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APPLE TON AND COMPANY I .. Thomson. ETC.A.S.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS STUDIED UNDER THE LIGHT OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES RICHARD PROCTOR. NEW YORK D.A. SUN-VIEWS OF THE EARTH. A. to conceive Of the Sole Being right. . AUTHOR OF SATURN AND B. HALF-HOURS WITH THE TELESCOPE.R. and from that full complex Of never-ending wonders. Not to this ITS evanescent speck of earth Poorly confined — the radiant tracts on high Are our exalted range intent to gaze Creation through. F. SYSTEM.

Djngley July 11 1932 .QBsri Authorized Edition. Edwarb N. Gift from Mrs.

here presented has been the result of a careful study of the subject dealt with. have been in my views.PREFACE. but I wish remarks on certain points of It will be seen that. I have not done from any love of novelty. be ready to abandon them without regret. and I have searched as anxiously for considerations opposed to any novel theory others should be as for more arguments in successful than I finding reasons for rejecting any of its favor. am free If from that weakness which forces a I shall I trust I man to re- gard every theory he has once advocated as a matter . nor from any desire to attract attention of the by new views Each hizarre or fanciful theories. The general purpose I have had in view in writ- ing the present treatise will be gathered from the introductory pages. I have propounded views which differ this from those usually accepted. many of the subjects dealt with in this work. on to offer here a few detail.

the theory has in truth possession of him. when on a I have subject. to repeat statements course to my accusers) It is not often pen. with more or pages of several quarterly. " and this can never where he imagines he holds a theory. the growth of ideas which 1 have dealt with consecutively. has been in accordance with the cus- of any journal. and ness. because it has happened to several times lately to be accused of plagiarism. me less ful- and in one of our leading daily news- I refer to this. however. Some among my readers will recognize. of " Truth should be the pri- object of the philosopher be the case if. in developing ideas. papers. in the views here presented.PREFACE 5 to be defended at all r hazards. I have always written under my own name. in the weekly serials. ]S mischievously affects the work As Faraday science. more o weakness of the student . and I here present who (anonymously or other- that luxury. monthly. but that is to those wise) have afforded Wherever tom it me mj own accused of stealing one's a pleasure I have more than once been enabled to enjoy of my compliments which (unknown of had proceeded from one is fresh ideas late. own had occasion. I have obtained fresh evidence on . mary said. Since the manuscript of this work was placed id the printers' hands.

since." says "Webb. and then suddenly van- ished. One of the most surprising nessed by the telescopist —a phenomena ever wit- phenomenon I had read of lono. is set satellite But I think it is not cannot have retraced its Jupiter cannot have shifted his place ." it is precisely set at defiance. it sat- was seen outside "where the limb. far to seek. Maclear and Pearson. in favor of theory that the major planets are subsidiary suns sup- plying heat not a minute proportion of light even) (if made by I refer to the observation to their satellites. some the ol with in the following dealt theories 7 pages." Two other equally competent observers. The most is The observation is and the explanation may be expected to be also surprising. remained four minutes.PREFACE. our task is our all rendered . witnessed the same phenomenon. but had not thought of in connection with my subject —seems to me to afford stronger evi- my dence than any adduced in the text. student of ^Nature course . " Here. at defi- where explanation seems hopeful of gaining instruction. Admiral Smyth. that the true it is true . " explanation But ance. twelve minutes after entering on the disk of the planet. atmosphere cannot be in question: surely. that on one occasion the second ellite of Jupiter. very startling. when these explanations are eliminated.

I have detected signs of systematic ag- gregation seem to among me stars visible to the to place beyond all Sir "William Herschel adopted as the basis of his naked eye. and Pearson. effective con- firmation of that long-doubted observation. corresponding to that change of shape in which I have endeav- ored to exhibit as explaining Saturn's occasional as- sumption of the square-shouldered aspect. 8 easier instead of more A difficult. has never yet. and covering less than one-sixth of the heavens. the existence of this around the ^Tubeculse disposes at once of . which question the fact that an erroneous hypothesis system of star-gauging. so far as I noticed. The fact that about one-third of the lucid stars are collected in a region having the greater Magellanic Cloud nearly in its centre.PREFACE. which in the text I all have presented only as a highly-probable hypothesis. We know that Schroter suspected an apparent flattening of portions Here we have an of Jupiter's outline. Jupiter. the observation simultaneously If we made by Smyth. the work Supplemented by other am aware. Maclear. would obviously account for the phenomenon. In preparing the Maps for my new Atlas (now nearly ready). been facts detected during of transferring the stars of the British As- sociation Catalogue to rich region my Maps. consider the matter rightly. makes that view but certain.

had confidently asserted that the Orion nebula and had even anticipated the discovery is so. since he led to express his firm conviction that had been many nebulae are gaseous. of the variability of the irregular nebulae. to illustrate the Stars at the. recently effected My by Le Sueur of Melbourne. that it is not the case. so far from being opposed to the theories of Sir William Herschel. may add in this place that has been recently asserted. as my theories respect- ing the sidereal system have been founded on the discovery that certain nebulae are gaseous. afforded most striking evidence of his wonderful reasoning powers. by my Lecture on May 6th by Brothers's kindness. Mr. 9 I shall be enabled. in the . among Sir Milky William My first Way than could be ex- Herschel's fundamental paper on the subject. and of a more intimate association of those stars with the pected were theory correct. Royal Institution on means of photographs of the Maps which thus conclusively (at least in my that there exist special gation I among opinion) establish the theory and discernible laws of aggre- the lucid stars. the hypothesis of a generally uniform distribution within the sidereal system.PREFACE. theory respecting the sidereal system has been based on the signs of systematic aggregation the lucid stars. That dis- covery.

I believe. my That independently to on Saturn treatise ance with deed). so to inquire into the relations nebulse. it was only while inquiring into the nature of stellar aggregation that I was led and to notice the laws of nebular distribution. presented my mind when (at which time scientific literature is Sir in considering his father's hypotheses respecting the nebulse. The theory brought forward in the chapter on Meteors and Comets is not altogether new. itself by The . the Student. by which I have endeavored that those peculiarities acquaint- was very limited definitely stated in pendix to that work.PREFACE. editor of the Intellectual for the and my kind Observer and I take this opportunity of thanking exceptional liberality with which he has found a place for views professedly opposed to generally-received opinions. however. while the relation be- tween the motions of discrete bodies and the forma- tion of systems of orbs has been dealt with John Herschel. between stars friend. was writing my Note B of the line of reasoning is new. was entitled Intellectual " Notes on Star-Streams " and . I Ap- wholly to of the solar system in- show which have hitherto been regarded as affording the strongest . io Observer for August. 1867. and idea. general idea on which it is The grounded has been dealt with by Mayer and Thompson.

. I tender my best thanks to Mr. and partly because I have seen with regret that an erroneous theory of the corona has been cently promulgated. In the preface to my its treatise present con- on Saturn I touched on the possibility that some such explanation of those peculiarities might be found. remarking that may in the rings of Saturn astronomers one day rec- ognize the action of the processes by which the solar system has attained its present state. In the chapter on the Sun I have entered at some length into the subject of the solar corona.PREFACE. Although I had seen I had always thought mathematician so skilful his it name associated incredible that a and clearsighted should have advanced or adopted so ill-considered an hypothesis. with it. which seems re- likely at the present conjuncture to affect mischievously the progress of research into this interesting question of solar physics. may be regarded as in reality the direct result of the processes by which the solar system has reached dition. Browning. E. I have heard with much pleasure that the Astronomer Royal. F. altogether repudiated any share in starting this theory. partly because that subject is full of interest in view of the approaching total solar eclipse visible in the south of Europe. at the last meeting of the Astronomical Society. 11 objection to the hypothesis of development.

Prootor.. A. 1870. F. S. E. S. sion of the proof-sheets. for his careful revi- and the detection of more than one error which had escaped my scrutiny. which illustrate the chapters on those planets and to Mr. Brothers.. Lokdon. April 12. for the beautiful colored pictures of Jupiter and Saturn. . l2 A.. Richard A. PREFACE.

. the Miniature of our Earth VII.— CONTENTS. Of Minor Stars. Till. VI. IV. . the Arctic Planets 176 . . 123 . 805 . .17 . 71 .97 learn from the Sen III. 159 . What we 22 . The Nebulae. 202 230 . the Ringed . IX. . Jupiter. 187 their Office in the Solar System Other Suns than ours . PAGE CH4V. .. X. .35 . and of the Distribution of Stars is Space XIII. 258 282 ? . . are they External Galaxies Supervision and Control . XL XII. Mars. II. . . "What the Earth teaches us The Inferior Planets V. . The Moon and other Satellites Meteors and Comets . the Giant of the Solar System Saturn. Uranus and Neptune. .. . . INTRODUCTION I. World .




battling with each other or with the denizens of the forest huge bat-like creatures sweep through the dusky twilight which constituted the primeval day. INTRODUCTION. We turn we Geology was peopled with now are not found upon its are familiar. hideous reptiles crawl over their slimy domain. this earth our thoughts to the epochs when those monsters throve and multiplied. that the scene now presented by the earth is no less wonderful.. Strange forms of vegetation clothe the scene which the mind's eye dwells upon. of their charm to the fact that life they suggest thoughts of other forms of than those with which teaches us of days when strange creatures such as surface. : OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. weird monsters pursue their prey amid the ocean-depths and we forget. as we dwell upon the strange forms which existed in those long-past ages. The air is heavily laden with moisture to nourish the abundant flora. and . Astronomy and Geology owe much. and picture to ourselves the appearance which our earth then presented.

. to examine into the resemblance which may exist between our world and other worlds surrounding it on every hand. we see globes by the side of which our earth would seem but as a tiny speck we trace these globes as they sweep with stately motion on their appointed courses we watch the return of day on the broad expanse of their surface and we see systems of satellites which are suspended as lights for as . men of inquiring minds seem to have been led. travelling in stately orbits around his fellow. . 18 that the records of our time as perplexing as may perhaps seem we now find one day those of the geological eras. It has not been the mere fanciful theorizer who has discussed such highest eminence questions. we see proofs which we live. We cannot indeed examine the actual substance of living creatures existing upon other celestial bodies . on all sides that. in science. we even form any But ception of the conditions under which they live. luminaries. We further find that our sun is matched by a thousand thousand suns amid the immeasurable depths of space and the mind's eye pictures other worlds like those which course around the sun. as by an irresistible instinct. their nocturnal skies. Long. Astronomy has a kindred charm. we cannot even picture to ourselves their appearance or qualities only in a few instances can . however. before the wonders of modern astron- omy had been revealed to us. and con- besides the world on other worlds exist as well cared for and nobly planned. but men of the In long-past ages Anaxi- .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Nay.

despite the skill with which each of them presented the arguments belonging to his own side of the controversy. attracted little notice at the time of their discovery. the discussion between "Wliewell Brewster invested the subject portion of that of the two charm was due disputants. had it not been that the arguments were drawn from the discoveries which had recently been made by astronomers. at once assumed importance. charm belonging question. the subject has continually presented fact. . in new and to subjects ever old. tronomy has progressed. ciated in the most intimate of for modern science. as the science of as- regarded. and Newton. No ! and doubt a large to the personal qualities Yet. G-alileo. have dwelt upon the same interesting theme while. in our own day. r which the question of other worlds than ours has been is due to the fact that. is itself under new one of those which are ever It has all the The aspects. when it was seen how they . Whewell and Brew ster have employed their scientific and dialectic Ekil] in defending rival theories upon the subject. such men as Huyghens. while it is asso- manner with the progress With what a charm of novelty. 1 g mander and Pythagoras studied the subject of other worlds than ours later. Undoubtedly a large share of the interest with . Nor was it uninteresting to notice how these discoveries at once seemed to acquire a new interest when they were associated with the Facts which had subject of life in other worlds. instance. which men in all ages have delighted to discuss.INTR OD UCTION. few could have read with any interest a discussion on a subject so well worn.

but promises to work yet greater marvels in the years which are to come. since celestial depths. and lastly. Anal ogies the most interesting have brought the distant orbs of heaven into close relationship with our own earth. has elapsed since the " Plurality of Worlds " and " More Worlds than One " were written.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. if we connt by years. or with the central luminary of the planetary physicists than during the past for revelations . be said to date from the controversy between those eminent men. known to both the new mode of research has even in those facts which were well disputants. We stand in a position much more favorable for the formation of just views than that from which Whewell and Brewster surveyed the planetary and the inquiries of the men stellar systems. which has not only revealed a number of surprising facts. that already the subject of other worlds has assumed a new aspect. Yet so rapidly has science progressed. gard many Whewell and Brewster The interest with which the public re- of these discoveries may. Unhopedhave been made on every side. 2o bore on the rival views which were enforcing. life in Arguments which were hypothetical thirty years ago have either become certainties or been disproved. No very long interval. Never. a been devised. Doubtful points have been cleared up a new meaning has been found . One is thus invited to discuss anew a subject which but a few years since seemed thoroughly sifted by two eminent philosophers I have named. indeed. has a series of more startling coveries rewarded the labors of first explored the dis- astronomers and few years.

to their direct significance. and within the wondrous galaxy of which our sun is a constituent orb. . and caught The deep pulsations of the world. measuring out The steps of time. then. a variety of structure and a complexity of detail. the marvellous discoveries which have rewarded Judged merely according recent scientific researches. My pages which follow. But it is when we consider recent discoveries in their relation to the existence of other worlds. in a new and I hope interesting light. that we dis- recognize the Although the ever accompanied by a significance of those discoveries. growth of our knowledge is unknown we have proportional growth of our estimate of the we seem already entitled to say that Come on that which is. when we attempt immense to form a conception of the varieties of the forms of life corresponding to the innumerable varieties of cosmical structure closed by modern full researches. iEonian music. but to present. in the is not solely to establish the thesis that there are other worlds than ours. these discoveries are well calculated to excite our admiration for the wonderful works of God in His universe. 21 a lesson lias been taught us which bears even more significantly on our views respecting the existence of other worlds : we have learned to recog- nize within the solar system. object.INTRODUCTION- And scheme. of which but a few years ago astronomers had formed but the most inadequate conceptions. and for the far-reaching scope of the mental powers which He has given to His creature Man.

it may be well to we have reason to conclude. Thus it might fairly be urged that. their attend- ant worlds. since . that no part of the moon's globe living creatures. Certainly she is is inhabited by inhabited by none which bear the least resemblance to those existing on our earth. as we shall presently show. moon. It would not be just that the earth is to argue directly from the fact inhabited to the conclusion that the other planets are inhabited also. peopled with various forms of life. in the force.Befoke proceeding to consider the various circum- which the worlds or systems which stances under surround us appear to inquire how subsist. but certain. nor thence to the conclusion that other stars have. far consideration that the Creator has designed the orbs which exist throughout space for the support of living creatures. an instance which would as effectually serve to It seems all have occasion to support a directly opposite conclusion.CHAPTEE I. from the of our own earth and its inhabitants. . An analogy founded on a single instance has no logical And it is doubtful whether we have not. WHAT OUR EARTH TEACHES US. like our sun.

But find a this is far o^er the surface of our globe. earth's surface If is full we range of significance. In the bitter cold within to the torrid zone. their frozen seas. in the air as beneath the surface of the we myriad forms of life. in another light. there remains no probable argument in favor of the view that other orbs besides our earth are the abode of living creatures. existence of other varieties we are able to trace the even more remarkable. and scanty vegetation. from being all. Around mountain-summits as in the depths of the most secluded valleys. and its trying alternations of oppressive calms and fiercelyhurricanes. little but we shall find that the way in which life is distributed over the great force. hundred various forms.WHAT OUR EARTH TEACHES US. . from the arctic regions we find that none of the peculiarities which mark the several regions of our globe suffice to banish life from its surface. the arctic circles. zone. the torrid long-continued droughts. Yet the earth in reality supplies an argument of when we consider the evidence she presents The mere fact that this world is inhabited is. with their strange alternations of long summer days and long winter perennial ice. its life flourishes in a other hand. over the earth. . as we have seen. 23 one of the two orbs respecting which we know most appears to be uninhabited. Various as are the physical habitudes which we encounter as we travel earth. strange absence of true seasonal changes. nourishes even more numerous and more various forms of life than either of the great temperate zones. in mid-ocean as in raging the arid desert. On the blazing heat. with its its nights.

We can no longer assume that adjacent rocks which differ in character are necessarily different in age : but we have enough evidence. under the widest varieties of con. Nay. scarcely one any record of its existence he sees whole races vanishing from the earth. from superimposed lition.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. in favor of the view that. than any dwelt on in the text. he is yet able to read in them of many strange vicissi- which the continents and oceans of our globe But. at the most distant epoch to which his researches have extended. though the pages have been defaced and mutilated by Time's unsparing hand. The researches of Dr. 24 The geologist has been able to turn back a few leaves of the earth's past history. * The results of the recent deep-sea dredging expeditions. a can. to Nature may be most prodigal of life. far back as he can trace the earth's history. of a million creatures now He knows existing. there was the same wonderful variety in the forms of life tudes to have been exposed. and. prove the enormous antiquity of the earlier formations. however. remains tered creatures . Carpenter and his fellow-workers have a most important bearing. . find the scat- few of those old-world but he recognizes. and supply a more forceful analogy. indeed. though they have an obvious bearing on the question of the relative ages of the various strata of our earth. if he reads aright the mysterious lesson which the blurred letters teach him. do not appreciably affect our estimate of the range of time during which this world has been the abode of living creatures. that. he is led to believe that. strata. perhaps. and already he counts her age by millions of years. leaving no trace behind them and he is thus able to form an will leave to future ages . in those which have been preserved. the others of only clearest evidence that thousands of must have existed around them. He as at the present day.* he finds no evidence of an epoch when life was absent from her surface. . on the subject of the present chapter.

We see that. We see that not only is Nature careful to fill all available space with living forms. For the arguments against the presence of living creatures on the moon are founded on the evidence we have that the physical habitudes of that orb are outside the limits —wide — they seem to be as within which Nature can effect the adaptation spoken In we have of. then. but that no time over which our researches extend has found her less prodigal of life. no argument can be drawn from the moon's unfitness for the support of life. against the view that. Nor is this lesson affected — like the general lesson drawn from the mere fact of the earth's being inhabited —by any thing we can learn from the aspect of our satellite. there Nature has provided such .WHAT OUR EARTH TEACHES US 2S estimate of the enormous extent by which the creatures and races of which he can learn nothing must have outnumbered those whose scattered remains attest their former existence upon the earth. creatures to the circumstances which surround them. the argument which has been drawn from the moon's presumed unfitness to restrial analogies unaffected. fact. And. if we consider rightly. We as so founded on terargument assume that the argument be the abode of living creatures is to leave the contrary have to drawn from the analogy of the earth is forceful before we can form any opinion at all respecting the moon's habitability. within very wide she has a singular power of adapting living limits. where orbs fit for the support of life exist. we have analogies which there is no mistaking. in any case. Here.

we yet Some minute peculiarity to the other also. at appear to be in the least connected with the well-being of the race. to ordinary observation. which we recognize in various regions of our earth. however. and sometimes a change which does first sight. Let us trace out the various degrees of fitness or unfitness for the support of particular forms of life. will render one region by a race which lives and Darwin mentions several in- absolutely uninhabitable the other. And it its gradual disappear seems demonstrated that even the slow which every part of the earth processes of change to is subjected would suffice to destroy a races now subsisting on its surface. Often. or vegetation. it is necessary that that terrestrial analogies afford a very sure guide in many the midst of perplexities which the study of the worlds around us presents to our contemplation. The moon teaches us. where there exists so slight a difference between two regions of the earth that. We shall see. we should consider how far the evidence presented by our own earth may serve to elucidate this teaching. number of the were the character . thrives in stances in which an apparently insignificant change in the circumstances under which a particular race has thriven. is not the case. 26 classes of living creatures as are adapted to the special habitudes of those orbs. has led to ance. it would appear that the forms of life existing in one should be well adapted find that this of soil. not. or climate. The sun And also teaches the all same lesson. that the Creator the celestial bodies to be at has not intended all times habitable.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. as we proceed.

we between the physical habitudes of our earth and those of some far-distant planet. The lesson taught us by this peculiarity is very obvious. we are taught that the existence of differences sufficient to render a distant planet an unsuitable abode for such creatures as we are familiar with. if removed from their own abode to other parts of the earth. we have been teaches us. in order to prove that that planet the abode of living creatures resembling those is on our own earth. as the physical of those races unalterable. or even to render less abundant the life which exist under those changed condi- tions.WHAT OUR EARTH TEACHES istics US. the process of destruction would earth find differences of climate be very rapid indeed. so as to adapt themselves continually to the varying circumstances under which they live. in some instances. On our and of physical habitudes generally. on the other hand. the various races of living creatures slowly change also. which are much more important than those hitherto dealt with. "We see that not only would certain races perish in the long-run. But. the circumstance is uninhabited. On see that it would be by no means sufficient to indicate a general resemblance the one hand. Aud now we may we proceed a step farther. 2j But. cannot force the conclusion that the planet contrary. or even . but that. habitudes of their abode slowly change. that such differences banish life of life all forms of as upon us On the considering would suffice to of certain kinds are insufficient to banish kinds. If we were to remove the polar bears from their arctic fastnesses to tropical.

is yet limited. There can be little doubt that if a thousand men and us that " the pliability of the organization of those has subjected to his sway. a very few end of the whole race. enables horses. surrounded by crocodiles. * Humboldt animals which which is tolls man then spread over with a their native climate." . if removed to mountain-regions. Those accustomed to a moisture-laden air and abundant vegetation would years would see the not survive long if removed to the desert. indeed. the fine odoriferous grass renewed vegetation of spring. as in . can endure the heat of the tropics or the fiercest for example. however. water-serpents. of arctic and antarctic regions. In some races.* the seemingly subdued to Even man himself. the horses roam in the savannah. and other species of European origin. if they wish them to grow up strong and vigorous. The Englishman. scene. other races. terest cold bit- But he cannot safely attempt to found true colonies in every Our countrymen in India part of the earth's surface. and enjoy. and manatees. When the rivers return again to their beds. which would destroy more vigorous races which have not been the yoke of man. in his power of migration. which man has domesticated seem capable of enduring a variety of climate or of circumstances. to lead for a time an amphibious life.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. we find a power of enduring such changes which very far exceeds that possessed by Those creatures. must send their children to be reared in England. cows. in a certain sense. and circumstances. The races inhabiting steppes and prairies would quickly perish. though he possesses in an unrivalled degree the power of enduring in safety the most complete change of climate. 28 to warmer the parts of temperate regions. for example.

couple of centuries. if some impassable barrier prevented the in- habitants of one country from visiting others. if supplied with inhabitants from certain other countries. insomuch that. simply because their physical habitudes appeared un suited to the wants of the only creatures with which the observer was familiar. We differences exist within the confines of our as see that own earth. but in a more are taught the same lesson striking manner. Who would believe. and witnessed the conditions under which they subsist ? Again. how readily the conclusion might be reached. 2g settle in certain parts of India (not at any time intermarrying with the na- the colony wonld have disappeared within a tives). on the other hand. Here we have a second degree of unfitness. We before. than seemingly more fortu- nate abodes. ample. that these countries are not uninhabited. in the frost-bound regions within the Arctic circle. that men can live. and .WHAT OUR EARTH TEACHES women from country were to this US. if we knew nothing of India. which render particular countries absolutely uninhabitable by particular races. accord- ing to which certain countries would quickly become depopulated. for exand not only live but thrive and multiply. see. or even less fully peo- pled with living creatures. Now. while yet it was possible to learn something of the conditions prevailing in other regions. the race itself would quickly And we perish. if travellers had not visited the Esquimaux races. though the individual might survive. that some at least of those inaccessible regions must be wholly uninhabited.

in order to enforce the conclusion that no living creatures subsist at all upon certain orbs their surface. and Quito. which replace Indian the seasonal changes we are familiar to the and the other circumstances which render all from our English home. even perate zone ? * Therefore. though the strongest traveller is affected seriously — hardly had energy to consult his instruments. there would not be is is death to many numbers of And. yet races of men live and thrive hi Potosi.— 5 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. in examining the circumstances of other worlds than ours. animals and Yet each and thrive upon its sur- face. * Perhaps the most striking instance of man's power of living under circumstances seemingly the most unfavorable. amid those seemingly un- tropica. Bogota. inhabited by fatal to certain races. and where even his guides fainted as they tried to dig a small hole in the snow. not a spot in the whole world which fatal in a brief space to plants belonging to other regions. creatures. is to be found in the by the rarity of the air at great elevations. men that as our people in their tem- endurable vicissitudes. though thus air of many which live spot. regions so different who could believe that. and to use the words of a modern writer that bull-fights should be possible at an elevation at which Saussuro fact that. o some one pictured to us the intense heat of the Indian sun. Yet another step There however. there are races of thrive and multiply. . farther. it will not be sufficient to prove that would obviously not be habitable by the races subsisting on the earth. are regions of the earth where the individuals of races The belonging to other regions quickly perish. our own England indeed. is others. the strange alternations of weather with.

to that a planet to all the living prove that it is therefore uninhabited. tdfords an even more striking instance of Nature's power of adapting creatures to the circumstances which surround them. then. that to show We our third lesson. it is US. are taught. each race as fellows to the circumstances in We that. than that there are living creatures within the depths of that ocean.WHAT OUR EARTH TEACEES Here. If fishes could is death to them alike well which we another orb. if placed for a brief space under water. On removed thence conclude that the contrary. The fish perishes. if What placed for a brief space on the earth. There are regions of our earth to which creatures from other regions cannot be removed without being immediately killed. The warm-blooded animal perishes. But we have yet a stronger argument to touch on. . were we not could familiar with the fact. yet another lesson. We are taught. even though creature on this earth to our- could they believe that creatures can live in comfort in that living we and the land creatures we are familiar with. how Yet land and element which river and sea are creatures. many minutes ? cannot remain alive reason. or climb trees. yet that orb is ? peopled with adapted as it is its placed. see could prove that every living would at once perish if we cannot uninhabited. is the analogy of our earth. then. 3. beneath whose surface selves. the lesson conveyed by our earth's analogy leads to the conclusion * Perhaps the fact that there are certain kinds of fish which cannot only live out of water.* be more wonderful to us. by not even sufficient would be an abode quickly fatal creatures subsisting on our globe. but can travel across the dry land.

or in the frozen heart of the iceberg. Carpenter's discovery. no living creature has its being.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS 32 that many may exist. will die out. We know. bird. and busy life. their bodies are strewn over enormous regions. where yet worlds living creatures — —would every form of life upon our earth reptile. boring districts.* There remains yet a terrestrial analogies. or insect placed within them. that in the depths of the Atlantic. there are myriads of living creatures having even organs of vision. perish in a few last lesson to On be drawn from the earth there are regions where no form of life exists or can exist. spread pestilence and disease among the inhabitants of the neigh- even more striking. that. scene of is to afford scope The volcano activity will its and room for new or to supply the wants of those which life. abundantly supplied with of many different species. there exist and thrive minute creatures. that in strong acids which would instantly kill bird. I . as they putrefy beneath the sun's rays. where the pressure of the sea is so enormous that no ordinary instruments can resist its effects. to the instances here work of which cited. when they are from time to time vomited forth by the erupting mountain. many others which seem have already referred to Dr. or fish. we find the volcano-fish existing in such countless thousands. Even in the bowels of the earth and in the very neighborhood of active volcanoes. to the strange conditions in which they are placed. Within the flaming crater of the volcano. and the one day become the abode of myriads of living creatures who would have perished in a moment melt. where it had even been thought that no light can penetrate. or animalcule moments. its in its consuming fires. fish. adapted by Nature. insect. beast. Yet even here Nature proves to us that the great end and aim of all her working forms of already exist. beast. and. too. It is the * I might add. The iceberg will substance will once again be peopled with But this is little.

have each a more powerful influence by far toward the preservation than they have toward the destruction of life. heated to a degree a thousandfold more intense than that of the fiercest heat bound in a cold we know of. too. if it were the scene of a fierce and destructive turmoil. if its surface compared with which our were arctic frosto . elling and fashioning the surface of new continents. that even when we can prove that an orb in space is so circumstanced that no life could by any possibility exist upon its surface. one moment of which would suffice to destroy every living creature now existing upon the earth if its whole mass were — . And so of a multitude of other phenomena. The tornado and the thunderstorm.WHAT OUR EARTH TEACHES US. which appear at first sight significant rather of the destructive than of the life-preserving character of Nature. which most cantly teaches us volcano is what signifi- Tho Nature's real aim. But exhibits also the action of Nature for the present it benefit of the creatures It acts which exist upon the earth. preserving and vivifying all things. even the dreaded returns of plague and pestilence. then. has its work in remodstruction. We see. slowly chan- making continents of oceans and oceans of continents. 33 volcano and iceberg are the signs. is the index of those busy subterranean forces which are remodelling the ging the level of the land. an important part in the formation and main- tenance of the system of oceanic circulation on which the welfare of land creatures and water creatures so largely depends. while all things seem to suffer a gradual deThe iceberg. earth's frame. the earthquake and the volcano nay.

34 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. have ever been. life. and must ever remain uninhabited. nor at any past or future time. would seem like tropical heat . though we could safely assert of any celestial object. of which life in it other ways. of the ence of other worlds than ourn. or in ages yet to come. or even if the most raj^id npon and even then we could not conclude that the principal purpose for which the Almighty had created alternation of these extremes took place within it it . could the abode of living creatures.- had not been the support of ages. seems serve as are led by has yet So that safest to assert that they are. no less strongly than those which appear best suited for habitation. speak to us. exist- . that neither now. either in long-past And lastly. yet we it terrestrial analogies to the conclusion that it been created to support those very orbs.

Let the reader consider a terrestrial globe three inches in diameter. Let us first endeavor to form adequate conceptions respecting the dimensions of the great central luminary of the solar system. and search out on that globe the tiny triangular speck Then let which represents Great Britain. I wish to consider only the real evidence which the sun affords respecting the scheme of creation. It is not merely that I regard those views as too hizarre and fanciful to fiud place in a serious consideration of the subject I am dealing with. to dwell upon the purposes which he subserves in the economy of the solar system. they do not belong to what the sun teaches us. which we call the fixed stars. WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE SUN. nor that the progress of recent observation has rendered them utterly untenable. to picture the town in which him endeavor . in fact. but that. I do not propose to dwell in this chapter on the views which have been propounded respecting the sun's habit ability.CHAPTER II. and thence to deduce a lesson respecting those other suns scattered throughout space.

so of his attraction. though of dimensions which dwarf those of the earth or Yenus almost to nothingness. on the scale which gives to the sun the enormous volume I have spoken of. He will then have formed some conception. when we regard still find we the planetary scheme. It will thus be seen that the sun is a worthy centre of the in its extreme span. all hundred and forty the planets whioh that. of the enormous dimensions of the earth's compared with the scene in which his daily life JSTow. while the globe representing the earth could be placed in a moderately large goblet. on the same scale. even when we merely regard his dimensions. the energy him a worthy ruler of . Such solar is the body which sways the motions of the system. the giant Jupiter. scale. though but an inadequate one. Saturn would have a diameter of about twenty-eight inches. The largest of his family. his ring measuring about five feet Uranus and Neptune would be more than a foot in diameter. The sun outweighs fully seven times the combined mass of circle around him. little great scheme he sways. nary sitting-room. is cast. would be required to contain the representation of the sun's globe on this length. A room about twenty-six feet in and height. and all the minor planets would be less than the three-inch earth. and breadth. would yet only be represented by a thirty-two inch globe. the sun would be represented by a globe about twice the height of an ordiglobe.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 36 he lives as represented by the minutest pin-mark that could possibly be made upon this speck.

indeed be so sent it subject is difficult to to our contemplation. appear slow. Properly speaking. when Nor we remember will this rotation that it implies a mo- tion of the equatorial parts of the sun's surface at a rate exceeding some seventy times the motion of our swiftest express trains. after all. These spots were presently found to traverse the solar disk in such a way as to indicate that the sun turns upon an axis once in about twenty-six days. that what is his chief office in the the see economy of the planetary scheme. and it would draw a line of demarcation between the facts which bear upon the question of other worlds and those which do not.WHAT WE LEARN FROM TEE But. It is when we contemplate him as the source whence the supplies of heat and light required by our own world and we other planets are plentifully bestowed. about two hundred and sixty years ago. or as it bear on the question of the constitution of those But the so interesting. that I may be permitted to enter at some length into a consideration of the solar orb. Next came the discovery that the solar spots are not . 37 the enormous volume and mass of the sun form the least important of his characteristics as the ruling body of the solar system. The study of solar physics may be said to have commenced with the discovery of the sun-spots. the physical constitution of the sun only requires to be dealt with in such a work as the present in so far as the sun's action may directly associated with it is upon the worlds around him. as modern physical discoveries pre- worlds. SUN.

or the length of time that many of them remain visible. strangely enough. was led to look from terrestrial on the spot-cavities as ap- ertures through a double layer of clouds. for a length of time corresponding to the weeks and months during which the solar spots enduie. ings may Through a stratum of terrestrial clouds openbe formed by atmospheric disturbances. unless we assume that the solar photosphere resembles a bed of clouds. it would be past comprehension that vast openings should form in it. . of appearance presented by the spots aa they traverse the solai disk led Dr. Whether we consider the enormous rapidity with which the spots form and with which their figure changes. it is only in comparatively recent times that the hypothesis has been finally established. The changes but deep cavities in the solar substance. And because the solar spots present two distinct penumbra and the dark saw the necessity of assum- varieties of light. reasoning analogies. He argued that. we find ourselves alike perplexed. by supposing them to be due to solar clouds hanging suspended at a considerable ele- vation above the true photosphere. Wilson to form this theory so far back as 1779 but.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Sir "William Herschel. but while undisturbed the clouds will retain any form once impressed upon them. Herschel . to remain open for months before they close up again. were the solar photosphere of any other nature. the faint umbra or nucleus. since even within the last ten years a theory wa3 put forward which accounted satisfactorily for most of the changes of appearance observed in the spots. 38 surface-stains.

Meantime let it shall see presently how this is. and so shielding the real surface of the sun the intense light and heat which it from would otherwiso receive. view that the body of the sun The darkness may possibly be of the nucleus of a spot is found. and rage with their chief fury. they have by no means given countenance to his cool. like his father. the outer self- luminous and constituting the true solar photosphere. we have the analogue of the solar we can show reason for believing that Here. . 39 clouds. On tropical zones are the regions our own earth the sub- where the great cyclonic storms have their birth. be noticed. This black spot must be regarded as the true nucleus. if only any causes resembling terrestrial cyclone those which generate the operate upon those regions of the sun where the solar spots make their appearance. because it parts less readily with its We heat. led the younger Herschel to conclusions as important as those which his father from had formed. corresponding to the subtropical zones on our own earth. reasoned. But while recent discoveries have confirmed Sir William Her sch el's theory about the solar cloudenvelopes. the inner reflecting the light received from the outer layer. The circumstance that the spots appear only on two bands of the sun's globe. in passing. therefore. that a close scrutiny of large solar spots has revealed the existence of an intensely black spot in the midst of the umbra. on the contrary. spots.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE mg that there are two beds of SUN. He terrestrial analogies. to give proof that in that neighborhood the sun is hotter.

this doubt that. reason for suspecting that the sun. But when through any cause the uniform action of the aerial currents is either interfered with. then there can be little axis. Ordinarily. to adjust the conditions which the excess of heat at the equator would otherwise tend to disturb. in the fact that the more sun shines upon that part of the earth than on the Can we find any zones which lie in higher latitudes. as . whose uniform motion suffices. where the atmosphere equator. then. directly If the sun has an atmosphere extending to a considerable distance from his surface. equator which Thus.a rule. cess of heat is is due to the excess of It is true that this ex- always in operation. which is not heated from without as the earth is. should exhibit a similar peculiarity ? Sir John Herschel considers that we can. Now we recognize the reason of the excess of heat at the earth's equator. owing to his rotation upon his atmosphere would assume the figure of an oblate spheroid. more of the sun's heat would be retained than at the poles. cause tornadoes. or is insufficient to maintain equilibrium. the excess of heat does not Certain aerial currents are generated. is shallowest.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. and would be deepest over the solar Here. and propagated over a wide area of the earth's surface. therefore. that excess of heat at the solar necessary to complete the analogy is . 40 We know that the cyclone heat at the earth's equator. then cyclonic or whirling motions are generated in the disturbed atmosphere. whereas cyclones are not perpetually raging in sub-tropical climates.

In these pages any account of We need only dwell his work would be out of place. seems satisfactorily established. this is just the peculiarity of which we want the interpretation. Schwabe found in the course of about ten and a . Then next we come to one of the most interesting made respecting the sun the discovery — discoveries ever that the spots increase and diminish in frequency in a periodic manner. We owe this discovery to the and systematic observations made by Herr Schwabe. 41 terrestrial cyclones. in other essentially hotter. of Dessau. and upon other discoveries which have been made by observers who have taken up the same laborious work. though as yet able to understand its we terrestrial are not very well nature. If there were indeed an increased depth of atmosphere over the sun's equator sufficing to retain the requisite excess of heat. upon the result. But is is not found to be the case. than the rest of the sun. however. so that. so far as the excess of heat at the sun's equator is con- cerned. no such excess of absorption. only removes the difficulty a step. It is may be taken for granted. either there is equator gives out more heat. however. that there an analogy between the sun-spots and cyclonic storms. that this reasoning. or This of the solar surface. then the amount of heat we receive from the sun's equatorial regions ought to be appreciably less than the amount emitted from the remaining portions else the solar words.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE between the sun-spots and SUN. It must be remarked.

solar photosphere. run through again. since the height of a tide so produced varies as the cube or third power of the a planet when distance. and this time the Then gradually become more and more numerous. exerted is is Some have thought though in not at present that the mere attraction of the planets tends to produce tides of some sort in the solar envelopes. but a certain wellmarked darkening around the border of his disk disap- At pears altogether for a brief season. the solar spots pass through a complete They become gradually more aud cycle of changes. length the sun's face be- comes not only clear of spots. which will crease marked to be distinctly cognizable. Jupiter has a period nearly equal to the sun-spot pe- . sun presents a perfectly-uniform so the cycle of changes is disk. so the gradual inand diminution in the number of the solar spots are characterized by minor gradations of change. as in aphelion. There seems every reason for believing that the periodic changes thus noticed are due to the influence are sufficiently well of the planets what way upon the that influence perfectly clear. £2 half years. the spots return. is marked by several the surface of a great sea-wave be traversed by small ripples. Then. and then At as gradually diminish. it in perihelion larger solar tide than when has been thought that would generate a much So that. The astronomers who have watched the sun from Kew Observatory have found that the process of change by which the spots sweep in a sort of " wave the of increase " over the solar disk minor As variations.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. more numerous up to a certain maximum.

than why is these so. we are not at present concerned so much with the explanation of facts as with the facts themselves. We have to and what he does things are consider rather what the sun for the solar system. could have reto a distance so enormous that the would have been reduced. a similar manner. may be. on a certain solar longitude the planetary influences are more than elsewhere. the Earth. riod. been rendered accountable for in the shorter and less distinctly marked "Without denying that the planets periods. even in the most powerful telescope. and Saturn have. Let us note. I yet venture to express very strong doubts whether the attraction of Jupiter is so much to account greater in perihelion than in aphelion as for the fact that the face of the sun shows whereas at one season many spots. at another it is wholly free from them. and prob- ably are. going far to ences lies prove that the real secret of the planetary influand that in the fact that the sun's surface is not uniform. Kirkwood has published a most interesting series of inquiries. 43 been supposed that the attractions of this planet are sufficient to account for the great spot-pe- Venus. there can moved himself sun's disk * Recently Prof. that the variable condition of his photosphere must cause in brilliancy as seen him from vast distances. to a mere point of light. for instance. to change If Herr Schwabe. it lias SUN.* However. instead of observing the sun's spots from his watch-tower at Dessau. effective . before passing to other circumstances of interest connected with the sun.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE riod. Mercury. the bodies to whose influence the solar-spot periods are to be ascribed.

OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. if an observer. H be no doubt that the only effect which he would have to perceive would have been a gradual inand diminution of brightness. taking place in an oscillatory manner. Our sun. the magnetic meridian. when the character of this vibration it was found to corre- to be carefully examined. during the course of a single day. came And. viewing the sun years. therefore. its light is subjected to minor variations. had the means of very accurately measuring its light." having a period of ten and a half And further. whence undoubtedly he would simply appear as one among many fixed stars. spond to a sort of effort towar. having shorter periods. its mean posiwhen the This happens twice in the day. from so enormous a distance. viewed from the neighborhood of any of the stars. having a period of about ten and a half years. and once when he is below it. the needle has tion. because the northern and sun — — . the magnetic needle exhibits a minute change of direction.d the sun. Again. on the needle's part to turn when the sun is on For example. had long been noticed that. once is above the horizon. when the sun is midway between these two which also happens twice in the day the positions needle has its mean position. while the chief variation of the sun takes place in a period of ten and a half years. he would undoubtedly been able crease discover that. would be a " variable. The discovery sun's that the periodic changes appearance are associated of the with the periodic changes in the character of the earth's magnetism the next that It we have is to consider.

spirit so exacting. and only the exact modes of observation made use of in the present age would have sufficed to reveal it. It is thus that the great discoveries of our day have been effected. But. But men science of our day deal with natural was to do much more. or is di- rected toward the magnetic meridian. that the wonders she presents careful scrutiny to . toward him.5 efforts (so to speak) to toward the sun. Had science merely measured this minute variation. then. the needle has SUN. that end of the needle which is nearest to him is slightly turned away from its mean position. were to be examined and. finally. the work would have given striking evidence of the exact spirit in which phenomena. . sun 4. who have not been at the pains to examine what Science is really doing in our day. day. when the not in one of the four positions considered. in a into . The change of position is very minute. .WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE the southern ends direct themselves make equal its Four times mean is in the position. That Science should set herself to an inquiry so delicate and so difficult. But it is well that the reader should recognize the which natural phenomena have been subjected before the great laws we have to consider were made known. It is thought by many. There it is. and this minute and seemingly unimportant peculiarity has been found to be full of meaning. their relation to other natural laws was to be sought after. The variations of this minute variation were to be inquired their period was to be searched for the laws by which they were regulated and by which their period might perhaps itself be rendered variable. however. all was nothing unusual.

*. and thence returned to no less its first than ten and a half years elapsed.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. They waxed and waned within narrow limits of variation. . by the observations of a few years. much longer time passed before the periodic character of the change was satisfactorily determined. further on. and a its value. and the magnetic diurnal vibrations vary within a period of the ration. month after month. The period of this oscillatory change was not to be determined. however. tend will at once see what these observations sun-spots vary in frequency within a period of ten and a half years. bnt have no worthier claims on our belief. It might seem same dutwo fanciful to associate the * The reader must not understand that the account here given presents in any sense even a general view of the labors of those who have studied the earth's magnetism. . but yet in a manner there was no mistaking.6 to men's contemplation. of science will be forced to adopt a very different opinion.* Between the time when the diurnal vibration was least until it had reached greatest extent. —were found to exhibit a yet more watched oscillatory change. I touch only on those points by which the association between the earth's magnetism and the physical because these points condition of the sun is most clearly indicated Hew they do so will appear alone bear on the subject of this chapter. the startling revelations which are being made from day to day. Those who carefully examine the history and fancies. are merely dreams which replace indeed the dreams and fancies of old times. thus year after year minute —day after day. The minute carefully vibrations of the magnetic needle. The reader The to.

great expectation of finding it it confirmed. and the ridicule with which the first announcement of the supposed law was received. it was an exceedingly bold one. But undoubtedly when the idea occurred to Lamont. When the sun-spots are most numerous. while. during the autumn of 1859. but to occur simultaneously with the appearance of signs of disturbance in the solar photosphere. tions vibrates smallest diurnal arc. when the variations of the magnet's the sun's face over its is clear of spots.WHAT WE LEARN FROM TEE SUN +7 periodic series of changes together. and law which has been found to associate the annual power with the sun's distance. even in scientific circles. not merely in length. expectation in we may when was not with any Judging see reasons for such an the correspondence of the needle's diurnal vibration with the sun's apparent motion. which is now so thoroughly established. suffices to show how unexpected that relation was. and doubtless the idea first occurred to Lamont. have been found not merely to be most frequent when the sun's face is most spotted. . and minimum for minimum. then the daily vibration of the magnet is most extensive. but maximum for maximum. the needle Then the intensity of the magnetic action has been found to depend upon solar influences. For a careful comparison between the two periods has demonstrated that they agree most perfectly. that he ex- amined the evidence bearing on the point. by which the needle indicates The vibra- the progress of those strange disturbances of the terrestrial magnetism which are known as magnetic storms. For instance. from known facts.

