BHEL-GE Gas Turbine Services

1.0 Spread And Its Effects
Exhaust temperature spread is the difference between maximum and minimum temperatures recorded by
exhaust temperature thermocouples
If spread is allowed with out correction results in reduction of residual life of down stream components
2.0 Spread Concerns

Any unit running below allowable (125° F on MS6B/ 9E; 175° F on F class machines) is acceptable to
If a unit starts from the beginning at a "perceived" high spread (90 F- 100° F), and does not increase,
there is no cause for concern.
If more than one unit are at a site, the spreads on the units will be different. Also, if one unit runs at 60
F spread and the next at 85° F, does not mean there is something "wrong" with the unit.
Time to get concerned: a) if there is a sudden jump in spread b) if spread continues to increase with

3.0 Causes Of Spread
Following is a typical cause and effect diagram for high exhaust spread.


Internal Assembly


Fuel transfer

fuel tips


A/A comp.
Moisture contamination
Insufficient output
Lube leaks

Incorrect hardware

Water wash

High Exhaust
Exh. Thermocouples

Fuel Contamination

Fuel nozzles
Card Failure

Check Valves
Water Injection

T/C wiring

Flow Divider
Purge air valves




BHEL-GE Gas Turbine Services
Spread Related to Combustion components

Fuel Nozzles
T/ P's (include floating & side seals)

Spread Related to Fuel system components

Check valves (Liquid and purge)
Flow divider
Gaskets in pigtails
Selector valve (internal leakage)

Spread related to human errors

Pigtails connected wrong
Gas flange taped and the tape not removed
Use of Teflon tape in fuel lines
Two check valves in one line
One nozzle of a different design

4.0 Spread Related To Fuel Nozzles
Brief description
Optimum gas turbine operation, fuel nozzles must be removed from service at scheduled intervals for cleaning,
inspection, reconditioning and calibration. Turbines operated with dirty, damaged or defective fuel nozzles run
a high risk of extensive damage with the resulting expense of downtime and the repair / replacement of major
components. Damage may extend from combustion liners and transition piece assemblies to include pre-mature
failure of the first-stage turbine nozzle and buckets.

What can go wrong with fuel nozzles leading to spread?

Worn internals not replaced

Internals and fuel passages not cleaned properly

Wrong part installed during replacement of internals

Fuel nozzle internals not properly assembled (torque and assembly checks)

Large variation in flow among set of fuel nozzles

Accumulation of dust during storage

BHEL-GE Gas Turbine Services
Fuel Nozzle Refurbishment At BGGTS

BGGTS fuel nozzle testing facility developed critical processes of cleaning, inspection and calibration of the
fuel nozzles in fuel nozzles refurbishment in line with GE process requirements. Fuel nozzles calibration
facility equipped with Rose Mount mass flow meters and coupled with data logger software for capturing test

Following are ensured during refurbishment of fuel nozzles at BGGTS

Pressure testing of fuel nozzles during assembly process ensuring proper assembly of internals

Dimensional and visual inspections of parts thoroughly carried out before recommending for parts

Correct parts as per GE recommendations are replaced during refurbishment

Internal assembly carried out as per GE recommendations (torque, in process assembly checks etc.)

Flow testing performed on test benches duly calibrated as per GE specification requirements

Flow ranges adjusted to close tolerance among fuel nozzles (below 2%)to ensure equal fuel flow
through fuel nozzles.

BHEL-GE Gas Turbine Services
Fuel Nozzle Testing facility

Cleaning facility

Pressure testing facility

Liquid Flow system

Liquid Flow testing in progress

Air Flow system – gas /air

Gas flow testing in progress

Data Logger software

Rose mount flow meter

BHEL-GE Gas Turbine Services
5.0 Precautions To Be Taken At Site
Following fuel line assembles checked to avoid spread related issues
Flow Divider
• Leakage, Abnormal Noise
• Discharge Pressure Differential
• Speed Pickups Secure/Gapped correctly
Check valves
• Leakage
• Corrosion
Note: Check valves to be replaced in sets and tested to tolerance of 0.5 kg. Crack pressure
Fuel Nozzle Selector Valve
• Improper Stem Operation
• Leakage at Connections
• Internal leakages
False Start Drain Valve
• Incorrect Sequencing During Startup and Shutdown
• Improper Operation of Valve Actuator
• Air and Oil Leaks
• Worn Diaphragm in Valve Actuator
• Leakages
• Corrosion and accumulation of debris/dirt
Note: Do not use Teflon in assembly of fuel passage systems

6.0 Trouble Shooting
Data required for troubleshooting of exhaust temperature spread

Exhaust temperature thermocouple readings (TTX's) at various loads
TTX's, MW on more than one fuel if used
TTX's, MW with and without water/ steam injection
Fuel line pressure readings (Liquid only) before and after flow divider

Above data is analyzed, probable cause identified and corrective actions can be suggested by BGGTS Services
and Engineering team.