those factors is the child’s home environment.
Growing up in an environment that lacks resources, parental involvement, and even air quality
can affect how a student produces academically in school. Residency is where students gain prior
experiences and expectations of the real word. Some authors believe that home environments of
high socioeconomic status’ achieve and develop on a higher level than low socioeconomic
families. “The authors say that the residential context is where children’s ‘established
vulnerabilities give rise to behaviors and emotions that challenge care givers and often

Running Head: Issue Investigation

3

compound earlier traumas’” (Robinson, Brown, 2016, p. 2). Children form a pre-conceived
notion of behaviors based on what is happening in the home. This affects a child socially and
emotionally because they feel vulnerable causing them to act out when school starts. “It can be
concluded that home environment and cognitive attainment of school students is significantly
correlated” (Siddiqi, 2012, p. 104). When there is a negative outlook at home students will
correlate those thoughts to school. It is hard to get a student back on track when they are
struggling academically and socially. Negative home environments that do not have support have
an outcome on student success. Students do not have confidence coming to school and therefore
do not push themselves academically. Children are struggling academically because of the lack
of resources, lack of parental involvement, and the health issues that are related to home
environments.
Health plays an important role in the success of children. If students are not healthy and
do not feel good about himself or herself, he or she will not prosper in the classroom. Attendance
is poor because of weak immune systems. “Those with more health assets were more likely to be
at goal for standardized tests and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely
to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets” (Ickovics, Carroll-Scott,
Schwartz, Gilstad-Hayden, McCaslin, 2014, p. 40). Family environments that contain mold,
lead, and un-clean air will have an effect on children’s immune systems. The amount of students
with asthma and lead is increasing each year because of the lack of clean environments. “In the
United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that children in at least 4
million households are being exposed to high levels of lead” (Schlieber, Neuharth-Pritchett,
2016, p. 175). Four million households are exposed to lead causing students’ health to plummet.
If students are not healthy he or she is not ready to come to school each day to learn. For society,

Running Head: Issue Investigation

4

this means that teachers need to be aware of the different types of environments that students are
coming from. Day by day, students’ attitudes may be different based off of home life. Bias about
different cultural environments should be put aside so that students feel comfortable in the school
environment. “Yet each year lead exposure is estimated to contribute to about 600,000 new cases
of intellectual disabilities among children, according to the World Health Organization”
(Schlieber, Neuharth-Pritchett, 2016, p. 175). Being aware of this statistic is beneficial to
educators and parents. Stopping the problem before it starts will help children to have a better
home environment and close the achievement gap in classrooms across the United States. Health
is important for attendance, academics, and social well beings. Students reported 7.1 out of 14
having health assets (Ickovics, Carroll-Scott, Schwartz, Gilstad-Hayden, McCaslin, 2014, p. 40),
which leaves half of the student population to struggle physically with health issues. In order to
have social interaction and achieve academically students must be present in school and become
mentally present as well.
Through this investigation it has been discovered that home environment effects students
physically, academically, and socially. It was said that students who have better home
environments have higher cognitive achievement. Unsupportive parenting, low health assets, and
established emotions in the family environment affect how a student achieves in the school
setting. Parents who are highly educated and relay positive messages have higher achievement
for children in their households. “Parental education and social economic status have an impact
on student achievement. Students with parents who were both college-educated tended to
achieve at the highest levels. Income and family size were modestly related to achievement”
(Halawah, 2006, p. 93). Achievement is directly related to family and the home environment. For
future research and suggestions, looking at urban vs. suburban households will show more valid

5

Running Head: Issue Investigation
data. Students that were looked at through this research were mostly minority students in low

income households. Stretching research topics to access all households in the United States may
prove different results. This will avoid future limitations on the investigation.

References

Running Head: Issue Investigation

6

Halawah, I. (2006). The effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on
academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(2), 91-99.

Ickovics, J. J., Carroll-Scott, A., Peters, S., Schwartz, M., Gilstad-Hayden, K. k.,
& McCaslin, C. c. (2014). Health and academic achievement: Cumulative
effects of health assets on standardized test scores among urban youth in the
United States. Journal of School Health, 84(1), 40-48. doi:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/josh.12117

Robinson, C., & Brown, A. M. (2016). Considering sensory processing issues in trauma affected
children: The physical environment in children's residential homes. Scottish Journal Of
Residential Child Care, 15(2), 6-18.

Schlieber, M., & Neuharth-Pritchett, S. (2016). Sources of lead and steps to reduce
lead exposure in homes, child care, and early learning environments. Childhood
Education, 92(3), 175. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2016.1180886

Siddiqi, D. S. (2012). Relationship between cognitive attainment and home
environment of secondary school students. International Journal of Scientific
Research, 3(5), 103–104. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15373/22778179/may2014/34

Swanson, J. j., Valiente, C., & Lemery-Chalfant, K. (2012). Predicting academic

Running Head: Issue Investigation

7

achievement from cumulative home risk: The mediating roles of effortful Control,
academic relationships, and school avoidance. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58(3), 375-408.