The reader lations very will why I have discussed rehe may perhaps have thought now which hitherto see connected with little my subject. He sees that bond of sympathy between our earth and the there is sun that no disturbance can affect the solar photo- .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Mr. Hodgson. And afterward it was learned that the phenomena which indicate the progress of a magnetic storm had been observed in many places. spot . j. are. and witnessed the same remarkable appearance. surely so much nearer the sun than respond even more swiftly and more tinctly to the solar magnetic influences. Mercury and Yenus. that he ima- gined the dark glass which protected his eye had been By broken. in some cases. another observer. noticed the solar observer. we dis- But beyond our earth. telegraphic offices were set on fire auroras appeared both in the northern and southern hemisphere during the night which followed and the whole frame of the earth seemed to thrill responsively to the disturbance which had affected the great central luminary of the solar system. . Now it was found that the ing magnetic instruments of the self-register- Kew Observatory had been sharply disturbed at the instant when the bright was seen. Telegraphic communication was interrupted. the .8 eminent -the Carrington. then also the other planets. and beyond the orbit of moonless Mars. without affecting our earth to a greater or less degree. But if our earth. happened to be watching the sun at the game instant. The was light of this spot so intense. a sphere. a fortunate coincidence. and. apparition of a bright spot upon the sun's surface.

subtle yet powerful mag- new analogy between the mem- bers of the solar system is thus introduced.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE SUN. new and most important bond we of union ex- between the members of the solar family. looking back upon the course over which it has travlessening yet ever-widening disturbance-wave. and bers of the one and the subtle structure of the other effects even more important may have been produced than those striking phenomena which characterize the progress of the or terrestrial planetary magnetic storms. shall say that planets alone have felt its effects ? Meteoric and cometic systems have been visited by the upon the dispersed mem- great magnetic wave. The sun not only sways them by the vast attraction of his gravity. A all his warms them. Carrington and Hodgson. the shock. ^ magnetic impulses speed with the Telocity of The vast globe of Jupiter as the feels magnetic wave thrilled is rolls in light. not only illumines them. such as the one wit- nessed by Messrs. is true also (however different in degree) of the magnetic ences which the sun see that a ists is at influ- every instant exerting. shall say elled. When we remember that what is true of a rela- tively great solar disturbance. from pole to pole upon it then Saturn . not only but he pours forth on netic influences. and then the vast distances beyond which lie Uranus and Neptune are swept by the ever- "Who what outer planets it then seeks ? or who. to reenforce those other analogies which have been held so strik- ingly to indicate that the ends for which our earth has been created are not different from those which the 4 .

simply to state the results of real character. nature than can present to the mind an adequate picture of space of Lime it but . once for the Creator. as applied by in reality facts the astronomer to the examination of the celestial objects. when He planned the other mem- bers of the solar system. to the teachings of the spec- powers. as certainly as time are both infinite. The real end and aim of the telescope. relations are as inconceivable by us as infinity of space or infinity of lished. such words as these must be employed in speaking of the But in truth these relations between Almighty God and His universe. is to gather together the light which streams from each luminous point throughout space. I We know we know that space and human language can no more indicate their that they exist. mode of working. that in speaking of the plans of or of the laws which He has estab- by no means intend such words to be taken literally. its many of its use.OTHER WORLDS THAN 5 Creator had in view OURS.* And now we pass on to other discoveries. throughout this volume. troscope. by means learned of an instrument of yet higher As I shall have to refer very frequently. what it it is will be well that I should briefly describe that this instrument really effects. bearing at once and with equal force upon the relations between the various members of the solar scheme and upon the position which that scheme occupies in the universe. my Were I without describing readers would be dis- posed to believe that astronomers are as credulous as they are exacting and scrupulous. We may re- gard the space which surrounds us on every side as an * I must remark here. time. Hitherto the telescope we have been considering the teachings ol we have now to consider what we have . where new and observations are in question. of His all. For want of better.

he enables the eye become cognizant of their trie nature. It might be called the light-sifter. Precisely as the narrow channels around our shores cause the tidal wave. which sweeps across the open ocean in almost insensible undulations. an ocean across which there are ever sweeping waves of light. thus intensifying their action. is essentially a light-gatherer. though powers can alone be educed are somewhat complicated.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE SUN. to rise and fall through a wide range of variation. but the light-waves are those at present concern Our us. so the telescope renders sensible the existence of light-waves which would escape the notice of the unaided eye. then. or else reflected forms of wave also speed across those limitless depths in all directions. Other space.waves bear their mes- sage from the orbs which lie like other With fathomless depths around us. The spectroscope is used for another purpose. . isles amid the the telescope the astronomer gathers together portions of light-waves which By to else would have travelled in diverging directions. The principle of the instrument the appliances by which its full is simple. either emitted directly from the various bodies subsisting throughout from their surfaces. It is applied by the astronomer to analyze the light which comes to him from beyond the ocean of space. shores of this tiny isle which a minute as is and to the the light. ^ ocean without bounds or limits. earth island placed within the ocean of space. The telescope. and so to enable him to learn the character of the orbs from which that Light proceeds.

green. and a prism be placed with its refracting angle zontal. If. But now let us consider what this spectrum If we take ular color.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. so the prism they no longer The side as before.waves corresponding to any partic- we know. It is well worth while to form clear views on this point. because so many of the wonders of modern science are associated with spectroscopic analysis. the light-waves. But we want the means of sifting the light-waves more thoroughly. The reader must bear with me while . as exactly as possible in the brief space available to me. light admitted into a darkened room. the first rough work of the prism has been modified into the delicate and gignificant work of the spectroscope. a vertical spectrum. to red. will be formed on a screen suitably placed to receive it. violet part of the light is bent most. being bent gradually less and less. Dif- differently bent. from optical considerations. and yellow. The prism then sorts or sifts. They oval image on their therefore form a small circular or own proper part of the spectrum . I describe. that these waves emerge from the prism in a pencil exactly resembling in shape the pencil of white light which falls on the prism. downward and having its violet hori- end up- permost. the way in which. $2 A ray of sunlight falling on a prism of glass 01 crystal does not emerge unchanged ferent portions of the ray are that when they emerge from by travel side in character. really is. the various colors from violet through blue. the red least. the light. is through a small round hole in a shutter.

much as possible oblong were in all slit as . by means of such devices as the above. presenting every gradation of color between the utmost and red extremities. let to red. we might lengthen the spectrum by increasing the refracting angle of the prism. varying in color from vioIt thus appears as a rainbow-tinted streak. there would still be overlapping images . do not travel to us from the great central luminary of our system. since each image would also be a horizontally-placed oblong. there would be horizontal dark spaces or gaps in our spectrum. S3 formed of a multi- tude of overlapping images. unless there number of images distributed along the spectrum from top^to bottom. and so on. the images might be so narrowed as not to overlap . In other words. then. of this sort dark gaps or cross-lines can be seen in the solar spectrum. of course.waves of the various gra- dations corresponding to all the tints of the spectrum from violet to red. in which case. light. The first great discovery in solar physics.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE Hence the spectrum is in reality SUN. or by using several prisms. suppose narrow reality an as possible infinite ? we make the Then. in other words. by means of the analysis of the prism (though the discovery had little meaning at the time). but if the length of the oblong were horizontal. Or. again. If we had a square aperture to admit the light. consisted in the recognition of the fact that. Eemembering that . If the aperture were oblimits of visibility at the violet long. when the images Suppose we diminish the overlapping as the overlapping would be less than were square. we should get a similar result. if we failed in finding gaps by simply narrowing the aperture.

but series. The spectrum varied ac- cording to the substances between which the spark was taken. bright lines of various color. time it was in carrying out —which even to themselves seemed almost and to many would —that they lighted research yet revealed to They examined appear an utter waste of upon the noblest method of man. this inquiry hopeless. but dif- ferently arranged. others Then they tried the spectrum and they found here not always the same of the electric spark. a few such lines. so of many different lengths. they found Some gases would give many. we see that in effect the sun sends forth to the worlds which circle around him light-waves Of all. the effect of red corresponding to light-waves of the greatest length. ^4 the effect we due to the length of the call color is light- waves. But spectroscopists sought to interpret these dark and lines in the solar spectrum. also a series of bright lines. while the effect of violet corre- sponds to the shortest light-waves. They examined the stars. . the spectra of the light from incan- descent substances (white-hot metals and the like). glowing vapors. but not of complex and interesting a nature is ordi- nary daylight. and the medium through which it passed. and they Instead of a number of dark lines across a rainbow-tinted streak. They tried the spectra of obtained a perplexing result. lines spectra of the light from the and found that these spectra are crossed by dark resembling those in the solar spectrum. some only one or two. found that in these spectra there are no dark and lines.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.

that it emits. that the presence of this dark line (or rather. all to bring In 1859. the other dark lines in the solar spectrum are due to the presence of other absorbent vapors in that the identity of these its atmosphere.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE Lastly. suggested the idea. and would admit of being est ab- ashed in the same way. supposing this general law to hold. Yet one discovery only was wanting them into unison. Kirchhoff. they found that the light descent solid or liquid. The general principles to . was intensified. 55 from an incan- when shining through various vapors. This at once solar spectrum. and that this vapor has the power of absorbing the same order of light-waves as It would of course follow from this. lighted double dark line. no longer gives a spectrum without dark lines. through seemingly too discordant and too perplexing to admit of being interpreted. Kirchhoff was soon able to confirm his views by a variety of experiments. that a vapor emits the is same light-waves that it capable of absorbing. Here were a number of strange facts. according to the nature of the vapor which the light has passed. when the light of the sun was allowed to pass through that vapor. while engaged in observing the on the discovery that a certain which had already been found to correspond exactly in position with the double bright line forming the spectrum of the glowing vapor of sodium. SUN. but that the dark lines which then appear vary in position. pair of sun is due dark lines) in the to the existence of the spectrum of the vapor of sodium in the solar atmosphere.

these dark lines having the as the bright lines belonging spectra of the vapors so that. would have given before reflection. cause bright lines or dark lines to appear in the spectrum. and of those through which. 6. 3. from the appearance of a bright. one can own its set of bright lines. . one can tell the nature of the vapor or vapors which surround the source of light. or they what they absorb. the princi- basis of spectrum-analysis — are as follows An 1. A 2. the dark lines corresponding to these vapors make their appearance in the spectrum with a distinctness proportioned to the extent to which the light has it penetrated those vapors before being reflected to us. incandescent solid or liquid gives a con- tinuous spectrum. Glowing vapors surrounding an incandescent source of light may If the reflecting to it is 7. tell the nature of the vapor or vapors whose light forms the spectrum. the discharge takes place.: 5 : OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. But if the opaque body be surrounded by vapors. according as they are more or less heated make up for . An incandescent solid or liquid shining through absorbent vapors gives a by dark crossed same position spectrum rainbow-tinted lines.* may be added the following laws Light reflected from any opaque body gives the same spectrum as * To these 4. 5. 6 wliicli liis ples researches led which form the —in other words. in may emit just so which case there much will ligh t as to remain no trace of their presence. compounded of the spectra belonging to the vapors of those substances between which. body be itself luminous. the spectrum belonging superadded to the spectrum belonging to the reflected light. 8. lines. The electric spark presents a bright-line spectrum.line spectrum. According to . to the from the arrangement of the dark lines in such a spectrum. glowing vapor gives a spectrum of white each vapor having so that.

lead. magnesium. and. besides sodium. the study of these lines has afforded most interesting information respecting the physical constitution of the sun. are very well as we shall see presently.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE Tlie application of the new method SUN. his substance. to picture in imagination the metallic oceans which exist upon his surface. and corresponding to these elements appear unmistakably in the solar spectrum. It to consider the actual condition of the central orb of the planetary scheme. the sun's atmosphere contains the va- pors of iron. There are other metals. exist in can by no means conclude. nor probable. antimony. Now we notice at once how importantly these upon the subwould be indeed interesting researches into the sun's structure bear ject of this treatise. that they are absent from The dark lines belonging to hydrogen marked indeed in the solar spectrum. sity of the . has not been proved that gold. other metals. Lastly. —though we is it at all silver. or aluminium. It 57 number was found that . The dark lines chromium. such as copper and zinc. the formation of metallic clouds. which seem sponding dark lines yet tin. it though some of the correhave not yet been recognized. calcium. the sun indeed arsenic. the appearance of the spectrum belonging to any element will vary according to the circumstances of pressure and temperature under which the element may emit light. of research to the study of the solar spectrum quickly led to a of most interesting discoveries. the con- from those oceans. As to exist in the sun. mercury. and the downpour of metallic showers tinual evaporation the nature of these vapors and of the discharge itself. the relative inten- component parts of the spectrum will be variable.

resembles that great central orb in general constitution. from that which prevails in some other planet. and viewing Kirchhoff's discoveries simply in their relation to the subject of other worlds. But apart from such considerations. wholly different from those which exist in this earth. and even differ very markedly. when that even the central orb of the planetary system exhibits no such feature of resemblance to the But now that we know. probability. in the chapter on Meteors and Comets. If could have been shown that. quite earth. sodium. differences: in There may of course be special one planet the proportionate distribu- tion of the elements may differ. that thia . for for believing that we cannot recognize our earth alone. that the familiar elements iron.* * It will be seen. we we are see at once that. in it all probabil- the substance of the sun consists of materials ity. drawn from such a the conclusion obviously to be discovery would be that the other planets also are differently constituted. and calcium. exist in the sun's substance.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. But the general conclusion remains that the planets are formed of the elements which have so long been known any reason as terrestrial. certainly. we have enough to occupy our attention. while we almost perfect assurance that are led to believe with the elements all acquainted with also exist there. the other planets are constituted in all in the same way. $8 upon the surface of the sun. We could not find any just reason for believing that in Jupiter or Mars there exist the elements with which we found we are acquainted. of all the orbs which circle around the sun.

in the chapter on the stars. will be it seen. trades We and manufactures. $g !N"ow. while it all. present is we speculate not unreasonably respecting the existence on that orb —either now or in the past. in some noble orb the mind is immediately which those elements are If iron. and few or no elements unknown to us. that these orbs. and forming no indistinct conceptions as to the existence and character For of worlds circling around other suns. on that distant know how intimately the use of iron has been associated with the progress of human tion. exist in the sub- be asserted that or nearly all. civiliza- and though we must ever remain in ignorance of the actual condition of intelligent beings in other worlds. element which is so by the mere presence of an closely related to the wants of conclusion has a most important bearing on the views we respecting the original formation of the planetary scheme. The imagi- nation suggests immediately the existence of arts and sciences. are to form . stance of every single star that shines celestial upon us from the Hence we conclude concave. those elements. we have in this general law a means of passing beyond the bounds of the solar system. led to speculate on the uses intended to subserve. circling around Sirius. or at some future time of beings capable of applying that metal to the useful purposes which man makes it subserve. world. around that those suns also there circle orbs constituted like themselves.— WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE SUN. like many of the somay not unsafely our sun. contain in their substance called terrestrial elements. we are yet led. for example. and therefore containing the elements with which we are And familiar.

point. One which is too intimately consubject to be passed over. Frankland's elaborate researches into the peculiarities presented by the spectrum of hydrogen at different pressures. Now. that for such beings those worlds must in truth have been fashioned. nected with my I refer to the sun's corona. with a confidence. Lockyer's observations of the prominence-spectra with Dr. the solar corona has been seen. during total eclipses of the sun. It has been found also. hydrogen being their chief It has sist constituent. remains. The re- quirements of space. however. it would have a depth of about eight hundred and fifty that. . that even in the very neigh- borhood of the solar photosphere. by comparing Mr. however. these vapors probably exist at a pressure so moderate as to indicate that the limits of the sun's vaporous envelope can- not lie very far (relatively) from the outer solar cloud- layer. been proved that the solar prominences conof glowing vapors.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. to extend to a distance at least equal to the sun's diameter from the eclipsed orb. I would fain dwell longer on the thoughts suggested by the researches of Kirchhoff. So assuming the corona to be a solar atmosphere. 60 man. new to believe. would I enter at length esting discoveries with the last two Gladly too on an account of those which have been made inter- in connection total eclipses of the sun. and some doubt as to the direct bearing of the last-named discoveries on the subject I have in hand. warn me to forbear.

when the glare really does cover the moon.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE SUN 61 thousand miles. where her outline crosses the sun. affords. the first total eclipse. considerations which oppose themselves irresistibly to terrestrial such a conclusion. then. mere fact that. outermost layers would yet have lower layers absolutely liquefied. We cannot. it could exert a pressure on his surface exceeding we can be as rare as upon the fold that of our air such an atmosphere. the moon of the corona. corona to be a solar atmosphere. That this is so is proved by the fact that. eclipsed. it appears black. the most conclusive evidence that the light of the corona comes from behind the moon. but to make of the zodiacal light a But they have overlooked phenomenon. and being also drawn toward the sun by his enormous attractive energy (exceeding more than twenty-seven times that of the earth). in the very heart when properly understood. not fail to many thousand In fact. Yet quite impossible to dissociate the corona. am aware I that physicists of eminence have attempted to do this. its earth. by the enormous pressure to which they would be subjected. by contrast with the . it is either wholly or in part. believe this. though. In the place. let conceive. If the glare of our atmosphere could by any possibility account for the corona (which not the case). if its not solidified. the as moon is while the sun is but slightly not projected as a black disk on the background of the sky. from the sun. then that glare should is appear over the moon's disk also. and not only so. during a looks black.

* The point seems. coincident with the centre of the sun's disk. Lockyer glare trenching theoretically. And. if the earth's in questiou. conceive a tiny moon placed so as to appear shall it all There Now. the glare had reached the moon's limb. 1868. upon the moon's disk (elsewhere black). This argument. But when he allows his expanding moon to cover tbe sun. conceive but covers the sun. as it should So soon as totality commenced. expand until difficulties presently to be be able to point definitely to the place where his He says. * It is also is the sun. I have taken no account of diffraction here. because it has been abundantly proved that no corona of appreciable width could be formed around the moon during total eclipse by the diffraction of the rays of that body. f In fact. has endeavored to get over certain physical mentioned. a gradually-expanding black ring being formed round necessary to consider where the glare comes from must be so. Still will be atmospheric this small moon to there will be glare and a certain small proportion of direct sunlight.f shown most conclusively. rightly altogether decisive of the question. as Mr. and to extend beyond the solar disk as in total eclipse. the glare begins to leave the moon.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Over a wide space all round the sun we are looking through an atmosphere which is completely dark. glare as well as direct sunlight. however. if we take the mode of reasoning by which Mr. 62 intensity of his light. taken an instant before the totality. we ought atmosphere alone were to see a dark or negative co- rona around the sun. Infact. by a photograph of the eclipse Here we see the of August. So far his reasoning is most just. during totality the part of the earth's atmosphere between the eye and the corona is not illuminated by the sun. secondly. the illuminated atmosphere only beginning to be faintly visible at a considerable angular distance from understood. whence it must immediateiy have passed quickly away. the atmospheric glare can no longer be assumed to exist all round the expanding moon at the moment when the moon just hides the sun. argument we fails. too obvious to need discussion. . Baxendell has pointed out. It is only to see that this light as they pass near the moon's limb.

) the fact that the corona . and that some of these vapors shining yet more brightly would upon the continuous background of the spectrum. — (i. that. there are others which render such a solution of the difficulty unavailable.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE But the spectroscope lias SUN. is untenable. this result seems at sight very difficult to explain. 56. independently of those reasons. but crossed we by certain bright lines. 57. if the corona shone by the solar light. Referring to the principles of spectroscopic analysis stated at pp. E"ow_. facts for remembering that we have two established our guidance. it will be seen that we should be led to infer that the corona consists of incandescent matter surrounded by certain glowing gases. Lockyer suggests reflecting suppose that phenomenon. During the total eclipse of last August the Ameri- can observers found that the spectrum of the corona is continuous. This view. the continuous spectrum might be accounted for by supposing the light from the glowing vapors around the sun to supply the part wanting where the solar dark lines are. accept the absence of dark lines as established the evidence (which first is If by doubtful). But. as applied by Mr. and it remains that we should endeavor to see that evidence bears how on the interesting problem which the corona presents to our consideration. for the reasons exhibit their bright lines already adduced. 63 given certain very per- plexing evidence respecting the light of the corona. Lockyer to the theory that the corona is a terrestrial phenomenon. It is difficult to this is the real explanation of the Mr.

portion of light reflected from these meteoric bodies. though to some the appearance of an aurora is due special terrestrial action (however excited). there must necessarily be a large pro- light. . they are the particles of those meteors which the earth is continually encountering. — Let it be premised that the bright lines of the coronal spectrum correspond in position to those seen in the spectrum of the aurora. way the spectrum may be In this peculiar character of the coronal readily accounted for.) the fact that it must be a solar appendage I think a way may be found toward a satisfactory explanation. yet the material substances between which the discharges take place must be assumed to be at in the upper regions of air. and taking place between the members of such systems. meteor-systems must be And since we know that aggregated in far greater numbers near the sun than near the earth. we may regard the coronal light as due to electrical discharges excited by the sun's action. and in that of the phosphorescent light occasionally seen over the heavens at night. We know. Now. Since we have of the aurora is every reason to believe that the light due to electrical discharges taking place in the tipper regions of the the belief that the coronal light air. In all all times present probability. and (ii. and that the same lines are seen in the spectrum of the zodiacal light.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 54 cannot be a solar atmosphere. we are may be due invited to to similar discharges taking place between the particles (of what- ever nature) constituting the corona. Besides this however.

there would be fainter bright lines corresponding to the various elements which exist iii These elements. In the same way the quality of the zodiacal light admits of being perfectly accounted sorting to the hypothesis that this for. Balfour Stewart put forward. 5 prevail. as daring the American lines eclipse. are the meteoric masses. in wholly untenable.* The explanation thus put forward has at least the advantage of being founded on well-established We tions. at a late meeting of the Royal heard Dr. But. so startling a proposition as this. 65 from the auroral spectrum. we know. Thus the bright lines would correspond in position with the dark lines of the solar spectrum. the same as those in the substance of the sun. What corona is the polariscope has told us respecting the in accordance with this view.WHAT WE LEAR'S FROM THE SUN. It Astronomical Society. there would result from the combination a continuous spectrum. without phenomenon reis a terrestrial one. as light reflected by the meteors would give the ordinary solar spectrum. that the principal bright due to the electrical discharges would be precisely where we see bright lines in the coronal spectrum. even That the region of as a hypothesis. besides these. and that meteoric bodies * was with some surprise that. The hypothesia. . I may be at times illuminated by electrical discharges account very well for the occasional phosphorescent appear- the counter-trades will serve to ance of the whole heavens at night illuminated by —but the portion of the heavens the zodiacal light has no relation whatever to the atmos- pheric region in which the counter-trades indeed. Hence. know that the auroral light is rela- associated with the earth's magnetism. on which the bright lines first mentioned would be seen.

. — aggregation of meteoric perihelia in the sun's neigh- borhood —we may be quite certain of this. Mr. for considering the corona to be of some such nature as I have suggested. upon the earth's atmosphere. It would not be safe to neglect con- siderations thus vouched for. Now.* or that (as I believe) the system is merely due to the variations in the earth's . Leverrier has shown that there probably exists in the neighborhood of the sun a family of bodies whose united a thousand-fold and that in mass suffices his appreciably to affect the motions of the planet Mercury. also.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. that Sir John Herschel'a pains to contradict it. a total solar eclipse the system could not * I am that during fail to become not here referring to Humboldt's notion that the zodiacal due to a zone of small bodies round the sun a view which only derives importance from the fact that Sir John Herschel has been at the It need hardly be said. so fa? light is as astronomical matters are concerned. . also. 66 are continually falling We know. which must not be overlooked. opinion has a weight which is altogether wanting to Humboldt's. neighborhood there must be many million times more meteoric systems. that the sun exerts magnetic influences more intense than those of the earth. has shown that certain periodic magnetism point to the existence of such a family of bodies and he has been able to assign to them a position according well with that determined by Leverrier. whatever opinion we form as to the exact character of the system of bodies pointed to by the researches of Leverrier and Baxendell whether we suppose that system to form a zone around the sun. Baxendell. But we have other and independent reasons.

—a WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE Hence there is a double put forward by Mr." how important a bearing these views respectIt will ing the nature of the corona have upon the history of It has the solar system. to render an it fails account of the implied non-appearance of the system which. circles around the sun. according to the researches of Leverrier and Baxendell. know that the sun is the sole source whence and heat are plentifully supplied to the worlds which circle around him. comes the enormous supply of force which he has afforded for millions on millions of years. . but another and a most important relation in which these views We been partly for must be regarded. were he simply a heated body. place. in the chapter on " Meteors and Comets. The question immediately light —Whence suggests itself amazing stores of force does the sun from whence he supplying his dependent worlds ? derive is those continually We know that. first to account for the appearance presented in the second place. he would be con- sumed in a few thousand years. Whence. were the sun a mass of burning matter. radiating light and heat continually into space. In the others. and which also our reason tells us he will continue to afford while the worlds which circle around him have need of come ? in other words. be seen. then. Lockyer and it fails by the corona 67 objection to the view risible. that I fchere is this reason have here briefly considered the matter. SUN. We know that. for countless ages yet to it . he exhausted all his would in like manner have energies in a few thousand years — mere day in the history of his system.

that myriads of these bodies must continually fall upon the sun. then there must be a * Altogether undue stress has been laid upon the probable change iu the length of the year. 68 Now.* It seems far from unlikely that both these processsame time. there would not. Certainly the es are in operation at the latter is. And if the corona and zodiacal light really be due to the existence of nights of meteoric systems circling around the sun.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. . either by any change in his apparent size or by changes in the motions of his family the worlds circling round . Helmholtz tells us. for we know. owing to the downfall of meteors upon the sun'ii crowded meteors forming the solar corona are already within the earth's orbit. that if the heat actually given out by the sun were due to this cause alone. and therefore already produce theii full effect on the length of the year. the continual downfall of meteors upon the sun would cause an emission of heat in quantities vast enough for the wants of all him while his increase of mass from this cause would not be rendered perceptible in thousands of years. It is forgotten that the earth's orbit in figure and position. be many thousands of any perceptible diminution of the diameter. The subsidence of all these bodies at once upon the sun would not affect the length of the year. would suffice to gies supply such enormous quantities of heat. The mere contraction of the solar substance.o the existence in his neighborhood of the peri- helia of many meteoric systems. though il would lead to certain modifications in the secular perturbations of thf mass. from the motions of the meteoric bodies which reach the earth. secondly. there are two ways in which the solar enermight be maintained. in years. sun's But. of worlds. ot .

in the enormous dif- this diffusion there enormous fund of force. the source of an enormous supply of light and heat. on the other hand. as well as in the mere downfall of meteors. The contraction of a large comet to dimensions corresponding to a very moderate mean density would be accompanied resides an by the emission of question is a vast supply of heat. too. And whether we can the in- deed assume that the meteors which reach our atmosphere are solid bodies. 69 6upply of light and heat from this source. be this as it may. And since the meteoric sys- tems circling in countless millions round the sun in all probability. But. it is certain that a large portion of the substance of every comet is in a diffused vapor singularly diffused state. that the association between meteors and comets has an important bearing on this question. turning from our sun to the other sun a . It is well worthy of notice. it is difficult dif- otherwise to account for the light and heat which they emit. nor. that the most re- is Now. we may recognize in this diffusion. I think. worth inquiring into.«*the sudden contraction of a would be accompanied by precisely such results. And lastly. We know markable characteristic of comets fusion of their substance. will the compression of the atmosphere in front of the meteors . and not rather of cometic fusion since . very nearly if not quite sufficient to account for the whole solar emission. in the most intimate manner with comets. Friction through the rarer upper strata of our atmosphere will certainly not account for these phenomena . associated are.WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE SUN.

7° which shine in uncounted myriads throughout space. the aurora displays its brilliant streamers while. in their skies. ens. we formed by meteoric and cometic systems for otherwise each would quickly cease to be a sun. the magnetic compass directs the traveller over desert wastes or trackless oceans. Each starsun emits. In those worlds. earth. the same magnetic influences . . amid the constellations which deck their heav- meteors sweep suddenly into view. Each star-sun has its coronal and its zodiacal disks. a terror to millions. worlds which circle round those orbs our own restrial that on in all those relations And thus the may resemble which we refer to ter- magnetism. which give to the zodiacal light and to the solar co- rona their peculiar characteristics. no doubt. perchance.. see the same processes at work upon them all. and comets ex- tend their vast length athwart the celestial vault. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. as on our own a continual downfall of minute meteors. as well as in the circumstance them also there must be. but a subject of study and research to the thoughtful.

as our belief in these orbs being intion habited is concerned. draw a marked to distinc- between the planets which travel within the orbit of the earth and those which lie beyond its range. Viewing Venus and Mercury in this way. at once. We are struck. with the marked effects which seem associable with their different set of relations to deal with than comparative proximity to the sun's orb. without being led to consider their physical habitudes rather with relation to the wants of such creatures as exist upon our own earth. the presumption must be that the planet is inhabited. So far. indeed. THE INFERIOR PLANETS. But it is impossible to con- template the various members of our solar system. This feature . we have a to the existence of life of we find among the outer planets. In considering the habitability of various portions of the solar we have system. has been demonstrated that no form of life can exist upon a planet. es of reasoning to Until it we may apply the same process- one set of planets as to the other. than merely with reference some sort upon their surface.CHAPTER III.

were it Mercury around the not for the great doubt in which the existence of this planet seems'enshrouded. Still. on a certain day. round like a planet. these must be severally about three weeks long. as yet we have not that clear and unmistakable evidence which would permit me to speak of Yulcan as a planet known to astronomers. on the one hand. if the planet has seasons. I would willingly pay some attention here to the story of Yulcan. he receives ten and a half times . —are of their year we have —that the characteristic peculiarities to deal with. bounds of the and I wish.. crossing the we have also the evidence much better known among face of the sun. or rather less than three of our months. So that. astrono- mers. that at that very hour there was no such object on the solar disk. we have the evidence of Lescar- bault that. the planet which has been supposed more to circle yet closely than centre of our system. If. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. His distance from the sun varies between somewhat wide limits. whose name is of Liais. while within the solar system. Mercury circles around the sun in the brief period of eighty-eight days. owing to the eccentricity of his orbit. 72 and the shortness of their period of revolution is. When he is nearest to the sun. to limit 'myself to the con- sideration of bodies which have been recognized and examined. There is nothing to render the ex- istence of an intra-Mercurial planet at all unlikely and there are many observations which scarcely seem explicable on any other hypothesis. and at a certain hour. he saw a dark object.

planet's rotation has been observed. the shortness of immense amount of light and heat poured by the sun upon the planet. and. It has much more been said that the planet's inclined than the earth's to the plane in which the planet travels . the the Mercurial year. however. 73 and heat from that luminary than we do liglit when he removes . because adapted to much more at upon are familiar. at first sight. are circumstances which do not encourage. light one-half. very striking manner from those which exist earth. It has we been found that Mercury rotates upon his axis. but little reliance can be placed on the evidence which has been adduced m favor of this view.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. though the fact of the longer than our own. forms of vegetation in Mercury must upon the And subsist we structure has to be their rapid changes of temperature. to his greatest distance. the existence of a totally distinct flora suggests once the belief that animal very different from what Let on Mercury must be life see around us. Undoubtedly these peculiarities. We see. more but. . the sun blazes in the skies of Mercury with a disk four and a half times larger than that which he presents to the observer on earth. and the any creatures can belief that resembling those with which at once. however. us. it has not been found possible to determine in what position the axis of rotation equator is lies. the Mercurial day is only a few minutes But. that all differ in a this planet. the and heat he receives are reduced by more than Even then. proceed a few steps farther. if we may put faith in the observations of Schroter.

that the days and nights were at all times and in all places equal yet his varying distance from the sun would give changes of tem- — — perature quite as marked as those our seasons in England. then undoubtedly it may very well happen (the inclination of his axis being suitably adjusted) that this so-called winter season is the . and showing a diameter varying from more than twice to more than three times that of our sun. must be a noble and maybe a terrible phenomenon in the skies of Mercury. If his axis is so placed that what would be the winter season. for one hemisphere. though visible for half the Mercurial day. and pours down upon the planet an amount of light and heat far exceeding the light and heat of our tropical climates. the Mercurial seasons might be tempered. at any rate. A sun immediately overhead. if arrangement. even if the axis were so placed that perpetual spring reigned upon the planet I mean. there are differeni Near mates in different parts of the planet. At . the equator the sun passes day after day to the zenith. when the planet is nearest to the sun. were his orbit not eccentric. the sun. low elevation above the horizon just he does on a spring day within our own polar cir- attains yet but a as cles. cli- his poles. some seasons of sort we That the planet has are certain. There is yet another arrangement by which to a portion of the planet.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Of course. and very than those known this is the actual which characterize much more marked in tropical regions. because. 74 We are thus left altogether in doubt as to the na- ture of the Mercurial seasons. takes place.

it cannot be doubted that no form of life known upon earth can possibly exist upon Mercury. and that without any special provision for tempering the great heat and light of the sun. If phere. the equator of the planet is very much which Mercury travels. however. there would be the succession sphere. of the But 75 for that hemisphere. and therefore we need not consider the relation with regard to Mercury. considered generally. It remains for us to consider what sort of provision may have been made to temper the great heat poured by the sun upon Mercury. in We by the nature of the . Those regions which tropical zones would but the polar regions of the planet would not form a disagreeable abode. of whose axial inclination no trustworthy information has hitherto been obtained. correspond to our temperate and indeed scarcely be habitable . warmest part of the year case. largely influenced is planet's atmos- have very clear evidence on this point. without some special arrangements for tempering the seasonal changes. If. In this least possible violence in the Mercurial seasons for that hemi- in the other hemisphere the seasonal changes would be correspondingly intensified. it is readily conceivable that even forms of life resembling those we are acquainted with on earth might exist on Mercury. In either of these cases.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. inclined to the plane in The climate of a planet. This will appear when we come to deal with the effect of the great inclination which some astronomers have ascribed to the equator of Yenus. the effects which we notice on our own earth.

at 9 a.2°. in January. Everest at a temperature of little more than 160°. with a difference of 81. then. we might feel doubtful which of these * The following passage. I saw the mercury mount to shaded snow hardly was 22°. cerned. since water would boil on Mount 68. quoted by Prof. in December. m. with a difference of and at 10 a.^ . It is interesting to consider that at the summit of the highest peaks of the Himalayas the midday heat of the sun must sometimes be near if not above the boiling point corresponding to those places. it Owing it even has not been But the air. .. At 13." observations as these are well worth studying.000 feet. nor prevents the return of that heat from the by radiation or reflection and this very fact. the full heat of a tropical sun is poured day after day upon the snowy summits of the Himalayas. m.4°. it has stood at 98°. it permits the planet's heat to pass away into Now. Tyndall from Hooker's " Himalayan Journals. We have.6 : OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS j we ascend to the mnch the air summit of colder than at a lofty mountain. that it does not impede the passage of heat.* earth . is. yet the air continues colder than in the bitterest midwinter Not weather experienced by us in England. its we find In India. while the Such radiating thermometer on the snow had fallen at sunrise to O. m. and the readiness with which space. at 114°.100 182°." illustrates the peculiarities referred to above "At 10. so far as a rare atmosphere two points to dwell upon —the is con- readiness with which such an atmosphere permits the sun's heat to reach the surface of a planet. that the in reality. means nothing else than that the air does not become heated. because intercepted by vapor-laden not heated. neither impedes the passage of the sun's heat to the earth. solar rays The heat have no power. at 9 a. to its extreme rarity air itself is and dryness. though base. greater than on the plains. while the temperature of feet..

therefore. 7? two effects was chiefly to be regarded. the nights are and the heat escaping from the earth is intercepted by clouds or by the transparent aqueous vapor in the air and. in judging of the climate of any region. in fact. . as some have supposed. it is true. in our anxiety to people Mercury with creatures such as we know of. be excessively rare. If the atmosphere of Mercury. there would by no means a state of things resembling that with which familiar on earth. It is not true Andes that the climate of a place on the slopes of the Himalayas corresponds to that of a region on the plain which has an atmosphere equally warm. so as to afford an Alpine or Himalayan climate in comparison with the tremendous heat we should otherwise ascribe to the climate of the planet. the same amount of heat or the in the case supposed : but the and more warmer because the air is denser moisture-laden. lastly. On the plain there is. wholly different. direct heating know that the climate much Thus we cooler than learn that the powers of the sun are not so much to be considered. We must result we are not. were it not that on our own earth we have experience of the effects of We a very rare atmosphere. Yet we must not deceive ourselves by inferring that mere rarity of atmosphere can compensate fully for an increased intensity of solar heat. there is not so great a contrast between the warmth of the air and skies are less clear .THE INFERIOR PLANETS. as the quality of the atmosphere. The circumstances are. the direct heat of the solar rays. of very elevated regions is relatively that of places on the plain.

unless perhaps It such " microscopic creatures." as Whewell proposed to people However. pensate for so terrible a heat.." would seem hard to believe in the existence of any organized forms under such conditions. 78 blind ourselves to the difficulties which have to be We encountered. let us inquire which might be ascribed to a dense one. consider whether an atmosphere of a different sort might not be better suited to the requirements of Mercury. effect of a dense atmosphere we know to be an increase of heat. with- out adding to the direct effects of the sun upon the Mercurial inhabitants. this the Mercurial climate would lead us to find a close resemblance between the inhabitants of the planet and the unfortunates described by *" A sofferir Dante torment! e caldi e as doomed gieli. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. we have yet to Yenus with. thus de- prived of atmospheric protection. cannot thin the Mercurial air. with siliceous coverings. or during the Mercurial night. would produce a heat four or five times greater than that of boiling water. In would comview of fact. which is certainly not what we require in the case of Mercury. It will hardly be thought that the intense cold in the shade. Nor are we familiar with any region upon our earth in which a dense atmosphere produces a contrary climatic effect into those The ordinary . Whether in this crease the habitability of the planet when we rays may way we in- be doubted consider that the direct action of the sun's upon the tropical regions of Mercury. We have seen the effects of a rare atmosphere.

so far as can be judged from his aspect. possibly. we have no analogy so tliat that. we might be an envelope of great density the means of defending the inhabitants of Mercury and Venus from planets. instead of assign- from the sun's intense heat. rays. serve to it as by no means we would follow follows that such effects ordinarily associate with a moisture-laden at- Up mosphere. or therefore with an ordinarily clouded state of the sky. the in- of moisture in the air tends to an crease of warmth increase because the aqueous vapor exercises a . greater effect in preventing the escape of heat from the earth than in guarding the earth from the solar And. is warm may well as to be it is that of we know not necessarily nor even a cloudy day day. as I have can associate with said. It seems possible. under par- guard a planet from the solar rays. his atmosphere is in reality . a general increase of heat. doubtless. just as that commonly a be that an atmosphere so dense at all times cloud-laden serves as a protection So that. Although Mercury is not a planet which can be satisfactorily examined with the telescope. ing dense atmospheres exclusively to the more distant some astronomers have done. however. But.TEE INFERIOR PLANETS. that an atmosphere might be so constituted as to remain almost constantly loaded with heavy cloud-masses. yet. to a certain point. the only climatic effect we the frequent presence of large quantities of aqueous vapor in the air. as led to see in the otherwise unedurable rays of their near neighbor the sun. ticular circumstances. In this case. a 7g to support us in tlie belief dense atmosphere might.

Now.000. on the assumption of equal reflective powers. seen as he always is. were this so * though. that the reflective powers of the two planets are very 3hines in part by inherent light.000) 2 x (30.000.000 miles from the sun. the evidence on Still from satisfactory and there is one which does not accord with this view of the constitution of his atmosphere. for convenience of calculation). Jupite: . and about 30. Unless. he would not make so striking an appearance as these points is far . then. we must take Jupiter at a distance of about 360. if we wish to comdisk.000. we get a half about 90.000.000 from the sun. and loaded with cloud- masses of enormous extent. his diameter about 90. different. showing a (I put all full disk. in other words.000. when favorably situated.000) 2 x (450.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.000) 2 2 i (4) The observation above state of things (15) find. with that of Jupiter at his brightest. He would be. on the bright background of a full twilight sky.000 miles from us. his diameter about 3.000 miles. it would be more brilliant than the light we should receive from the surface of conIn fact. go mucli denser than our earth's. or exactly 2 to sufficient to 1. from a globe of a given size. placed at could receive we a given distance from the sun. prove that a very different actually prevails.000 miles the numbers round. * Placing Mercury in perihelion and at his elongation. Undoubtedly. that the ratio of Mercury's light to Jupiter's 1 (3.000 miles from us. would be that which would be reflected were such a globe covered with clouds. the brightest of all the planets.000. if the light we receive from Mercury came from a cloudy envelope. the most brilliant light tinents and oceans. peculiarity of the planet .000) 2 m S 2 (9(y)00. indeed. and about 450.000)* 2 . (9O.000. there can be no doubt whatever that Mercury does not reflect the same proportion of light from his surface that some of the planets do. the planet pare the light he then sends us.000) 2 or We is 2 cited : is (30) (360. Now.

then near conjunction. whereas Jupiter. This. But there is still one supposition which may restore our belief in the habitability of the planet by creatures not very different from those which inhabit our earth.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. Jupiter does not the case. however. because. but somewhat aslant. while the equatorial and neighboring regions are zones of gers lire. It seems difficult. 1868. gether. to believe that the Mercury comes from a cloudy envelope. just as much light as the outer clouds intercepted they would reflect it is it is would be seen . possible that the lower partly in shadow. the very Livingstones 6 . and permit- ting a portion of the sunlight to pass through. the upper like our cir- rus clouds. the shadows of the upper clouds upon the dense and compact lower envelope may be rendered in large part After all. less compact than the lower. conceivable that the usual arrangement of these clouds may be such. the reader may prefer the view which recognizes in the polar regions of Mercury places suitable for organic existences. and outshone both Mercury and Jupiter. still. Yenus was close by. on the afternoon of February when the two planets were very close toMercury being nearly at his brightest. visible. 23. whose dan- the bravest Mercurials. therefore. is I cloud-layer must admit that the explanation not quite satisfactory. that to us. %\ when in opposition. is I remember being mnch struck by the superior light of Jupiter. If light of it has a double cloud-envelope. was considerably less bright than when in opposition. who do not look at the planet in the direction in which the sun's rays fall.

temperate) circles There municate. manage in reality. we could tell his weight by observing his effect in disturbing the motions of As it is. construction of protective tunnels or cuttings a comparatively light task. if the Mercurial sides are clear. Ocean communication there cuttings made. cross may cir- much travel to the most dangerous por- tion of the hot zone) in the course of the Mercurial night. along can be none. is the observation of his effect in Mercury weighing In disturbing any comet which may pass near him. the various contrivances by which the inhabitants of the two polar picture to ourselves. Certainly. the smallness of the planet and the di- minished tend to effects of gravity upon its make communication much would and the surface easier. this way the planet has been weighed. What the exact force of grav- Mercury may be we do not know. (that is. tell bis weight If Merat once. but the balance . would not dare to face. because our means of determining the mass of the ity at the surface of planet are not so satisfactory as in the case of the other primary cury had a members of the satellite. the only means we have of that planet. or sheltered which the voyage may be made in comparative safety. We may on this view. we could solar system. since the on the tropical zone would sun's heat away any water which might find its suffice to boil way there. If he were as large as Yenus. at least. g2 upon that planet.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. may to com- be regions where favoring cumstances narrow the uninhabitable zone so that the inhabitants of one polar circle the other (or. Or perhaps tunnels may be run.

There can be no doubt where gravity acts so would be rendered bridges could have a wider span. as his diameter miles. that a pound fifteen weight of ours would weigh rather Hence ounces on Mercury. Formerly. thus employed cause we is 83 not a satisfactory one altogether. to us — which bore sway over our globe in far-off eras might emulate on Mercury the agility of the antelope or the greyhound. our earth Mercury. that.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. while at the same time the distances to be traversed are very much less than on our earth. The peculiarities which characterize Yenus are for the most part similar in kind to those we have had . all engineering operations very much simpler — and yet be stronger than our terrestrial ones. Gravity at his not more It follows more than three thousand times as heavy as surface is such. from the perturbations of Encke's comet in is it Mercury's neighborhood. since the surface of Mercury is little more than one-seventh of the earth's. the hippopotamus. the mammoth. buildings could be loftier and yet be raised more easily. be- are not quite certain how much turbance of a comet when near Mercury planet's attraction. astronomers have been led to the conclusion that the density of the planet than one-sixth greater than our that. and the rhinoceros. the mastodon. and the megatherium. feebly. and transit of all sorts would be effected much more readily. or even those vast monsters. but. less than seven the creatures which seem — most unwieldy the elephant. is is little about is earth's. of the dis- due to the was supposed that the mean density of Mercury was equal to that of lead.

Uranus and Neptune are similar in many respects. indeed.a OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. In fact. two orbs exist more ob- Had Venus vious than the points of resemblance. but they differ in at least as many. 4 to consider in the case of But Mercury. we might doubt whole universe. no other pair of planets between which so many analogies can be traced as between Venus and the earth. while the features of present dissimilarity in either pair are perhaps even but a moon in the as the earth has. appears to exhibit habitudes more resemblance which closely corresponding to those essential to the in situation. at the outset of our inquiries into the physical habitudes of this most beautiful planet. as we shall presently see. the planet Mars. to our own earth. in some respects. as telescopic and physical researches have yet led us. the brother giants of the solar scheme. we are apt to consider wants of living creatures. in the figure of her orbit and amount of Venus bears in the light sun. And here we may pause for a moment to consider one of the most perplexing enigmas that has ever been . we must point to the striking it bears. Jupiter and Saturn are. So far. in the length of her sea- sons and of her rotation. which are so strikingly similar to each other. a and heat she receives from the more striking resemblance to the earth than any orb within the solar system. But in size. in a sense. and in density. while the dwarf orbs Mars and Mercury there is many striking points of similarity. but between neither of these pairs can we trace so many features of resemblance as those which characterize the twin planets Venus and Terra. whether.

Venus in 1761. From these observations M. Hodkier saw the enigearth. when it is remembered that year after year Venus has been examined by the most eminent modern observers. between May 3 and 11.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. Scheuten. but such astronomers as Cassini and Short. in favor of the existence of a satellite. precisely as a satellite would have done. without any trace of a comNor. 28. Venus lias reasonable doubts be entertained respecting the moon- Venus. Baudouin deduced for the new star a diameter of about two thousand miles. and a distance from Venus nearly equal to that which separates the moon from the In March. Are we indeed 85 certain that no moon ? The question seems a strange one. . which presented a phase sion that attendant orb. Four times. the latter with two different telescopes and four different eye-pieces. again. who have seen a moon attending on Venus. indeed. similar to that of the planet. presented to astronomers. armed with telescopes of the most exquisite defining power. and 29. I believe that nearly every reader would have come to the conclu- most certainly the Planet of Love has an They are not amateur observers only. 1761. can any panion orb' being noticed. by those who appreciate the modern telescopic observations and yet. who wit. Montaigne 6aw a body near Venus. had begun this paragraph by stating the evidence less condition of character of if I . matical companion Horrebow saw it a few days and Montbaron saw it in varying positions on later March 15. Lastly. 1761. declares that he accompany Venus across the face of nessed the transit of saw a satellite .

even so skilful an observer as the late Admiral Smyth was disposed to believe in the existence of a satellite " The contested satellite is. of lunar Assuming that she has oceans such as those which exist upon the earth. important work she does in our behalf." little occasion to dwell upon Yenus's moonless condition. corresponding very closely to the mean tides on our own solar wave. slight the hope it may ought not to be relinquished. and the lowest neap which are only one and a half times as tides. as a by the want of a moon than a supebe. because the inferior planets are much less affected rior planet would own moon. chief regulator of the tides that the us most usefully." he of Yenus. And since our lunar tidal about two and a half times as high as the solar one. and therefore perfectly well adapted to sub- serve all the purposes winch our tides render us.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. inconvenient station for watching must be conceded be. raised in our wave is own oceans. perhaps. The service rendered by our luminary of the night. earth . while some parts of its body may be less capable of reflecting light than others and when the splendor of its primary and our . only . which are three and a half times as high as the solar tide alone. is the least It is as the moon befriends Yenus has no need JSTow. however it are considered. her solar tides must be about two and a half times as high as the solar tides tides. therefore. high as the Yenus has constant tides. we have tides ranging between the highest spring tides. extremely minute. " remarked. 56 So that we cannot be greatly surprised that the sun. the search There is that.

has a diameter one-third larger than presents to us . from the sun. he and his apparent surface-dimensions. his heating and illuminating powers depend. earth's. but in her temperate and sub-arctic regions a climate which we should find well suited to our requirements might very well exist . with. are greater in the proportion of about This undoubtedly would render his sixteen to nine. heat almost unbearable in the equatorial regions of Yenus. and her globe somewhat smaller than the It is clear that. there is little to render at least the larger proportion of her surface uninhabitable such beings as exist upon our earth. cury also has sufficiently high solar has extensive oceans (which $? may tides. Here. Venus and her distance during the course of than three-fourths of that which separates the sun from of compensated proximity to that orb. as seen in her skies. merely in the greater proximity to the sun. of course. and be the abode of the most active and enterprising races existing upon her surface. while her polar regions might correspond to our temperate zones. since the smallness of his dimensions. by his great Yen us is fully has a year of two hundred and twenty-four days. seventeen hours. Mer- supposing he reasonably be ques- tioned).THE INFERIOR PLANETS. somewhat is less little thirty-five Her day us. very nearly. we have been supposing that . tending of course to diminish the difference of action on which the sun's tidal influence depends. less variety in their mode of operation. is about minutes shorter than ours. The by sun. on which. which varies a year. however.

that her axis in character. though less than De Vico may be *75°. would ex- the axis than the temperate zones of our earth. the arctic regions of tend within fifteen degrees of her equator is bowed really zones. according to which a very different state of things would appear to prevail.* number the case. Observations have been made. 38 Venus has seasons resembling our own —in other words. a of singular and If this is really somewhat compli- cated relations are presented. the least pleasing portion of her globe. . that her axis is inclined at about the only 15° to the plane of her orbit. in so many works of popular astronomy. Yenus (if supposed). to our ideas. belong both to regions. of rotation is inclined same angle to the plane in which she travels. her polar. the larger part of the earth would be uninas 23^° as the inclination of the axis to that plane . habitable. while the tropics ex- as tend within fifteen degrees of her poles tropical it — espe- or her arctico-tropical regions be. f If the observations of Venus.f first place.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. the result of which may be interesting very cially as there is Uranus an In the to exhibit to the reader little doubt that in the case of axial peculiarity of this sort actually exists. the inclination of the earth's axis to her orbit is given were this the case. An * take inhabitant of the regions near either pole has to Why is is it made that. the mis- of giving the inclination of a planet's equator to the orbit In nine out of ten astro? comical works. on the authority of observers of some eminence. the inclination of so considerable (about 55°) as to deduced in the following paragraphs. It has been said. larger by far —so that two her arctic and to her It is difficult to say whether her equatorial. is still justify the general conclusions trusted.

during the greater part of the long night of Venus's polar regions. day after day. he yet lights up the southern skies with a cheering twilight glow. does the sun rise short time. which must add largely to the horrors of that Certainly. lasts about twelve but the sun attains at noon. but far more striking in its characteristics even than the long winter nis. an intense darkness prevails during the polar winter. in spring or autumn. he is farther below the horizon than the midnight sun of our arctic regions. 89 endure extremes of heat and cold. none of the human races terrible season. the sun earth. the sun does not approach within many Nay. circlea continually close to the point overhead. familiar on earth. in A spring or autumn day. For. But . like one of our days at those seasons. lasting about three of our months. unless the skies are lit up with auroral splendors.ht of our polar regions. he pours doT\n his rays with an intensity of heat and of light exceeding nearly twofold the midday light and heat of our own tropical sun. the sun approaches the horizon at the hour corresponding to noon and though he does not show his face. near our poles. hours . Then presently comes on the terrible winter. a height of only a few degrees above the horizon. such as would suffice to destroy nearly every race of living beings subsisting upon the During the summer. so that. Thus. . and set in these regions. Only for a autumn and in spring.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. upon our earth could bear the alternations between these more than polar terrors and an intensity of summer heat far exceeding any with which we are degrees of the horizon.

the day The above account corresponds is always equal in to a place near the borders of the equatorial zone. that is. season corresponding to winter. But between these seasons the sun away alternately to the northern and southern During the season corresponding to summer. wanting one only (as in the case of our own earth) in the remaining regions there will be more or fewer days. the sun rises day after day to the point overhead. the year contains as many natural days as there have been rotations of Venus. no great elevation. and I . as on our own. In these parts of Venus there are two summers. But the problems involved must be very difficult. and the weather corresponds for a while to that which prevails in the tropical regions of our own passes skies. he is above the horizon nearly throughout the twentythree and a third hours of Venus's day * but he at." the only work in which. which most In all places outside the arctic circles of Venus. of determining the longitude. itself. from the east and west points). earth. Smyth'a remark that the varying amplitude of the sun (his distance. would give travellers on Venus readier means than our seamen have. corresponding to the spring and autumn of the polar regions. owing to which the sun must appear to pass through a whole sign in little more than three-quarters of her natural day. " reckoned by the sun's rising and setting. he is above the horizon only a very short time each day." He does not give any reasons for this remarkable statement. so aware. it is stated that in the year of Venus there are but nine and a quarter of her days. travelling always in a small During the circle close around the northern pole. is just. f In far as I Admiral Smyth's " am Celestial Cycle. at rising or setting. .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. according as the station considered is nearer to or farther from the arctic circle. 9° Let us see whether the equatorial regions are more pleasing abodes. the effects of the inclination ascribed to Venus's axis have been at all considered.f and is always close tains * On the equator length to the night. At these seasons. certainly is not correct.

THE INFERIOR PLANETS. yet fifty-six days as terrible as the for- the winter solstice. it is would be most trying to scarcely too much and no races subsisting terrestrial races to say that . in the In such regions the contrasts. only that the night is exceedingly short later there is another mer . : . Lastly. at summer. upon our earth could possibly endure such remarkable changes. with this further tribulation. If they are near the equatorial regions. summer solstice. they do not see by no means the sun even at midday. The cadets in our schools and compared with the unfortunate always supposing her axif the ships of Yenus training-ships have an easy time of is fact that summer. a circumstance compensated (according to our ideas) by the near the summer solstice the sun does not are near the polar regions. the days are shorter and the cold probably winter of places near our arctic more intense than circles. . attaining only gl an elevation of a few de- Thus we have the following curious succession of seasons At the vernal equinox a summer much warmer than our tropical summers about fiftygrees at noon. and a winter wish her mathematicians joy of them. they suffer from all the vicissitudes of the equatorial climate. to the south. that. the beings who inhabit the wide zones which are at once tropical and arctic have climates ranging between the two limits just considered. we have been assuming. six clays later. they have a more terrible than the polar scarcely less dreary and who are to officer inclined as If they summer even bitter. — . beings set. it. succeeding each other so rapidly. in midwinter. or at the bling somewhat the spring of our temperate zones. weather resem- and lastly. rather than either of the extremes of climate.

that the climatic arrangements on Mars do not those of our differ in own earth. there is every reason to believe that her physical habitudes also resemble those of the earth. indeed. though perhaps with less confidence. that a close resemblance subsists between the creatures which people her surface and those with which we are acquainted. But we have an indirect argument of some If strength. We have no direct evidence. the earth. seems to force upon us the conclusion that she is inhabited . as- If her inclination should at all resemble the earth's. in turn. and still Yet. I can find no reason . therefore. presented in this case. the the opening chapter of this work. Whewell has put in for microscopic animalcules with siliceous coverings as the sole inhabitants of Venus. Fortunately for our belief in the habitabiiity of Venus. despite the claim which Dr. is. astronomers are far from accepting with confidence the assertions of those observers signed to Venus an who have inclination so remarkable. as we is nearer than the earth to much nearer to the sun shall see in the next chap- clear evidence from telescopic observa- clearer evidence as the results of spec- troscopic research. any remarkable degree from It would follow. we have tion.OTHER WORLDS THAN 22 OURS. than Mars ter. as at least probable. Venus is much the sun. while we may believe. So that. that a similar resemblance prevails between the climate of the earth and that of Venus. on which to ground our belief that the greater proximity of Venus to the sun may not be accompanied by any very remarkable peculiarities in the characteristics of her climate. In argument from analogy.

If Yenus had no atmosphere. would tend to lengthen . and. that the difference is altogether insufficient to introduce any noteworthy effects. when horned. the inhabitant of Yenus. sees the sun fully raised above the horizon at as seen . in his ' which Dr. So that. It has been found that her convexity when horned exceeds a semicircle. that her atmosphere as to make its is so far it has been calculated more extensive than ours body near the refractive effects on a horizon about one-third greater. if the earth's gravity on Yenus resembling that with which we are familiar. Gravity at the surface of Yenus is so nearly equal to terrestrial gravity. But it would be strangely to limit our conception of Nature's powers of adaptation. to suppose that therefore there can be no vegetation turbed. Whewell notices Bridge water Treatise. she would present. a semicircular convexity whereas the refractive effects of an atmosphere. like the inhabitant of our earth. as this is about the proportion in which the diameter of the siin from Yenus exceeds that which he presents to us. Yenus is the only planet the extent of whose atmosphere has been carefully estimated. she is served extent of this excess.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. from the ob- her horns. The delicate adjustment of the sap-passages of plants to the force of terrestrial gravity. (if 93 the abnormal axial inclination above considered once disproved) for denying that she may be the is abode of creatnres as far advanced in the scale of creation as any which exist upon the earth. by causing the sun to illumine rather more than a full hemisphere.' might indeed be dis- were suddenly made equal to that of Yenus.

OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. tion of the inclination. since. But he scarcely gives satisfactory evidence that the lines he has thus seen were not due to the absorption exercised by aqueous vapor in our own atmosphere. the evidence strongly to Yenus as the we breathe. is least of all one adaptati ve be power which Nature exhibits more clearly than another. his orb would be it. The spectrum of her light shows the dark lines which belong to the solar spectrum. I can see nothing which can reasonably be held to point which the sun pours upon Yenus need objected to. it is that by which the various creatures we are acquainted with are enabled to live in comfort under all degrees of light. evidence that the atmosphere of Ye- nus is On constituted very similarly to the air the whole. 94 the moment when. to the blazing light of the noonday sun toward which (in fable. and the Padre Secchi has noticed certain faint lines. The same observer finds. Of the constitution of the atmosphere of Yenus we know little. if not in fact) the eagle turns his unshrinking eyes. in the strengthening of the nitrogen lines near the F line of the spectrum. points very abode of living creatures not unlike the inhabitants of earth. from the obscurity in which the mole pursues his subterranean researches. if there to Certainly the strong light an opposite conclusion. which seem to indicate the presence of aqueous vapor in the atmosphere of the planet. but just concealed beneath for refraction. without suffi- cient evidence. There is one peculiarity which yet remains to be . we have With the sole excep- which has been. assigned to the planet's equator.

too.THE INFERIOR PLANETS. moon. must form a noble object in the sky of Mercury. ably situated. far outshines in splendor the brightest of the planetary orbs seen in our skies. with none to regard them. indeed. a exist who certain proof that reasoning beings can argument has very little force. The inhabitant of Mercury sees in Venus an orb which. doubtless terrestrial landscape. the star of morning and of eve has shed its soft radiance upon the and Saturn have pursued their stately courses among the fixed stars. If this argument were really of force. Yenus must be no contemptible moon to the Mercurials when she is nearly in opposition. or of yet more monstrous creatures in forest and in plain. during which the glories of our own heavens were displayed. with its companion as light-giving power is concerned. Many g$ are disposed to find. while as yet our earth was the abode hut oi hideous reptiles. when favorsystem to which some it might not be applied. special object of beauty in its heavens. night after night. So far. we know that myriads on myriads of ages must have passed. noticed. Our earth. . Jupiter there are no planets in the whole range of the solar Each has which is rest. since must Surely the appreciate the display. moon has passed through all The her phases. and the glories of those constellations which shine with equal splendor upon all the planets of the solar scheme have been displayed in all their unchanging magnificence. Certainly Mercury and not exhibited to the Yen us are no exceptions to this rule. in the beauty of the celestial objects which deck the skies of different planets.

Our moon must be distinctly visible. 9& though. properly handled. must shine much more splendidly than Jupiter does in our skies. so that. live upon to be . as seen by the inhabitants of Yenus. Mercury and the earth must be splendid objects. the inhabitant of Yenus has such evidence of the Copernican theory as would suffice. The earth. but. To moon perhaps may the inhabitants of Yenus. being seen almost as favorably as we would form a much more striking object in the morning or evening sky of that planet. supposing there have ever been people in Yenus foolish enough to imagine the tiny globe they the centre of the universe. The former would not only appear much larger than to ourselves. the not be separately visible. to rout the ranks of the Ptolemaists. if see Yenus. without telescopic aid.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. without the aid of any telescope.

should exhibit clearly and unmistakably the signs which of life. like the earth and Mars. to attract our admiration. among all the orbs which circle around the sun. Work out yonder in space which ap . exhibits manner the traces of adaptation to the in the clearest wants of living beings such as Processes are at 7 we are acquainted with. It is singular that. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. MAES.CHAPTEE IT. but Ave shall find little to justify us in asserting that they resemble the earth in those habi- tudes which seem essential to the wants of terrestrial races. giant members of the solar family. on the other hand. We mark a planet as the abode have examined Mercury and Venus. and we have found any certain conclusion respecting to guide us to When we beyond the wide gap which separates the minor planets from the their physical habitudes. one only. belief that much we pass shall find to force much upon us the these orbs have been created to be the abodes of even nobler races than those which subsist upon our earth . and that almost the least of the primary planets. to the little scheme of the minor planets. The planet Mars. the only other orbs which belong.

know I that on every see tokens of an exuberant activity in Nature* which. ten only the object of fall so Nature is by what may distribution. desert. ently in vain. involving always as to If. out of a thousand be useful to the land. and the systematic processes which are taking place over the globe of Mars. subserved. a real waste of Nature's energies. But there a is marked distinction between such apparent instances of wasteful action. raised by the solar energies from tropical seas. we can Little as appreciate the real character of Nature's work upon our earth. 98 pear utterly useless. and which the winds have wafted over continents. may shed its waters at in a their force appar- thousand ways Nature's busy work where we. they subserve the wants of organized beings. may appear to savor of The cloud which has been wastefulness. without supernatural intervention at every step of the process. like their correlatives on earth. we can yet dimly trace out a necessity (depending upon the order which actually exists) for that waste. too insist.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. as strongly upon this argument. and the useful rain . in our short-sighted- can see no useful purpose which they subserve. on the sea or in the forces ness. unless. And may be where seemingly they are Winds may spend wholly wasted. for instance. that if a to to resemble country or a be provided with a due supply of rain. according to our ideas. would not indeed I side we some have done. We continent is which yet appears see. showers. that result can only be secured be described as a what random to us resembles waste.

the true philosopher would not care needlessly to adopt. surface. be. represent and century an exertion of Nature's ener- which appears absolutely without conceivable If one cloud. then indeed compelled to say that. so that his linear dimensions bear to those of the earth the proportion of about five to eight. in Mars at least. of course. we seem Nature's forces are wholly wasted. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. . if untenanted by any forms of life. Let us consider what astronomy has taught us respecting the ruddy planet. then the purport of those gies utility. if we dismiss our be- For the abode of living creatures. more conveniently). out of a hundred of those which shed their waters upon Mars. indeed. is more His than that of the earth in the or. the surface of the two and a half times as extensive as that of . is less proportion of about twenty-five to sixty-four. there any waste bution. then these processes going on year after year. The globe of Mars is about five thousand miles in diameter. distri- I infer. however. in such a case. who can see so short a distance into the workings of the Almighty.MARS. supplies in any degree the wants of living creatures. clouds not unintelligible is . falls 99 In serve to explain the seemingly wasted ones. after century. dimly seen. merely. exactly (and earth Mars. has not been a random reality. But in the case of tion of the processes lief that Mars he is Mars we have no such explana- we observe. Such a conclusion. therefore. nor has there been that a sort of purpose is. but if not a single race of beings peoples that distant world. even by man.

own weight would simply crush him to death. 3 dwts. is even much less than less Thus gravity terrestrial gravity. This circumstance affects to an . have occasion. in than gravity at the surface of Mercury.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Mars travels in an orbit of considerable eccenin fact. he gets about half as much heat and light again when in perihelion twelve-feet wall. at his It is.. the light and heat he receives from that luminary vary to an important extent. in passing. how singular it is But that we should be compelled to people the smallest planets with the largest inhabitants. A Daniel Lambert on Mars would be able to leap easily to a height of five or six feet. or very nearly four times that of water. as when in aphelion. if we wish to bring the inhabitants of different orbs to about the same scale of activity. the centre of his orbit is no less than tricity Accordingly. could leap over a On the other hand. I have already dwelt on the effects of such a relation as and shall tudes of Jupiter. thirteen millions of miles from the sun. tive stripling . to discuss the converse relation. but proportioned for athletic exercises. a light and acremoved to Jupiter would be scarcely On the sun his able to move from place to place. in- surface of stead of nearly seven ounces as on Mercury. when describing the habi- remark. insomuch that one of our pound weights placed at the Mars would weigh but 6 ozs. surface fact. A more suitably man terrestrial of his weight. iOO The substance of Mars has an average density rather less than three-fourths of our earth's. I may this. and he could run faster than the best of our athletes. In fact.

His year contains very nearly six hundred and eighty seven of our days. This estimate I have obtained by comparing pictures taken by Hooke in 1666.* His equator is inclined at an angle of about twen- ty-seven and a quarter degrees to the plane of his orbit. and as the corresponding inclination in the case of the earth grees.735s. so far at least as they depend inclination. — with precautions in 1866-1869 no complete rotation should anywhere be lost . 37m. to those who live in the * More exactly. and of the northern and southern hemispheres are The Martial day not equal. of his year also constitutes a noteworthy circumstance in which his habitudes differ from those of our earth. the length of the Martial day is 24h. holds in the case of the earth. the light and heat he receives are less than ours in the The length proportion of about four to nine. five to the eccentricity of his orbit. the winter summer But. important extent the hemispheres. 22. is nearly forty minutes longer than ours. the sun being one million five ter hundred thousand miles nearer to us in win- than in summer. The Mars axis of is summer when he is at his The same relation so situated that the of his northern hemisphere occurs greatest distance from the sun. is at his mean distance from the sun. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. as When Mars we 101 climatic relations of his two shall presently see.three and a half de- be seen that his seasonal changes do not in character. from our own. whereas. differ on it will much is about twenty.MARS. so that each of the Martial quarters lasts about owing and two-thirds of our months. and by Dawes and Browning sufficing to secure that sight of.

whereas the sun gives only one-fifteenth more heat to the whole earth in January than he does in July. nor does his disk appear so large as Jupiter's. one of the most unsatisfactory of all telescopic objects.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. whereas Jupiter is always more than three hundred and eighty millions of miles from us. On the other hand. 102 summer But the effects resulting from the the case of Mars must be very much more southern hemisphere. the sun of Mars gives half as much light again in perihelion as in aphelion. the contrast between the summer and winter of the southern hemisphere is rendered more striking than it otherwise would be. For. us within less than forty millions of miles. ry planets — — . proach us so closely as Yenus. The summer of the northern hemisphere of Mars must be rendered much cooler and the winter much warmer by this arrangement. whereas Yenus is reality. and on a larger scale. rather than relations such as we have been dealing with. than the latter. It is. Mars sometimes approaches tures. in In fact. . however. that affords the most interesting evidence respecting the fitness of the planet to be the abode of living crea- Although the least but one among the primaa mere speck compared with Jupiter and Saturn Mars has been examined more minutely and under more favorable circumstances than any object He does not apin the heavens except the moon. yet he is seen more favorably than the former planet. relation in striking than those we recognize. the telescopic aspect of Mars. Mars is one of the most pleasing and. he approaches nearer in than in winter.

and of interest. particular regions — the it is confined to intermediate parts being for somewhat greenish hue. and the darker regions which lie between them. shall presently see that this peculiarity. Two the most part darker. instead of characteriz- ing the whole surface of the planet. presenting precisely such an appearance as we might imagine the snowy poles of our earth to exhibit to an astronomer on the planet Yenus. the ruddy and the greenish tracts are lost in a misty whiteness. is full Yiewed with the naked eye. Toward the edge of the disk. more than two hundred years ago. and it 1Gj affords high evidence of the skill with which modern tele- and used. are not accidental or variable . which grows gradually brighter up to the very border of the We planet. was discerned. is one of the most instructive fea- tures of the planet's aspect. the most remarkable feature Mars presents is his ruddy color. Xo telescopist has satellite It yet been able to recognize a attending on the Planet of War. and to bring from beyond it reliable information respecting the structure of so distant a world. But a noteworthy feature adds largely to the beauty of the picture presented by the globe of Mars. rightly understood. but. Such information has been brought.MARS. however. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. that the reddish spots on Mars. In the telescope this color is not lost. Yet even this distance is enormous. that astronomers scopes are constructed should have been able to span that mightv gulf. and of a bright spots of white light are seen on opposite sides of his disk.

pictures of the planet are the only ones taken in the seventeenth century. Within the last few years. The last-named observer. was the first to dis- But the ingenious Hooke seems to have obtained better views of Mars in 1666. this work has been prosecuted by Nasmyth and Jacob. his cover this. Sir William Herschel had charted the planet. especially.. Delarue and Phillips. At least. Kunowski. whose acuteness Since then. Beer and Madler had made improved Martial maps while Prof. Arago. 104 phenomena. Dawes's pictures of the planet were sufficient. Beer. the choicest specimens of a very . in which I can recognize the now well-known aspect of the Martial continents and oceans. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. and finally and most successfully by Lockyer and Dawes. such admirable views of the planet possible to form a globe of Mars. and Messrs. with one of those outrageously long telescopes which were used before the invention of achromatic refractors. Lockyer. carefully drawings of Mars. and Madler. Maraldi of vision earned for took so as to many and render it him the title of the eagle-eyed. also. when compared. Secchi. from observations made by him- and Mr. Phillips. have not thought the study of the planet's aspect beneath their notice. But self Mr. had constructed two globes of Mars in which many features were presented. but represent permanent peculiarities of the Martial surface. Cassini. and the Herschels. for the formation of a globe in which no large area of the planet should be left bare of He intrusted to me no less than twenty-seven details. and a host of other eminent astronomers.

l 1864 Nov 7h 45 m 10 12 K I864jNov.865 Jan.) ll h I2 36n h 24r .20 6 TO 1864 Nov 23 Creenwich Me an Time THE PLANET MARS ( Dawes.




owing though there is some uncertainty to the fact that the coast-line is not often very distinctly however. F. that the features just coming into view in one are just passing away in the next. or left-hand is approach. Then along the southern temperate zone there lie several tracts of Martial land.* top of the This inverted Around that region is a sea unnamed in the map. . * Mr.MARS. map where all thoroughly recognized and permanent. one strip equatorial continents of S. Browning.. exhibits the results obtained from the study of the complete series. and —the south polar regions. a part of the We now visible. after Cassini. These regions appear to form a continuous land-belt round the temperate zone on this point. named southern pole of Mars. 105 are so selected. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. Large series. the features are fine stereoscopic effects. chart is on the stereographic projection. has formed a globe of Mars from and publishes an interesting which give to the only of land connecting the extremity of the map. drawings are shown in the accompanying They plate. circle of land just described. that cause the telescopes is are at the top is. in which the darker parts of the planet are assumed to be seas. A. Lockyer. and the reddish tracts continents. that I Four of his might chart the planet from them. chart. and other astronomers. series of my photographs of this globe . Next a nearly complete Mars with the south-temperate zone of minor continents. Beginning at the eastern we have a long sea. The accompanying chart of Mars. R. there circle of water. commonly used by map we which see the icy region —be- observers ex- At the lies at the hibit inverted views of the celestial objects.

This sea is one of the most striking marks on the planet. separated from Madler Continent by Bessel Inlet and from Herschel Continent by Continent. called lies Delarue Ocean. parallel to which runs Hooke Sea. which runs almost directly north and south. respect- Ocean there is a large island. into still farther west are two vast Jacob Island and Phillips Island. the great equatorial zone of There are four of continents. the most remarkable feature of the —or perhaps I ought rather I. lo6 Maraldi Sea. Beyond these islands islands. Farther west lies . Continent. and ing it. the largest of the four. now come I to the Martial geography areograjphy. so strikingly brilliant an aspect that it has been supposed to be covered (ordinarily) with snow. flask-shaped sea. and so running Dawes Ocean. these. At its northernmost end it turns sharply westward. there is Secchi Continent. Lastly. and has been recognized from the earliest days of telescopic It is connected toward the east with a observation. and separated from the former by a long sea called Kaiser Sea. called trending in a northwesterly direction. somewhat resembling the two which lie at the western extremity of the zone of water just described.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. On the Next is left of Dawes Continent. between which runs Arago Strait. and forms the southern boundary of Dawes Madler Continent. straits Here the zone of to note further. communicating by narrow with two strikingly similar water ends. we have only that in Delarue which presents seas. map This is is Herschel to say. It has been called Dawes's Ice Island. separated from Dawes Continent by a long strait.

will presently be mentioned. expanding at one point into Beer Sea. and lakes. the Sea of Humors. it Xext hemisphere. know that.onns Inlet.MARS. The northern half of Mars has not been so thoroughly examined as the southern. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. comes a zone of land. for a reason which It is known. and at another into Tycho Then Sea. called Laplace Land. in which an enormous lake called Delambre Sea. and so we reach the north-polar ice-cap. certain that the dark spots on At first to answer. the Sea of Crises. resembles the southern to the equatorial zone of continents there comes a zone of water. have been speaking of the spots on Mars as though they undoubtedly represented land and water. sight. and the greenishcolored markings to be oceans. astronomers called the darker portions of the moon. this Mars how we can feel are oceans. It may be asked. without affording any sat- . for a We long time after the invention of the telescope. lies ]Next is a narrow zone of water called the Schroter Sea. tinent is It consists of shape. therefore. But I many may be have on disposed to question the evidence this point we —to ask why the ruddy spots should be held to be continents or islands. and so on. A large lake on Huo. They spoke of the Sea of Serenity. seas. and we now know for certain that these duskv regions are not seas. however. that. 107 the last-named con- worthy of notice on account of its singular two bell-shaped seas connected by a narrow and sharply-cniwed strait. question seems a difficult one The most powerful telescopes have been directed toward the moon. in all essential respects. seas.

though the moon is ex- posed to contrasts of temperature. ing may have been* seen . whether we assume or not that Mars is the abode of any forms of animal life. there can be no question whatever that physical processes of change are taking place on a grand scale in that distant world. same —no far. by Herschel in 1780. Many evidences of this can be We have spoken They of the Martial fea- differ. markings on Jupiter. at least. therefore.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. by Maraldi in 1720. might be thought to be altogether beyond the reach of our —so any knowledge of the Martial surface is concerned. Mars. A veil is sometimes drawn over it for hours or even days aspect of our April skies. lo« isfactory information respecting the condition of surface. tures as constant. at once adduced. yet it by no means follows that it is always visible when the part of Mars to which it belongs is turned toward us. compared with which the distinction between the intensest heat of our summers and the bitterest cold of our winters seems altogether evanescent. on Mars. and by Dawes in 1852-'65. which lies — its —even under the most favorable circumstances more than one hundred and sixty times farther from us than the moon. as The surface of the moon is always the natural processes seem ever to take place over that scene of desolation. But. for instance. by Beer and Madler in 1830-'37. which are from the as changeful as the But though the same markby Hooke in 1666. the case Whatever opinion we may certainly different. But one important distinction between Mars and the moon must be carefultelescopists ly attended to. is form respecting Martial habitudes.

noticed by Mr. of the the shores of Collegio Eomano. which concealed the coastline. states that he has often noticed similar appearances. The remains of the misty light seen by Lockyer are still to be detected in Mr. hour shows that the process of clearing up. 1862. Lockyer as being in progress in the earlier part by the time Mr. But yet another peculiarity of the same sort re . The drawing which he took at that veil the outline of a part of Dawes Ocean. be blurred and indistinct when a neighboring marking is exhibited with unusual clearness. had. As the evening pro- gressed. On October 3. the white became observation (at about light still continued to Now. a faint. was observable. And this veil 109 has nothing to do with the distinctness or indistinctness with which our own at- A spot wil] mosphere permits us to see the planet. but they have passed farther south. Let ns consider an instance of this peculiarity. while observing Mars with the fine refractor in the observatory of that institution. but. he noticed that the outlines gradually clearer. and no longer hide of the night. Dawes's drawing. Ocean. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. Dawes began work. Dawes observed Mars on the same night. entirely lifted off the veil Dawes Ocean. Lockyer was observing Mars late in the evening. together. In place of the ordinarily dark aspect of this region.MARS. at a quarterpast twelve. The Padre Secchi. Mr. where it He noticed that a part of Dawes borders on Herschel Continent. misty light. Mr. with ill-detined borders. when he gave up half-past eleven). was hidden from view.

that this peculiarity has many observers to form very erroneous impressions I led respecting the distribution of land and water over the Seeing one hemisphere covered for weeks together with whitish light. Now. let us conceive the case of an observer on Yenus. we can in progress in either hemisphere at any given time. no mains to be mentioned. when winter in one hemisphere. over the features of the Martial globe terrestrial terpret this by means phenomenon % analogies. it has been noticed that. they have concluded that there are no oceans there and if they surface of Mars. the mistaken impression remains. sometimes for a few hours or days. it is upon said. and is published to the world with all the authority of the observer's name. as meteorologists record. winter and summer Mars. To answer ? is drawn Have we any we may in- of which these questions. — can we for hundreds and even thousands of miles pierce could Yenus suppose that the astronomer on . Would such an observer always see the features of When heavy this globe with equal distinctness? masses of cloud are drawn over a wide expanse of country —spreading often. in passing. what is this veil which. as I have sition of the Martial equator what season tell is has his the po- his surface. Now. . watching our earth. may remark.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. we know Since seasons. have no other opportunity of observing the planet. and therefore summer in the other. the former hemisphere hidden from view by just such a is nearly always veil as I have spoken of above. at others for months together.

what seems to be the exact counterpart of processes recognized upon the earth. which from time to time shadowed. as though they were not. .MARS. if we held the concealing medium to be of a cloudy nature. know that this is the case on our own earth We —that and mists. any thing in the behavior of the Martial veil to justify this view. are phenomena more frequently observed in winter than in summer.veil. and snow. clouds. and is thus forced to precipitate this vapor in one or other of the forms just named. It is clear that. we be certain that the observer on oceans and continents of our So far as the cloud-veil extends. at such a time. conceals the Martial features. the lands and seas of this globe would be to hirn. We know also why it is so. Thus we recognize. rain. then. through the veil we cannot Since ? lu see the bright may Yen us cannot see the earth when thus cloud- body of the sun through a dense cloud. to resemble our own. the disappearance of the features of the hemisphere which is passing through the Martial winter would indicate that in winter the Martial skies are more clouded than in summer. trial is may resemble terres- Let us next inquire whether there cloud-banks. in the remarkable seasonal peculiarity above described. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. can we see supposing it precisely the Nor why the Martial atmosphere. The cold winter fogs far air is unable to retain the aqueous vapor continually passing into it. should not act in any reason same manner. we have an argument from analogy for supposing that the veil. Here.

if can scarcely be doubted that an arrangement such as that which prevails on earth is the Martialists. but chiefly because of the trast existing between more marked con- his various seasons. It is which characterize that the peculiarities known terrestrial at- mospheric phenomena tend in an important manner to mitigate the extremes of perature. there are living creatures on Mars. may be water assumes although these pro- as JSTow. far ter The summer and winter tem- clouds which hang over our winter from acting to increase the coldness of wineffect in keeping off the sun's rays. evidences of on Mars. we to the welfare of derive an argument from the a priori consideration of the nature of Martial requirements. yet them the beneficence of the Almighty. many mode yet. it Hence. 112 And tbongli I admit that there jection to the make with use of. partly because of his greater distance from sure. the winters tend to the sun.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. I feel justified in considerable ob- is of argument I am as a subsidiary it discussing. and liberated for our benefit as the invisible vapor of the form of cloud or rain. we be far more bitter than ours. through their an in reality represent enormous supply of heat brought from warmer parts of the earth. to favor our interpretation of the phe- nomena actually observed. yet more necessary Thus. and is support to the views I am next going to one which has great weigbt not without its own peculiar applying force. skies. Perhaps the reader may be disposed to inquire . And cesses are strictly in accordance we are justified in recognizing with natural laws. as it is minds.

113 whether the clearing up of a portion of the Martial by Lockyer and Dawes admits of inter- disk observed pretation in a similar way.MARS. instead of being green like ours. He urged that Martial vegetation. the (according to our terrestrial mode Mr. I think the reader will at least concede that the explanation here given of these peculiarities is more natural than one which was put forward some time since by an eminent French astronomer. and about one o'clock in the afternoon that. Knowing that the parts of Liars which thus appear concealed in mist are those where it is morning or evening to the Martialists. we To that 1 . forty millions of miles away from us. and features is if when no uncommon up soon aftei of reckoning) the veil which conceals the Martial really cloudy. this is precisely what hap- pened out yonder. Lockyer began hig observations. According to were noticed by tint. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. Dawes observed the planet. wintry hemisphere loses its ruddy such changes as this interpretation. Secchi would indicate the sudden blooming forth of Martial vegetation over hundreds of square miles of the Martial surface. face. on the day in question. as seen hence by in the Martial summer the sur- assumes a ruddy aspect. To this it may be replied from the observed position of the region in quesMartial time of day there must have been somewhere about noon when Mr. while the us. the evidence already dealt with may be added which is afforded by the whiteness of the disk of Mars near the edge. is red . tion. It is thing to see our terrestrial skies clear midday.

* I may difficulties here pause. the sky observer knows how seldom there occurs what is called " a good observing night. U4 see a close analogy here to terrestrial relations. and. for clouds over Mars. or even an imperfectly clear atmosphere. Thus it hap- pens that. it be said that Mars has not been under really ef- account may less all fective observation for Of course. I have indi- cated a subsidiary explanation of this peculiarity. 1869. must produce quite as bad an Martial features spoiling the definition of effect in similar as phenomena on earth. see those parts of the sur- in a nearly vertical direction. if more than a very few we admit days. face of that is. that the vaporous envelope * In the Popular Science Review for January. although Mars has been telescopically observed for more than two hundred years." Then it must be a fine day for the Martialists. and none but the practised the terrestrial observer. to notice under what the observation of Mars To begin is conducted by must be exceptionally clear. .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. the Martialists would see a clearer sky overhead than near the horizon. our own cumulus that. Mars only comes into a favorable position once in every two and a quarter years. horizon. taking into the requirements for good definition. It follows. founded on the prob- For the same reason able shape of the Martial clouds. that we should Mars best which we look upon the central parts of his disk. at once. the actual time during which he has been favorably placed for much observation has been very . near the clouds seem more closely packed than over- head. continuing to be well placed for only a few months. with. since own our skies are commonly more moisture-laden in the morning and evening than near midday. Again. in passing.

. in fact. Mr. that its spectrum would be affected "in an apists preciable manner. And. and there is no mistaking the results which have been obtained. but at the opposition of was more successful. we ish parts of should immediately recognize the green- Mars as the Martial oceans.: MARS. Ten years ago it would have been very difficult to disprove such an argument as this. Huggins examined Mars in 1864 without satis Mars in 1867 hr factory results. we must believe in the existence of oceans upon Mars. the ruddy parts as continents. might be from fluids it that. there was a possibility that the light which comes from Mars might have been so acted upon by vapors in the Martial atmosphere. a state of things ex- upon Mars wholly different from that which prevails upon our own earth. Still. from our knowledge of the appearance of our own seas. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH 115 which occasionally hides parts of Mars is aqueous. But thought possible that the vapors arise other than water . however bizarre it may seem. But the wonderful powers of the spectroscope have been applied to this question. We and look upon have seen that the behavior of the vaporous envelopes corresponds to that of our own clouds and fogs. In the following description oi his most striking observation I epitomize his account On February 14th he examined Mars with a spectroscope attached to his powerful eight-inch refractor. which (as available to the astronomer) deals most effectively with self-luminous objects. We must premise that this is hardly a favorable case for the application of spectroscopic analysis.

near the or- of dark lines agreeing in posi- tion " with Jnes which make their appearance in the solar spectrum when the snn is low down. was not was clear that the Martial atmosphere.6 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. which happened to be nearer the hori- zon than Mars. Hence there must be aqueous vapor in the Martial atmosphere. Mr. that it is the aqueous vapor in our air which causes the appearance of the lines in question. justifies the title of the Let us consider what a number of interesting results follow from it. and not to lines referred to Hence visible in the lunar spectrum. . so that its light has to traverse the denser strata of our atmos- To determine whether phere." these lines belonged from Mars or were caused by our own atmosphere. This discovery at once present chapter. they belong to it ours. I have said that these lines appear in the solar spectrum when the sun is shining through the denser Let us consider a moment strata of our atmosphere. Huggins turned his spectroscope towto the light ard the moon. from the researches of the Padre Secchi. the light which this fact Martial atmosphere. H The rainbow-colored ange part. It throws on the nature of the must contain at least those constituent vapors whose existence in our atmosphere causes the appearance of these lines in the solar spec trum. so that the atmospheric lines would be stronger in the moon's spectrum than in that of the But the group of planet. by groups was streak crossed. Hence there must be some between But we know similarity the Martial atmosphere and our own.

TEE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTE. These things are very interesting in themselves. wafted over his continents learned that snow falls . however. But many astronomers felt that there was still room to doubt whether we could really speak of the spots as spots "The snowy poles of moonless liars. These. exists on Mars. was perhaps somewhat bold it to pro- nounce that these spots certainly indicate the presence of ice-fields around the Martial poles." Now. then. "We have seen that there are oceans on Mars . The two and consist n7 in the Martial air rivers white spots. Let us proceed a step or two farther. on the Martial disk are no longer Before the discovery that water doubtful appearances. resembling those which exist around the poles of the earth. but they indicate the occurrence of processes yet more in- . pro- nounce confidently that his polar regions must be icebound. with that confidence which he always showed when he had a trustworthy analogy to guide him. so far off that we we could yet. Nay. we have on the Martial polar regions. on the strength of what the spectroscope has taught us. if that they can be no other Mars were could not distinguish these spots. The water Beas must be raised from upon the planet. therefore. came to this conclusion on the strength of the correspondence between the changes of the two and the progress of the Martial seasons. Sir William Herschel. we know than snow-caps. indeed.MARS. finally. of water and not of other fluids. we know that clouds and vapors rise from those oceans and are and.

then. which also. the clouds on Mars are certainly dissi- pated in some way. as I have said. " drop fatness on the earth. and this takes place just where most needed. so soon as is it has been carried condensed into the form of cloud or mist. they are often dissipated by the . and to prevent the escape of the earth's heat by night. it but. that on Mars there exists the same admirable contrivance for tempering climates which we find on our own But let us aqueous vapor. in refreshing rains.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. it parts with Thus where used up in forming aqueous is wanted there the aqueous it. astronomers have repeatedly seen them disappear. among are The formation and the dissipation of clouds the most important of the processes by all which Nature arranges and modifies the temperature of our earth. The heat of the sun's rays so to speak. And doubtless. like our own clouds. the aqueous vapor re- coolness is raised. is mains unchanged . But the aqueous vapor. once swept by the winds to other regions. to colder regions. n8 teresting. So long as the air remains warm. and where heat vapor distributes We it into vapor. see. earth. and while changing to this form the heat which had turned heat is in excess. Thus the air is is used up. It forms clouds which serve to shelter the earth from the sun's heat by day. because." Now. in raising aqueous vapor of the ocean. it is vapor. from the surface rendered cooler than it otherwise would he. consider yet another office fulfilled It by not only serves to convey the heat from the warmer parts of the earth to those regions where heat is most needed.

while his rota- But he has being so much less need less exten- ISTo Columbus on Mars has ever sive than ours. they are also often dissipated by Thus the Martial lands are nourished and who can doubt that they thus nourished for the same purpose as our own in rain. then. fall it in snow. Clouds cannot. that vegetation of all sorts abundantly ? yet. needed the persistent breath of easterly winds to encourage him on his voyage to an undiscovered conti- nent. those pur- . But the great purposes which the own atmosphere oat yonder on Mars. like our terrestrial clouds. unless the atmos- Mars were extensive and persistWe see. —namely. has. there to . fallins: by refreshing are fields and may grow But rainfalls forests . for trade-winds. and. Rather. THE MINIATURE OF OUR EARTH. indeed. his globe tion-period is being much slightly greater. its thermal and circulation of our subserves are carried out efficiently The air is cleansed electrical conditions clouds are wafted from place to place the atmosphere is rendered fit- for and are . again. his oceans smaller. ours. that Mars has winds as our earth Doubtless his trade-winds are less marked than pheric currents on ent. the intricate navigation of the narrow Martial seas would be favored by variable breezes. the transit of clouds from place to place implies the existence of aerial currents. regulated. in fine. all purified. even form and be dissipated without and need hardly be said that the Martial clouds could not be carried to his occasioning wind-currents polar regions. it for u9 granted that. because his surface rotates less rapidly than the earth's. But we may take sun's heat.MARS.

rival The views which have been maintained by Sir John Herschel and Captain Maury have served to throw a certain air of doubt over the theory of ocean-currents.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Recent reseaiches into the temperature of the deep sea have tended strongly to confirm these views. that the submarine return currents from * If Herschel has completely overthrown Maury's theory that currents are altogether due to differences of specific gravity. like our own. and so on. however. to lower latitudes. produces the relatively cold and westwardly equatorial currents which exist in the Atlantic. Indian. both causes operate in the case of Mars. an in-draught of cold water is caused. it has doubtless been created. which I dealt with at some length in the Intellectual Observer for May. 18 67. I think. We may trace yet further. by a process resembling suction. A theory more probable which the whole system of circulation is set in motion by the continual evaporation going on in equatorial seas. earth. and Pacific Oceans. and this water coming from higher latitudes. the atmosphere of Mars. saltness. where the earth's eastwardly motion is less. the increase And we know that. the results which flow from the existence of aqueous vapor in. or to ences of specific gravity with Maury. we differ- see that. Maury has at least been as successful in overthrowing Herschel's theory that the currents are due to the trade-winds.* Eut whether we ascribe the equatorial currents of our oceans to the trade-winds with Herschel. than either is. and secondly. Doubtless much yet remains to be done before that system of circulation will be fully understood. "We see the polar snows aggregating in the Martial winter and diminishing in the Martial summer. -where the eastwardly motion is greater. in the first place. Thus. on our own and the diminution of the polar snows are processes intimately associated with the formation and maintenance of the oceanic circulation. that according to . 120 poses for which.




our polar regions must, at any rate, be due to the
presence of ice in the polar seas.

So that undoubtedly

the Martial oceans, so far as their peculiar conformation will permit, are traversed




by currents

in various

at various depths.

lastly, there

must be



on Mars.

clouds which often hide from our view the larger part
of a Martial continent, indicate a rainfall at least as
considerable (in proportion) as that which

the earth.

The water thus

continents can find


we have on

precipitated on the Martial

way no

otherwise to the ocean

than along river-courses.


to the nature of these rivers again,

we may form

conjectures founded on trustworthy analogies.

mere existence of continents and oceans on Mars
proves the action of forces of upheaval and of depression.
There must be volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, modelling and remodelling the crust of Mars.
Thus there must be mountains and hills, valleys and
ravines, water-sheds and water-courses. All the various
kinds of scenery which make our earth so beautiful
have their representatives in the ruddy planet. The
river courses to the ocean, by cataract and lake, here
urging its way impetuously over rocks and bowlders,
there gliding with stately flow along its more level


to the rivulet, and
forth the refreshing springs which are to feed the

rivulet speeds to the river, the

Martial brooklets


can doubt what the lesson

things are


to teach us





far, let






l2 2

membered, we have been guided onward by no specufancies, but simply by sober reasoning.
can we pause just here % Shall we recognize in Mars
all that makes our own world so well fitted to our
wants land and water, mountain and valley, cloud
and sunshine, rain, and ice, and snow, rivers and lakes,
ocean-currents and wind-currents, without believing

further in the existence of those forms of



these things would be wasted




Surely, if

it is

rashly speculative to say of this charming planet


it is

the abode of



we must,

ourselves to the consideration of

lutely seen

more rashly

it is

indeed, limit

what has been


yet to speculate ten thousand times

to assert, in the face of so



arguments to the contrary, that Mars is a barren
waste, either wholly untenanted by living creatures, or
inhabited by beings belonging to the lowest orders of

animated existence.




Passing- over the zone of asteroids,

the noblest of





the planets

we come now

—the giant Jupiter.

be the measure of a planet's

fitness to



the abode of living creatures, then must Jupiter be


by the most favored

races existing through-

out the whole range of the solar system.

Exceeding our

earth some twelve hundred and thirty times in volume,

and more than three hundred times in mass,



nincent orb was rightly selected by Brewster as the

crowning proof of the relative insignificance of the
earth in the scale of creation assuming only that we

can indeed gauge the purposes of the Creator by the
familiar tests of measure




and weight.

estimate Jupiter rather by the forces in-

herent in his system,


we contemplate

the enormous

rapidity with which his vast bulk whirls round

its axis, or trace the stately motion with which he
sweeps onward on his orbit, or measure the influences
by which he sways his noble family of satellites, we are
equally impressed with the feeling that here

we have



the prince of all the planets, the orb which, of all others
in the solar

scheme, suggests to us conceptions of the

noblest forms of


The very symmetry and

perfection of the system

which circles round Jupiter have led many to believe
that he must be inhabited by races superior in intelligence to any which people our earth. The motions
of these bodies afford indeed to our astronomers a noble subject of study.
cians have given

Our most eminent mathemati-

many hours

of study to the phenomena which the four moons present to the terrestrial observer.
But we can trace only the general movements
of the satellites of Jupiter. Their minor disturbances,
the effects of the varying influences which the sun and
Jupiter exert upon them, and which the moons exert
upon each other, must tax the powers of far abler
mathematicians even than he who " surpassed the
whole human race in mental grasp."
But, after all, we must judge of Jupiter rather according to the evidence we have, and the analogies
which are most directly applicable to the case, than

according to fancies such as these.




the sun, which surpasses Jupiter in weight and vol-

ume even more than
yet not the abode of

Jupiter surpasses the earth,

so that




and mass

must not be held to argue habitability. We know
that many meteors and comets sweep through spaces
more swiftly than the vast bulk of Jupiter, so that the
energies indicated by mere velocity of motion, whether
orbital or rotational,


must we

must be equally disregarded.

forget that, ages before


studied the


motions of our


own moon,


she presented the same

noble subject of study that she forms in our day for

an Adams, a Leverrier, or a Delaunav. Even now a
thousand grand problems are presented to our men of
and we might as
science which escape their notice

reasonably argue that there must be creatures existing

as that, out


us, who deal with these problems,
yonder in space, there must be beings


study the complicated motions of the Jovial


Jupiter presents the following principal physical



has a diameter of about eighty-five thousand

miles, or nearly eleven times as large as the earth's, a

hundred and fifteen times larger, and, as I
volume more than twelve hundred times
Gravity at his surface is about two and a half
times as great as on our earth's, so that such creatures
as exist around us would find their weight much more
than doubled if they were removed to Jupiter. He
lies more than five times farther from the sun than
our earth, and the light and heat which he receives
from that orb are reduced to about one-twenty-fifth of
our supply. He rotates on his axis in rather less than
surface one


said, a

ten hours (nine hours, fifty-five minutes, twenty-six


seconds), so that the length of his

than half of ours.

His axis


lar to his orbit, so that there are



nearly perpendicu-

no appreciable


sonal changes as he sweeps round the sun in his long

year of 4,332^- days.
It will

be convenient to consider,


the proba-




ble influence of the great attractive

power of Jupiter

upon the dimensions of the various orders of living
upon his surface.

creatures existing

The grandeur

of his orb naturally suggests, at

sight, the idea of beings far exceeding,

and bulk, those which



both in might

upon the



Wolfius was led to a similar conclusion in another


I quote his quaint fancies as quaintly presented

by Admiral Smyth.

" Wolfius," says the genial


" not only asserts that there are inhabitants in Jupiter,

but also shows that they must necessarily be
larger than those of the earth



in fact, that they are

of the giant kind, and nearly fourteen feet high by
And thus he proves it. It is
shown in optics, that the pupil of the eye dilates and
contracts according to the degree of light




Wherefore, since in Jupiter the sun's meridian



much weaker than on the earth, the pupil
much more dilatable in the Jovial

need to be

creature than in the terrestrial one.

But the pupil


observed to have a constant proportion to the ball of
the eye, and the ball of the eye to the rest of the



so that, in animals, the larger the pupil the

larger the eye,


and consequently the larger the body.

that these conditions

are unquestionable,

he shows that Jupiter's distance from the sun, comthe
pared with the earth's, is as twenty-six to five

intensity of the sun's light in Jupiter

on the earth





in a duplicate ratio five to twenty-six."

The eyes of the Jovials and their dimensions generally
must be correspondingly enlarged, and " it therefore




l2 y

would have cut but
That is,
a sorry figure among the natives of Jupiter.
supposing the Philistine's altitude to be somewhere
between eight feet and eleven, according as we lean
to Bishop Cumberland's calculation, or the Vatican
E"ow, Wolfius proves the
copy of the Septuagint.
size of the inhabitants of Jupiter to be the same as
that of Og, king of Bashan, whose iron camp-bed was
nine cubits in length and four in breadth or rather
follows that even Goliath of G-ath

he shows, in the way stated, the ordinary altitude of
the Jovicolse to be 13 Ty^. Paris feet, and the height
of Og to have been 13|f f|- feet.
See his Works, vol.



This exact

determination of the

dimensions of


men would be


not that another line of argument guides us at



very pleasing and satisfactory,

as conclusively to a

very different view.

are to assume that beings resembling

butes except





in all attri-

actually exist on Jupiter,

we might

claim for these beings the power of moving from place
to place as freely as



with quite




Wolfius claimed for them the same powers of

ion that




Proceeding according to



are led to the conclusion that the Jovicolm

two and a half feet, on the average,
For we know that a man removed to Jupiter would weigh about two and a half times as much
He would thus be opas he does on our own earth.
pressed with a burden equivalent to half as much
again as his own weight. This would render life itand we have to inquire
Belf an insupportable burden
are pygmies about
in height.


OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. make a Jove- ]STow. the other. while another equally . an animal three times as high as another of similar build. feet in height. on so would for all such man removed to Jupiter would be two and a half times as heavy as on the earth. we see that the tallest and handsomest of the Jovicolse can be but two and a half our premises and other little fellows. if removed to Jupiter. But the muscular power of ani- mals varies as the cross-section of corresponding muscles. so that of two animals similarly constituted. if his height two and a mum man on J upiter men would be as ac- follows obviously that a proportioned like our terrestrial half. were Hence. and JSTow. but one twice as high as the other. the larger would He would weigh. since a terrestrial relations. —in for example. sions or obviously as the square of the linear dimen. be only one-third as active . a body twice as —will be other respects similar eight times as heavy. it tive as they are. He would be four times the more powerful. if only Thus. One line of the Jovicolse as argument having thus led us to regard Ogs of Bashan. however. setting ordinary height of men on to theirs as one to six feet as the maxi- the earth. Similarly. and eagerly sought after by any Carlylian Fredericks who may be forming grenaare correct. the weight of "bodies similarly proportioned varies as the third power of the height high as another . l2 8 what difference of man would size suffice to as active as our terrestrial men. eight times as much as therefore be only half as active. Tom Thumb dier corps out yonder. might be wondered at for their enormous height.

or mount upon wings as eagles. conclude that "We must not of other worlds according the conceptions suggested by the forms of are acquainted with upon We must earth. to take the views of are inveterate dancers. need we agree with Sir Humphry Davy. GIANT OF 129 plausible has reduced their dimensions to those of our we may two-year-old children. We need not imagine. the . that they are pulpy. that the bodies of the Jovials are composed of " numerous convolutions of tubes more analogous to the trunk of the elephant than any thing else " with Whewell." So soon as we may flee away and be at give a definite form to the con- ceptions that the imagination. possibility that arrangements. as different we -are is we from those familiar with as the constitution of the insect from that of man." more respectable authorities. circle may be presented amid the orbs round the sun. free from the control of exact knowledge. with Brewster. with a cindery nucleus the Jovial may have warmed by central . . which life admit the where we have in means of forming an opinion. this method of reasoning is measure the inhabitants to fairly fallacious. that he rest. that his " fires.THE SOLAR SYSTEM. nor finally. It were unwise. may home in subterranean cities or in crystal caves cooled by with the Nereids upon the deep. " that they Nor. gelatinous creatures." or with others. or rise upon the ocean-tides. no doubt. JUPITER. that " the inhabitants of free scope to speculation to give truth mo Jupiter are bat-winged. as some have done. 9 we touch at once on the grotesque. frames respecting the inhabitants of other worlds. living in a dismal world of water and ice . or float pinions of the dove.

Now. with all his knowledge of the Creator's ways." and other similarly incongruous beings. or the ridiculous. however. It is more excusable. it plants water Treatise " on the astronomical evidence of design in Creation. as forcibly as possible. and a measure (if one may so speak) even of that which is inconceivable by us His infinite wisdom. lays great stress on this relation. while the Evil One. or rather the certainty. pointing * We (no It may be worth while to gather a lesson from this circumstance. in his " Bridgtion at the earth's surface. that the motion of the vegetable juices part regulatepl by the force of gravity. the perfection of the laws by which the Creator rules the universe. scale Trees. that the beings of other worlds are very different from any we acquainted with. with " men unnatural and impossible forms of existence. plants. must known also. that living any if exist.* It is sufficient to recog- nize the probability. probable. without endeavoring to give are shape and form to fancies that have no foundation in fact. perhaps. man. It is well constituted ally. be very differently from those we are familiar with. ruml ." has had the principal attributes of a class of navtia assigned to him. l3 o hideous. yet so soon as he passes the boundary of the known. know that every form of life is replete with evidences of adaptation matter how secured) to the conditions which surround it. that " goeth about as a roaring lion. that an anatomically impossible structure should have been assigned to angels (the cherubim Lave been even more unfortunate). We may regard it as creatures in Jupiter. of our own whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders. in imagination. is in and therefore must be admtited that the structure of terrestrial is in part dependent upon the value of gravitaWhewell. on a much smaller earth. We have thus evidenced to us. pictures to himself all manner of — Even the unknown parts earth have been peopled ere now. are built generally than those which people our and the vegetable world gener- one would imagine.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.

if I remember destroyed at once THE SOLAR SYSTEM. the sun would seem to move through the heavens with great rapidity. right.JUPITER. the sun's path will The be seen to describe only is. however. but is it just possible that the perpetual spring reigning over Jupiter. and a Jovial month He to one of our terrestrial years. leads to a state of things such as we might not find altogether so agreeable. direct reverse and the rapidity of his apparent diurnal motion . The year of Jupiter differs in a much more striking manner than that of Mars from our terrestrial year. Admiral Smyth says that " as the rays of the sun fall perpendicularly on the body of the planet. It consists of nearly twelve such years as ours. GIANT OF out. the case. The word ourselves. But before we proceed to form a high opinion of the planet's condition under the influence of this perpetual spring. let us distinctly understand what the words mean. since his equator inclined but little more than three degrees is to his orbit. that all vegetation if i$\ would be there could suddenly take place any marked change in the earth's attractive forces. Thus a perpetual spring reigns all over his surface. is nearly equal no has. so that the period corresponding to one of our seasons lasts nearly three years.* and * In the same paragraph Admiral Smyth says that. however. as seen from Jupiter's equatorial regions. If this view is correct. though. it is certain that none of our plants could thrive on the soil of Jupiter. while near the polar regions the sun's ^notion will be comparatively slow. and he a small semicircle above the horizon. doubtless well adapted to the wants of his inhabitants. because commonly the is we spring has a genial sound to associate it with that which pleasantest portion of our year . seasons in our sense of the word.

Admiral Smyth seems to have thought that the variations of the sun's path in Jupiter corresponded to those observed in the progress of a year any place on the earth's equator. and Neptune. as he always rises different midday altitude in different places. the sun always rising vertically and always describing a complete semicircle. and we are to admire the beneficence thus displayed. in our over-anxiety to recognize beneficence we in the treatment of one world." this mode — a perennial this is a striking display of beneficent ar- in adopting of argument in dealing with the Creator's That the arrangement is beneficent. attaining a But. and sets nearly due west (as he does in spring-time aU Jupiter the sun describes over the earth). If Jupiter's great distance from the sun is compensated for by this peculiar disposition of his axis. The real fact is. mode should adopt a of reasoning which leads to the direct conclu- sion that other worlds have been ill-cared for. lest. being nearly constant for all parts of Jupiter. being farther from the sun. . not of course question.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Uranus. nearly due east. have greater need than Jupiter of some special adaptation of the It seems safer to consider the consequences sort ? which flow from the arrangement without any special reference to the design of the Creator in permitting them. are we therefore to find fault with the Creator for not dealing similarly with Saturn. which. ways. that in all parts of a complete diurnal semicircle. and throughout his year. the heat must be as nearly as possible equal at all times of the year summer: But we must be cautious rangement. 132 always continue to do so. he necessarily crosses the horizon at different angles as seen in different places. and always describes about half of a great circle of the spheie. we need But that we can recognize the way in which it is beneficent is quite another matter. though attaining different at altitudes at different seasons.

unless their eyesight is much infe- . rising in the east. even to the unaided vision of the Jovicolse. the giant planet. the motion of the sun in the Jovial sky must be much more readily discernible and measurable than that with which the sun seems to pass across our own heavens.JUPITER. GIANT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. and thence to have climates differing quite in latitudes different — — his setting-place in the west. passing round always near the horizon toward the south. of — which we can speak with any confidence consists in this. spring — or perpetual autumn. the sun passes to a southerly elevation greater or less. At the poles the sun seems to glide along the horizon. according as the place farther from Jupiter's equator. while between these regions every intermediate climate Owing is to be found. The if only that perpetual we please —reigns on different latitudes of Jupiter as much as those found At the on our own earth. He traverses the whole semicircle.. everywhere on Jupiter. or about six degrees in ten minutes. that. In intermediate tudes. in two minutes less than five hours.day and night are of It is in this sense equal length. equator the sun passes every day nearly to the point overhead. from the eastern to the western horizon. is a marked difference is lati- which is nearer to or It follows that there between the sub-equatorial and the sub-polar regions in Jupiter. in — l 33 arrangefact. and discernible. This corresponds to a motion through a space equal to the sun's diameter (as must be readily we see him) in fifty seconds. The great peculiarity resulting from the ment in question the only peculiarity. to the rapidity of Jupiter's rotation.

passage * in which * Homer must not be held Homer despite the beauti- has described the calm responsible for Pope's amazing description. strangely enough. and so to their setting-place in the west — exhibiting the same splendors which the terrestrial astronomer delights to gaze upon. the other lies in rest. has found an ardent admirer in one of our . as seen from to him. so that in ten seconds he seems to pass over a space equal to his The own diameter. and obvious motion. course. the heart of the constellation lies close by the great Magellanic Cloud.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. to render the He presents tible. The contrast between the steadfastness of the polar star-groups and the swift motions of the must be impressive indeed. inhabitants of Jupiter. which. those seen near the poles of his heavens seem relatively at One of these poles Draco . equal to of the sun. that the presence of the Jovial satellites must tend to dim the splendor of the sidereal heavens. ful Our own moon. they rise with a perceptible but stately motion above the eastern horizon. at visible first sight. pass to their culmination on the southern meridian. These equatorial groups are no other than our old friends the zodiacal constellations. which must present a magnificent cynosure to the inhabitants of the southern hemisphere of the planet. other celestial bodies are affected with similar Of motions as seen from Jupiter. !34 rior to ours. enhanced by the peculiar impressions of active It power suggested by may seem. As seen by the equatorial constellations. The smallness motion more percepthem an apparent diameter only about one-fifth of that with which we see must help Jupiter.

tells us. as all But. mention as a character- the stars shine. in more than half which our moon covers. all however. For it must not be forgotten that they shine only by reflecting the sun's light. 135 beauty of a moonlit night.JUPITER. In effect. they cannot marked an effect in dimming the lustre of the stars. they could all it fol- be "full" together. 6pace on the sky Thus. best times. in comparison with the light he pours upon our own moon. all. they could send to the Jovials but about one-sixteenth part of the light as a matter of The motions though there we fact. in reality. GIAXT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. that " Horace be of the inner three are so related. they cannot is full together. Homer did. istic of the moonlit sky. soma . and that he illuminates them but faintly. and combining this result lows that. nothing to prevent them from being modern observers. they cover a as large again as that But. and as at moons visible above the horizon of the Jovials. and the fourth has an apparent diameter equal to about a quarter of our moon's. it might seem that all but the brighter stars would be quite obliterated. in the proportion of about one to twenty-five. the third (really the largest) appears about as large as the second . certainly detracts largely from the magnificence of the star-groups ." a proof that the great master nodded. have nearly so supposing their reflective moon's. they must appear capacities less equal to the brilliant than she does. that. receive from the full moon. even if with the above relation. The first moon must appear somewhat larger than our own the next has an apparent diameter rather more than times there must be four half as large as that of our moon .

may way. yet they occupy but a few hours in completing their cuit round the sky.* yet when The fourth may be full. $ from relation detracts We taken it how largely this their light-supplying powers. So far is this from being the case. see. When at that part of their orbits where they would otherwise be full.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. % Moving in a direction contrary to that due to the rotation of Jupiter. 136 all visible be together. so that moons together on the same side of Jupiter. that. as Sir John Herschel has said. we have not reached a full estimate of the extent of the mistake which those astronomers have made who speak of the splendor with which the satellites of Jupiter illuminate his skies. under the most favorable circumstances. that who will be seen cir- those writers have been mis- allege that the great distance of Jupiter from the sun is compensated by the number of his moons. . Even now. in fact. and the quantity of light they reflect toward him. full at or. less inclined than the orbits of the others. The orbit of this satellite is. escapes eclipse. they of course remain longer above the horizon than the sun. then. The two inner satellites are eclipsed for upward of two hours. and as eclipsed. however. De combined with the other three in any its motions are not bound up with theirs as theirs are inter se. \ Not on account of the inclination of its orbit being large. the three inner moons are always by reason of its great more frequently it is obscured like the others. one only can the same time. or the equatorial fixed stars. since so visible.f sometimes fourth. and though the distance. they can supply * Or all invisible together. mdeed. Lardner asserts the contrary one would imagine he had never seen all the .

to the consideration of those facts which are actually presented to our notice. their year being longer. in reality. the amplest evidence of design. GIAXT OF during the Jovial night THE SOLAR SYSTEM. there is greater occasion for objects whose motions shall serve as measures of time. supply. " that they are good " Perhaps. rela- we have now tc consider the climate of the planet generally.) by their suc- the three inner the outer with pairs of the inner.) in pairs. aginative respecting the splendor of the scene presented by these will not bear the That the 337 satellites. (ii. satellite-system of Jupiter subserves impor- and affords. if which they have " to see. one were able to discuss with advan- tage the special purposes which this or that portion of creation is intended to subserve." as the Creator does. need not be questioned but that we have been able tant functions. dry light of numerical estimation. like all the works of the Creator. while. —may be assuredly denied. by The Jupiter their separate motions. because. they afford convenient measures of longer intervals.JUPITER. together. moon illunainates our poetical descriptions which im- writers have indulged in. to con- . convenient meas- ures of the shorter time-intervals cessive conjunctions. satellites of and (iii.) (i. Recognizing the existence of varied climatic tions in different parts of Jupiter. But let us turn from vague guesses at the purposes of the Almighty. to understand the special purpose for —in been created fine. . . "but about one-twentieth part of the light with which the full The nocturnal skies. might be argued it that the outer planets have greater need of moons than the inner.

seas. fact. for instance. and to determine from the snn There can be no doubt that the amount of heat poured by the sun on any portion of Jupiter's surface. or even greater. we cannot disregard. that the one to twenty- cannot be doubted that the this difference is situ- If exist to compensate for the defiin any way we can demonstrate mean temperature of the Jovial atmosphere own air. in the proportion of about And it arrangements effects of must be highly important. similarly The ated. in already stated. system.OTHER WORLDS THAN . placed perpendicularly with respect to the heat-rays. and yet. whatever may ciency of heat. template the position of this great orb in the solar how far its great distance may be compensated by other relations. lakes. be less on Jupiter than on our earth. quantities in the earth's atmosphere. We ceive the existence of vapors in the air which might can con- keep away from the earth's surface the greater portion of the sun's heat. direct heating effects of the sun must. by preventing the escape of the remainder by radiation into space. as own five. that it is principally the direct heat of the sun that causes the evaporation of water from the surface of oceans. yet equal to that of our the difference of the sun's direct heat involves a variety of consequences which We know. and rivand therefore all the important consequences which flow from the presence of aqueous vapor in large ers. But it cannot be doubted the general is at as great as it that such an . must be very much less than the amount received by an equal portion of our earth's surface. might leave warmth of the air around us present.38 OURS.

permitting their entrance toward the planet. referring to "WTiewell's estimate of the power on Jupiter and the other exterior was omission overlooked. and this vitiated the entire argu- sun's heating planets. a layer of and saturated with the would offer very little re- in thickness. Tyndall has exhibited the means by which this result may be brought about. " In these calculations. Prof. GIANT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. two inches For example. sistance to the passage of the ether rays. " the influence of an atmospheric envelope ment. rains. of the . indeed. and the inhabitants of the noblest planet in the solar system placed somewhat higher in the scale of creation than Whewell surmised. that it is by no means sufficient to show how the heat which falls upon Jupiter may be stored up. It follows. through the action of some component of in like direct action of the solar rays his It atmosphere in preventing is. because see that Jupiter and desolate as is we know that are thus enabled to not necessarily an abode so bleak some writers have imagined. And manner other effects accruing from the might be considered." he remarked. with their consequences. air. winds. then. of the utmost importance to even this is possible. so important for clouds. the welfare of terrestrial races. but pre- venting their withdrawal. It is perfectly possible to find which would an atmosphere act the part of a barb to the solar rays. arrangement would injuriously omy of evaporation and its affect the iffi whole econ- consequences. its radiation into space. but I find that it would cut off fully thirty-five per cent. In the following passage.JUPITER. mist. vapor of sulphuric ether.

we (!) and gluti- floating in boundless oceans. so. with a protecting envelope of this kind. . while. on cannot accept without question the gument by which an effort has been made ar- to indicate the possibility of a close correspondence between Jupiter's climate and our earth's. we must reject one of the chief arguments by which "Whewell existing on his surface in their nature was led to people Jupiter with cartilaginous nous creatures the other. so the outer planets may have a perfectly comfortable temperature. a comfortable tem- its perature might be obtained on the surface of our most distant planet. 4o planetary radiation. and it is perfectly evident that. while yet the sun's direct rays continue wholly unbearable.' OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. while yet that direct solar heat which exerts so many important influences on the earth must be supplied only in quantities which we should find wholly inadequate for our wants. I am far from desiring to infer that Jupiter must therefore be uninhabited. or even that the creatures must necessarily differ wholly from any with which we are familiar. permitting the heat to enter but preventing escape. But I think that. It would require no inordinate thickening of the layer of vapor to double this absorption . on the one hand." The difference between such an arrangement as this and the way in which the earth's temperature is obtained. when we were of that dealt with of is Mercury and Yenus. the exact converse considering the case Precisely as the mean tem- perature of the atmosphere of either of the interior planets may be no higher than that of our own air.

to i which lead views of a somewhat startling character. and that his globe was solid throughout. are led to the +1 most interesting and the relations exhibited by Jupiter. in fact. It is worthy of remark. On the On the first we last point we can form no opinion. or that they were combined in very different proportions. and conis almost sity in that zone. his mean density would seem to be rather less than one-fourth of the earth's.JUPITER. The belts of Jupiter are commonly arranged with . Jupiter has a density falling very far short of the mean mean density of the earth or the other small planets which travel with- According to the best estimates of his mass and apparent diameter. or rather to three closely-associated relations. that his denexactly the same as the sun's. In common with the other large planets lying outside the zone of the asteroids. it would follow that the substances composing Jupiter were either altogether different from those forming our earth. siderably greater than that of the other three outer planets hitherto discovered. must be guided by the appearance of the planet. Thus we are led tions just but variable belts tions to the second ol the three rela- —the appearance of well-marked on the planet — and of other indica- mentioned implying the existence of an atmosphere of great extent. or that his atmosphere was not of abnormal extent. GIANT And we here suggestive of all OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. or greater than the density of water by about onethird. If we were quite certain that the disk measured by us exhibits the real outline of the planet.

* What is required is not so much a high light-gathering as a high magnifying power.— l OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. while the intermediate light bands -vary from a pearly white in the equatorial belt. the light which reaches them is not reflected to us without a Thus the dark belts considerable loss of brilliancy. . though both points are of importance. 42 a certain symmetry on either side of the great equa- bright belt. to a grayish or The even bluish tint at the poles. every reason to believe that these belts indicate the existence of a very extensive vapor-laden atmosphere. nearly all the accounts in which the appearance of color has been specially dwelt upon. or even purplish tint. but sometimes there torial a rather is marked contrast between the northern and the southern halves of the planet. ruddy." vantage over refractors in exhibiting the colors of the planets at least. . is illustrate relations presently to There is picture of Jupiter frontispiece. have been received from observers who have used . reflectors. we see the light which those clouds have intercepted and. When the light is not adequately reduced by increase of magnifying power. through yellowish white in the middle latitudes of both hemispheres. while exhibiting many intended specially to be dealt with. The dark as the true cloud-belts. the Eeflectors seem to have an adcolor is lost in the resulting " glare. which forms the of the features usually seen. on the other hand. that we must not be considered because it must be remembered belts look upon the reverse side of the skyscape presented during the day to the Jovials so : that where they see densely-compacted dark clouds. In color the dark belts are usually when seen with suitable telescopic power * — of a coppery. where they see clear spaces.

but worthy of careful study. may hue must be ascribed to the these dark spots. GIANT OF af Jupiter are those regions where — if at all H3 —we see the true surface of the planet. been seen by Cassini. Been for a while through openings in the cloud-bed to . It seems clear. Whether such an appearance has ever been looked for I do not know. have means of judging from So of the planet's atmosphere? what the extent far as I know. Airy. We are forced to conclude. though surely their appearing of that effect of contrast. that if the bright and the dark belts the sur- face of the planet. the question has never been considered. then on the edge of the planet's disk we ought some to see cloud-belts projecting line of the planet — if irregularity of level slightly beyond the —the real out- the atmosphere have that enor- mous extent which some astronomers have supposed. then. JUPITER. viewing the belts in this light.THE SOLAR SYSTEM. or else the dark belts belong but to a lower cloud-layer. but has certainly never yet been it detected. that either the atmosphere of Jupiter interfere is not sufficiently extensive to appreciably with our measurement of the planet's bulk. be regarded as the real surface of the planet (unless they belong to a yet deeper cloud-layer). not to the planet's real surface. Now. in the first belts really are cloud-belts. spots have even been described as black. which have Madler. and Now. Schwabe. others. We have further evidence on this point in the ap- These pearance of dark spots on the dusky belts. we any is their aspect it is well place.

persistent scrutiny of the planet covery of laws of this sort. there is no recognizable law in the changes of shape exhibited by the belts of Jupiter —no may be periodicity or intelligible sequence. or whether they indicate the action of volcanoes beneath the dusky layer. ated features I that there am now may be more at first sight dealing with. How far the appearance of small round white spots on the dark belts may be considered as indicative of the extent and constitution of the Jovial atmosphere. must be admitted as highly probable. The third point on which I have to dwell variability of the belt-system. in passing. propelling enormous streams of vapor through the superincumbent cloud-beds. it will be seen in the analogy than one might be disposed to imagine. but those much more significant changes of color which have been recently discovered. but it is open to question whether they have formed there in the same way that cirrus-clouds are seen to form at a great elevation above a layer of cumulus clouds. that a systematic and might lead to the diswhich could not fail to indicate physical conclusions of the utmost imDortance. That they are dense clouds. The reader some resemblance will not what has been already mentioned respecting the sun-spots and when we come to the third and most striking of the associfail to notice here to . So far as is yet known. 44 which the dusky belts belong. is under which head I the in- clude not only variations in shape and extent.! OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. it is not very easy to determine. . It suggested. hanging suspended above the dusky cloudlayer.

those who are fortunate enough to possess fine telethem idle. In these days.JUPITER. — 10 — . While on every side there are subjects of research which most pre s&ingij require investigation. in the necessary taste themselves to going perhaps with relatively inferior powers. would be a simple waste of time and labor. lakes. so that subjects of inquiry turn arrives. or rivers. since of the real surface of Jupiter in is i that the condition some sort reflected. where tell even though no direct evidence of their existence might ever reward the observer. however. first.* The few original observers we have are overtasked by the multitude of questions of interest presented to their consideration. Nor is this the only way in which fine telescopes are wasted. further. if not the very when many I say that these imitations. With some ten or our private ob> twelve exceptions which it is unnecessary to name aervatories seem to have banished every thing resembling originality. in the aspect of his cloud-envelopes. at great pains and labor. or to employ scopes prefer either to leave powers in making observations. GIANT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. ground which has already been thoroughly ransacked by our great observers. we cannot doubt N"ay. even though they approached in char- —which they do not and cannot—the operations superintended acter so by the Astronomer Royal. or * It is painful to must perforce wait. seems far from might 4c it unlikely that a scrutiny of this sort us where his oceans and continents. of our professional astronomers. many of those who possess the requisite means ably —nay. those ous fine observatories powers of many noble instruments Continental opticians — devoted to —the the numerto see the chef-d'ceuvres of English and puny imitations of the work done at establishments. nine-tenths of his deserts. I speak on the authority Greenwich and other similar of one of the first. are not wanting — are unhappily applying and leisure for the purpose for observational research over. are situated. either till their those who have the means of till who know what might be done in now existing throughout England. which are not worth the paper on which their they are recorded. so to speak.

extent. causing them to assume the most ir« Fm. Browning. now Now they seem in some way under the action of disturbing forces of great intensity. 1) as Jupiter (Browning). they are very regularly disposed. At one time the belts cover a large proportion of the planet's at another they are singularly narrow. then. and general appearance. that can be asserted on the subject ering is.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. et (Fig. The accompanying picture ot the plan seen by Mr.—The Planet regular figure. with one of his . we are consid- that the planet's belts vary greatly in form. as inquiries have as yet been pushed. dusky disk. l. they are now engaged upon. 146 studying them choose to turn their thoughts from the sterile subjects So all far.

1869. while a third had almost disappeared in the same short interval of time is singularly variable. Cassini saw a complete new belt form on the planet. Mr. Browning (to whom I am indebted for the beautiful painting of Jupiter.JUPITER. which formed the design fiom which the frontispiece has been taken). we seem to recognize here the action of forces much more intense than those which influence the condition of the earth's atmosphere. a dark streak extending obliquely across The number the planet's equatorial regions. to a yellow. x ^? an appearance not uncom- seen. two wellmarked belts vanished completely. indicates monly THE SOLAR SYSTEM. observing Jupiter in the earlier part of the above-named interval. we have still But more if striking evidence to the same purpose in the changes of color which have recently been detected in the great equatorial belt. 1690. changes which may take place in it its is clear that any general aspect can- not but be of the utmost significance. and has long been recognized as one of the most constant features of the planet's aspect. which deepened in October. In the course of a single hour. As the mean surface of this belt cannot be less than a fifth of the whole surface of the planet. this belt has been more strongly colored than any part of the planet. found the equatorial belt of a greenish-yellow color. and on December 13. and in January of the present year full ochreish had assumed . at others there have been as many as live or six on each side of the planet's equator. ISTow. This belt is usually of a pearly white tint. during the autumn of 1869 and the spring of 1870. of belts Sometimes only one has been a een. GIANT OF own reflectors.

Other observers have also seen these colors. and on one only. and extent of the dark belts are sufficiently intelligible seem when we justified in doing. the bright belt north of the equator. found the greenishcolor above described . mentioned that. resembling yellow ochre. and Mr. Slack. when I attended the meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society on January 14. Buckingham. disposition. 21^ inches in aperture. Brindley. where Mr. hibiting strongly-marked equatorial belt has lost cellence. called by sailors the " doldrums.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. first tint. with an 8|-inch telescope of the same construction. he detected On one this tint in the While thus exand changing colors. its right to be called. associate them. But the equatorial zone is Jupiter's belt of calms." * I had written thus far only. Browning's 12^-inch telescope.* In the phenomena here described we have a problem whose interpretation is far from easy. the owner of the great refractor. using Mr. Mr. yellow tint of the equatorial belt last autumn altogether unmistakable. as we with variations in the position of the currents which traverse the vaporous envelope of Jupiter as the trades and counter-trades traverse the earth's atmosphere. Changes in the shape. 18V0. . with a 6-inch Browning. par ex- the bright belt of the planet. the great belt was resolved into a number of small solored clouds on a white ground. have witnessed most of the changes of and I myself. being consider- ably inferior in brilliancy to the narrow bright belts north and south of it. I4 8 an even darker occasion.With reflector. from whose performance so much was expected. as seen with thia powerful instrument. resembling in this respect the equatorial region.

wholly or partially. we assume that a portion of the light ordinarily received from the bright belt is. and. that the planet is. cannot but be looked upon as highly significant. to some is inherent —that extent. yet processes of change. can evidently not be We attributed to any such cause. especially changes affecting so enormous a body as and so extensive a proportion of Jupiter. continuing for several months in succession. had been why should this surface not exhibit a constant appearance ? We cannot suppose changes affecting Jupiter's real surface are taking place with sufficient rapidity to explain the series of strange color-changes observed by Messrs. self-luminous- then there remains the difficulty of explaining by what conceivable processes the equatorial regions are filled . But if. though occasional storms might be expected to agitate this region. on the other hand. recent research. his surface. progress ot by the are taught. GIANT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. to regard the color of the light derived from any source as a relation of the most instructive character. Browning.^ JUPITER. then we should have to regard the appearance of anv other color over this region as an indication that these cloud-masses unknown But swept away. either wholly or in part way — even if we assumed that in a portion of the surface of Jupiter brought into view. posing we regard equatorial belt Sup- the ordinarily white light of the as indicative of the existence of enormous masses of cloud reflecting ordinary solar light to us. through some cause. and changes of color. — passing over the objection that this view leaves our difficulty unexplained this had been. and other astronomers. Slack.

since the though constituted of the same elements as . We have seen same elements exist as in the earth. Far more probably the lesson we from these circumstances is. so to speak. or else a few cinders in the centre of Jupiter's globe constitute the only sdid portion of his substance. But sidered I have spoken of the three relations last con- —the small density of Jupiter.i OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. and that in the only planet whose nature we have been able to examine satisfactorily we find evidence of the existence of the same forms of matxci that we see that in the sun the around us. "We know that Whewell. that either the substance of the planet is wholly watery. nor is it likely that Mars is the only planet whose general atmospheric constitution resembles the earth's. the type of the family over which he rules. reasoning from the low was led to the conclusion specific gravity of Jupiter. that are really to learn throughout the solar system a general similarity of constitution exists. we Differences are compelled to recognize. of condition sun itself. 5o with a yellow light. It cannot but be held as highly improb- able that the earth the only is member of the planetary system whose substance thus closely resembles that of the parent orb. and the changes which take place in the shape and color of his belts as associated phenomena. the sun being. — It remains that I should endeavor to justify this state- ment. so full and bright as to reach our earth from beyond four hundred millions of miles. his extensive at- mosphere. It need hardly be said that the whole progress of modern astronomy is opposed to this view.

to these two forms of action) could not possibly be so violent even as on It is as efficiently our own earth. as due rather to some peculiarity in the condition of these orbs than to liarity of structure Whewell as any such pecu- insisted on. but justifying us in believing that nj and has a mean we have no evidence any important differ- ences of constitution exist throughout the solar system. is in so different a state density relatively so small . Let which tend strikingly to confirm it be remembered that. tooked on as a cause of atmospheric disturbance. must be smaller as the distance between the zones is greater. regions would be experienced) are separated by distances so very much greater. JUPITER. It is clear that. that even though the sun acted upon the air and oceans of Jupiter (assumed to be similar to our own). while along another he exerts a different influence. we are led to regard the singularly small density of Jupiter and of the other planets outside the orbits of the asteroids. yet atmospheric disturbances (due chiefly. GIANT OF THE SOZA. tlie earth. Thus.. yet a sun twenty-five times farther off than ours could not by any possibility load his atmosphere with the enormous masses of vapor actually present in it. also. that the relatively sluggish action of the sun upon Jupiter could not by any possibility give rise to atmospheric disturbances so tre- mendous as those which are evidenced by the rapid changes of figure of his cloud-bands. supposing Jupiter's globe even to be wholly covered with water. the result of the difference. Let it be remembered. further. It will be seen at once that Jupiter's extensive atmospheric envelope and the strange changes in the aspect of his belts are circumstances this impression.* * When to this worthy of consideration. as we know.R SYSTEM. where corresponding effects . since corresponding latitudes of Jupiter (that is. if along a certain zone of a planet the sun exerts a certain amount of influence.

sending up continually enormous masses of cloud. if one use the expression. we seem to led to the conclusion that Jupiter mass. are to And if analogy is to be our guide. and we judge of the condition of Jupiter according what we know or guess of the past condition of the earth and the present condition of the sun. fluid probably throughout. we see at once that. unless some other cause than solar action were at work. No atmosphere otherwise can one understand whence is loaded with vapor-masses whose contents must exceed. we add tlie relative minuteness of the seasonal changes on Jupiter. as it seems vitality. within the orb which presents so glorious an aspect upon our disturbance must be at work wholly from any taking place on our own earth. It seems to me that these considerations point with tolerable clearness to the conclusion that. all . on a moderate computation. processes of different vaporous masses by some influence exerted from be- Those disturbances which take place and so rapidly are the evidences of the action of forces enormously exceeding those which the sun can by any possibility exert upon so distant a neath its level. the condition of Jupiter's atmosphere ought to be very much calmer than that of the earth's. can one explain the intense is. That enormous atmospheric envelope is loaded with skies. seething with the intensity of is still still a glowing bubbling and the primeval fires. to be gathered into bands under the influence of the swift rotation of the giant planet.OTHER WORLDS THAN 152 OURS. so frequently globe. to may otherwise. of a planet circumstanced as Jupiter his No me.

the —or view to which I have been led by a careful phenomena which Jupiter presents our contemplation be indeed correct. are in reality globes which may * Even if be compared with the four worlds that we take the disappearance formation of clouds. * when we recognize the tremendous character of the motions which. is there not ex- which ciraround him consists of four worlds where life even such forms of life as we are familiar with may cellent reason for believing that the system cles — still exist Those four orbs. which our telescopes ? re- veal to us as tiny points of light. and that the tinctly cognizable theory we adopt for their explanation cannot be other- wise than striking and surprising. is at pres- Yet need we not turn from his system with the thought that here at least our hopes of recognizing other worlds have been disappointed. but still a source of heat. thousands of miles in width. GIANT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. the oceans on the surface of this earth. we must of consideration of the to — course dismiss the idea that the giant planet ent a fit abode for living creatures.— JUPITER. from beyond four hundred millions of miles. the forces represented by the change is are nevertheless tremendous. 1$3 "When we see masses so enormous swayed by influences of such energy. are closed up in a single hour . we see that we have no ordinary phenomena to deal with. If the view which I have here put forward rather. not indeed resplendent like the great centre of the planetary scheme. that intermediate belts. are dis- by our telescopes. If Jupiter be still in a sense a sun. . which of a dark belt to be due to the perhaps more probable than that the clouds of neighboring belts have closed in.

therefore. shown that they not subserve the purpose which many can- astronomers have ascribed to them. we still are led to the must be the abode view only. That Jupiter may supply an immense amount of . in fact. the future oceans of Jupiter. body. be regarded as for the most part aqueous. and on find a raison d'etre both for this tem which circles round him. The solar clouds are. We see there. even if they the small could be seen from any point of his cloud-encom- So passed surface. we the planet and for the sys- belief that the satellites of Jupiter of life.i OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. even adopting the common- view that the purpose of any obbe regarded as ascertained when we have superficial been able to ask (without any obvious answer) what other purpose it can subserve. It need hardly be said that I do not regard him as being in the same condition as the central luminary of the planetary system. There are no considerations which appear directly opposed to the view that Jupiter is in a sense a sun. of compensating Jupiter for amount of light he receives. since on this view. or. 54 circle nearest to I have the sun. those of Jupiter are not so. a circumstance which indicates that the heat of Jupiter to vaporize those substances when is The outer in the liquid state. place ject and may that. if he is. themselves luminous. He is not an incandescent the greater part of his light is veiled by the cloud-envelopes which surround him. as we know. not sufficient which are incandescent layer of clouds must. if the hypothesis I am now dealing with be correct.

Whether his observations or the light than a planet of equal size stituted like Mars. and (as exceeds the sun's more than sixtyfold. the eminent photometrician. Jupiter's brother giant.JUPITER. innermost he is seen by his apparent size. not. fourteen hundred times as large as his. Bond. Jupiter reflects more than three-fifths. therefore. Gr. however. serve to show. We have evidence. singular excess of his brilliancy over that due to his size and his distance from the sun and from us. more than a half. The estimates of Zollner. that Jupiter sends more light to us than he receives from the sun. which renders from improbable that Jupiter may it far emit some small I have already referred to the proportion of light. GIANT OF TEE SOLAR SYSTEM. The late Prof. once how large a supply of heat he mitting to them. the . or the earth. . could possibly reflect to us if placed where Jupiter is. When we consider the enormous apparent size of Jupiter as seen from his satellites. 155 heat to his satellites (on this view of his condition) is amount of light he emits is no adequate measure of the amount of obscure heat which radiates from him to the four worlds around perfectly clear. but that he sends much more and conmoon. From the seen with a diameter nearly forty times and with an apparent area more than that of the sun. indeed. since the kim. The moon sends less than a fifth Saturn. From is we recognize at capable of trans- the outermost satellite his apparent diameter exceeds that of the sun us) some eightfold. of America. actually calculated that Jupiter sends forth more light than he receives. Whereas Mars reflects but one-fourth of the light he receives.

of white paper. at first sight. is wholly opposed to the view that any por- tion of his light is native. no force at all in this consideration. 6 more systematic observations of the German astronomer are accepted. probable that the mass of the planet must be intensely hot. that a satellite in transit will occasionally ap- oear as dark as its shadow. and those of Mars or the moon. but. as we find a to be of a dull coppery hue. even though under the telescope the planet's surface were found to be universally white large proportion of seem forced to it . Zollner's if Jupiter do not shine in part face must possess reflective Now. that the apparent black- ness of the satellites' shadows. as seen on the disk of Jupiter. whatever weight we may attach to the observed appearance of the satellites' shadows is in favor of the strange theory here put forward. It may seem. both seeming black.I 5 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. and this we cannot but regard it as highly that Jupiter shines in part being admitted. from other researches of Dr. by his own light. But. In fact. his sur- powers nearly equal to those this would scarcely be credible. It follows. For it has been a subject of remark among the most experienced obthere is servers. admit that it we cannot really have an av- erage reflective power nearly so great as that calculated by Zollner. light. it by native follows that. as a matter of fact. as at least highly probable. or rather. we see that. we must recognize a marked difference between the relative light-reflecting capacities of the two largest planets of the system. unless we adopt some such hypothesis as I have dealt with above. The .

the centre of a noble system of worlds. The more one dwells on the features he presents. inhabited by beings as high perhaps in the scale of creation as he himself is in the scheme of the planets. A stronger argument against the belief ter is that Jupi- self-luminous. he one dav the abode of noble . Surely. noble planet. Although I have already far exceeded the limits 1 had proposed to myself for the consideration of this it is with regret that I take leave of him onward to the outermost bounds of the solar system. to pass on a subject of contemplation at once so interesting and so instructive. or Jupiter. Jupiter. and that his satellites would. is alike a worthy subject of study. whether must be intended to be now inhabited or poy. and an effect of con- reality. lies in the fact that the satellites disappear in his shadow. lose so large a proportion of their light that we might when passing into his shadow. however. in any case.JUPITER. even under the closest telescopic scrutiny. himself a world. that in any case must be remembered. the shadow of a satellite is dis- not black. i$ 7 only apparent. and therefore there seems no escape from the conclusion that the surface on which they are projected is partially self-luminous. if such observations as I have men- know no tioned are to be trusted (and I reason for regarding them). In trast. I would fain dwell even longer than I have. expect them to disappear. GIANT OF Diaekness. therefore. is THE SOLAR SYSTEM. then. It we can assign but a small proportion of inherent light to Jupiter. the more one is impressed with the sense of the grandeur of his position in the universe.

remembered thankfully. 58 races. gathering fresh delight as feature after feature is revealed tiny —he who beneath his scru- takes his astronomy but at second-hand from the pages of the real worker. and harsh though every note thrills through his inmost soul but. be it tronomer. but in another sense may say with the Pythago- : " There's not one orb which thou behold'st But in Still his motion like an angel sings. . But the astronomer. the heavens are always teaching. name can Surely no astronomer worthy the regard this grand orb as the cinder-centred globe of watery matter so contemptuously dealt with by one who. The music which reaches his ears may be fitful.. quiring to the young-eyed cherubim But while this muddy vesture of decay Doth grossly close us in we cannot hear it. was not an asHe who has not gazed hour after hour on the glories of the giant planet." . and find only the grotesque and the incongruous. where in reality there is the perfectest handiwork of the Creator. even when its sounds are least distinct. they have In a beauty and solemnity which are all their own. fine. turning from la- fields " to see what these star-gazers have bors in other to say. reads a nobler lesson in the skies. l OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. ." may lightly disregard the grand lesson which. but it is not " as sweet bells jangled out of tune may not master its full meaning. imbued with the sense of beauty and perfection which each fresh hour of world-study instils more deeply into his soul. " he the true astronomer rean.

to appreciate the true character of the purposes which the various parts of the Saturnian system are . inalike deed. Sat- urn supplies an argument of scarcely inferior strength in the singularly which he is complex character of the scheme of No one can contemplate this the centre. as shown by a telescope of adequate power.CHAPTEE SATURN I If Jupiter by his a forceful earth is VI. commanding proportions affords argument against the view that our tiny the only real world in the solar system. without being impressed by the conviction that he is looking at a world altogether more important in the scheme of creation than the globe on which he lives. THE KINGED WOELD. He may not be able. Whether he recognizes in the present condi- tion of the planet the result of the action of those laws which the Almighty has assigned to His universe. glorious planet. he is amazed at the wealth of design exhibited in the scene he is gazing upon. or his whether he prefers the view that Saturn and system are seen now as they were fashioned at the beginning by the Almighty's creative hand.

160 intended to subserve. his the length of his day being about 10^ of our hours. I eight years since? '. — I . OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. is inclined about better calculated to lead men 28-J- de- to choose astronomy as their favorite subject of study. be led to erroneous con- ceptions. fall below Saturn far more than he does below JuStill scarcely ninety times as is Saturn sufficiently large is piter. and even Uranus and Neptune. composed is greater than half that Saturn's substance mean than that of any known planet. but that the great planet is designed for purposes of the noblest sort. and massive to dwarf our earth to insignificance. ally lighter not impossible that we have in this relation den- specific- is It seems some in- dication of the true cause of that complexity of detail which the Saturnian system The equator * I know nothing of Saturn exhibits. or he may. is twelve hundred and thirty times. than the contemplation of the Satur- nian system.. and giants compared with the earth. or less than three-fourths of the In sity of water. Saturn heavy as she is.* In volume and mass Saturn is inferior to Jupiter. while Jupiter outweighs her three hundred times.hat view as my can well remember the sensations with which — some saw the ringed planet for the first time. in the rash attempt to solve the mighty problem. Saturn rotates very rapidly on axis. Saturn is Jupiter not quite seven hundred times as large as the earth and. have a The mean materials of which Saturn density not much of Jupiter. though belonging to the family of the major planets. fact. Like Jupiter. I look on introduction to the most fascinating of all the sciences. he cannot gravely ques- tion.

almost exactly equal to Near the poles there is increase in the action of Saturnian gravity. there by a similar portion His orbit being somewhat eccentric. insomuch that light when he is nearest to the sun he than when in aphelion in the receives more proportion of about five to four. is a considerable variation in this re- spect during the course of a Saturnian year. insomuch that a body weighing ten pounds at his equator would weigh about twelve pounds at either There is nothing. and the small . a marked solar system. so that seasons his 161 (so far as they depend on this circum- stance) closely resemble in character those of the plan- Mars. gjrees to the plane in which the planet moves.years in once round the sun — this therefore is the His distance from the sun Saturnian year. pole. circling length of the is nearly twice that of Jupiter.SATURN: THE RINGED WORLD. The length 11 this peculiarity of the Saturnian year. et fe occupies about 29 j. in which need be specially dwelt upon. however. in order to come more quickly to those circumstances cially among the other whicb distinguish Saturn spe- members of the Gravity at his equator is gravity at the earth's surface. however. which have to be considered discussing the habitability of Saturn have been Most of the in relations already dealt with (under very similar conditions) in treating of other planets . so that I propose to touch on them very lightly. and nearly ten times that of the earth so that the amount of lteht and heat which any portion of his surface receives from the sun is : about -^-st part of that received of the earth's.

apprehend that. over which the ring's shadow proceeds to sweep. altogether a mistake on the part of Dr. we cannot regard even the exceptional effects produced by his ring-system as of themselves sufficient to banish These effects are they have been may I life from his surface. Lardner to interpret Herschel's words as though implying that a whole hemisphere of the planet is eclipsed for fifteen years in succession. not without interest. lonp. are simply more marked instances of what has already been considered in the case of Jupiter. therefore. and. I be permitted to make a few remarks upon them. after the edge of the ring has been turned directly toward the sun. he meant sim- ply that during an interval of such length a large portion oi either hemisphere was in shadow. remains illuminated. globe. as made the subject of some discussion. So misinterpreting the expression used by Sir John . It had always seemed to me. "We may conclude with some confidence that these relations are quite sufficient to render Saturn wholly uninhabitable by such creatures as exist upon the earth seems no reason for supposing that . but there (so far as relations alone are concerned) the planet may these not be the abode of living beings as high in the scale of creation as any And which live upon our thus viewing Saturn. He knew perfectly well that. however. first to the northern and then to the southern hemisphere of the planet.1 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. when Sir John Herschel said that the rings occasion an eclijDse of nearly fifteen years in duration. a very large proportion of the hemisphere. 62 quantity of light and heat received from the sun.

in general. in All these statements are more or less and most of them are the direct reverse of The seven inner satellites of Saturn stand an altogether different relation. that the case (considering the whole planet) is more for the . including the sun and . : ' the eight satellites. un- der some rare and exceptional circumstances and conditions. He examined the relations presented by the ring in a ^^-mathematical. Lardner. was led into real mistakes which a sounder mathematician would not have fallen into. in his desire to show that no such relation existed. than an outer ring can be outlines of the rings : occulted by an inner one. such objects as pass under the rings are only occulted by them for short intervals before their meridional culmination (sic) . and the places of their occurrence are far more limited. certain number— are objects — the sun being among the occulted from rising to setting. Dr. therefore. no more be occulted by the rings. Herschel. although." incorrect.^ SATURN: THE RINGED WORLD. by the apparent motions of the heavens produced by the diurnal rotation of Saturn. that. the celestial objects. ing true that the sun short time before common and is So far is it again from be- in general only occulted for a after culmination. the en- durance of these phenomena is not such as has been supposed. and came to the following conclusions That. than all other celestial objects. with respect to the rings. since in the same plane and they travel in circles concentric with the they can. that they are moved so as to pass alternately from side to side of these edges . are not carried parallel to the edges of the rings . the truth. but inexact manner. and after that.

it is only ne- more than is totally five years in succession. the sun eclipsed for for the eclipses.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. in Saturnian latitudes corre- sponding to that of London or Paris. is. and. in a latitude corresponding to that of while Madrid he is totally eclipsed for nearly seven years in succession. but I was pleased to receive a letter from Mr. but free from eclipse in the middle of the day. by any means views formed he dealt with could not feel not the less of St. Freeman.* * The views here expressed as to the effects of the Saturnian rings which the elements are founded on exact mathematical calculation. polar regions during a comparatively short interval. a Fellow are given in a difficult one. by considering that I the problem in a general instead of an exact manner. 164 sun to be eclipsed throughout the whole of and a very common case. together unnoticed by Dr. since every part of the planet whence the rings are visible at all has the sun eclipsed by the rings throughout the whole day for a longer or shorter succession of rotations. endurance of the total diurnal cessary to remark As that. the places where the sun can Nor is true that it be totally eclipsed throughout the day are limited to a relatively small portion of the planet. any doubt as to the accuracy of my results. for the same reason that he is absent from the skies of our. Lardner can be explained is. This suffices to show that an arrangement which the inhabitants of earth would find wholly unendurable prevails over a very large proportion of Saturn's surface. in the remaining O 7 7 or polar regions of the planet. Lardner. the sun is altogether absent for long intervals of time. of my treatise on Saturn. that the sun is occulted in the forenoon and afternoon. The problem is not and the only way in which the erroneous by Dr. left al- (if at all) the Saturnian day . John's .

it would surely follow that there was a want of wisdom by which more light in the selection of an arrangement is kept away from Saturn than the rings can possibly reflect to him. if we consider the matter rightly. we L 65 shall see need not surprise us. insist on their own interpretation of the Almighty's designs. after all. that is. for in- difficulties. we assign to him a mean climate as warm as that of the earth. since there is already in the enormous distance of Saturn from the that this. stance. from the rings is most during the long nights College. In the case of Saturn as in the case of Jupiter." and so closely according with it as not to need separate publication. . stating that he had obtained similar results. It is in vain that. by conceiving him to be surrounded by a dense atmosphere. The want of direct solar heat still remains. and had constructed a table on the plan of Table XI. in my "Saturn. during the very season light derived planet. and must be regarded as a fatal objection to the habitability of Saturn by races resembling those with which we are familiar. the provision of satellites. is altogether inadequate to increase the supply of light by the Saturnians to any such extent as has Those well-meaning persons who received been imagined. But. and of the rings which form so glorious an object to the astronomer on earth. are singularly successful in overlooking very obvious If the design of the rings.SATURN: THE RINGED WORLD. sun the amplest reason for believing that he canuo? be inhabited by such creatures as exist upon the earth. when the extra required by the And further. Cambridge. really were to compensate the Saturnians for the small amount of light which they receive from the sun.

-J. they could only send back to the planet. the scheme of the Creator is not so obvious that the satellites . bears about the all full tion to our moon's. they cover an area about six times that of our and as. f. and. especially are nearly that. concealing whole constellations from the view of the Saturnian people. y^-. if there really are intelligent beings on the planet. full. there is no corresponding difficulty.. if it were possible for them to be all full are illumined together. 166 of the Saturnian winter. they by only j^oth of the light which illuminates our moon. moon from the sun. £$. the quantity of light they could send their pensate for the planet's great distance from the sun. It will could be together. According to the best estimates of their magnitude. In all. taken in their order from the planet. as in many other design as has been imagined. about -^th part of the light we receive from be remembered that the light which could be reflected from the Jovial moons. the satellites must undoubtedly present an interesting when a large number of the moons But a little consideration will show even though all the satellites were full at the same spectacle. if they the full moon. 1J. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. -f. owing to their great distance then. the eight satellites. 1. cover spaces on the Saturnian heavens which bear to the space covered by our moon the respective propor- tions of about 2. back to primary would be wholly inadequate to com- time. We same propor- seem forced to the conclusion were intended to subserve no such Here. they exhibit a dart band upon the heavens. As far as the satellites are concerned. eases. They undoubtedly reflect the sun's light to Saturn.



while the bright belts are yellowish all —the equatorial belt being the and almost white. we are compelled to recognize the action of forces altogether exceeding those which the sun can be supposed to exert The planet. to human 167 reasoning as some have complacently sup- posed. and actually received the upon is so observed iu nearly ap- proaches the proportion noticed in the case of Jupiter as to lead to the same inference —namely. a much light sent to us case of this distant from Saturn greater proportion to the also bears amount of solar light by the planet than Mars or the moon. invisible vapors are condensed into cloud). those near the plate. The belts of Saturn resemble those of Jupiter in their general shape companying and also in their color —see the ac- The dark belts near the equator brown or ruddy tinge. But we have now to consider peculiarities which suggest that Saturn's globe has not jet reached a condition fitting it to be the abode of living creatures. The belts change have been observed in aspect to do . much as those of Jupiter and whether we regard the change as due to the bodily transference of the belts of cloud or to the precipitation of their material in the form of rain (while. elsewhere. are of a faint pole bluish or greenish gray. The poles are brightest of commonly dusky and even sombre in hue. but a certain most remarkable phenomenon belongs to the ringed planet alone.SATURN: THE RIXGED WORLD. These peculiarities resemble in great part those which have been already noticed in the case of Jupiter. that a por- .

elliptical figure. I turn to one of the most striking facts in the whole range cf observational astronomy. Without dwelling further on evidence already fully considered in the case of Jupiter. i68 of Saturn's light t:'on is emitted from the body of the planet. and not himself the abode of living circle creatures. with the observa- no mere amateur astronomers that I have to deal in endeavoring to establish as a fact that which has commonly been spoken of as an illusion the assumption by Saturn of his so-called " square-shouh tions of — dered " figure. If it can be shown that Saturn's globe is subject to changes of figure perceptible even across the enormous gap which separates him from the earth. to we seem also in the small density of which points to recognize evidence Saturn as probably a heat-sun (if not to any very noteworthy extent a light-sun) to the satellites which round him. that Sir William Herschel called attention to this peculiarity. A well-marked .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. The planet. It first was in April. and the planet. 1805. I have very little hesi- tation in saying that evidence of the most conclusive kind exists in favor of this strange mobility of It will presently be seen that it is figure. as supplying at once evidence respecting the condition Saturn of new and strengthening the evidence adduced respecting Jupiter. In these respects. Now. which had always presented to him an exhibited a strangely-distorted aspect. it will at once be admitted that he can hardly be regarded as a globe conveniently habitable.

the planet should always shouldered aspect ticular extent . 'What view shah we form respecting an observation of so remarkable a character "Was the peculiarity ? due to telescopic distortion ? Herschel observed it with several instruments. flattening at the equator. the longest diameters having their extremities in Satur- — nian latitude 43° 20' so exactly was the great astronomer able to indicate the nature of the deformity. accept the astounding conclusion the giant bulk of Saturn mendous ? that subject to throes of so tre- a nature as to upheave whole zones of his eurface five or six level is hundred miles above Truly the conclusion we can by any is their ordinary one to be avoided. when looking we at a picture representing that particular phase of Saturn. Was the phe- nomenon clue to atmospheric disturbances ? Such dis- turbances could not account for a persistent impression. Must we. however well they might explain the momentary assumption of the square-shouldered appearance. aspect by the Besides. when and slightly his rings are ? open to that par- this is not the case. 169 accompanied by an equally well-marked flattening at the poles. gave the planet's globe an oblong figure (with rounded angles). one twenty. some ten. if possibility find a less startling expla- nation of the matter . and one forty feet in length. some seven. owing to its well-marked character. then. ought to notice a similar open exhibit the square- illusion. Besides. Jupiter presented no such ringed planet. Was the appearance an optical illusion due to the position of the ring —then If so.SATURN: THE RINGED WORLD.

1803. 1805 we know further that by careful measurements . But we have abundant evidence that the great astronomer was in the full possession of all his wonderful powers as an observer during the month of April. were at least such as to prepare us to regard the globe of Saturn as liable to remarkable changes of figure. from one of an admirable many such obser- I take the following series of papers on Sat- urn by Mr. or peculiarities which. the Astronomer Royal had a similar view of Saturn. in the Intellectual Observer for 1866. vations have been recorded. to of illusion affecting satisfactory. however. doubtless. At this time the ring must have appeared too narrow to account for On one occasion the appearance as due to illusion. for ex- ample. to the learn that other observers had noticed similar peculiarities. On August 5. Schroter found Saturn not Kitchener says that few months in the autumn of 1818 he saw Saturn of the figure described by Sir William Herschel. Fortunately. )7 Yet where are we to look for such an explanation \ Was Sir William Herschel simply deceived ? I have already considered the general question of illusion. that with . "Webb.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. he rigidly excluded his judgment. It all possibility would be more reader. for a two different achromatics. and perfectly spheroidal in figure. might have rendered his observations inexact. but the reader might entertain the explanation as conceivable that Herschel might for a while have lost the acumen which distinguished him —that illness. if not similar.

us. when the ring was most widely opened. In January. have no- ticed similar peculiarities. Coolidge." All this time the rings were nearly at their greatest opening. the planet seeming flattened instead of upheaved. in latitude 45°. the polar regions did not always seem projected farthest on the outer ring in a symmetrical manner. so that any illusion should to that observed acter 1 when the rings were nearly In the report of the Greenwich Observatory it is stated that " Saturn has sometimes closed.. On when the ring was turned edgewise the other hand. that a person unacquainted with Herschel's observation remarked spontaneously on the On flattened equator of the planet. using the splendid refractor of the Cambridge. 1855. using the great tor already referred to. but on the 9th the equatorial diameter cember 6th he it seemed the greatest says. noticed that the greatest diameter of the globe seemed inclined about 20° to the equatorial diameter. Airy noticed the exact reverse. Mr. He i?l remarks. S. " I cannot persuade myself that an optical illusion which makes the is maximum diameter of the ball intersect the limb half-way be- tween the northern edge of the equatorial belt and the inner ellipse of the inner bright ring. U. also. while on De. for have been of an opposite char- 860-'61. Merzre frac- Each of them noticed a flat- tening of the north-polar regions of the planet in the summer toward of 1848. father and son. . appeared to exhibit the square-shouldered aspect.SATURN: THE RINGED WORLD." The eminent observers Bond. another occasion. but four times on the left of the pole. Observatory. the same observers noticed that in 1855-'5T.

and Main in 1848 toward (when the ring was again turned edgewise made similar measurements. there can planet Saturn be no doubt whatever that the not ordinarily distorted. during the disappearance of the ring. exhibit any when distortion of figure such as Herschel had described. ally appeared irregularly flattened and distorted. adopt. We seem almost compelled. 172 once on the right. the conclusion that the planet Saturn influence of forces is to accept subject to the which either upheave portions of its surface from time to time. Bessel carefully determined the figure of the planet's disk. whose real substance emits a less intense light than the cloud-photosphere surrounding him. Now. at the seasons they respectively measured it. Saturn and Jupiter." an appearance not satisfactorily explained by the juxtaposition of the dark shadow of the planet on the ring. In fact. or cause vast masses of cloud to rise to an enormous height above the layer of Saturn's cloud-envelope. though the cloudstrata surrounding him may prevent us from recognizglobe of Saturn . according to this view. Each of us) these trustworthy authorities came to the conclusion that the disk of Saturn did not. and once only. ing more than a minute proportion of his luminosity. we cannot tense heat must fail to mean Whichever view we recognize the fact that an in- in all probability prevail in the great and doubtless the real mass of the planet must emit a brilliant light. therefore. . unlike the sun. exactly opposite " The outline of this region also occasion- the pole. is In 1832.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.

if we so often applied to are to ask ourselves according to what arrangement the central planets and the schemes circling round them seem most reasonably interpreted. if we are to judge accord- method which has been such questions. sults a close There thus always re- agreement between the zone on which the disturbing influences. at least as strongly as that which has been adduced in the case of Jupiter. whose satellites travel in a plane inclined nearly thirty degrees to that in which their primary tion. No such co- incidence exists in the case of Saturn. records that on certain occasions he thought he could detect partial flattenings of the disk of Jupiter (see also Preface). but are suns. the belief that the giant planets outside the zone of asteroids are not themselves suitable abodes for living creatures. It is worthy of men- however. rather than Jupiter. Why Saturn. ing to the Undoubtedly. sup- plementing the small amount of fully light. an accurate and practised observer. I think the evidence in the case of Saturn favors. and yet more supplementing the small amount of heat which the sun supplies to the satellites which circle around these orbs. . should exhibit these mysterious changes of figure.SATURN: THE RINGED WORLD. that Schroter. and satellites exert their greatest that most influenced by the solar action. travels. must have nuclei — solid or liquid 73 —shining with an altogether ruore brilliant light than the cloud-envel- opes of these planets seem actually to emit. ble when we remember readily explica- is the near coincidence of the move with the planes in which the Jovial satellites orbital plane of their primary.

since the two outer ones could neither give any useful light to their primary. we see in the Saturnian and Jovial systems real miniatures of the solar system. 174 we should at once adopt some such conclusion. For reasons which seem to me far more convincing. the case of Saturn's satellites. we do not find in any portion of either system that waste of material which perplexes us under the former arrangement. On the other hand. In fine. we find ourselves perplexed eration that a much by the consid- simpler arrangement would have subserved these purposes much more completely. and their satellites to be subsidiary bodies. by taking Jupiter and Saturn to be strictly analogous to our own earth. however. any more than we require that our sun should be so. "We no longer require that the planets themselves should be habitable. I to the opinion that it is portant members given to of the planetary scheme must be left without inhabitants for the present. indeed.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. For. resembling our moon in this. to believe that the two most imgreat force. I am led. that they sub- no other purpose but to illuminate the nocturnal skies and to sway the oceans of their serve at present primaries. nor sway appreciably any oceans which may exist upon the planet. if Saturn and Jupiter are suns to their satellites. I do not say that this mode of reasoning has any cult to conceive that these bodies could tended to fulfil On am disposed to demur man to assign a reason for all things which science may reveal to him. while in exchange . the contrary. it seems In diffi- have been inany such purposes.

.SATURN. I 175 submit to the contemplation of the curious twelve small orbs. constituting two miniature world-systems. TEE RINGED WORLD. The condition of these worlds will be touched on briefly in a separate chapter.

AND NEPTUNE. which. To look at the series of equi- and concentric circles representing the orbits of the planets. a distance five times as great as that which separates our earth from the sun has to be traversed ? But the distance separating Uranus from Saturn is twice as great even as this tremendous gap. Nine hundred millions of miles in width is the enormous gap by which the path of Uranus is separated from that of the ringed planet on the inner side. distant • We know so little of the physical aspect of Uranus . who would suppose that. THE ARCTIC PLANETS. or from Uranus to Neptune. in nearly owing all to the unsatisfactory is apt to manner in books on astronomy.CHAPTEE TTKANUS A VII. so that a line equal to the diameter of Jupiter's orbit would barely suffice to reach from Saturn to Uranus. in passing from the orbit of Jupiter to that of Saturn. circumstance which is of great importance in considering the relations of the outer planets be lost sight of. and from that of distant Neptune on the outer. the planetary orbits are represented. while Neptune travels as far beyond Uranus as Uranus beyond Saturn. even when either pair of planets are in conjunction.

So small does the sun appear. and in these proportions the and heat received by these planets are respectively diminished. Neptune -j^-tlis. therefore. each of them outweighs many times the combined mass of the four planets which travel within the zone of asteroids. while that of great as the earth's. and that of is but -j^ths. though these sive two It will be seen.250 miles. volume of Neptune 105 times that of the Both planets exceed Saturn in density for. 74. Yet gravity on the surface of these two orbs is but about threefourths of terrestrial gravity. The mass of Uranus exceeds the earth's about 12 Neptune is some 16f times as times. and Neptune that it is extremely opinion as to their condition.J . planet has a density nearly equal to that of water. solar light in fact. 12 . Thus each specific gravity of our globe. The disk of the sun as seen from than that which to 1. but would appear like an exceedingly brilliant day-star. that far-distant worlds are much less mas- than Jupiter or Saturn. that to eyes such as ours his orb could not present a disk-like figure. difficult to 177 form any The two planets resem- ble each other in size. . we Uranus is less see in the proportion of nearly 390 while the Neptunians have a sun only about -j^o-th of ours. whereas Saturn's mean specific gravity that of of the Uranus mean is -j^ths.250 miles Neptune is somewhat larger. the earth. each being far smaller than either of the giant orbs we have lately been consid- Uranus has a diameter of about 33. in apparent size. his diameter having been The volume of Uranus is estimated at 37. ering. URANUS AND NEPTUNE—ARCTIC PLANETS.

and. 78 So far planets we have found sider a relation similar. nearly at right angles to the plane in which the planIt may be mentioned also. even the relation dealt with know is peculiar to Uranus. the position of the plane near which the satellites travel is nearly coincident with the plane of the primary's equator. We conclude. seems thoroughly to dispose of the claim of this planet to be regarded as a world inhabited by creatures resembling those acquainted with on earth . that they travel in a retrograde direction. then. portant for my present purpose. know so little the circumstances of the two But we have now presented by Uranus. that the axis Uranus lies very nearly in the plane wherein the planet moves around the sun. in the case of Uranus. Now. however. though not imet travels. though no telescope has yet exhibited any features on the disk of Uranus which can enable us to determine the position of its we can reasonably infer from the motion of the satellites how the equator of the planet is situated. the satellites of Uranus travel in a plane very equator. as in that of Saturn. Therefore. as we cannot we are reason- Neptune to be inhabited by such creawhile Uranus is not. and that the planet rotates iu such a way around this axis that the sun of . I am about to adduce. shared in by Neptune.i OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. that in the case of Jupiter. we may very fairly regard ably suppose tures the question thong) i We as disposed of for both planets. which somewhat to conis not may be remarked that we about either planet that any very care- ful consideration It of their habitability would be simply The evidence a waste of labor.

the former. but in the case of Uranus the We have result of so effects are more only to consider what would be the wide a range of solar excursion north and south of the celestial equator in a latitude correspond- ing to that of London. or only fifteen degrees above the horizon. . an elevation of about 3S|.URAXUS AND NEPTUNE—ARCTIC PLANETS. of any hopes we might entertain of discovering creatures in Uranus resembling those which inhabit the earth. The latter relation is of 7g east. sults The to the it inclination of the plane of Uranus's equator path in which he travels being about 76 degrees. in- no great importance. however. I have dealt with a peculiarity of this sort serious. in considering the seasons of Venus. latitude. he travel throuo-hout the dav would in summer in a small circle. that in summer he passes the meridian 23J degrees higher. involves re- which dispose at once. the latitude of must TTe know that London the sun reaches in at noon. follows that the Uranian sun has a range of about 76 degrees on either side of the celestial equator. . and thoroughly. fourteen degrees only from the pole (raised of course 51J deAnd obviouslv. occupying eighty-four years in circling once round the sun. while the But in a similar Uranian sun would reach the same meridian elevation in spring or autumn. in spring or autumn. while in winter he passes the meridian 23^. to see how importantly the climatic relations of a planet like Uranus. Already.degrees above the southern horizon.degrees lower. i moves across the Uranian skies from west to stead of from east to west. crees above the northern horizon. be affected by such a peculiarity. during the long Uranian year.

at nominal below the southern horizon. 180 since the year of the "[Iranians lasts eighty-four of out years. Bui. Of course. corresponding to that of London. . years elapse before either comes in a latitude to an end. question would be out of place. the — — if there are any never see the small UraDuring all this long time. it follows that the sun would continue below the horizon for an equally long period m winter ! .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. too.* above the horizon far there is nothing Uranus unpleasant. always supposing the small amount of light and heat supplied by the sun to be compensated by some such atmospheric arrangements as physicists have thought necessary for the convenience of the more distant planets. the continuance of the sun would last for many So years. with 76° as the assumed value of the inclination of the equator of Uranus to the plane of his orbit. however. in a latitude corresponding to that of London. interior to the orbit of Uranus though this deprivation cannot be regarded as very serious when it is remembered Uranians nian sun. a sight even is denied them of all parts of the solar system. I find that the sun would continue above his horizon in summer for about 2Sj years. that to such eyesight as ours Saturn could barely be * Exact calculation applied to relations so uncertain as those here in From a careful construction. we find the circumstances such as no such arrangements can be conceived to alleviate. The winter path of the Uranian sun. so with the winter night. is just as fully pressed below the horizon as to render life in T the summer path sun is 65 J- is raised above degrees. At midnight noon he And as is the 37^ degrees with the summer day.. For npward of twenty years. w hen we consider the nature of the Uranian winter. it.

is a change which * Admiral Smyth speaks of Saturn as a fine morning and evening star for the Uranians be . the equator the winter night is In latitudes nearer latitude or so. he must be always seen from Urauus on a twilight sky. to a sun which rises vertically overhead twice in the course of the Uranian summer. but. shining with a light less than a fiftieth of that which he reflects to us when in opposition. always near the sun.* while Jupiter. as. that . but approach quite close to the equator before where the winter night lasts less than a year Over a belt extending about fourteen degrees on each side of the equator there is a perennial suc- and nights never exceeding the cession of days duration of the Uranian diumal rotation. ans as he is His light must in fact be reduced to less than one-eighth of which he presents to us when in opposition. he can hardly At his elongations he is twice as far from the Uranifrom us when in opposition. latitudes nearer the pole than the latitude just considered. though Saturn may be visible. half disk. and. 181 from Uranus. he cannot appear a very fine object. excursions produces here also a variety of seasonal changes which From we should find altogether unendurable. instead of being on a black sky.URANUS AND NEPTUNE— ARCTIC PLANETS. we must we reach a shorter. full But we must not suppose that we have thus found an Elysian The immense range of the sun's zone in Uranus. and further he presents but a a fine object. could only somewhat be occasionally seen. even when most favorably situ- visible ated. a sun barely rising above the horizon in winter. the Uranians have winters lasting from twenty years to upward of forty. When we Uranus In all ill consider other latitudes. we still find provided for as respects his winter season.

lying close by the zodiac. Here for many years together the sun passes day after day to a point nearly overhead. must yet present an interesting subject of study. then. which would invite us to the conclusion that the [Iranians must be capital mathematicians. contrasting so distressingly with the imagined geniality of his summer weather. the heat of his long summers unendurable . tures. it creatures constituted in a very different any with which we are acquainted. we have caused his winters to be so intensely cold that no creatures we are familiar with could endure the pro- longed and bitter frosts. But then comes the long winter. If Uranus be inhabited must be by manner from To such crea- at all. if we conceive of atmospheric relations which would render his summers pleasing. and vice versa. if any among them be gifted with intelligence. though not adorned with planets.1 OTHER WORLDS THAN 82 OURS. Then there are certain astronomical subjects of study to . would lead to a certain complexity in celestial charts and globes. hardly accords with our views of what the progress of the seasons. there are in reality period of the sun's At is desirable in the equator itself two summers. The position of the pole. in the heart of which the sun rises barely fourteen degrees above the northern or southern horizon. the heavens. occurring passing the celestial at the equator. By whatever arrangement we render the long Uranian winters in we render this part of the planet endurable. so that among the zodiacal constellations there must be all the varieties of motion which we recognize in passing from the equatorial to polar constellations.

Bay. which only exhibits year. however. would have to wait till he had nearly reached the threescore years and ten (not perhaps allotted as the span of Uranian life) before he could make the corresponding set. the wide sweep of the planet's orbit would enable the Uranians to recognize a displace- ment of the stars in the course of the long Uranian The star Alpha Centauri. to the terrestrial observer an annual parallax of one second. The enormous length of the year of each planet requires that either the astronomers in Uranus and J^eptune should be very long-lived. in thus con- sidering the prospects of the Uranian and ISTeptunian astronomers.VPAXUS AXD NEPTUNE— ARCTIC PLANETS. or Peters. The ISleptunians would of course be even more favorably circumstanced. twenty-five years old. A Uranian who made one set of observations to determine stellar parallax when he was. . would exhibit to the observer in Uranus a dis- placement of about the third part of a minute. to prosecute singly such observations as Henderson. One difficulty presents itself. have singly prosecuted on our earth. which their mathematical powers may be devoted 183 per- haps more successfully than those of our astronomers. by comparing which with the former stellar parallax was to be determined. or that they should be very enthusiastic in the cause of science. haps the Uranians may thus be enabled to conception of that relation which hitherto has proved too baffling a problem to our astronomers —the actual configuration of the nearer parts of the sidereal sys- tem. Olbers. stars would be Other and perform some affected in like proportion. For example.

the chances in the case of any individual comet would be enormously against such a contingency. "With eyesight such as ours the Uranians could . a comet must approach the sun or recede from him along a course passing tolerably near to the particular position of either planet at the time and to . but scarcely one out of a thousand such comets would be seen from Uranus or Neptune. thirty or forty years in one case. 184 In Neptune life must be prolonged over the century (unless the study of observational astronomy com- mence during the babyhood of the Neptunians) in order that a complete set of observations for determin ing stellar parallax should be carried out. suggests characteristics of astronomical observation altogether different from those we are familiar with. but. after a constellation has passed away from the nocturnal skies of Uranus or Neptune. would venture to point out that the inhabitants of the earth are. on the whole. since. the mere consideration that. and seventy or eighty in the other. more favorably situated in Every large comet which approaches this respect. In fact. Admiral Smyth suggests that these distant planets must be convenient outposts for watching the approach or recession of comets . One cannot mark the but conceive that a certain sluggishness must progress of astronomy in these far-off worlds under such circumstances. be visible.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. with all diffidence. must pass before the constellation again becomes fa- vorably visible. I tolerably near to the sun during perihelion passage as likely to is be seen as to be missed by the inhabitants of earth.

but still giving out Viewing the matter clusion that the planets thus. to any noteworthy extent. distinctly see Neptune when in opposition. but in this more important and more interesting circumstance. as had so long been recognized. so far as the evidence we have extends. On the other hand. Perhaps. for the small amount of solar light or heat which reaches their primaries. not indeed suns resplendent like the primary sun round which they travel. or planet of the solar system. Certainly. density. though the point. rapidity of rotation. 185 we have very will be thought little evidence on more reasonable to sup- pose that Uranus and Neptune are suns to their re- spective systems of satellites.URANUS AND NEPTUNE—ARCTIC PLANETS. Four suns they would seem to be. and complexity of the systems circling round them. than to imagine that these selves two drearily-circumstanced planets are theminhabited. but the Neptunians would be wholly unable indeed any known it to see Uranus. not merely. Uranus and Neptune resemble Saturn and Jupiter too closely not to warrant the application of any arguments deduced from the appearance of the two giant planets to the case of their inferior but still gigantic brethren. Their satellites cannot possibly compensate. . in the attributes of size. conceive that the planets supply of heat (at any may it is not afford an rate) to their difficult to important dependent orbs. that they and their dependent orbs are real miniatures of the solar system. we seem led to the conwhich lie outside the zone of asteroids are distinguished from those within that belt.

but amount of heat proportionately quantity of light they give forth still to his in a variety of ordered : that is circle than the in fine.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. as he whence all is sup- but adding their influence complicated but doubtless well- combinations. supplying an sort that the small around them are provided with all needful to the well-being of their inhabitants. . in such worlds which not heated far greater to the inner planets. not. . the sole source plies of force are derived. lS6 perhaps no insignificant supply of light to incandescence as he is.

. it may to the present habitability of the be remarked that asserting positively that face. no life we are not justified in exists upon her sur- Life has been found under conditions so strange —we have been so often mistaken in assuming that here certainly. she affords us the only information we have concerning the probable relations presented by the noble systems of moons which circle around Jupiter and the other planets outside the orbit of the asteroids. Although I do not think that the moon can be garded as probably at present the abode of many are reasons for studying in a life. she subserves various useful purposes economy of our own earth . with regard moon. In place. lastly. work on other worlds the various relations she presents to the first in the re- there us. THE MOON AND OTHER SATELLITES. Now.. then there are cir- cumstances in her appearance which suggest that at one time there may have been life upon her surface and. or there. CHAPTEE VIII. no living creatures can possi- bly exist —that it would bo rash indeed respecting the state of the moon to dogmatize in this respect.

there are no lunar seasons. the We moon has no appreciable have long known this quite certain- because we see that when stars are occulted by the moon they disappear instantaneously. secondly. so much the effects of this process be distinctly recognizable by our telescopists. Then. though Mars and farther from us. know this would not be the case had the moon an atmosphere of appreciable extent. The inclina- . but the spectroscope would exhibit in an unmistakable manner the presence of the aqueous vapor thus formed. of atmospheric rarity or density. and not only would existence of Jupiter. but with relations which do not in the slightest degree resemble those In the first atmosphere. we are familiar with on earth. Thirdly.1 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. place. have afforded distinct evidence respecting the atmospheres which surround their surface. 88 Still. We no longer have to deal with a question of the various degrees of heat and cold. whereas we ly. Huggins's hands would have sufficed to remove it. He has never been able to detect a sign of the any lunar atmosphere. there are no seas or oceans on the moon. and the like. in the case of the moon we have relations wholly different in character from those we have hitherto had to consider. But if any doubt could have remained. the evidence of the spectroscope in Mr. the tremendous heat to which the moon is subjected during the course of the long lunar day (lasting a fortnight of our time) would certainly cause enormous quantities of water to evaporate. Were there any large tracts of water.

our globe will appear to be a very capital satellite. Herschel pleads for the moon's habita" Its situation. all the other on the moon as they T/iere seems only to be wanting. " is much like known passage bility. how- . is suit- lasts of course. in order to complete the way. the planets. analogy. about a fortnight. the enormous length of the lunar day what is The lunar day altogether opposed to our conceptions of able for animal or vegetable life.THE MOON AND OTHER SATELLITES. with respect to the sun. during the lunar night the heat is radiated rapidly away into space (no atmosphere checking the process). But far more serious consequences must result from the combination of the arrangement witli the want of an atmosphere for whereas during the lunar day the surface of the moon is exposed to an incon. Fourthly." he says. To the moon. that of the earth. The sun. ceivably intense direct heat." ever. is. and with this no be appreciable in- seasonal changes. and heavy bodies will do on the earth. undergoing the same regular changes of illumination as the moon does to the earth. undoubtedly sufficient to heat that surface far above the boiling point. this all. and by a rotation on its axis it enjoys an agreeable and of day and night. the inconvenience of the arrangement would be unbearable by beings like ourselves. and the starry constellations of the heavens. The evidence is. and an intensity of cold must prevail of which we can form but imperfect conceptions. moon's axis to the orbit in which she tion of the travels round the sun clination 189 can there is nearly 89°." The mere fact that our earth is always invisible * The moon's physical habitudes are in fact so very different from those of the earth that one cannot read without astonishment the wellin which Sir W. and the lunar night Were equally long. will rise and set variety of seasons (!) there as they do here. that it fall should be inhabited like the earth.

would travel without rotation on an orbit like the moon's. and almost a fixture in * The researches of Adams moon's motion. In fact. suffice to show that. started on a direct line at the moon's distance. when her rotation had not yet been to into forced accordance with her revolution * present). that the moon's rotation has been brought to its present rate. independently of the evidence afforded by the earth's gradual loss ui rotation. we cannot account for the moon's peculiarity of rotation with out regarding it as due to the earth's controlling influence.i OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. the earth's rotation is gradually diminishing so that. 9o to three-sevenths of the moon's surface is one which points very strongly to the conclusion that the present condition of the moon is not the one best calculated meet the wants of living creatures on her surface. the earth (as at must have subserved a variety of most important purposes. and so tiful enabling the travellers on the moon in those long-past ages to guide their course in safety over her oceans or her deserts. moon's attraction on our oceans. In long-past ages. she will one day so rotate as to keep always the same face turned toward her satellite. under the influence of the into the peculiarity of the called her acceleration. If water then existed on the surface of the moon. We cannot doubt that it has been by a process of this sort . and would thus in completing a revolution exhibit everj part of its surface to us. A perfectly homogeneous sphere. presenting a variety of interesting and beau- phases affording useful time-measures. . She must further have reflected enormous supplies of light and heat toward her dependent orb. and with the same velocity. But now she is invisible from a large portion of the moon's surface. though many millions of ages must elapse first. even if at that time she were not a secondary sun for the lunarians. the earth must have raised tidal waves in her oceans. She must have travelled across the lunar skies as the moon travels over ours.

Were there a lunar atmosphere. The heat of Arcturus. in all probability. those bar- ren wastes were clothed with vegetation. so to speak. small as the amount we receive may be. because we must multiply thai . considering the indications we activities.* all may be asked. she could shed no heat. by that atmosphere. can really conclude that once. If Na- ture. to be garnered up. derives up may expend in its motions is not the stores of force he from meteoric impact. that. but the energy stored wasted the sun . for the long abseuce of the sun. What becomes of the immense supand heat continually poured by the sun and other stars We cannot tell yet we know certainly that they cannot * The question plies of light into space ? be wasted. those dreary solitudes the abode of life When we ? contemplate with attention the lunar surface. have been are led to inquire so busily at presents of past it how the forces which work were expended. of the can be seen. But have we evidence that epoch the moon was inhabited ? at some far-distant Taking for our guid- we ance the analogies which are available to us. but not idly. even. studied thoughtfully. and to compensate. she could raise no tides in them. she also teaches us that no form of force ever works without there is generating other forces as ed. moon whence the skies of those parts. city own its energies are expend- The meteor which sweeps with planetary velothrough space may be brought to rest upon the sun. ac we know gives an count of one large portion of the stellar heat-supplies. 191 she "Were there lnnar oceans. Stone. measured by Mr.THE MOON AND OTHER SATELLITES. . teaches us the lesson that no form of force which is not the representative of some other preacting form of force. in some sort.

however. and the present time. Associated. indeed. ferent in character pelled to recognize as absolutely as finite space or finite time. though we know the forms of force which have passed away from the moon have not really ceased to exist but before the lunar forces were dissipated into space. Nature's workings —the support of life. when she seems absolutely quiescent. if from the sun in every direction encountered orbs. progress through space (for. 92 round us we see the fruits of solar energies.1 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. we are led to the conclusion that be- tween the era when she was thus disturbed. that orb must have possessed an atmosphere amount by all the But we know that a large por- millions on millions of times to get the total received orbs in space from this particular sun. with this subject. a seeming contradiction here . And. so to speak. they must have subserved that great purpose which seems the end of all . There is. In either case we cannot tell what becomes of the portion seemingly wasted. in this instance. the sky ought to be lighted up at all times with star-splendor which is no other than sun-splendor). we exert them upon others. which invite our careful consideration. If life ever existed on the moon. there must have been a period when her energies were employed in sustaining various forms of life. when we see on the moon signs that her surface was at one time upheaved by tremendous volcanic forces. tion of our sun's light and heat must either or must be gradually exhausted in its fail to fall on any other orbs. there are questions of a perplexing character. In both lines — cases we know that the total of force in the universe remains undimin- but it is not diffrom the seeming contradictions suggested by the consideration of infinite space and infinite time. been a process resembling exhaustion. we feel them within ourselves. which yet we are com* ished. . therefore. though in the latter case we may affirm confidently that there is simply a change in the nature of the force. There has.

can be admitted as an established fact. We see so much of the moon's farther hemisphere during her librations that we must perforce reject the second. on "shich the theory has been based. that the oceans into cavities within the the solid form. will however. has become of the moon's atmospheric envelope. system are in and. Independently of Any one who this. According to a third theory. of America. and endeavor to assign such a position to an atmosphere of moderate extent that. if this be upon the there must once have been oceans and air so. have been changed by intensity of cold into swered. according to which the lunar air. a fourth theory has been maintained. and Independently. by the reve- lations of the spectroscope respecting the solar system. lastly. even if we had any trustworthy analogy for believing so strange an arrangement to be possible. has shown excellent reasons for doubting whether even that displacement of the moon's gravity. nation. Others have imagined that the air and oceans may have passed away to the farther hemisphere of the moon. even during the moon's extreme 13 .* The third theory is op* Prof. subject of life also. a comet has carried off the lunar oceans and atmosphere. the theory will not bear exami- draw a cross-section of the moon (in a plane passing through the earth). seas. and of the lunar oceans In four several ways ? this question has Some have thought been an- and air moon's have been withdrawn substance. What moon. And. ^3 of our views on the upon the moon.THE MOON AND OTHER SATELLITES. we are led. to believe that all the bodies within that a general sense similarly constituted . and a fortiori the lunar seas. Of these theories. Newcombe. the first and last only seem worthy of consideration.

Nor does the fact we can see no unmistakable signs of chasms ex- enough oceans that tending deep into the moon's substance suffice to ren- der the theory untenable. the lunar volcanoes must have drawn fresh supplies of energy from the gradual influx of water and one can . difficult to took place. 94 posed by all modern astronomy teaches that respect- ing the constitution of comets. We can thus see how it has come to pass that the moon's surface shows so few signs of the action of rain or running water. understand Certainly how it It is the inrush of the waters cannot have happened while moon's volcanic forces were in vigorous action. The theory librations. moon indicates so to speak. or even improbable. fcarth. up why to the last the aspect of the moment. that the lunar oceans have become no signs of the atmosphere could be perceptible from ih? once see that the theory is untenable. From what we know of volcanic action on the earth. will at . of her exist- ence as a world. thus understand that. The theory that an atmosphere formerly surroundmoon has passed with the lunar oceans into ing the the interior of our satellite has been supported by physicists of considerable eminence. low specific gravity of the moon (little The relatively more than half the earth's) suggests the possibility that cavities large to contain even all the waters of our own may exist within the moon. ine when by yet a period must undoubtedly have arrived little and little the waters could retire within the moon's substance without being vaporized. the forces upheaving her crust were busily at work.i OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.



and that afterward even the gases forming the

lunar atmosphere have become solidified, was maintained

by Buffon and Bailly

in the last century, and


has been supported by several astronomers in our




the aspect of


absence of well-marked colors from

(especially the

her surface) seems to favor the theory.

Nor need

the excessive heat to which the moon's surface

exposed for weeks at a time be considered a



we have no means of
would act where there is no
atmosphere to prevent its immediate and entire reflection into space.
"We know that, despite the intense
heat which is poured upon the summits of the Himalayas, the snow there though a portion may melt
during the day remains year after year and age after
age undiminished and on the summit of the Himalayas the atmosphere is dense and heavy compared with
that which exists even in the lowest abysms of the lunar
If absolute reliance be placed on the results
which have been deduced from the application of the
great Parsonstown mirror to the measurement of the
lunar heat, it would seem as though we must abandon
the belief in the existence of frozen oxygen or nitrogen
on the moon's surface, since, according to those rereason for rejecting





that heat



a large proportion of the moon's heat



—in other words, the moon's surface has been actually
raised to a high degree of heat

by the

solar rays.


present, however, physicists are not prepared to look

with perfect confidence on the method by which, in the



Parsonstown, an attempt has been






between the heat which the moon
and that which she radiates into space.


the whole, however, the former theory seems to

to distinguish

have the strongest evidence in

its favor,

least decisive evidence against


or rather the

In considering the systems of bodies which circle
around the outer planets, we are struck at once by

marked circumstances

condition and that of our

In the

first place,

of contrast between their

own moon.

we have no

that the satellites of Jupiter

satisfactory evidence

and Saturn turn always

the same face toward their primary.

It is true that

William Herschel was led by certain observations

of the satellites of Jupiter to conclude that this relation

holds in their case.

But we have

far stronger evidence

against such a view, in the fact that

armed with

telescopes of the



most exquisite defining

powers, have not only been unable to confirm the relatively

rough observations made by Herschel, but have

noticed peculiarities of appearance only explicable by
the theory that the rotation of the satellites


quite in-

dependent of their motion of revolution around Jupiter.

Dawes, for instance, has observed that the markings
seen on the third satellite, when transiting Jupiter's
disk, are variable.

Bond has

seen this satellite as a

well-defined black spot on certain occasions, while on


has appeared quite bright on the disk of the

He once saw this satellite bright as it entered
on the disk of Jupiter, and about half an hour later as
a dark spot while Mr. Prince, with a powerful reflector, has seen the satellite dark first and afterward





need hardly be said


that, if the satellite

turned always the same face toward


primary, no

such varieties of appearance would be presented dur-

The following passage from Webb's " CeObjects " points strongly also to the conclusion

ing transit.

that the rotation of the Jovial satellites

pendent of their revolution.

must be inde-

After mentioning that

may be caused by
upon their surface, he proceeds
" A stranger source of anomaly has been perceived—
the disks themselves do not always appear of the same
the variable light of the satellites
the existence of spots

size or form.


Maraldi noticed the former

Iierschel ninety years

fact in 1707,

afterward inferring also the

and both have since been confirmed. Beer and
and Secchi, have sometimes seen the
satellite larger than that of the first
disk of the
and. Lassell, and Secchi and his assistant, have dis-


Miidler, Lassell

tinctly seen that of the third satellite irregular


while, according to the

the ellipse does not always lie the




same way."

It will easily be seen that these peculiarities indi-

cate the existence of dark markings on these bodies,


that, as the satellites rotate, the

varying position

of these markings causes the satellites seeminodv to

change in

figure, since the brighter part of the satellite

would be that which would determine its apparent
And further, since the change of figure shows
no correspondence with the position of the satellites
in their revolution,


infer that their revolution


independent of their rotation.


worthy of

notice, however, that even if the






inner satellites turned always the same face toward
their primary, the peculiarity


of our

would not (as in the case
an inordinate lengthening of

result in

their diurnal period, since Jupiter's

two inner


complete a revolution in one day eighteen and a half
hours, and three days thirteen hours respectively
while the revolutions of Saturn's five inner


are severally accomplished in twenty-two and a half

hours, one day nine hours, one day twenty-one hours,
two days eighteen hours, and four days twelve and a

half hours.


far as


can judge from Laplace's estimates,

the specific gravity of Jupiter's

moons must be very

small indeed, ranging from one-ninth to four-fifths of

But very

the specific gravity of water.

can be placed on these

we have




because the only evidence

respecting the mass of the satellites



founded on the perturbations to which their motions
are subjected, and

cumstance that


it is

these perturbations.



to this

indeed to estimate

we add

little reliance can be placed



on meas-

urements of the minute disks presented by the satelwill be seen that our estimate of the specific
gravities of these bodies cannot by any means be
lites, it

regarded as trustworthy.


seen from his

magnificent scene.



Jupiter must present a

the inhabitants, if such there

he exhibits a disk nearly
Thus, whereas there
twenty degrees in diameter.
might be about seven hundred moons such as ours
placed all round our horizon, the disk of Jupiter, as
be, of the innermost satellite,



seen from the inner satellite, could occupy a full

would cover a space on the
heavens exceeding more than fourteen hundred times
To the second satellite,
that which our moon covers.
eighteenth part of the horizon's circumference.

disk of Jupiter, as so seen,

Jupiter presents a disk about 12|- degrees in diameter,
or about six hundred times as large as our moon's.


the third satellite he shows a disk about 7f degrees
in diameter, or more than two hundred times the size
of the moon's.



the inhabitants even of

him with a diameter of
is, with a disk more than sixty-

the farthermost satellite see

about 4^ degrees


five times as large as that of

our moon.


that, if

the views I have put forward respecting Jupiter be

enormous space he covers on the skies of
must suffice to compensate in
the relatively small amount of heat which he

correct, the

his respective satellites

part for

can be supposed capable of emitting.
If the satellites rotate with a motion independent
of their revolution, Jupiter passes across their skies

moon, exhibiting phases such as those preon a far vaster scale. But, besides
his phases, he must exhibit to the inhabitants of his
satellites the most marvellous picture that can be conceived.
His belts' changes of figure and color, only
rendered visible to our astronomers by powerful telescopic aid, must be distinctly visible to creatures on
his satellites, and cannot but afford reasoning beings
on those orbs a most astounding theme for study and
like a vast



ours, but


To the

inhabitants of the satellites





round Saturn, the ringed planet must present an even
more interesting spectacle. His disk, as seen from the
nearest of his satellites, has a diameter of IT degrees,

and an apparent surface exceeding more than nine
hundred times that of the moon. From the farthest
satellite his disk is less than a degree in diameter, and
therefore not quite four times as large as our moon's.

Between these
ries as




limits the apparent size of Saturn va-

pass from satellite to satellite






but from the

from the seventh it is sixteen times as
the moon's so that the outer satellite is quite

times, while

large as


exceptionally circumstanced in this respect.

much from the apparent size of his
however (though in the case of all the inner
satellites that must be a most remarkable relation), as
from the peculiar character of his ring-system, that
Saturn must derive his chief interest. It is true that
It is not so


the inner satellites travel nearly in the plane of the
rings, so as

always to see them nearly edgewise.


even so viewed, the rings must present a most striking


the inner


indeed, the ex-

treme span of the ring-system must be more than 90


* so that when one extremity


seen on the

horizon the system would appear as an arch thickest
in the middle, extending over

an arc of about 93 de-

and having the disk of Saturn at its centre.
When tlhe whole of this arch is illuminated, Saturn is
"full;" at other times he presents all the phases

* About 93° according to the best estimates of the dimensions of
the rings and the distance of the satellite.

shown by our moon, and the arch of
spondingly shortened.

Saturn "






" and in the ze-

with the ring-system dependent on either side of

bis disk,

must be a glorious spectacle

tain regions of his


as seen






would diminish in grandeur, though not perhaps in
interest, as seen from satellites farther and farther

But the inhabitants of the outermost



of all have the privilege of seeing the Saturnian ring-

system opened out

much more

fully than as seen

the other satellites, since the path of this


is in-

some 15 degrees to the plane of the ring.
satellites of Uranus and JSTeptune little can


Of the

be said, because so




either respecting

these orbs themselves or their primaries.





brought forward to
doubt that Uranus has

that, despite the evidence

the contrary, I have very


at least eight satellites.

Four of those discovered by



Herschel have not indeed been yet identified


but one cannot read the account of his method of procedure without feeling that no amount of mere ne«:ative evidence can
tive information


be opposed effectively to the posi-

he has


respecting these four orbs.

when we remember

from us

Uranus is twice as
has only been in recent


as Saturn, while it

times that the eighth Saturnian satellite (the seventh

been discovered, we cannot but conmany more Uranian satelwill one day be discovered.
Neptune also, no

in position) has

sider that in all probability

doubt, has a large family of satellites circling around


it would seem at first sight as though even the nature of meteors could have very little to do with the subject facts of this treatise. but full highly instructive and encouraging. though this is It will these small be found. rather than the narrative of observations or calculations by which those and conclusions have been established. this place for entering at length into its is details.es and comets IX. a long time as simply atmospheric phenomena (though ion). ever. since we cannot suppose bodies to be inhabited worlds. though the history not only of interest. it many ancient philosophers held another opin- has only been after a long and persistent se- ries of researches that they have come at length to be regarded in their true light. not the I must present facts and conclusions. Nay. of those researches is But. The^e are few more interesting chapters in the history of astronomy than that which deals with the gradual introduction of meteors into an important position in the for economy of the Regarded solar system. THEIK office in the solas : SYSTEM. there are . how- certainly truo.CHAPTEE meteo. that.

before their encounter with the earth. in comparison with shooting. slice (so to though at . consumed in traversing the upper regions of the air. indeed. we now know. which. from the mere minute any fixed station but a speak) of the earth's atmosphere is fact that.METEORS AND COMETS. that these last are so through a region of space equal to dimensions. numerous (or orbits of greater or less eccen- larger masses. Under the head " Meteors " I include all those objects which reach the earth's atmosphere from without. All these objects. though they must be very our earth would not once in many ages encounter any of them).stars. were travelling around the sun in The tricity. she many as forty we may would only be is rec- supposed to en- thousand within a similar Without laying great space. as happens with shooting or falling stars. them . like the or explode into fire balls have been ob- aerolites small fragments. telescopic aid. and still It has more so been calcu- numerous that the lated. in passing her own thirteen thousand of ies. our by ognizable counter as tions. as bolides and . are yet relatively few in number compared with as fire-balls. whether they actually make their way to her surthe face unbroken. served to do . air stress on these calcula- yet feel quite sure that the earth must encounter enormous numbers of these bodies. must encounter no less than earth. while of yet smaller bod- whose passage through. or are apparently represent in reality bodies of greater or less size. 203 reasons for believing that meteors are associated in a very intimate manner with the general relations of scheme of worlds forming the solar system.

or the region of space over which the earth's fact that. on evidence perfectly incontestwo well-marked meteoric systems travel in table. they might yet be relatively unimportant. however. and even but a portion only of that slice visible to a single observer. from the number of meteors encountered in a given time by the earth. that a problem of the utmost importance was involved in the question whether these bodies came from the interplanetary Now tive energies prevail. reseufbling in a sense the asteroidal zone. the largeness of the total might well be that this number of these bodies . for it zone had no counterpart. six or seven falling stars may be the average It will on seen during each hour of the night. form a highly-interesting and important portion of the solar system. respecting the paths along which the meteoric bodies have reached the earth. then. we know that own though each attrac- the former view to be the true one. be individually insignificant. either in the outer part of the planetary system or within the orbit of the earth. The August meteors . composed of We could not then far smaller constitu- argue. only ent bodies. It has been proved. looked on as a single family. be seen. What has actually been dis- covered. significant relation has to be Regarding meteors as planetary bodies. we recognize the meteor may from spaces.OTHER WORLDS THAN 20 4 OURS. that orbits of enormous eccentricity. if we had any reason to believe that they form a sort of zone or belt near the earth's orbit. within view. the meteors of the solar system. immensely en- hances the importance of these objects. But now a yet more considered.

made by which as- observations have been indeed tronomers could determine the orbit of these meteors. shown. of course. by the fact that a period has been travel assigned to the revolution of the jSTo members of the zone. hundred and forty -five years im- Now. since for this purpose an exact determination of the velocity with would be made which they enter the requisite. according to Kepler's law. the aphelion of their orbit lying far beyond the path of Uranus. altogether too close to be regarded as accidental. enables astronomers to adopt quite confidently the orbit of the comet as that of the meteoric system. a period of one plies. an orbit having a mean And since distance nearly equal to that of Neptune. combined with what has since been established respecting the relations between comets and their orbit in 1862. the orbit is so eccentric as to brins.METEORS AXD COMETS. 205 on a path so eccentric that in the neighborhood of the earth's orbit it may be regarded as almost paraThat it is not absolutely parabolic is bolic in figure. meteors. The November meteors have been shown in like manner to travel in a period of thirty-three and a quarter years around the sun. it follows that their aphelion distance must exceed their mean distance in the same degree. has been discovered between and that of a bright comet which appeared and this. these bodies close by the earth when they are near perihelion. earth's atmosphere while the observations actually to determine their velocity are confessedly in- But an exact. Hence the aphelion point of the August meteors must lie nearly twice as far away from us as the orbit of Neptune. association. .

at a mean distance nearly equal to the earth's mean dis- tance from the sun. Now. the actual circumstances mean encounter But under — the meteoric orbits being in no earth's earth's these orbits all lay in or near the plane of mean distances of way associated with the the and the inclination of these ornot being in any way limited the distance. If this chance be small. we are led to the conclusion that the meteoric orbits are for the most part We eccentric. and if Again. What is the priori chance that the earth would encounter the members of any meteoric system taken at random? and. as we can judge from the only two meteoric systems whose orbits can be said to have many known been satisfactorily determined (though there are other systems which have been associated with comets). if the meteors travelled in ec- whose perihelia lay within the the earth's path. know. that they are inclined in all directions to the we see that upon the earth in direc- plane in which the earth travels. further. orbit. 206 So far. bits to the ecliptic two questions are at once suggested — : 1. If the meteors travelled in nearly circular orbits. centric orbits. because their constituent bodies fail tions which show no tendency with the to near coincidence ecliptic. the earth could not fail to meteors as she travelled round the sun. then.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 2. these two circumstances are full of meaning. what is the conclusion to be drawn from the fact that the earth encounthe numters meteors belonging to many systems ? co — . then the earth would be certain to encounter meteors in the course of her orbital motion round the sun.

unless the resulting orbit actually coincides with the plane of the ecliptic not happen in a million that plane in through the members two sun. it behooves us to inquire. or. assigning elements at random to a meteor-system. whatever these points may have any position in the plane of the ecliptic. we ber already recognized being nearly sixty. For we clearly begin to see that we are in the presence of relations which may — .. which would the orbit will intersect lying on a straight line for the earth of the meteoric system. and. in other words. comparison with the number whose members she encounters. - METEORS AND COMETS. 207 Now. It follows. and substance of these meteoric masses. But she longing to no number total less actually encounters meteors be- than fifty-six systems: hence the of meteoric systems belonging to the planetary scheme must be an indefinitely large multiple of the number fifty-six. and how densely we may suppose meteoric masses to be strewn along each system . (a relation trials). may what be the nature. secondly. all. then. see that. quality. And. it must be enormously beyond our powers of conception. it is to encounter requisite that one or other of these two points shall he close to the But earth's orbit. that one of them has the and the chance may be re- requisite position garded as indefinitely small. first of what extent we must assign to individual meteoric systems. that the a priori chance of the earth's encountering the members of a meteoric system indefinitely small is and hence we conclude that the number of meteoric systems she passes wholly clear of in is indefinitely great. points. But this being so.

suppose that in some cases the whole extent of an orbit is not occupied by meteoric masses at any one instant but even when. seen something already of the lon- gitudinal extent of meteoric systems. dimensions. this portion of the ring cannot be less than 1.000. mous we are yet compelled to assign an enor- longitudinal extent to that portion of the system which has been poetically termed " the gem of the meteor-ring. And taking full account even of the marked diminution which actaally occurs. wax and wane in splendor. its square to the of this last dimension we . in the November meteorsystem. portantly the which must economy of Now. I should rather say. 2 o8 or. . we have — most im- affect the solar system. tent — the length of a line taken through plane in which it lies. its its information. since that extent corresponds to the circumference of meteoric orbits." For example. Now. because As to the width of a extent in a direction meas- orbit —we have no a meteor-system satisfactory may extend enormously on either side of the point through which the earth's orbit intersects it. and we have seen that these orbits have enormous We may.000. and yet no trace of that extension be recognized Still we may by observers on the conclude that this dimension earth. meteor-system —that ured in the plane of is. lies in ex- somewhere between the longitudinal extension of the system and the depth of the meteor-zone that is. there as in the case of the the annual displays is no abso- lute cessation in the occurrence of star-falls on the date corresponding to such a system. indeed.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. November meteors.000 of miles in length.

and considerably greater (though the zone was more sparsely strewn with meteors) where the earth crossed the sys- tem in 1868 and 1869. since the meteoric motions cannot possibly tend to increase the total number of encounters. about sixty thousand miles in the part traversed in 1867. just system as zone would seem to be one hundred thousand miles in the part traversed by the earth in 1866. an erroneous mode of dealing with the problem. took in passing through a tunnel which traversed the range of hills in a known direction. with which meteors any known system. however. the average distance separating neighboring meteors from each other. is This. We need only consider the earth's velocity. 209 can form a tolerably accurate estimate in many in We know that so long as meteors belonging stances.* Let us apply this con- * Obviously the total number of meteors encountered during the earth's passage through a meteor-stream will be the 14 number contained . in order to determine. the depth of the November meteorsition of the this way. Now. I must remark on a mistake which has been very commonly made. It has as regards the density are strewn in been thought necessary to consider the velocity with which the meteors themselves travel as well as the earth's velocity. our earth is still plunging through the system and if we know the poto .METEORS AND COMETS. from the aver- age interval of time separating the appearance of successive meteors. we can determine its depth in we could determine the breadth of a range of hills if we noticed how long a train. any system are flashing into view. Judged in this way. travelling with known velocity.

conveniently for our purpose. we find that the than (1.000 x 100 x hundred thousand million members. but meteors actually found within will not affect their number.000 miles).000 miles separates meteor from me- teor throughout the "gem miles.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.000 miles. its thickness may aging 100.000) or one Mr. and a cal- culation founded on the velocity with which they pen- our atmosphere. of the ring. We thus obtain weight of the whole cluster one thousand mill- for the in a cylindrical space having a cross-section equal to the earth's. tak- ing the average of the four displays of the years 1866'69.000. or. 1. perhaps.000 fairly assumed as aver- width can hardly be less thickness. assuming a general uniformity of meteoric distribution. meteors this will affect the particular set of space as the earth traverses it. for the most part. assume fairly Novem- that. 210 sideration to enable us to form a rough estimate of the number of bodies in the richer part of the We may ber meteor-system. and The motion of the traversing the meteor-stream from side to side.000. and than ten times its on the system tend width than its Now.000. that an average distance of 1. ." length of the great cluster is be its the at least 1. since the forces acting much more largely to affect its Thus. be very small. We shall we assign one- certainly not exaggerate their weight if hundredth part of an ounce to each. has come to the conclusion etrate that they must. average of distance (1. Alexander Herschel. more than one meteor per the earth encountered minute as she swept successively through the system . from observations of the cluster cannot contain amount of less light given out by these bodies. with the assumed thickness. exceeding a few ounces in weight. rarely.

further. or about twenty-eight The actual weight of the 211 thousand tons. tem. though one of the most important encountered by the earth. however. is who asserted that the united weight of all the bodies other than planets in the solar system must be esti- mated rather by pounds than by tons. November meteor-system cannot.. which has been detected between comets and meteor-systems. but enormously exceed this amount and therefore we recognize how erroneous that opinion which an eminent astronomer recently expressed. we have every reason the laws of probability can afford us. ions of ounces. it has been established on I have already referred to the relation evidence which cannot reasonably be disputed. On is exceptionally important in the solar sys- the contrary. And. the fall of enormous masses. many tons sometimes in weight. for believing that there must be millions of systems equally or more extensive. would point to the conclusion that the members of the November system are exceptionally insignificant as regards their individual dimensions. We have certainly no reason for thinking that the November system. It carries with it results of extreme interest and importance. So that we seem forced to the conclusion that the aggregate weight of the various meteoric systems circulating around the sun must be estimated by billions of tons rather than by any of our ordinary units. any considera questions which are I do not propose here to enter into tion of those enormously difficult suggested by the study of cometic phenomena. METEORS AND COMETS. upon the earth. That . Bizarre as the relation appears.

the Tyndall's researches. we are led to recognize the observed association between certain meteor-systems and certain comets as indicative of a general law by which. while I recognize in Dr. but in the present state of our knowledge it would indeed be hazardous to speculate as to what that solution may be. Some of the more obvious. further. dimensions of these objects are in many cases enormous. I cannot but feel that cometic line of phenomena are far too complicated to be directly accounted for in way pointed out by that distinguished physicist. that. I have been unable to find a single comet whose recorded chauges of appearance countesistent with the history nance Prof. And. . 212 they will before very long receive their solution I confidently believe. Tait is altogether incon- of many comets. We know. I may remark in passing. TyndalPs re- cently-promulgated theory on the subject the indication of a highly-suggestive and promising research. and. lastly. but numbers of others remain not only unaccounted for. Tait's views.* But for my present purpose the facts to be princi- pally noticed are in a sense independent of any theory which may be formed We know that the respecting the nature of comets. the more generally known phenomena. comets and meteors are * The theory recently put forward by Prof. but standing apparently al- together opposed to his theory.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Indeed. do indeed appear to receive a solution when examined under the light of Dr. I may add. in some way as yet unexplained. that there must be many thousands of comets remaining undiscovered for each that our astronomers have detected.

stars. we steered clear of them. with or without explo- sion. indeed. independently of the con- associated together. and we cannot doubt that in a similar way countless thousands of meteors are members satellites falling. either there to finest dust or to pass be dissipated into onward. siderations already adduced. combining all falling. we seem these results. and quite conceivable that most injurious might ensue to the inhabitants of all it is consequences the worlds in the . sion 213 we are led to the conclu- meteor-systems must be very numerous. Thus. are even all upon the primary asteroids and streaming in among the mi- nute bodies composing the rings of Saturn. we might form meteors are continually falling of our own But we know that upon the atmosphere another opinion. but —nay. comets which nificent source at once of omer associated with a comet so we conclude that those mag- have blazed in our skies wonder and perplexity —must be associated with systems of bodies culably — to the astronincal- more important than the meteor-system which has so often filled the heavens with Now. not only upon of the solar system. earth. If. that while from the fact that a meteor-system so important as the November stream is insignificant as Tempel's. to the actual surface of the earth . them simply could suppose that the planets and that the bodies composing circulated unceasingly in their orbits.a METEORS AND COMETS. fairly led to the conclusion that purposes of the utmost im- portance in the economy of the solar system must be subserved by these uncounted thousands of meteoric streams. These encounters cannot be wholly without result.

such masses must ably greater upon the sun . large number An indefinitely of meteoric orbits must absolutely in- immediate neighborhood of the sun must continually be taking place as countless thousands of meteoric flights rush toward and past and then away from their perihelia. system pour a steady hail of meteors. can any known meteoric ions of miles. and travel with enormous . Let us clearly recognize. velocity in a very eccentric orbit. "Where tersect in the and collisions . for he is the ruling centre of every meteoric system. 214 solar system if the continual supply of meteoric matter were importantly diminished. But to be remembered that meteors must be more crowded in the neighborhood of the it is infinitely sun than at a distance from him. and not in such a direction as to intersect his substance. so to speak. and therefore under ordinary circumstances the meteoric orbits must pass around him. and on what eccentric orbits but we must go farther before we can prove that they fall upon the sun. unless I mis- take. "We have seen how enormous must be the number of these bodies . why and how the sun must be assaulted by a Continual inrush of meteoric bodies. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. For example. Now.. if meteoric masses planets. but they do not ap- proach the sun within a distance of nearly ninety mill- Nor. indeed. however. fall continually upon the numbers inconceiv- fall in and it is here. that the great purpose of the meteoric systems becomes apparent. upon the sun . we know how swiftly they travel. the November meteors are enormous in number.

a fresh supply of light and heat being generated as they were brought again to rest upon his surface. has. and in their precipitation upon the sun's surface. such cases the In combined mass of the two meteors would fall directly upon the sun. abandoned it though it is worthy of remark that the strongest evidence in its favor has been obtained since he withdrew his sup. Whether in the continual collisions of meteors among themselves. or at least admitted that the downfall of meteors on the sun's surface is not alone sufficient But I am no flaw in the evidence I have adduced from the laws of probability and that we are bound to accept. Prof. Among the collisions thus continually taking place in the sun's neighborhood there must be a considerable proportion in which the two bodies are brought momentarily almost to rest by the shock. 215 these perihelia lie close to the sun. Thompson. and therefore the collision even of two minute meteors must result in the generation of an enormous amount of light and heat. the velocity with which the meteors travel must exceed two hundred miles per second. is . we have a sufficient explanation of the seemingly exhaustless emission of light and heat from the sun.METEORS AND COMETS. But that is not all. tant proportion of the sun's heat is supplied from the meteoric streams which circulate in countless millions . who was one of the first to adopt this view. I should not care positively to assert. I believe. port from it. as a legitimate conclusion from that evidence. the theory that at least an importo account for the solar light quite certain that there and heat.

If this view be correct. then the meteor-systems constitute. we may trace back the chain of causation yet one link farther. we must regard the sun's attractive energy as the source whence his heat and all the other forms of attraction force . we trace the forces derived or in the action of the ruling centre of the solar system. But we must not forget one most important consideration. and see in the sun's emission of light and heat the which result of forces inherent in the meteoric systems circle around him. 216 around him. title to said almost to share with the be regarded as the source of all the forms of force which exist throughout the solar system. attended by his family of planets. indeed.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. without adopting any might readily be shown that the whole even of that enormous supply of light and heat which the sun emits on every side is derived unreasonable assumptions. in the from the fuel that propels our engines. it from the meteoric streams belonging to the solar tem or drawn in from surrounding space. the energies of living creatures on earth. sys- as the sun. I believe that. which he exerts are in reality derived. a sun a most important part of the sun's They may be domain. teoric all the forms of force The motions of the me- masses are almost wholly due to the sun's and therefore. which makes the sun (as might be anticipated) again the chief source of existing within his system. power of winds and storms. in so far as those motions are to be regarded as a means of renewing the solar heat. sweeps onward amid the stellar groups. . in It.

Nor would it suffice if upon the such materials. one of his valuable contri- In it he points to the onward through space. amid which space those countless millions of meteors are distributed. element of owe their real effec- thus find in distance. and distributed his by him abundantly and without ceasing to dependent worlds. even in enormous quantities. Kirkwood. of America. 2i y Yet one step farther. gathered by him continually from the systems of meteors circling around him. and gathers in accordingly new stores of force of greater or less amount. and yet not avail to supply the various forms of force which are required by his dependent worlds. not only <>d . passes through regions in which cometic and meteoric materials are now richly. existed close to the sun. The bearing of the views of this acute butions to the history of the evidence we have solar system.* * Just as this work was about to be placed in the printer's hands 1 received from Prof. now sparsely strewn. the true source of the various forms of force which are continually exerted throughout the solar system. powerless. from which that material is dragged toward the sun which gives that orb the power of imparting those tremendous velocities to which the It is the distance collisions of the meteoric bodies We tiveness. in the simple scale. as he speeds Rud soundly-reasoning astronomer (the Kepler of our day). The sun surrounded by millions on hand would be millions of meteoric masses close at . he becomes forthwith the centre of a thousand forms of force. but placed as ruler over a space far wider than the sphere circled by Neptune's orbit. The sun's attractive energies might be increased a thousand-fold. that the sun. were there no external material on which those energies could act in such sort as to lead to the continual inrush of matter solar surface.METEORS AND COMETS.

they would lose yet a larger share of their velocity. adopting this view of the relation in which meteoric and cometic systems stand with respect to the sun. unless its orbit were very eccentric and the aphelion close by the earth's orbit. of so . and that soon. Bodies travelling from outer space body circling toward the sun cannot by any possibility become satellites of the earth. but cases be highly improbable. as subordinate centres of attraction. that such an event. though undoubtedly possible. it seems necessary that we should regard those planets which I have endeavored to raise to the dignity of secondary suns. astronomers sometimes assert that meteoric masses passing near the earth might become many It is satellites the necessarily possible in the case of any planet. ? there can be no doubt that if Jupiter. atmosphere. because. supposed to to such a conclusion me- Have we circle. but on those considered in the chapters which follow. * must in For example. around which countless thousands of teoric systems may be any evidence pointing Now. instead of pursuing its course around the sun. but in reality this maximum velocity can have (that is. to her surface. which a body is a very unlikely event. I conceive. will be seen at once.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. however. 2i8 It will not fail to be noticed by the thoughtful reader that. we could not in any way become conscious of the event unless the comet were an exceptionally large one. because they would always have a velocity greater than that which her Even in the rare event of their grazing her attraction can master. did so act upon a passing comet as to compel that body to circle in future around him. and must be brought. they could not become permanent satellites of hers. because travelling under the earth's influence the velocity acquired by a body travelling from infinity to a perigee close to the earth) is less than the velocity with which a on any orbit round the sun would move when at the earth's distance from him. of hers. the nearest of these secondary suns. returning to the scene encounter.* must be so the theories dealt with in the above chapter. and so losing a large share of their velocity.

until haply the again near the scene of encounter at the mo- ment when the comet comes back to it. must be that the own forced to 21 g number of cometic systems thus Jupiter as their centre of attraction But in another way the planpower as a comet-ruler.METEORS AND COMETS. including Encke's. and Brorsen's comets. or nearly so. returning again presently to the scene of their encounter with Jupiter. the overmastering attrac- and the comet whose perihelion. In this case a fresh struggle takes place. uncommon. So thai on his orbit. Now. making relatively few. — . comets coming from outer space pass near enough to Jupiter. et does exhibit his comets recognize him as a sort of subordinate master. we know that such events as these must be of frequent occurrence as Jupiter sweeps swiftly round For we recognize several comets which have evidently been compelled by Jupiter to take up such orbits as I have spoken of a family of comets. there must be thousands which have escaped detection. for each discovered comet of this family. aphelion. and several others. in fact. Thence they pass on their new orbit to their perihelion. and aphelion close giant is so revolving in an orbit having its by the orbit of Jupiter. When the sun being their primary ruler. Faye's. that. "We judge further. Winnecke's short-period comet. from the laws of probability. tion of the planet necessarily prevailing. orbit of Ju. lies close by the piter. he sways them so markedly from the orbit they are pursuing that the scene of encounter becomes the aphelion of their orbit. being often dismissed on a instead of its new orbit.

Therefore. resembling those * Since the present chapter was written. and the epoch (126 a. the decisive evidences in favor of the theory were urn. I find that the hypothesis put forward has in a general way been touched on by more than ftere one astronomer and physicist. are growing. as also when those passages were published in which the same hypothesis is touched by other authors. the idea obviously and planets. that here. wanting. that the whole growth of the solar system. November meteors belongs indeed comet-family. it may be said that the earth. that those composing comets. I believe. therefore. however. for the first time.) Uranian has even been under the dominion (subject always to the sun's superior control) of that distant planet. suggests itself. it has been associated with the chief features of the solar It was suggested in note b (Appendix) to my treatise on Satrystem. Saturn also has his family of comets The comet Uranus and Neptune. so also have associated with the to the d. sun. when that note was written. from its primal condition to may have been due to processes its present state.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. under the continual rain of meteoric matter. and presumably the planets also. whose perihelia from the sun less lie at all conceivable distances than the distance of Jupiter. But. as a matter of fact.* "We know that the materials composing meteors. and we conclude. do not differ from those which constitute the earth and sun. And here I may refer to a view which 1 have long entertained respecting the purposes which meteoric and cometic systems have fulfilled in the past history of the solar system. 220 around the orbit of Jupiter not around Jupiter (if himself) there cling the aphelia of myriads of ecmetic orbits. Now. . pointed out when this comet fell .

and to account for the present state of things. then in a at more nearly balls included (in all probability) will the in it approach to a ratio of . and with a direct motion. circular resulting not only the greatest approach to exact coin- cidence of such orbits with the mean plane whole system. not only has this general view * This conclusion depends on a well-known law of probability. Countless millions of meteoric systems. aggregate around one definite plane. conceivable directions around the centre of gravity of the whole. but the bodies formed out of the of the result- ing systems would there exhibit rotations coinciding most nearly with the mean plane of the entire sys- tem. It bag a hundred white and a random a number of balls.* It seems to me that. Further. travelling in orbits of every degree of eccentricity travelling also in all and inclination. referred to that plane. the number of meteoric and cometic systems must have been enormously greater originally than it is at present. there would be found not only the most orbits. effect of multiplied collisions eliminate orbits form systems travelling nearly on the mean plane of the aggregate motions. : If we have and take out the larger that number. corresponded would to the present direction of planetary motion. 22 \ which we now see taking place within its bounds. It is of course obvious that.METEORS AND COMETS. may be thus illustrated hundred black balls. suffice to The would necessarily be to of exaggerated eccentricity. the number of black and white equality. would go to the making A marked tendency to up of each individual planet. if this be so. and to move in directions which. where collisions were most numerous.

fact. according to the hypothesis I have put ward above. resemble the motions the sun's neighborhood. Let us consider In the neighborhood of the great central aggregation which would undoubtedly result from the mo- is at tions of such meteoric systems as I all the motions would be very rapid. since they would have small power of overruling meteoric sys- . For example. in actually observed in Here. subordinate aggregations would form with difficulty. they give support to that which I have put forward. or with the retrograde and almost perpendicular motion of the Nor. but that serves to account in a far it more satisfactory manner for the principal peculiarities of the solar sys- tem. 222 of the mode in which our system has reached ent state a greater support from what is now its pres- actually going on than the nebular hypothesis of Laplace. and say that. Now. now have considered. might indeed go I further. again. where these peculiarities seem to oppose themselves to Laplace's theory. a general explanation of all for- these matters once suggested.: OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. what is there in the nebular hypothewhich affords even a general explanation of the sis strange varieties of size observed in the planetary sys- tem How ? can that hypothesis be reconciled with remarkable the among variations of inclination observed the planets. They would. therefore. is satellites of Uranus ? the hypothesis consistent with the ob- served peculiarities of motion of those meteoric sys- tems which we must now regard as regular members of the solar system.

expect to find relatively small planets . continually gathering centres fresh recruits. that is. larger. the system must have begun to show an appearance resembling that now presented by the zodiacal light. at a much greater distance from the sun the meteoric motions would be so much less. smallest of the planets. a general increase of density toward the centre. Now. terns rushing 223 with so great a velocity past them. as now. Indeed. would be gathered would depend on the way in which (taking a general view of the system) the quantity of material increased toward the neighborhood of the centre. it would also since. they would not be able to prevent the major part of the materials rushing from outer space toward the sun from aggregating round him. For clearly.METEORS AND COMETS. that here. largest portion — — . though. would increase in importance These as they swept round the central aggregation. then. but adorned with an attendant satellite. from affect the quantity of material available a very early period. it would be possible for subordinate centres of aggregation of far greater magnitude to form. Yenus is the and the earth (yet farther away) not only larger than Yenus. they would still gather in no in- "Where the considerable portion of those materials. while distance from the sun would increase the facility with which materials would be gathered in since the sun's influence would diminish with distance. nearest to him. In we should and we do ac- the sun's immediate neighborhood. cordingly find that Mercury. supposing only a suitable mean density of aggregation.

and that material somewhat more uniformly strewn. we initial not improbable. assumption is. yet farther away an abundance of material. with- should find a relatively barren space. and next. we all the asteroids. Thus the existence of the planet Saturn. look for and find still while the sun's small influence is indicated istence of satellites. bare of worlds) to find still a great abundance of material. find an explanation of the giant mass of Jupiter. but also by the influence of this first The important subordinate aggregation. And as to the rotations of the various members of . cleared of material not only by the sun's still powerful influence. at least having once admitted it. es- Beyond should expect (after passing an enormously wide space. facility and an even greater in the aggregation of that material. 224 Assuming that the region of maximum aggregawas that where the influence of the ruling centre became so far diminished with distance as to renfirst tion der the formation of a great subordinate aggregation possible. we is him in the complexity of his accounted for . and hence. and of the smallness of the planet this planet far Mars next within that zone —though outweighs (according to Leverrier's timate) the united mass of the orbit of Jupiter. next in importance to Jupiter. and surpassing attendant system. we should have the innermost of the outer series of planets also the in that giant planet we most bulky .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. in itself. of which doubtless by the ex- many more will one day be discovered by astronomers. of the comparative poverty of material just within the orbit of Jupiter. of the condition of the asteroidal zone. and.

The earth an inclination of but twenty-three degrees. to render the compari- son between his rotation and that of the other bers of the solar system complete. probably. not merely on ac- count of the smallness of these bodies. his equator being inclined some twenty-six degrees to the horizon . member account. the results to be looked for 225 no less on an axis inclined but mean plane of the system. Of the outer division of the system. if made on Neptune's the obser- satellites are to be trusted. given by we find some . but on account of their proximity to the sun. inclinations of they may be Yenus and Mercury are undetermined expected to be large. rotates in a retrograde manner. Jupiter. sun.METEORS AND COMETS. so that. since he rotates backward with his equator inclined seventysix degrees to the vations hitherto ecliptic. . he rotate in a direct manner with some one hundred and The may his equator inclined fifty-four degrees to the ecliptic. of this system. And lastly. has an inclina- than twenty-eight degrees the larger . this planet. has an inclination of little more than three degrees considerable inclination grees) . the largest. the solar system exact. the largest of the system. and specially preeminent with- in its inner division. the least tion of those observed are closely Thus the accordant with that view. (more Saturn has a very than twenty-six de- Uranus has an inclination which may be de- scribed as actually greater than ninety degrees. necessarily not I have mentioned above this theory. rotates about seven degrees to the member Mars. great inclination and eccentricity of the asteroidal orbits are also accounted for 15 mem- be said to many more of satis- .

consists in the fact that liarities it suggests an explanation of the pecu- observed in the planetary periods. my hypothesis is more satisfactory than the nebular one. as I conceive. doubtless brings Their minuteness them more under the disturbing influ- ence of Jupiter than a single massive planet at the same distance from the sun would be. I know of nothing in the nebular hypothesis as I which encourages the belief that a system framed as Laplace conceived the solar system to be. will leader the manner at way in once suggest to the mathematical which a system. would ex- . But bodies formed as the asteroids are supposed to be. would necessarily exhibit a much greater variety of motion than would be recognized in the case of the larger planets. In by than by the nebular hypothe« an absolute incorrectness in the this theory fact. i2 6 tactorily sis. But the attractions of Jupiter can have no influence in causing the from the eclip- asteroids to depart so widely as they do tic.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. forming in such a have imagined. since his path lies quite close to the ecliptic. Another point in which. according to the hypothesis I have suggested. and the known effects of commensurability in encouraging the accumulation of planetary pertur- bations. there is assertion that the smallness of the asteroids can (on the ordinary view of their origin) explain the relatively irregular nature of their motions. and even nearer to the mean plane of the solar system. might be expected to exhibit the presence of law as regards distances and periods. Prof. Kirk- wood's researches into the various relations of commensurability presented among the periods of planets and satellites.

The hypothesis I have put forward also gets rid of which has always seemed to me the great difficulty of the nebular hypothesis. from the earth . as according to Laplace's theory he must have been. Saturn as long before Jupiter. Uranus as long before Saturn. hibit any such laws as are 227 found within the planetary scheme. But we now the same elements. the various processes of aggregation would go on simultaneously (just as the influences which Jupiter has on comets are now exerted simultaneously with those more powerful influences possessed by the sun) and though the various orbs formed by those processes would not necessarily be completed simultaneously. know that Jupiter is it not constituted differently. for instance. then. and so on. According to hypothesis. Yet another strong point sis in favor of this hypothe- resides in the circumstance that reason to believe that all we now have every the planets are constituted of When was thought that Jupiter might be a watery globe. in all and sun. we probability. Now. Neptune must have been formed millions of ages before Uranus. even if it were formed nearly ets my does not indicate that the plan- at the same era. there was some evidence in favor of Laplace's theory. Since. According to the views of Laplace.METEORS AND COMETS. we know that the appearance of those primary members of the solar system which we are best able to study does not indicate any such enormons disproportion in the ages that of the planets. proportion in their age as necessary according to the is theory of Laplace. there would be no such enormous dis.

by which. indeed. all. little in the present aspect of the zodiacal light or of the solor corona. however slowly. which I imagine to have been the era- bryon of the solar scheme. after formation of the solar system. i 28 know that meteors contain the same elements which exist in the constitution of sun and planets. to present to the mind's eye a picture of that vaster agglomeration of meteoric and cometic systems. There may be little. consists in the fact that the processes by means of which I conceive the solar system to have been formed. the zodiacal light and the solar corona are doubtless due to the existence of meteoric systems.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. the strongest evidence in favor of the hypothesis I have suggested. which have been proved by the researches of Maxwell and others to consist of multitudes of discrete bodies. But sun and planets are growing. all speeding with inconceivable velocities on their interlacing orbits. are undoubtedly going on before our eyes. case of the nebular hypothesis. as in Laplace's. in favor of this other hypothesis. in the downfall of meteoric showers to suggest the idea of world-formation or sun-formation . as the meteoric hail falls continuously upon them. we have evidence of the same sort in the So that case of a subordinate centre of aggregation. the present state . also. we have here a very strong argument in favor of the view that they have played the important part I have assigned to them in the But. resembling (however relatively in- which I have pictured as the materiIn the Saturnian rings. we have a form of evidence which was wanting in the significant) those als of the planetary scheme.

causes. METEORS AND COMETS. 229 regarded as the result of a pro- and not of special creative fiats of the Almighty. in indicating processes according to which the solar system may have reached its present condition. in all we God find acting through second can have no reason for assigning limits to the range of space or time within which we can have no reason for can point to a time when He acted that is. This will be the more unfortunate. above our conceptions. avail to point out that. universe : and further. will doubtless the hypothesis I have put seem objectionable to those for- who imagine that. because those who entertain this strange view may be re- garded as probably so far beyond the reach of argu- ment as to be unlikely ever to Otherwise. in any case. we abandon their objection. astronomers are attacking the attributes of God. of the solar system is cess of development. . In this ward last respect. to regard the laws of as so perfect that we upon the be God they operate always to work out His —without the necessity of special interference on His part—than to see His hand directly operative in will all the phenomena of the universe. it might that surrounds us.. that er idea of that far it He so acts believing that directly gives an altogether high- wisdom which must. as.

human mind come to us the rays of light which myriads of those orbs are pouring the lessons taught us is From beyond utterly unable to by these forth. It will but mislead us to pass a single beyond the path which is dimly lighted for us. . we proceed. and yet that path is so narrow and so obstructed with step difficulties. the widest sweep of the planetary orbits sinks into insignificance compared with the distances which separate from us even the nearest of the fixed depths which the conceive there stars.CHAPTER X. to leave it. and it is light-rays that from we are form our ideas concerning the nature of the orbs to Yery carefully and cautiously must we would avoid being led into vain which emit them. that we find ourselves continually tempted and to venture forward on the alluring and easy paths which speculation opens out on every hand around us. OTHER SUNS THAN OTJES. We are now to venture into regions where we shall no longer have clear lights to guide as are the us. Tremendous dimensions of the solar system. if imaginings.

to explore. cautiously refrain- facts involve. ence has gathered together for us. endeavoring at each step to gain the full amount of knowledge the several same time. charm of novelty and fresh- ness. since are to found our views have been that the subject has all the made so recently. to indicate relations so impressive and so interesting. that the revelations of the telescope within the solar system are apt to seem commonplace beside them. to consider of a system —the is our Let us examine carefully the evidence which sci- architecture of the universe theme. such as. while. half a century ago. when considered as parts of a grand whole.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. ourselves. We have seen in the solar system a variety and complexity of structure. let us consider learned from the analogy of the solar system. When Sir William Herschel began that noble series of researches his amid the name has been rendered solar system a scheme very sidereal depths different by which he saw in the indeed from that illustrious. We have. at the ing from any attempt to overstep the bounds indicated by our evidence. In the first what may be The the discoveries on which place. no longer the structure in fact. . while it involves the consideration of the soundest and most instructive mode of pursuing our researches. And 251 we may well remain content to listen only Even so restraining to the teachings of known facts. are found. few astronomers would have thought of ascribing to it. we have in reality a wide and noble domain yet Facts which seem severally unimportant. study we is an inviting one.

perhaps even by myriads. we have the solar system. which is faintly and aggregation. of motion. in this treatise. surrounded beheld by a limited number of orbs. "When we have added the ring of Saturn as the only formation differing from planets and satellites in character. itself. a vast central body. Perhaps it is in considering the solar system in the particular light in which. ily Besides the fam- of planets circling round the sun.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. arrangement. apart from all speculative theories. some of which were the centres of subordinate less extent. I have had occasion to present that this wonderful variety of conformation is made most strikingly apparent. we see the ring of Saturn composed of thousands . presented to the contemplation of astronomers. besides the sys- tem of dependent orbs which circle round the planets. With exists us it is We very different. around the solar orb. there can be no doubt that the solar system presents to us a subject of study amazing in it. But. wT hich seemed rather acci schemes of greater or dental tributaries of the sun than regular his family. and the comets few and far between. as considered known members of the features which all in Sir "William Herschel's day. but most amazing when we regard it as supply- ing the analogies which are to guide us in forming our views respecting the sidereal system. and yet doubtless but shadows forth the real complexity and richness of the scheme swayed by our sun. already inconceivable. see that there within the solar system a variety of size and structure. 232 which is He presented to our contemplation. we see a zone in which independent planets circle by hundreds.

we have men are to choose whether we would rather abandon the views which Sir William Herschel formed about facts. it would be to forget how sure and safe a guide the greatest of modern as- tronomers found in the teachings of analogy. Assuming. another in size. viewing the solar system comparable one with and distributed not without a certain uniformity around their ruling centre.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. Sir William Herschel held that the sidereal scheme presented as consisting of discrete orbs. then. If. to adopt the same view now which that great astronomer adopted a century ago. 233 and less certainly. that the views of our great not rashly to be thrown on one side. ently. surely we. somewhat similar relations. or the views which he formed about princijjles. is far different Let us remember that there is who know cer- constituted so differ- view of the sidereal — here so far as our and admiration for Sir William Herschel are concerned a choice between two courses. but still mill- not in- distinctly. —respecting the sidereal we the very outset of our inquiry at scheme of which our sun forms but a unit ? Surely it would be to lose sight of the significant lesson taught us by the solar system. respect — as indeed is just. If we accept his . tainly that the solar system must adopt a scheme also. we . What opinion. recognize the existence of a multitude of hitherto unsuspected forms of matter within the circle of our sun's attraction. of tiny bodies less hosts . we we new and see the meteoric systems in count- scheme in see the comets of our ions on millions . are to form — even here.

in theorizing about the unknown. after all. We know certainly that Sir William Herschel was often mistaken. We must be prepared to expect an infinite variety of figure. from what he imagined. his mere suggestion) that the stars are tolerably uniform in magnitude and distribution. we must abandon the system. to his adoption of the principle that analogy is the chief and the best guide for the student of astronomy. 34 opinion (or rather. in matters of fact while we know with equal certainty that he owed the marvellous success with which he theorized. there can be no safer guide than the analogy of known facts. to regard the constitution of the sidereal system in all probability. in our very respect admiration for times. as all men must be. and of aggregation throughout the galactic scheme. There can be no doubt which course is preferable. If. of structure. and are comparable inter se in magnitude and splendor. we must abandon the analogy of the solar we accept Sir William HerschePs often-expressed opinion that. on the contrary. very different as. 2 OTHER WORLDS THAW OURS. We and the greatest astronomer of modern are compelled. scheme seem probably W£ must not be surprised that If to find probably far larger or far smaller. of motion. objects differing as some orbs within own. others which are to be suns like our much from system as the asteroidal zone We may look for the suns of the sidereal differs from Saturn or . then. view (which seemed to him but probable) that the stars are distributed with tolerable uniformity throughout our galaxy..

if we 235 should recognize evidence of the existence of clusters of minute stars cluster. of the existence of rel- whose components are either so small or so closely aggregated as not to be sepa- rately visible even in our most powerful telescopes. it expect to find schemes within the from the So that. we may to which dereal system. as it were. if points. si- discrete stars or differ primary planets or from the asteroidal zone. in the depths toward — which they seem to extend this also need not surprise us we need not conclude that here. differing as much from Saturn star-clusters as the rings of we should recognize evidence atively minute clusters. And. schemes presenting every bizarre variety of figure. and gazing upon external galaxies. So that. with strange complexities of spiral whorls or outlying branches. from Jupiter. for the analogy we have chosen for our guidance teaches us that such structures were to be expected within the scheme of which our sun is a component.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. if we : . we are looking beyond the bounds of the sidereal system. this evidence may fairly be accepted as accordant with the only analogy we have for our guidance. if we should find evidence of strange schemes within the sidereal system. perhaps. losing themselves. —a whole not equalling in real importance the least of the suns of the system —we may accept that evidence without any scruples suggested by the imthe conclusion probability of Again. So that. Yet once more we may look for systems differing as much : from ordinary star-clusters as the eccentric and all far- reaching meteor-systems differ from the symmetrical rings of Saturn. finally. at any rate.

to. Having thus replaced the erroneous analogies to which through no fault of his own Sir "William Herschel was led to look for guidance. as the earth sweeps on her vast orbit round the sun. should find reason to assure ourselves that there are objects in the depths of space whose very substance and constitution are objects within different means believe that the tuted belong from those of the sidereal system. For the millions on millions of comets which form part and parcel of the solar system present a precisely analogous difference of structure. let us examine the evidence which points to the dimensions of the sidereal system. constriking structed. of the enormous scale on which the sidereal system is. all other we need by no objects thus singularly consti- or form. is at once the stars most and the simplest evidence we have. as compared with the other members of that system. In the first place. and yet that the surrounding should exhibit no change of place. That the nearest members of the system lie at enormous distances from us is proved by the fact that. we proceed to consider the direct evidence specting the constitution of our galaxy. That a circle having a diameter of more than one hundred and eighty millions of miles should be swept out year by year as the earth traverses her orbit.OTHER WORLDS THAN 23 6 OCTRS. no appreciable change is observed in the configuration of the star-groups. external systems. by the more — — trustworthy analogies which the recent progress of may we have re- astronomy has afforded for our instruction. And yet this first obvious fact sinks almost .

nute than any which the unaided eye could recognize. in detail. because object is is idea of rather to indicate in a general on which the sidereal system enter at length on the is the scale constructed. —we may form some I shall. There might be a real shifting of apparent position which yet the unaided eye would fail to detect. . and thence — on the hy- pothesis that the intrinsic brilliancy of their light the same as the sun's their dimensions. and such a change would indicate distances so enormous that the mind fails altogether to conceive their real signifi- But the exact instruments of modern times would exhibit a change of place infinitely more micance. however. only apply this process. stars' how astounding that it will be seen at once the lesson conveyed by the fact is but a very few indeed of the stars remain abso- all lutely unaffected — even strumental examination under the most powerful inthe enormous range of —by the earth's orbital motion. modern astronomers could assure themselves of the change of place. when we regard into insignificance 237 thoughtfully the teaching of modern instrumental astronomy. We stars can roughly estimate the distances of the few which are thus affected. when we remember tion that that in precisely the And same propor- we increase the exactitude of instrumental we increase also the significance of the observation apparent fixity of position. to a single case. than to more exact their place in ordinary treatises my present way details which find on astronomy. If a star shifted by so much as the ten thousandth part of the moon's apparent diameter.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS.

is was found that the star Alpha Centauri is moving more rapidly than other stars. presumably the nearest course. so the apparent rate of a star's motion is diminished in proporWhen. combined with it . regard the magnitude of a star's probably an indication of relative proxim- Precisely as a man walking at a great distance from us appears to move much more slowly than one who walking at the same rate close by. may be regarded as certain. Now. tion to the star's distance from us. that. as they are called. until we know something respecting the laws which regulate the stellar move- ments. in appearance. however. that is. these motions. we must motion as ity. portion of the stellar motions may be due to the undoubted proper motion of our own sun through space. Sirins in splendor.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. but there is another indication of proximity at least equally important. though in reality their motions are doubtless inconceivably rapid. alone which led astronomers to regard it as likely to an apparent change of place corresponding to the earth's real change of place as she afford evidence of sweeps round her stars are Of orbit. are as yet very "We know only that the whole of the galactic system is astir with life. 238 The star Alpha Centauri is one of the brightest in and Canopns alone surpassing it But it is not its exceptional brilliancy the heavens. The so-called fixed stars are in reality slowly moving onward on definite courses slowly. but whither the little understood. the brightest . therefore. this fact. orbs are severally tending Nor do we know what we are not yet able to say. This. the proper — motions of the stars.

round the sun at a distance three hundred times vaster than that which separates us from that luminary. 239 the great lustre of the star. in a nearly circular orbit one hundred and eighty million miles in diameter. that a sun filling the whole orbit of Neptune would appear. perhaps. led astronomers to suspect that it must be comparatively near to us. owing to the motion of the earth. the size of each loop being small in comparison with the distance between successive loops. Observations. in round numbers. the path which the star seems really to follow is a looped one. as seen from that star. but about one-ninth as large as the sun appears to us. made to determine whether the star shows any sign of an annual change of place corresponding to the earth's annual orbital motion. Now let sign to us consider what dimensions we may asAlpha Centauri. the star tauri appears to trace out each year a on the Alpha Cen- minute oval path celestial sphere. on the assumption that the surface of this star emits a light as brilliant as that * It hardly need be mentioned.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. though circling this enormous gap. is yet relatively so much nearer than Alpha Centauri. In fact. were rewarded by the detection of a very appreciable displacement. the Alpha Centauri from us is about twenty of millions of miles.* It follows from this that. the greater axis of the oval be- ing equal in length to about -^-g-g-th part of the moon's apparent diameter. each year. . that this motion being superadded to the star's more considerable proper motion. The distance of the distance of millions earth from the sun shrinks into insignificance beside Even Neptune.

The equal to about two hundred and Therefore. smaller telescopes reflector. f This estimate . We have here. the star may own sun. the light t1i of that we we receive from that star is about 000[000 1 16i9SOi receive from the sun. is founded on Sir John Herschel's comparison between the light of the star and that of the full moon.f It follows. would appear to exceed our sun's in the proportion of about seventeen to ten. "We must not neglect the consideration that the star is double the companion emitting perhaps about one- — sixteenth as much light of Alpha Centauri is as the primary. and Zollner'a comparison between the light of the full moon and that of the sun. clear favor of the view that orbs which to may be among and decisive evidence in the fixed stars there are regarded as veritable suns. rion of size. 24-0 which proceeds from the photosphere of our own sun. we find that the much emit about three times as the sun. as much light as the sun so far as the emission of light is a crite- by still be regarded as considerably In fact. if removed to the star's distance. and therefore the diameter of the thus estimated. larger than our light of the pair primary must light as star.* distance which separates us from the thirty thousand times that sun. I cannot may more be trusted. this sort. therefore. reducing the total one-sixteenth. that the star emits about three times as and therefore. observing the star with his twenty-feet thought the secondary brighter than but think that. for a comparison of safely it is usually considered. the sun would shine with only Now.. 900> 000>000 th part of his present according to the most careful esti- mates of the brilliancy of Alpha Centauri. 1 62. worthy be the ruling centres of schemes as noble as the solar * Sir John Herschel. brilliancy. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. then.

would appear to shine with but one-sixteenth tion star's. But. must far surpass though more than thrice so that Sirius. light it it is four times as emits must exceed less than sixty-four times. less than one hundred and judged from alone. method tion to this reason for believing that must fall far confining our atten- many we star. exhibits ciable change of position as the earth circles sun. The 61 Cygni. Sirius Alpha Centauri. has been found . sixth-magnitude double 16 still of estimating magnitude. the real in reality amount of Alpha Centauri no and that of our own sun no that of So ninety-two times. an estimate which assigns to Sirius a diameter of nearly twelve million miles. no appreround the more than four times brighter than Alpha Centauri. did it emit no greater amount light.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. find of the visible stars short of our sun in magnitude. 241 For we know quite certainly that the greater number of the first-magnitude stars are very much farther from us than Alpha Centauri. and. with which. that. the diameter of Sirius mav this indication be held to exceed that of our sun in the proportion of about fourteen to one. and a volume two thou- sand six hundred and eighty-eight times as large as the sun's. bright. on the other hand. howgystein. ever. indeed. which is least and Canopus. As of that star's lustre. as bright. they are fairly they may comparable in brilliancy equal to that star in size and mass. : be regarded as for the most part at The latter. shows an annual change of posi- which certainly does not exceed one-fourth of that It is therefore four times farther from us than Alpha Centauri.

we may assume that each component sends us about one-hundredth part of the light we receive from Alpha Centauri it follows that the latter star. remembering what has al- ready been shown respecting the relation between Alpha Centauri and our sun. while each of the suns forming the double star 61 Cygni would appear to have a volume less than six one-fifth of our sun's. and about three timea Sirius. But here at once we have very wide range of magnitude We have evidence that there among is a the fixed stars. would outshine either component of that double star more than eleven times hence (on . the assumption that brightness is a fair measure of real dimensions). seen reason to believe that Sirius is twenty- hundred and eighty-eight times as large as the sun. as far from us as Alpha Centauri. and therefore less than 13 | 00 th of -the volume of Sirius. if removed to the distance at which 61 Cygni lies from us (when its lio-ht would of course be diminished to one-ninth of its present value). by considering .Z OTHER WORLDS THAN 42 to be nearer to us than OURS. the two suns which form the double star 61 Cygni would each have a diameter equal to about equal to about -J-Jths of the sun's. The sum -^-ths. and a volume of their volumes would be therefore about one-third of his . each component has a diameter less than one-third that of Alpha Centauri. So that. and it will presently appear that a perfectly distinct mode of estimation tends to show that the sum of their masses bears about the same proportion to the sun's mass. . that. We may roughly estimate the volume of each at about -^ th of that of So the latter star. Now.

cannot suppose that these three cases. is very Herschel was led to anticipate. But it is not sufficient that we should thus form an estimate of the nature of the fixed amount of fortunately light they send to us. would not be fit to sway the motions of orbs resembling those which circle around our sun. and further to ascertain of what substances they may be composed. myriads of millions of miles beyond the extreme limits of the solar system. nearly a century ago. when. seems a strange circumstance that astronomers should be able to form a more exact and trustworthy . we have found 2+3 tolerably clear evi- dence of a range of variety in volume. lights. which have —so —indicate been selected at random uuie is concerned limits within which the fixed may So that we far as the question of vol any thing like the real stars differ in magnitude. only three cases. reminding us forcibly of that We which we recognize in the solar system. it is practicable stars. Nor would such lights serve to indicate to the astronomer that. that the range of real magnitude among the fixed stars than Sir far greater "W". he began his researches into the sidereal system. confidently accept. from the It is desirable —to obtain — and information as mass or weight of some of the fixed stars. as the most prob- able conclusion from the evidence before ns.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. and in what condition those subto the absolute may Mere however glorious. stances It exist. there exist materials suited to form the substance of worlda resembling our own. out yonder. or however wide the sphere within whicb they displayed their splendors.

as it were by an accident. and yet the distance really separating them may enormously exceed that by which they seem to be separated them is not necessarily square The components of the star 61 to the line of sight. would occupy a much less period than five hundred and twenty years in completing a revolution fact. we know that a planet placed at distance from the sun. is er indeed certain. nearly in the same line of view. Cygni have been carefully watched. smaller star two are associated together. 44 estimate of the weight of certain fixed stars than they can hope to form respecting the volume of any of those bodies. The distance separating them is probably about half as large again as the distance of Neptune from the since the line joining sun. and their motions show that they are circling around each other. equal to that which separates the components of 61 Cygni. Hence it follows that the components of 61 Cygni are attracted together less forcibly than Neptune is attracted . Now. and not merely seen.— 2 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. however. because that peculiarly large prop- motion already referred But many stars may be to is shared in by both. its . physically associated. The period of revolution appears to be about five hundred and twenty years. which is more than three times as great as the period of Neptune. That the star. Let us consider what evidence we have on this point. in period would be about three hundred years. I have spoken of the The star 61 Cygni as a double shows very clear indications of orbital motion around its primary.

it follows mass of the two components of Alpha Cenmust be less than that of the sun. and a mean distance of 13. yet suggest that a third (proba- bly opaque) orb affects the motions of the other two. taken together. the former pair. taken together. while another pair at the same distance take a time £. and therefore that the sum of their masses must be less than the sun's mass. if a pair of bodies. there are peculiarities in the motion of 61 Cygni. which. corresponding to a real distance exceeding the earth's distance from the sun some teen times. as 61 Cygni. that. though Alpha Centauri it is also a binary system. Hind has assigned to the components a period of revolution of about eighty-one years. Mr. . without throwing doubt on the general conclusions deduced above. has not been so systematically observed some astronomers believe that its period has been even more satisfactorily determined. From made a careful comparison in recent times on of all the observations Alpha Centauri. hare a weight which bears to the weight of the latter pair the ratio of f to T2 . circling around each other at a certain distance.* to The star and. Indeed. 245 toward the sun. fif- Since a planet placed at this distance from the sun would occupy less than sixty years in completing a revolution around that body. It is easy compute the actual proportion. This result the data be considered trustworthy) would indicate that the tauri (if a considerable difference star * and that of our sun It may easily be shown between the condition of the for we have seen that the . weigh about one-third as much as our sun.6 seconds of arc.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. and we find accordingly that the two components of 61 Cygni. take a certain time T in effecting a revolution.

not mere lights . not And —though thus we as yet are led to recognize unweighed — as mas- merely supplying light to other worlds around them. at So soon as the great discovery by Kirchhoff had been announced. though of course very much fainter. as Cygni. effected once that these dark lines in the ford the stars. conclude. and that dark lines can be seen in these spectra. some of which correspond with those in the sun's spectrum. But we owe to the revelations of the spectroscope the complete proof of these matters. but regulating by their attracinfluences the orbital motions of their dependent travelling tive worlds. that the fixed stars generally are suns. and. in conclusive evidence in this case. it was seen stellar spectra af- means of determining the constitution of the was only necessary that these lines should It . How years must elapse before ever. I believe that we can regard the period of Alpha Centauri as satisfactorily determined. further. we have Still. therefore. It had long been known that the spectra of the fixed stars present a general resemblance to the solar spec- trum. other stars also sive orbs. we must be a general similarthe conditions under which these bodies and our are led to believe that there ity in own sun emit light. while others seem to be new. that the component that of the star 61 stars are really bodies of enormous weight. 246 star gives out much more many light than the sun.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. besides evidence on other and equally interesting points. and conse- quently well fitted to sway the motions of families of We planets.

although the principle on which researches were to be conducted was sufficiently simple. Betelgeux. undeterred by these cists by difficulties. and Aldebaran. the two physi- persevered in their researches. But. and Rutherford. the leading brilliant of Orion. The . .' and were rewarded results so interesting covery may and important that their dis- be said to constitute the most remarkable era in the history of sidereal research since the completion of the star-gaugings of the elder Herschel. to various elements CD CJ and laborious And eyes.OTHER SUXS THAN OURS. and the bright was not onlv a lines delicate «/ but was singularly painful to the other difficulties. were unsuccessful and it was not until Prof. had to be encountered and ever come. Even in the hands of these eminent physicists the work was difficult. weather necessary for the successful prosecution of so delicate a method of inquiry does not often prevail in The comparison between the our variable climate. Indeed. and its progress tedious. Huggins commenced their famous series of researches that the problem can be said to have been fairly mastered. dark lines in the stellar spectra belongino. in order to prove that these elements exist in the substance of the star. 2 47 be identified by their correspondence with the lines known belonging to elements. the attempts made by Airy. Miller and Mr. the chief star of Taurus. task. Two bright stars. many difficulties had to be encountered. But. to solve the problem of determining the constitution of the stars by means of spectroscopic analysis. into which I have not space to enter here. Secchi.

as we proceed.2 OTHER WORLDS THAN 48 OURS. or in the vapors surrounding we have no it. With respect to the former spectrum. For. Huggins remarks that the spectra of these stars are as rich in The places of no lines as the solar spectrum itself. Miller and Mr. Of course. Mr. our conclusions respecting the nature of the stars will be very much strengthened. reason for believing that worlds can be formed out of those elements only with which we are acquainted. it in passing. while as many as seventy had their places assigned to them in the spectrum lines of Aldebaran. Nor should we be which surround able to regard the star ac other than a sun. even though none of the elements known to us should appear to be present in its sub- stance. may be remarked for as to the its nature of the star . when Prof. Huggins com- ." a peculiarity. Now. here already we have very decided evidence red. whose light comes to us through certain vapors corresponding to those the sun. since the very fact that spectrum presents the same general appearance as the solar spectrum. which serves to account the well-marked orange-color of this star. " Strong groups of lines are visible. remarks that it is Huggins most complex and remarkable. clearly. less than eighty lines in the spectrum of Betelgeux were accurately measured. were examined with special care. proves conclusively that the star is an incandescent body. Now. especially in the and the blue portions. that those elements actually do compose the suns which form the sidereal system. Mr. if this shall appear to be the case. the green. unless we find.

fifty others were examined. Besides these stars. in which case its characteristic lines would not be easily discernible. while no mistaking the positive evidence by the spectroscope element in sun or star. and bismuth. when examined with the spectroscope. sodium. as to the existence of af- any the negative evidence supplied by the absence of particular lines is not to be certainly relied upon. exist in the Thus. in the vapors surrounding the star. that hydrogen does not exist in the composition of the star. It may well be that in Betelgeux hydrogen exists under such conditions that the amount of light it sends forth is nearly equivalent to the amount it absorbs. tellurium. though the low altitude which this star attains in our latitudes rendered the observation of the finer . iron. antimony. are present in The lines of hydrogen. which are so well marked in the solar spectrum. bismuth. In fact it is there can be forded important to notice generally. that. calcium. magnesium. hydrogen.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. they found that some of these elements do actually vaporous envelope of the stars. 249 pared the lines in the spectrum of Betelgeux with the bright lines of certain terrestrial elements. do not at all times exhibit the hydrogen lines. calcium. are not seen in the spectrum of Betelgeux. mag- nesium. and mercury. The brilliant Sirius exhibits a spectrum of great beauty. or may even present them as bright instead of dark lines. iron. In the case of Aldebaran the two physicists were able to establish the existence of sodium. We are not to conclude from this Betelgeux. We know that certain parts of the solar disk.

Whe- well did well in pointing out that astronomers had no had some right to regard the stars as suns. and probably iron. until they evidence that these orbs resemble the sun in other spects than in size. hydrogen. And now let us consider the general bearing of these interesting discoveries. That general resemblance of structure which indicates . or have been looked for than an exact identity of physical habitudes among the members of the solar system. deed in every case. in a great belonging to known number terrestrial of the spectra. exist in this gigantic sun. But this was no more to sun. not we mere are forced to recognize in the Doubtless Dr. physicists were able to show that sodium. a real limit seemed placed to the speculations men might form as to the existence of other planetary systems besides those which circle around the sun. stars real suns. way and that. In the first place. or luminosity. But now we have precisely that evidence which Whewell required. mass. All the stars examined exhibit spectra crossed by numerous lines lines . and.* OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. lights. 5c lines exceedingly But the two difficult. exist in his substance. magnesium. We see that the stars are constituted in the same general further. perhaps there There may is not in- not be in any an exact identity of composition between star and between star and star. elements were de- tected. they those which as the sun. his day it And re- as in appeared altogether unlikely that such evi- dence should be obtained. even contain elements identical with case.

salt. a general lestial resemblance in the purposes which the bodies are intended to subserve. though these materials are not necessarily nor probably combined in the same proportions throughout the solar system. Again. 2 $\ when we compare is ce- undoubtedly the stars either with our Bun or with each other. is reason to believe that all the planets which circle around the sun are constituted of the same materials which exist in his substance. we have every reason which analogy can give us for believing that the planets circling around Betelgeux or Aldebaran are constituted of the same materials which exist in the substance of their central luminary. then.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. evident. Thus we are led to a number elusions even respecting orbs man The can construct is of interesting: con- which no telescope that likely to reveal to his scrutiny. we have composed. since we have no reason to believe that our earth bears an exceptionally close resemblance to the sun as respects the elements of which she Since. the existence of iron and same class carries our minds to the . and compounds of these metals so on. to regard general resemblance of structure as sufficient to this prove that the other planets resemble the earth. I have already spoken of the conclusions to be drawn from the existence of the same materials in the substance of the sun that exist around us on this shown that we are compelled I have earth. existence of such elements as sodium or calcium in those other worlds suggests the probable existence of the familiar lime. other metals of the — soda.

radiate heat also to them. because we . But some that at time or other those worlds have been or will be the abode of intelligent creatures seems to be a conclusion very fairly deducible from what we now know of their probable structure. indeed. "We are at made once invited to recognize that the orbs circling around those distant suns are not meant merely to be the abode of life. capable of applying these metals to useful purposes. yet the very nature of the light stars indicates that these orbs are in- "When we find that the spectrum of a planet's light resembles the candescent through intensity of heat. solar spectrum. planet is we do as intensely not indeed conclude that the heated as the sun. because at the present peopled with is we have good in- reason for be- an enormous proportion of the time during which our earth has existed as a world no intelligent use has been made of the supplies lieving that throughout of metal existing in her substance. circle around them. Even if we were not certain that elements which are only vaporized at a very high temperature exist in the vaporous envelopes of the sent out by the stars. but that intelligent creatures. But.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. that moment every one of those worlds telligent beings. E5 2 various useful purposes which these metals are to subserve on the earth. must exist in those worlds. the nature of the stellar spectra serves to prove most conclusively that the worlds which besides supplying light to the stars. apart from the information afforded by the spectroscope respecting the materials of which the stars are composed. secondly. We need not conclude.

but point to the existence in those worlds of the various forms of force into which heat may be transmuted. suggests at once the thought that on those worlds there must heat-supplies. around Yega. in we can conclude from the very nature of their spectra that these orbs are intensely heated. Capella. But. exist vegetable and animal forms of life. and the and phenomena thunder and lightning. that the stars send forth heat to the worlds which circle around them. that natural phenomena.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. and clouds. must be produced in those worlds by the heat of their central sun. and that works such as those which man undertakes on earth works in which intelligent creatures use Nature's powers to master Nature to their purposes must go on in the worlds which circle around Aldebaran and Betelgeux. rendered absolutely certain of this iron and other metals stellar exist in the Of course we are when we find that form of vapor in the atmospheres. Recently it has even been found possible to render — — . the case of self-luminous bodies ]ike the stars. Thus the fact. and the blazing Sirius. storm and hail and that even the works of man are performed by virtue of the solar rain. is stored in vegetable all —in winds. know 253 that the planets are not self-luminous. The by the vast supplies of heat thus emitted stars not only suggest the conclusion that there must be worlds around these orbs for which those heat-supplies are intended. We know that the sun's heat up poured upon our earth is animal forms of life present in of Nature . in . such as we are familiar with as due to the solar heat.

000. Now. the heating power of Arcturus bears a very much greater proportion to that of the sun than the respective light-giving powers of these luThis seems to throw some doubt on the minaries bear to each other. effect of the object-glass in It will correctness of the estimate. . making due alThe light sent to us that supplied concentrating and absorbing be seen at once that.WuroTnjth P ar * of the light we receive from the sun. making use of the powers of the great equatorial of the Greenwich Observatory. has in arrived at the conclusion that Arcturus sends us about much as cube heat as would be received from a three-inch full of boiling water. Mr. according to this estimate. Stone. Mr. and ingeniously overcoming the numerous difficulties which exist a research of such exceeding delicacy. lowance for the the heat. Vega. the task of measuring the amount of heat received from certain stars has not been thought too difficult. Stone estimates the direct heating effect of Arcturus at 0°. gives out about the proportionate amount of heat. Nay. and placed at a distance of three hundred and eighty-three yards. 2 54 the stellar heat sensible to terrestrial observation. shines. according to Sir J.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. or about ^rnTnr. Herschel.* But same in other in- power of a star has not been the amount of light it emits. the more so as this seems (from the nature of its spectrum) to resemble the sun very star closely in constitution. by Arcturus is equal to about three-fourths of by Alpha Centauri. eithei of the light-giving or of the heat-giving power of the star. 00. by methods which need not here be inquired into.12'? Fahrenheit. variation of new bond many fixed stars in lustre at once of association between the stars and * Although these results cannot yet be regarded as numerically exit may be interesting to consider the amount of heat given out by Arcturus in relation to the light sent us by this star. stances the heat-giving found proportional to The forms a act. which with about two- thirds the light of Arcturus.

resem- are acquainted. But Eta Argus and Mira Ceti seem to belong to a different category altogether. that their appearance as stars of the leading magnitudes is not accidental. fact that the stars photograph themselves. It remains only to be mentioned and heat. but part of a systematic series of changes. since it is probable as respects the former. in some instances we seem compelled withhold our belief in the existence of habitable to sys- stars. It has This can be is proved made to been found. which sometimes blazes out with a light surpassing that of any of the stars in the northern tems around certain fixed for example. and certain as relustre as due to spects the latter. . besides light emit actinic rays. could endure the effects of corresponding important variations of heat. nay. The star Eta Argus. ble stars as the one to be the I pass over such varia- which recently blazed out in the Northern Crown. can hardly be regarded as centre of a system of worlds. the sun 255 —which we have seen to he in reality a vari— and suggests interesting inquiries as to the able star Some much more our own sun existence of variation in the emission of heat. leading (as the spectrum of the star seemed to show) to a temporary conflagration. while at other times it falls magnitude. however. of the stellar variations of light are so marked than those noticed we can that in the case of scarcely conceive bling any with which we how creatures.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. and its sudden some exceptional occurrence. because in a case of may to the sixth fit this sort the star be regarded as really a small orb. hemisphere. the decisively stars by the that.

is a million-fold stronger in the case of the fixed Though here we cannot. surely the argu- ment stars. yet the mind presents them which we clearly before . all and which we be necessary to the existence of organized beings on our earth are abundantly emitted. as in the case of the solar system. To sum up what we have learned so far from the we see that. besides our study of the starry heavens — sun. so that the worlds be regarded as in probability similar in constitution to this earth that from those suns all the forms of force know to . as in the material con- stitution of the stars. there are myriads of other suns in the immensity of space . those which constitute our which circle round them own may sun. So that in star's this respect.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. that these suns are large and massive bodies. actually see the worlds about speculate. we find specific varieties even amid those very features which indicate most strikingly the general resemblance which exists between the suns constituting the sidereal system. capable of swaying by their attraction systems of worlds as important as those which circle around the sun that these suns are formed of elements similar to . Is it not reasonable to conclude that these suns have not been made in vain ? men have reasoned and heat poured out If thoughtful rightly in supposing that the light by the sun upon the planets which circle around him —in the case of the planets except our small earth —by being shed where no forms of are not wasted all life can profit by those abundant supplies. like its heat-giving not by any means proportional to the power. is light. 256 that the actinic power of a star.

and that each exhibits in the clearest and most striking manner the wisdom and beneficence of the Almighty. as. various in structure.OTHER SUNS THAN OURS. 17 . infinitely vari- ous in their physical condition and habitudes. that each fectly is peopled by creatures per- adapted to the circumstances surrounding them. 2 tf various in size. bu alike in this.

astronomers have not been able to I propose to exhibit the reasons to believe that. that leading such as those discussed in the preceding chapter. are distributed throughout space to the very farthest limits and beyond the very farthest limits that our most powerful telescopes can attain to . however. so far penetrate to stars. but with opinions which have found a place in the works of astronomers from whom I very unwillingly differ. me let not be misunderstood. AND OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF STARS IN SPACE. that the stars . which have led me from knowing the real figure of the sidereal system. It has been so long a received opinion that a general uniformity of terizes the stellar magnitude and distribution characsystem that it is with some diffi- dence I venture to express a different view. I am And here fully sensible only in certain popular treatises of astron- that it is omy that a belief in any thing like a structure in the sidereal system omers of authority. is It is not real uniformity of attributed to astron- any such imaginary theory that I have now to deal with. its limits in any direction .CHAPTEK XL OF MINOR STARS.

. are relatively minute. from the existence of double. and This. We know. regarding stars within the sidereal these clusters as forming part and parcel of the sidereal system. MINOR STAES. besides a mul- These clusters must of course titude of minute stars. from suns as large as Sirius to orbs down which may be smaller than any of the primary planets of the solar system. that combinations of stars exist in which one or two may be suns like our own. Next let us consider such star-clusters as contain orbs of the eighth or ninth magnitude. are arranged in groups and clustering aggregations. however. triple. tude are mixed up. while the rest. has of course long been it is known only as a preliminary step in the investigation that I here advance so trite an instance. in streams and whorls and spirals. or some of the rest. in a complex too for us to 2 59 hope manner these aggregations stars of all altogether and that in degrees of real magni- to interpret . and multiple stars. in which the components are often very unequal in splendor. existence of multitudes of minute we find in the orbs within their range a proof that diversity of magnitude in schemes of associated stars is to be regarded as a feature of . since no external galaxies could reasonably be supposed to contain orbs so infinitely transcending even Sirius in magnitude as to shine from beyond the enormous gap separating us from such galaxies with a light exceeding that derived from system. be regarded as lying within the sidereal system. many Now. Now let us consider step by step the evidence we have on these points.

we again have very decided evidence of the fact that in one and the real system there and innumerable may same region of the side- exist leading stars (so to speak) stars relatively minute. . as has been thought. Now.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. Aldebaran or Betelgeux. let us proceed to consider the teachings of the Milky Way itself. that we may see whether that wonderful zone indeed represents. So we see a few or many dismass of nebulous light which we most powerful telescopes that when in these objects tinct stars. the sidereal system itself. of our galaxy therefore be the less surprised if son for believing that it is we . and we shall should find rea- a characteristic peculiarity of the galactic system. may . With considerations such as these (and I might add many others) to guide us. and a judge to proceed from an indefinitely large number of minute stars. must Their fall within the range of distance which astronomers have assigned to the boundaries of the galaxy. since some stars even within that range cease to be separately visible in the man has yet constructed. to be visible at all. in comparison with our sun or Sirius. Yega or Arcturus. that same reasons lie for believing that we have many of precisely the these objects within the range of the solar system as have been already considered in the case of star-clusters. 2 6o any certain parts. or only an aggregation of minute orbs altogether insignificant. component stars. with regard to the nebulae (resolvable and irand their claim to be regarded as external I shall have much to say farther on but I resolvable). separately. remark. galaxies. in passing. at rate.

we see that the outermost parts of the galaxy must lie (according to Sir W. while he regarded the probable distance of the outermost limits of the ring as seven hundred and fifty times instead of but eighty times the nitude stars. mean distance of the This difference of opinion. his observations of the southern heavens to so far modify his father's theory as to describe the a Milky ring. though obviously not surprising when consider the enormous difficulty of the problem pre- sented by the sidereal system. is yet sufficient to indi- cate the probability that an important error has been made in the hypothesis which underlies the accepted But. theories respecting the galaxy. Herschel. Herschel's theory) about eight times as far from us as the sphere of the sixth-magnitude stars. the stars flat Way down as probably shaped like to the tenth magnitude being in a sense dissociated from the ring. I have not the dark concentric circles in the ure (in which SB . first -mag- it may be we remarked. interpreted according to his hypothesis of stellar distribution. in regarding the Milky Way (cloven through one half of as its shaped like a flat ring circumference) whose medial section resembles generally the space between accompanying figequals eight times SA). The star-gauging of 261 Sir "W. separates us from the first-magnitude stars. be this as it may. Sir John Herschel was led by Xow. regarding sixth-magnitude stars as on the average about ten times as far from us as those of the first magnitude (the usual estimate).MINOR STARS. pointed to an extension of the Milky TTay laterally to a distance exceeding some eighty times that which So that.

3. as better ac- cording with the results of star-gauging than Sir Fig. let us consider whether any Way forms a cloven peculiarities of the . Galactic Cloven Flat Eing (section). accepting this modified figure. 262 adopted a structure which exaggerates the difficulties presented by the disk or ring theory of the Milky Way. would be somewhat as shown in Fig.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.— The W. Now.— The cross-section Galactic Cloven Flat Eing (plan). HerschePs theory that the Milky disk. The 2. Fig. 3.

in others numerous branching and interlacing streams. Over the so-called double stream there are in places strange convolutions. but of different cross-section. whose complexity indeed dedirection fies description . the flat ring rift lines in that direction. as is Way is broken indicated by the broken Next there is. the stars presented tangentially toward S. 2 must be supposed removed between the broken lines from S to 4 and 5. through by some such so that we must conceive in Fig.MINOR STARS. and further to throw out plane and curved sheets of Lastly. . there first a gap or is rift ex- tending right across the single part of the Milky in the constellation Argo that from S toward 1. so that here we must conceive its figure trenched in upon in the way indicated by the dot-and peck line. we must flat ring as is indi- A similar must exist in S 3 (as shown by the dotted lines) to account for the dark gap in the constellation Cygnus. Milky Way pretation of In the seem its 263 to oppose themselves to this inter- structure. a pear-shaped vacuity of considerable size. place. then. tunnelling. and bounded by well-defined edges . where the Milky Way is double. so that conceive that from S toward 2 (Fig. 2) the is tunnelled through by some such passage cated by the dotted lines in that direction. a large portion of one branch is discontinuous. . Next. in the constella- tion Crux. so that the upper part of the double portion of the ring in Fig. so that the portion 3 B 2 of the ring must be supposed corrugated in the strangest way. single portion of the Milky Way is very faint indeed toward 6. 2.

has some such figure as this. 4. yet the deduced figure is by no means inviting in its simplicity. in turning our thoughts a more simple explanation will be well that we to the recognition of of observed appearances. fundamental hypothesis of Sir W. as far as its more densely aggregated star-regions are concerned. Iierschel. has some such shape as I have endeavored to exhibit in the ac- companying figure. however.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. nor a tithe of the various overlapping layers which would be required to account for the appearance of the Milky Way between Centaurus and Ophiuchus. Now. it we are to accept the principle of Sir "W". —The we are led to the con- Milky Way. absolutely certain that the sidereal system. even without considering a multitude of minuter peculiarities of structure. it should consider some peculiarities . modified in accordance with the observed peculiarities of the Milky Way. 264 Thus. Fig. Herschel's star-gaugings. Although I have not indicated here the corrugations of the ring. It is. judged according clusion that the to the Galactic Flat King.

what conclusion do we draw as to the position of the object? Is it not in well defined. MINOR STABS. such a case absolutely certain that the distance of the cluster enormously exceeds the distance between its component parts or. I observed by Sir John Herschel in different parts of the galaxy the edge of the One 265 —the Milky namely. We conclude. what opinion we may found on the existence of dark regions in the Milky Way and here I refer not merely to such large and obvious vacuities as the coal-sack in Crux or the oval opening Isext let us consider .. whether they be regarded as projec- tions or nodules. then. in other words. or the Way field " — that stars. because a cluster a definite edge has Other parts of the Milky be removed bodily. Way may enormous also . are definite clustering aggregations very far removed from us. of the Milky In the first liarity Way which we have not yet attended to. that the observer — is Many far outside the cluster? instances will at once suggest themselves to the reader in illustration of this remark. so to speak. may be as far but certainly those portions are. that in places fact. half of a telescopic field of view may be quite show only a few straggling orbs. to which has not removed as one which distances. would invite attention to a pecu- place. that these portions of the Milky Way. Way is quite sharply defined. at any rate. a region profusely sprinkled with the boundary between the two portions being "When we see that a cluster of objects presents a well-defined edge. while other half presents what has been called a " Milky clear of stars. is.

star to Judged apart from preconceived openings as these. 266 in Cygnus. it will be seen at once that an aperture extending laterally through a star- system so shaped must have a particular direction and be perfectly straight in order to be visible to observers we placed. in which. but also to small openings. instead of the Way. as he has many other matters which make strongly against the received theory of the sidereal system. return for a moment To to Fig. according to all opinions. in the Coal-sacks. a lateral ex- tension not greatly exceeding It is further to its depth. lateral extension the galaxy has in thes8 places certainly.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 2. they occur even in rich regions of the Milky there is even a telescopic tion. such laws of probability. Apparently unwilling at present to press them to their full extent. Nor is he unconscious of their bearing. we find no stars by the Milky above the fifth magnitude. For instance.* assigned to the Milky are forced therefore to enormous infer that. and elsewhere probably. to accord with views he . in the central open- altogether improbable that one such open- ing should exist by accident. Way Milky indicate that the portion of the in which they occur has not a very great lateral extension. and very few of these. It is are supposed to be. and absolutely impossible that many We should. he is commonly satisfied by noting that they do not seem has elsewhere dwelt upon. W. though Way. or * Sir John Herschel has distinctly indicated this inference. be noted that the lucid that zone of the heavens which is stars over occupied by the galaxy show a very decided preference for the parts of that zone which are actually traversed Way. as ing. according to Sir HerschePs descrip- be seen. not.

especially membered that the region where it part of the heavens where stars of all is an accident. I have been very much surprised to find how in many cases the position. of the Milky Way is indicated by the iucid stars which fall on its zone. so shaped that the cross-section of the stream is everywhere not far from a roughly circular figure and. setting aside preconceived opinions. then must its * I may add that. again. which. there is . according to the accepted theory. may that the spaces thus left vacant form no inconsiderable aliquot and that. If the Milky Way Now. clear is us to he. in drawing the maps for my new star-atlas. Although my own views had led me to look for a peit has been much more striking in its character than culiarity of the sort. would lie so many times farther from us. thirdly. between the two branches crosses the again.* if we have not been mistaken so far.MINOR STARS. nay the very shape. or. according to the accepted no reason for expecting any peculiarity part of that zone theory. a clustering aggregation separated by an from interval comparatively clear of small stars secondly. . when occnrs is it is re- the very magnitudes be expected to be most profusely distributed . first. it is very what views we are to form. in the space which lies where the Milky "Way is donble. but as indicating that there really is a very close association between the bright stars and those small stars forming the milky light. it is 267 If this a Yery extraordinary one. I had expected. we seem led to regard the coincidence as not accidental.. Thus. associated very closely with the bright stars seen in the same field of view. of the sort. in the rift which Milky Way in Argo. and judging only according to the evidence.

and so appear to interlace upon the heavens. The Way in Coal-sacks would be simply accounted for by conceiving that branches seen toward the same general direction. in which disks represent lucid stars (very ated of course in Fig. but at different distances. It will once how. the spiral of relatively minute stars. to an observer placed at S. much exaggerwhile the fine dotting represents —The Milky Way regarded as a Spiral. toward b two branches. 2 68 structure be the somewhat shown as in Fig. but forced to do may . and in part evanescent through enormity of distance. the various fea- tures of the figure.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 5. toward e . 5. We are not only justified in supposing this. do not lie in the same general plane. clustering along the spiral group of leading stars. size). one faint. the other forming the brightest part of the spiral Cepheus . Milky Way Toward a would be seen at can be accounted for by this lie the gap in Argo . toward d the projection in the faint part of the Milky Gemini and Monoceros.

are questions which can only be resolved the by the systematic scrutiny of this wonderful zone. Whether that stream form a single spiral stars seen or several. so to speak. but m. the Milky as Way upon the heavens ence of real streams in space . that I at all insist on the general shape of the spiral shown in for the rns Fig. be in reality the best way of accounting for the ob- What I do most obviously forced upon us by the that (1) the apparent streams formed by served appearance of the galactic zone. I would not have it understood. instead of spirals. The chief points to be noticed tions flowing among the considera- from these general views are these . by the way bo in 269 which the stream of milky observed to meander on light is its course athwart the heavens. there he a number of closed rings of small different distances from us. and lying in may not placed at all directions medial plane of the galaxy.ore or less tilted to that plane (the sun not lying within any one of the rings). The branching extensions serve very well to account appearance of the Milky Way between Centauand Ophiuchus. that curve is only one out of which might fairly account for the observed appearance of the Milky Way and I have often felt inclined to doubt whether a single spiral of this sort several . or whether.: MINOR STARS. the body of the stream. the contrary. insist upon evidence is. On 5. however. indicate the exist- and (2) that the lucid on the stream are really associated with the telescopic stars which form. round stars. where the interlacing branches and the strange convolutions and clustering aggregations described by Sir John Herschel are chiefly gathered.

7o In the first marked place. but seen from it when placed under telescopic scrutiny to differ in this. that among the minute stars which cause the milky light are numbers of nebulae. while the latter appear not to have such attendants. One cannot would not have that permanence Df character. In the second place. in the galactic zone.j» OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. if at all. which would seem to be necessary in the case of area\. orbs may tain. consists in the fact that the former are astween the stars of the leading sociated with countless multitudes of smaller stars. we do But. the and in a very intimate manner. — — groups as external galaxies. resembling the Milky Way in their general appearance. except in one region. lie Way the two Magellanic Clouds. of classes not found commonly. for instance. or not so many We shall see presently that of them. as sources of heat-supply. — be absolutely large far larger. with groups of very minute stars of stars so minute indeed as not to be separately discernible so that astronomers have been led to regard such extra-galactic stars are associated. not find outside the galactic zone any appear- ances reminding us of the aspect of the Milky In that region itself. earth may indeed be accepted as cerBut it is difficult to believe that they subserve than our own — purposes similar to those of our own but see that orbs such as these sun. and those lying without it. we must conclude that uncounted millions of stars exist which are very minute indeed in comparison with those which we have been That these relatively minute led to regard as suns. the only difference be- magnitudes (say the first ten) lying in the galactic zone. .

Indeed. those temporary stars have blazed out which have formed a subject of such perplexity to the thoughtful astronomer. these judge. referred to in Chapter IX. among the lucid stars. that among the small stars of the Milky Way there is a proneness to irregular variation which is not recognized. be forced to settle down as attendants round the major ones. or is altogether exIn the neighborceptional. to temporary dependence on one sun under the somewhat resembling those I have after another. with scarcely an exception.. not being in any case absolutely dependent on any large star. action of processes conceived to take place in the formation of the solar system. 271 We know. torted paths under the varying influences of the attrac- minute orbs will. but jet returning in cycles which must be measured by millions of eons. hood of the Milky Way. It may be that they bear the same sort of re- lation to the leading stars that certain cometic and metoric families. the conditions under which they move will have become so far altered as to lead to the breaking up of the Milky Way into distinct systems. indeed. or whether. until in the course of time. there are signs in parts of the Milky Way which woujd seem to indicate that . Under what conditions the small orbs in the Milky Way actually exist. after long voyaging in spiral and condun. bear to the major planets of the solar system. for the most part. whether clusters of them will eventually segregate from their neighbors to form suns. it is as yet altogether impossible to tions of leading stars. as Sir William Herschel was led by other considerations long since to point out.MINOR STARS.

So long as a general approach to uniformity of distribution was understood to prevail within that system. behind the luminaries which are indi- vidually seen. the test above de* scribed is an absolutely certain one. indeed. indeed. Nichol. we then have every reason the circumstances can furnish on behalf of the supposition that at length we have pierced through the stratum.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. any milky or nebulous light . " When an eye is directed toward a prolonged bed of stars. when no increase of orbs follows on the application of a still larger instrument. a probability. such light probably arising always from the blended rays of moter masses. there was a ready means of determining when the telescopist had reached in any given direction the limits of the system. But. after struggling re- long with a obtain a telescope that gives us additional light with a perfectly hlack shy. adopting the fundamental hypothesis on which accepted views are founded. But perhaps the most important conclusion de- ducible from the circumstances I have dwelt upon (assuming my interpretation of them to be in the main we can no longer suppose we have any direction pierced to the limits of the sidereal system. To use the words of Prof. we if. nebulous ground. and there can. ijz several such systems have already reached an advanced stage of development. which can — be converted into certainty in only one way viz. be no doubt that. . that in reached the termination of that stratum so long as there appears." Sir John Herschel has ex- pressed a similar view.. there is no reason to fancy that it has correct) is this.

According to the views usually accepted. which had been regarded as many times farther from us than the lucid stars. Here. according to views. into direct association with these luminaries. Mchol's striking but somewhat we have in reality only beeD searching with more and more minuteness within a incorrect expression). definite cluster or stream of stars. the scattered stars of very low 18 . I pointing out that in all make amends by probability the limits of the beyond the range of the most has yet constructed. But. In fact. then. we have stars learned per- can learn about that cluster or stream we can no more be said to have reached the limits of the sidereal system in that direction than we can be said to have reached the outermost bounds of the universe in the direction of the cluster in Hercules. to the conclusion have reached the limits of minuteness which the of the cluster or stream attain to haps but all that we . if I have seemed to narrow the limits of the sidereal scheme of the Milky by bringing the star-myriads Way. when that magnificent object has been thoroughly re- solved with the telescope. according tc accepted theories. whereas. instead of penetrating farther and farther hue. as the lucid stars.space ground " 273 when "struggling long with (to a nebulous use Prof. come we can no longer We he has insisted upon. the small stars in the Milky Way are really as large. there is here a somewhat singular interchange of position between the new and the accepted theories.. tiie my But. they are relatively minute. MINOR STARS. if. on the avsidereal system lie far powerful telescopes man erage.

OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. and we cannot suppose these stars to lie beyond Now. and must be regarded these orbs. tected this strange phenomenon. as Sir tells num- theory gives as noble proportions as the accepted views. to consider two phenomena which are altogether inexplicable. stars to which my circle. us. according to my views. views. or perhaps associated with outer whorls of this spiral telescope And made by man can this leads me which no ever reveal to us. lows. since it re- has been rendered certain. their John Herschel according to the accepted belonging to the galactic as though inexplicably segregated from their felAccording to the views I have been led to many of these telescopic stars must be regarded as suns lying far beyond the galactic spiral. who degions of the heavens. those limits (as they must do. The first is streams of light the of existence —star-streams excessively faint doubtless. according to those theories. speaks of the streams as so very faint that the idea of illusion has contin- ually arisen subsequently . or many even within the galactic zone JSTay. are For. form. itself there there are minute telescopic stars. times vaster. 274 magnitudes in the extra-galactic heavens must be garded as relatively minute. there nothing to prevent is among these minute stars from including ber orbs as vast as Sirius. though the — components are not separately visible in certain reSir John Herschel. I conceive. that the limits of the sidereal system are relatively close in this direction. if really large). on any theory except mine. yet he dwells far too . in the southern Coal-sack.

The faintest possible stippling of the field of view —the minnte was imoossible to see them individually a mottling which moved with the stars as he moved the tube to and fro. though it — Now. definite sets of stars. It is clear that intervals. In certain directions Sir John Herschel recognized the existence of two or more distinctly-marked classes of stars. points of light being obviously there. and the telescopic stars seen upon them bear the same relation to them that the lucid stars bear to the Milky Way. they are left altogether unaccounted for by the ordinary There no continuity between the stars composing them and even the minutest telescopic stars visible in the same general direction so that a vast void must separate them from the outermost of those telescopic stars. sepaviews respecting the structure of that system. as though. such are the terms in which Sir John Herschel speaks of this interesting phenomenon. lay in those this stars into sets is as distinctly ordinarily accepted as to it is be expected according to association of the opposed to the views obviously an arrangement my theory of the constitu- tion of the sidereal system. they simply belong to outlying whorls of the spiral galaxy. is . no doubt whatever can exist that. The second point is perhaps even more striking. According to my theory. 275 clearly on the characteristics of the phenomenon for any doubt to remain as to its reality. rated by comparatively void directions. he says.MINOR STARS. if these faint streams really belong to the sidereal system. Quite early in my consideration of the subject I am .

OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. I had thought . of detecting gether. small stars are so far off that we can look upon them as in reality no smaller on the average than those which appear larger. and. the idea suggested itself to proper motions of the stars we have a me that in the means of form- ing an estimate of the distances of these orbs. actually gave them a mean motion equal to that of stars of the first three magnitudes. a careful comparison of the different apparent size. whether into streams or clusters . so as to de- star-drift which might haply appear I confess that I had in different parts of the heavens. greater than was to be expected. ed in charting tect down any signs of The second consist- the proper motions. method of inquiry. on the average. in order to determine whether. Two processes of further. obtained was likely to be in many respects more trustworthy than that afforded by the apparent magnitudes of the stars. 276 now upon. any laws associating them to and that the evidence thus. The first consisted in mean motions of stars of inquiry suggested themselves. then. or perhaps even considerably. that not these stars only are small stars (I am here speaking of stars visi- naked eye) mixed up as I had thought with bright stars visible in the same general direction. instead of giving an average amount of proper motion to the smaller stars first somewhat. but ble to the that distance is less available to explain the smallness of the stars even than I had supposed. not by any means expected results so strikingly confirmatory of The my views as those I actually obtained. It became evident. according to the theory which sets at an enormous distance.

. community star-groups far to find thus drift- whatever view we form of the sidereal universe. it whose smallness appeared is must therefore be myriads of be There so to in reality exceedingly minute. that the most remarkable instance of stardrift in the heavens was that detected (though differently explained) by Baron Madler in the constellaor nearer. because I was conscious that. there would nearly always be found three or four others. larger in extent than I ing through space. even with three or four stars really forming a drifting group. I imagined. Indeed. 277 that certainly a large proportion of the small stars must in reality be very far from ns that the proportion of stars accounted for is but . either much much farther off and altogether dissociated from the drifting set. The second method result that in of research led to the strange many parts of the heavens a of motion can be recognized. we must yet recognize the fact that in every direction stars at very different must be visible. I had not hoped to find over any large region of space the traces of a community of motion. when I began the inquiry. tion Taurus. Xor even in small regions had I hoped to distances recognize very decided traces of star-drift. among had expected Knowing that. really small stars for every leading orb. all is more Perhaps that illustrated This picture represents the motions in the constellations Cancer and Gemini.MINOR STARS. the most remarkable instance of in the accompanying plate. that in other regions a far obvious tendency to drift can be recognized. I found. however.

very striking. yet the The general star-drift is parallelism of motion is unmistakable.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 278 / ^ I Q s It will be noticed tliat though here and there stars ap- parently not belonging to the system appear in the same range of view. and the difference in the amount of motion observed in different stars is only what was to be expected in a star-group whose range in distance. if equivalent to its .

e. with drift is. most sig- If in truth the parallelism and equality of . P /3 Fia. and f. Fig. 8. three smaller nificant. space h are 0. y. unenclosed. those in space sets —those and those h. each in its special direction. must be such 2 ?g as fully to account for the range in the amount of apparent motion. 6 exhibits one out of many parts of the heav- ens in which different sets of stars are observed to be drifting in different ways.MIX OR STARS. Their The stars within the of the Greater Bear. It will be seen that here there are three included in the space left a. I think. 6. which are very obviously drifting. stars. lateral extent. —Observed Proper Motions of Stars in Ursa Major and Neighborhood.

. the coincidence is one of a most remarkable character. 06 Fig. ft. But such an interpretation can hardly be looked upon as admissible. when we remember that the peculiarity is only one of a series of instances. Arietis.* Here /3 and 7 may be regarded as drifting with but haying a motion of their own in addition. some of which are One scarcely less striking. other stars seem obviously to belong to the same sys- tem. rather to urge those who have time deinclination to inquire carefully into the minuter any on insist to than heavens tails of the sidereal I am led. of these is presented in the accompanying figure in which the proper motions in the stars a. a. 7. and four other stars in the neighborhood.— Observed Proper Motions of Stars in Head of Aries.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. by the facts * In all these figures the proper motion indicated by the length of in thirtythe arrow attached to a star corresponds to the star's motion six thousand years. and <y. suffi- cing to account for the want of strict parallelism beThe tween their apparent motion and that of a. 2 8o motion are to be regarded as accidental. which have here been briefly and considered. are exhibited.

ing surveyed the field of heaven." * * From August 1 a letter addressed by Sir J. . in- Or. go over it behooves us now To consider averages now tible undulations in is it to level the scarcely percep- our field of research. so that we may determine with more what are the peculiarities presented certainty by that most teresting field to man's contemplation.MIXOR my STARS. I think the course possible is time has come and advisable. quire. to change the illustration. and to quote the words of the greatest which I have been We must not be deterred from dwelling consecutively and closely on these speculative views by any idea of their hopelessness which the objectors against paper astronomy may entertain. living master of that kind of research advocating. dealing rather with general results than with special peculiarities. Herschel to the present writer 1869. and in views of own. stage of our knowledge ' is Hypotheses jingo ' in this quite as good a motto as — ^Non jingo provided always they be not hypotheses as to modes of physical action for which ISTewton's ' experience gives no warrant. as well as better-marked ridges or depressions on the contrary. 28l While I recognize the wisdom and necessity of that course which the Herschels adopted in taking a wide view of the sidereal system. to when The Herschels hav- . another with a close and searching scrutiny. whereas we its re- to exaggerate the variations of level. " ' ' by the real slenderness of the material threads out of which any connected theory of the universe has (at or present) to be woven.

see any external has yet need hardly be said we that. We many know that the distances separating the satellites from their primaries exceed in an enormous ratio the dimensions of the satellites. cannot possibly galaxies. and there exist in space other galaxies.CHAPTER THE NEBULAE In the last I XII. conclude that in all And we may probability the distances separat- . ARE THEY EXTEKNAL GALAXIES ? chapter I have indicated reasons fur believing that the sidereal system extends far beyond man the range of the most powerful telescopes been able to construct. The distances separating the planets from each other exceed in an enormous ratio the di- mensions of the planets. Every analogy that we have for our to the conclusion that. unless they surpass our many thousands own of times in richness and splendor. if our galaxy guidance points have limits. The distances separating our solar system from others enormously exceed the dimensions of the various solar systems. It supposing this view to be correct. then those outer systems must be separated from ours by spaces exceeding the dimensions of the several galaxies thousand or many million fold in extent.

for believing that. is reason from system we have reached the highest class of known to us. much one at a distance r. the following proof . sky And we : Then taking two (both r and r' shells. may be Let the whole of space be conceived divided into spherical having our earth at their centre. radii of the shells. indeed. do not suffer extinction we have no evidence as yet the extent of the sidereal system must be limited.TEE NEBULA. will be independent of the thickness of the shell and vary as the square of its radius.* * This shells. in rising step we have no by step. ctars of one shell asr'rx-j: r' 3 is t x to the total -^=1 : 1. Now. if not. the average apparent size of the stars of one shell will be to the average apparent size of stars in the other in the inverse proportion of the respective from the Thus the total amount of light from the amount of light from stars in the other. also.) and aggregation. that if light in traversing space (and that it does). sions of our galaxy. because I suppose each shell large enough to include within it all varieties of distribution This applies. is. to what follows. the other at a distance greater than t). since otherwise the whole of the starlit should shine with the brilliancy of sunlight. Of course may it be coextensive with space that absolutely infinite in extent but . supposing the amount of light received from one shell to be -yth part of that which would be received if the whole celestial sphere were as bright as the sun's. until system of that perhaps altogether limitless range of steps. That the sidereal system has limits I do not doubt. obvious but. we see that the number of stars be proportional to r 2 t and r' 2 r respectively that is. that is as a . the intrinsic brightness of the light received stars of each set being equal. r' perhaps. mg 283 our sidereal system from other similar systems in space must exceed in an enormous ratio the dimen- and of all other such systems. we have reached the real summit to system. Hence. formity which I have considered in the last chapter. We know. (Here I am not concerned with those departures from uniin these shells will . the thickness of each shell being accepted t.

up with starlight or sunlight. that is. or infinity times k if need be. then planetary systems. though this system of systems were limited in extent. then systems of systems of star-systems. 284 may carry this argument even further. when we are actually dealing with the infini- — ty of space. 3 k. the whole heavens infinite lighted There would be a proportion of stars in and so hiding each other but. then systems of star-sys- tems. we should get unity. and when. that if we do adopt the belief in an infinite succession of orders of systems. %. let the order of systems which finally becomes infinite There is only one way to in number be what it may. by taking k terms of this series (or k shells out of our series of shells). limitless conceptions are not paradoxical. escape from this limitless series of system-orders that is. k being inconceivably also 7 th of this amount. but other sys- tems similar to space. there light. though the sidereal system should be limited. since we can take 2 k. the and the amount received from the total from all the shells must. first satellite-systems. then star-systems. and so star's disk other is therefore. there can be no doubt the whole heavens would be lighted up with solar brightness. that is. And so on. therefore. but in reality as available for our purposes as finite conceptions would be. But it is worth noticing. the same visual line .— OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. but surrounded by similar systems of systems in the infinity of space. be -r + £+X+ large. Now. it would spread throughout the infinity of still result this ineffable blaze of surpassing the light of day as greatly as the vault And of heaven surpasses the disk of the sun. by accepting as true the hypothesis that light suffers extinction as it voyages through space. to infinity. this again would be true. . For.

If we take our as in the previous note. this any rate * certain. And where k for each successive is indefinitely large K and n very large indeed. is finite and therefore be small. is Therefore very we much . a series of equal small terms. any of the spherical shells within this system must supply to our skies an amount of light indefiratios presently to — nitely less than one of the _ th part only.to of shells as before. on to infinity.to be the largest of all these multi- . that the distance between the components forming any system compared with the dimensions of those components. in this view of the subject... just as in the view according to which the sidereal system extends withis indefinitely great out interruption to infinity. and so for the kk' fcystem of system of systems we ^here k" n" very order we is indefinitely large. Suppose . k' indefinitely large shells within the sidereal V within that system is finite. system but the number of itself. and series if we what we know 285 accept as true of this infinite to be true of the part within our ken. and so of other similar k k be dealt with. get a multiplier of the form _. that if the stars at the outer is It is clear that we no longer get. say falling shells where greater.* the at But whether we adopt this or any other view of way in which external systems are arranged.where n must indeed assume . THE NEBULAE. We infinite series n times . we no longer have as a conclusion that the whole heavens should be lighted up with stellar (that is with solar) splendor even though. we get for the sidereal system _ finite. say n' times as great «' get for the total amount of light coming from the system of systems a quantity proportional to — . there are in reality an infinite number of stars. viz. With respect to the system of systems we have these considerations to guide us. get a quantity proportional to large.

expresses the ideas above dealt with the arguments advanced in favor of the spatial extinction of light was tion the words in : such extinction. e. as the distance of the fixed stars in comparison with the . such systems seen from each other would subtend eo greater angle than a star seeD from the sun and so on. — ." which appeared in The Student in the spring of 1869.. and I there exhibit the considerations just dealt with. which n and greater than will even be minute if Jc and k are severally much v. I was much pleased to find. for infinite it is — admitting the universe easy to imagine a constitution of a universe literally which would allow of any amount of such directions of penetra- Granting that it consists of systems tion as not to encounter a star. parts of our own sidereal system be beyond the ken of our most powerful instruments— and I have shown pliers. if there is not blaze of solar light fallacious. without adopting the theory that light me while I was Theory of the Universe. e. the satellites to their primaries. This particular mode of escaping from the difficulty suggested by the illumination of the heavens. then the total amount of light received from the of systems is 1+ l( (in which v is infinite system proportional to less than v « y2 v + i? 4 v supposed to be less — than tc). the moon is very this would happen. had seemed to me the most speculative portion. whereof the matter in quessuffers extinction in its passage through space." planetary system . in comparison with their owv.. y)» to less than - / _— —vJ \ a k yk finite quantity. from a letter of Sir John Herschel's.2 86 OTHER V/ORLDS THAN OURS. occurred to preparing a series of papers entitled "A New . their centre the fixed stars again still more immensely more remote from the sun. dimensions. These primaries are immensely more distant from the sun. The following are which Sir John Herschel. t0 infinit i. because it was contended that there could then be no direction in space in which the This argument is visual ray would not encounter a star (i. subdivided according to the law that every higher order of bodies in it should be immensely more distant from the centre than those of the next — Thus. the whole heavens ought to be one to be infinite. that the same idea had suggested itself to him as I was thus encouraged to believe that I had not gone very far astray in the whole series of papers. that. near the earth. system to terminate with the visible fixed stars then imagine a system of such systems as remote from each other. writing in ignorance of my having " One of adopted the same view. Suppose our inferior order . a sun). in our own.

once it is may be me remark matter It is is in pass- associated true that. It will hardly ing. They exhibit to us within the . will be it thought probable that irresolvable nebulae are external galaxies. at least. Because. the relations they present are of extreme importance. for believing that all the nebulae belong to the sidereal system.THE NEBULAE. all resolvable nebulae. But. though my purpose is different from his. for me be necessary. looked on as a matter of small importance it (so far as the subject of this treatise is concerned) whether we am can actually see those galaxies or not. Whewell. with the express object of overthrowing the belief that there exist other galaxies as vast as the sidereal or vaster. thronged with suns which are severally the centres of planetary systems. possibility be visible. according to this view. when admitted that there are external galaxies. to point out how let this with the subject of other worlds. in the true place in the universe. I not. same position as Dr. 287 that there are strong reasons for this conclusion —then component suns of external galaxies cannot by any So that. within which again are worlds as well suited to be the abode of life as this earth on which we dwell. are independent considerations. on now to which dwell. it is equally necessary that I should insist on the true position of the nebulae. if once that system is But there I prefer view of the extent of the sidereal adopted. must be dismissed from the Nor the category of external galaxies. if these objects form indeed part of the sidereal system. assigned the nebulae what I take to be their who to for instance.

let us consider presented by these and other nebulae. as distinct. 288 bounds of our galaxy systems altogether different from and thus suggest ideas of other the solar system. I the spectroscope could at mean those nebulae which. as irresolvable * — the relations life in or in — as external star-systems. perchance. The reader * By will see how irresolvable stellar nebulae. even in their general characteristics.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. instead of being led to this arrangement by following out the history of those long processes of research by which the two great orders of nebulae were long since separated from each other under the piercing scrutiny of Sir William Herschel. We must first pay attention to one of the most which the spectroscope has striking of the discoveries yet enabled man to make —the discovery that certain It is necessary to consider this nebulae are gaseous. power is . yet present the characteristic features which lead astronomers to believe that only increase of telescopic needed in order to effect resolution. from any found amid the systems Yenus circling Mars must be in their special characteristics from those existing on our own earth. because we shall thus be able to divide the nebulae at once into two great classes. though not resolvable into stars. Freed from those analogies which led the elder Herschel to regard the stellar nebulae resolvable and round the forms of stars. without reference to preconceived opinions. rather than those first which were the to exhibit the real place of the nebulae in our scheme. classes of worlds peopled with their own peculiar forms of life. significant discovery.

however. I directed the telescope. showed that A —a more care- little more refrangible than the bright line. with the spectrum apparatus. and the light from this nebula after passing prisms remains concentrated in a bright through the line. I then found that the light of this nebula. the nature of the matter which the source of their light would be shown by the acter of the spectrum. but only a short line of light perpendicular to the direction of dispersion (that light is. Huggins thus describes the observation which first revealed the true nature of certain orders of the The nebulae. to I suspected this nebula. and therefore could not form a A great part of spectrum. at much it fainter line about three times the . occupy- ing the position of that part of the spectrum to which its ful light corresponds in refrangibility. belonging to the class of planetary nebulae " On August 19. was not composed of light of differ- ent refrangibilities. for no spectrum was seen. 289 once resolve a question which ordinary observations would be all The but powerless to deal with. to what would in the case of solar be the length of the spectrum). examination. as distinctly as is char- though that matter were actually present in the laboratory of the spectroscopist.: THE NEBTJLJE. Beyond 19 — a narrower and this again. and separated from by a dafk interval occurs. is monochromatic. 1864. armed At first some derangement of the instrument had taken place. object under examination was a nebula in Draco. unlike any other ex-terrestrial light which had yet been subjected by me to prismatic analysis. nebulae being self-luminous. Mr.

Mr. with the spectrum of the induction-spark taken between electrodes of The magnesium. Mr. and as quite distinct from the bright lines into which nearly the whole of the light from the nebula is concentrated. from the 1.500th to the 20. His comparison relates to the intrinsic luminosity of the nebular sub(The disstance. Hugand much more important. an exceedingly faint spectrum was just perceived for a short distance on both sides of the lines. 20. not to the quantity of light received from the nebulas. The . Huggins's observations the result .000th of that of such a a strange misconception. Lockyer. Huggins suspected that was not uniform. it was a mere matter of convenience. positions of these lines in the spectrum were determined by a simultaneous comparison of them in the instrument. assumed to be continuous. tance of the candle in Mr. the lijht of certain gaseous nebulge with that of a sperm-candle (of the size called six to the pound). strongest line coincides in position with the brightest of the nitrogen." group of bright this * One of the most interesting of Mr. Huggins's result. saying that " such a candle a quarter of a mile oif gins's is Mr. but crossed with dark spaces. speaks of the comparison as though it related to the absolute brightness of the nebulas. 2 9o distance of the second line. air-lines. in discussing Mr. . a third exceedingly faint line was The seen. Huggins's researches into the is his attempt to determine its intrinsic subject of the light of nebulae By comparing brilliancy.000 times more brilliant than the nebula. he found that these objects. . The other bright line was not found to correspond with a known line of any Besides the terrestrial element. bright lines. shine with a light varying in intrinsic brilliancy By candle.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS." result is wholly distinct from this. This line is due to faintest of the lines of the nebu- la agrees in position with a line of hydrogen. Subsequent observations on other nebulae* induced him " to regard this faint spectrum as due to the solid or liquid matter of the nucleus.) is not considered in .

) clusters. to give a continuous spec- trum. Husfsrins's bright observaOct) O ' tions to be nebulae.) easily resolvable nebulae. and astronomers had themselves for and against this proposition.) the planetary nebulas. not. Huggins had reversed the whole matter. irresolvable nebulae a large proportion seem Of the to be gas- * The following classification of nebulae in this respect. and (iii. And then in a moment this observation by Mr. The orders of nebulae which give a continuous spectrum appear to be the following (i. The (ii. is interesting as indicating the results of observations made . for the best There was part of a century. indeed.) star groups. it had been as a legitimate conclusion from observation. the irregular nebulae. The orders of nebulas which give a spectrum of lines. regular and : irregular. a full terest associated laid down by answer to all the questions of in- But with the problem. beyond all possibility of future question. but some of these objects give the bright-line spectrum indicative of gaseity. that certain orders of the nebulae are gaseous. (iii.THE NEBULjE. perplexed astronomers. by Lord Ox- mantown. on the main point. It was now established. 291 Thus was solved a problem which had. for the most part. Already the problem had seemed all but definitively settled. pic improvements had seemed scale in favor of those who ranged Telesco- at length to tarn the held Sir William Herschel have been mistaken.) (i. (ii. would seem from Mr. that. Sir William Herschel.) the ring spiral nebulae seem. the greatest of modern astronomers had been altoto gether in the right.

quire whether these divisions into each other. from bright lines on an almost invisible continuous spectrum to a continuous spectrum with the same bright lines superposed on it. We with so powerful an instrument as the great Parsonstown telescope (the Bix-feet reflector) Clusters Continuous Gaseous Spectrum. Spectrum. so far as the telescopic appear- ance of the nebulas is concerned. . or green. ... apparently separated by a Yet one tinct line of demarcation. and.5 . there is very striking evidence of a gradual progression from clusters to we solvable nebulas..: . this question could only be answered satisfactorily by the observation of a series of nebulae having spectra progressively varying. there are in all 41 which exhibited a continuous spectrum. We know that. ig2 Here. therefore. seems also to point in the same direc- tion. and 19 whicb gave a spectrum indicative of gaseity. And the fact that. 6 5 31 15 Adding nebulae not observed at Parsonstown. OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 10 . Now. beneath the bright-line spectrum of the gaseous nebulas. Certainly or probably resolved ? Certainly or probably resolvable Blue. 6 4 . . . by the is may fact that dis- tempted to in- not in reality run among nebulee of cer- tain orders are objects belonging to both divisions. then. no resolvability No resolvability detected Total observed ? . we ranged into two find the nebulae important divisions.. whether the spectroscope conveys a similar lesson. irre- are led to inquire.10 . because their brightness so little exceeded that of the continuous spectrum. but almost imperceptible. a faint continuous spectrum may be seen...

Now. and that zone had shown a tendency to involved is coincidence with the Milky Way. it appears that there is a well-marked peculiarity in the arrangement of the nebulse. has a very important bearing on the views we are to form respecting the relations between the nebulse and the sidereal system. In the northern heavens they cluster very definitely themselves the toward the pole of the galaxy are arranged in streams but the galaxy itself is. so far aa this evidence extends. in the southern they and clustering aggregations. If this peculiarity is accidental. a peculiarity as striking as the existence of the galactic circle from The itself. that the various orders of nebulse are orders of but a single family. on which he could just detect the three bright lines seen in the spectra of the gaseous nebulae. The first process by which we must attempt to form a correct estimate of the nebular system corresponds to Sir William Herschel's process of star-gauging. when this is done. nebulae seem to withdraw neighborhood of the galaxy. . But Lieutenant Herschel has observed in the southern heavens a clustering nebula with a continuous spectrum. And. We must inquire according to what general laws the nebulae are spread over the vault of heaven. which It will be seen presently that strikingly corroborated is this conclusion. the conclusion is obvious.THE NEBULM 293 have not evidence of such completeness. the coincidence most remarkable. in either case. left almost clear of nebulse. by other evidence. Had there been a zone of nebulse. the relation would .

. re- to prefer the galactic zone. therefore. tion But to is the direct converse of this relation more likely be the chance effect of experimenters concluded stance) that a connection as Have ? (in not observers and every other similar in- law of contrast is as indicative of a real a law of association ? It is surprising. Again. that nearly all astronomers. We find that clusters exhibit a very marked pref- erence for the neighborhood of the Milky solvable nebulas seem Way . and it is only among the recognize that withdrawal from the Milky "Way which had seemed characteristic of the whole nebular system. 294 have been held strikingly indicative of a real associa* between the nebnlar and the sidereal systems. It is easy to see what general conclusions may be deduced from the peculiarities here touched upon. have regarded conas it affording strong evidence that the nebular system wholly dissociated from the Next let is sidereal. us turn to special features. who have sidered the relation in question. place. I have already mentioned that these objects are gaseous.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. before ered its several orders. The we consid- fact that the irresolvable nebulas form about four-fifths of the total number will account for the circumstance that a peculiarity really appertaining to that order alone should appear to be- long to the whole system of nebulas. let us inquire In the first whether the different orders of nebulae exhibit any peculiarities of arrangement. the planetary and irregular nebulas are found to affect the neighborhood of the Milky Way. but not in so decided a manner irresolvable nebulse that we .

from which clusters and to the existence of a close association real system. of part. But I pass on to other evidence. independent of what has hitherto been adduced. in a by indefinable gradavery distinct manner. into close association with the sidereal system. since we know that among the extra-galactic nebulae there are many which are principally formed of the very same gases which appear ary nebulae. is It equally obvious that the second peculiarity indicates Milky and the character of the nebulae as respects gaa relation which brings all the gaseous nebulae the existence of a close association between the Way seity . the conclusion impressed upon us that the nebular and resolvable nebulae and the seems forcibly the sidereal systems are but different parts of one single scheme. with the most marked peculiarity of the sidereal system. When we in the irregular and planet- consider that those peculiar- ities of configuration and of constitution which have alike seemed to indicate that the various orders of nebulae merge into each other tions are both associated.— THE NEBULAE. resolvable nebulae cannot reasonably be separated. 295 shows us most distinctly that there is a relation between propinquity to the Milky Way and the character of nebulae as respects resolvability a relation which points in the most decisive manner Obviously the first between the sidewhich the Milky "Way certainly forms and the nebular system. . and pointing with equal force to the same conclusion. and when to this we add what has been already suggested by the relation of contrast between the ir- Milky Way.

Sir William Herhibit schel. Now. he commonly met with nebulae insomuch that it was his practice at such times to and stars nebulae. are we to imagine that. where stars of all magnitudes are sidereal system. while prosecuting his series of researches among was struck by the circumstance that. 89 6 In the northern heavens it is not very easy to ex- any general law of arrangement associating the For reasons which yet nebulae and the fixed stars. remain to be detected. and for another more at length) that in the on purpose. there are in fact many marked points of difference between the whole character of the heavens on the northern and on the southern side of the galactic zone. what are we to understand by such a relation Can we suppose that. . call to his assistant (his sister.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. which is well worthy of careful consideration. be% We are forced barren regions of the heavens are thus in a manner the spy-holes of the fact (presently. the astronomer has a better chance of detecting nebulae than where stars are cause the sky is less filled more with glare to dismiss this notion. that the richly strewn. by the . after sweeping over a part of the heavens which was unusually barren. owing to some strange this ? accident. external galaxies have been placed always opposite the barest regions of the sidereal system \ Or. But even in the northern heavens one peculiarity has been remarked. when searching over those barren regions." also as Miss Caroline Herschel) This peculiarity was noticed by Sir John Herschel. setting aside such a notion as obviously incredible. to be dwelt Magellanic Clouds. to " prepare for nebulae.

Hydra. in fact. then. ever. "We have. how- well-marked star-streams. nebulae. is a somewhat But when we not a southern constellation.THE NEBULA richly strewn. in order to form them.streams. * Though Pisces the galactic circle.* indicate how clearly the ancients traced certain well-marked star. do not recognize in the northern skies any In the southern skies. but that the association thus observed between and richness of nebular distribution and nebulae that. into the near neighborhood of the south- Now. the two streams from the Water-can of Aquarius. The moderns have traced the extension of some of these streams in the constellations Grus. etc. no other conclusion to orders. are form. and the band between the two fishes. yet which I am for the moment it is south of referring the con . In the southern heavens yet clearer proof exists of an association between the stellar and nebular sys- We tems. to stellations. the nebulae in the southern heavens a well-marked So tendency to aggregate into that. ern pole. we have remarkable evidence of association. exhibit streams. such streams have been recognized from the earliest ages. in this mere resemblance between the general characteristics of the stellar and nebular systems in the southern heavens. even down 2 gy to the very faintest more abundant than in any other region of the heavens. The constellations Hydra and Eridanus. the nebulae in a sense represent the missing stars / that the region where those nebulae appear has been drained of star-material. Re- ticulum.. starless regions indicates a very close relation indeed between stars . so to speak.

can . no doubt can remain that the relation is not a mere coincidence. which have long been known by sailors as the Magellanic Clouds. there can be no doubt whatever that the association here is not accidental. Such a would be very remarkable.— j OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. In the southern heavens there are two strange clouds of milky light. JSTor. Now. even were but in a single instance. but indicates a real association between the nebular and stellar systems. each of the Nubecula is at once a star-cluster and a cluster of nebulse. nebular — There is this evidence is marked correspondence between the nebular and lar streams. of multitudes of small stars. but are commonly called by astronomers the Nubeculse. again. lowing the windings of the tion very found to be a well- it fol- rela- observed Since. 98 consider the disposition of the two sets of streams the stellar and the much strengthened. that we do not by some strange chance see a great star-cluster in the same direction as a much more distant and much vaster cluster of external galaxies. when examined with the telescope. like the Milky Way. the Niibeculse contain within their bounds many nebulae of all orders. marked stel- not merely as respects general position. In fact. But yet more striking evidence remains to be con- sidered. however. is found to be constituted. Each of these objects. all the well- star-streams in the southern heavens are asso- ciated with well-marked nebular streams. but even in minute details —the nebular streams stellar ones. unlike the Milky Way. But.

apparent semi-diameter of the Nubecula Major at three degrees. manner may be regarded as evanes- are compelled. but which in fact with sidereal system of they form part and parcel. that the nebulas are not external galaxies. TVTie- intimately associated well. strated fact of Sir which I namely. " that stars of the seventh and eighth magnitude and irresolvable nebulas may coexist within limits of distance not differing in proportion more than as nine to ten. a cluster shaped like a long frustum of a gigantic cone. chance that two such clusters should be presented in so exceptional a We cent. " and regarding roughly speaking. within the limits of spheres so placed as to subtend a small angle to the eye. . and most remote parts differ in their distance its nearest from us more than a tenth part of our distance from centre." says Sir solid form as.THE NEBULJS. stars of all magnitudes between the seventh and the twelfth inclusive are mixed up with " Taking the nebulas of all degrees of resolvabilitv. the fact. John Herschel." This demonJohn Herschel's is the very fact to had been led by other considerations. Dr. ability that by some strange accident a cylindrical shape * might be us a circular figure is The probcluster of so placed as to exhibit to exceedingly small but the ." "It must therefore be taken as a demon- by a its its little strated fact. to believe that. 299 there be any doubt that the generally circular figure of each Nubecula indicates a general approach to the spherical form in the case of each cluster. more correctly. accepting Sir the John Herschel's reasoning as con- * Or. spherical." he adds presently. then.

that even in the noble work on astronomy. ciation obvious connection between the figure of the irregular nebulae and the arrangement of the star-groups seen in the same irregular field of view. and perhaps most strikingly of all. adopted the same view. to have been preit. and probably is. Yet Sir John Herschel himself seems. Were the peculi- arity confined to the feature Herschel limits his atten- tion to. and that so able a reasoner as Dr. measure of caution which Herschel subsequently advocated. at least as a demonstrated fact. Whe- well has chosen rather to accept what Herschel has spoken of as a demonstrated than to adopt that fact. joo elusive on the point. that to the clear vision of this great astronomer the association between nebulae and fixed sented itself as a demonstrated fact latest editions of his had stars pre- . forgotten. His own pictures prove in the most convincing manner that no asserted even of those nebulae with respect to such explanation can be accepted. one might adopt his explanation. the assobetween stars and nebulae is indicated by the Lastly. There is not one of the nebulae which does not exhibit this pecu- liarity in the most striking manner. he has not altered the words in which he has spoken of that association .OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. It must not be however. lishing' this pared to abandon it only that " it must inspire some degree of caution in admitting as certain " facts directly since he says of opposed to it. immediately after estab- noteworthy conclusion. purely accidental. The mere . This may be which Sir John Herschel has remarked that the arrangement may be.

and to several other stars in the constellation all alike in of increased nebular condensation. which is centrally involved in strong nebulosity. and variable finds that the stars are arranged in a manner most ob- viously related to the arrangement of the nebular con- densations (or folds as one may almost say). But when one examines the structure of this and similar nebulae. might be a mere coincidence. to e in the belt. though in any case it would be a strange one. which is similarly involved. for. one can- not doubt that a real and intimate bond of association exists between the around them. refuse to recognize the fact that the sys- tem of stars shown in this drawing is not accidentally . ^o. be being regions a mere acci- dental coincidence. ing the star The fact. nebula surround- for instance. as four-feet reflector at Malta. they can only serve to lead men astray. Messier 17. I think. !No one can.THE NEBULA. as at pres- ent understood. In the accompanying plate the nebula. that the great irregular Eta Argus agrees exactly in position with the greatest condensation of the wonderfully rich portion of the Milky "Way on which that surprising lies. then the laws of probability had better be forgotten as soon as possible. aggregation of a large number of stars on the very heart of a nebula might be an accident. is given a picture of observed with Lassell's I have selected it as af- fording a very striking instance of the particular form of association I have just been dealing with. stars and the nebulous masses If the extension of the milky light of the great Orion nebula to the star in the sword.

or from the fact that stars are seen actually mixed up At with nebulous matter. while the formation of stars should be checked. we cannot say. that they seem directly opposed to those which I first qnoted. and vice we is some reason for this and that that reason must involve some of association between the nebulae and the stars versa. nor can we account for the contrary peculiarity in another region we feel . either the formation of nebulae has drained a region of material from which single stars versa. the two seemingly contrary lines of argu- ment bear in the same When we direction. some cause must exist for both relations. Now. because the results are too marked to be the result of accident. sight this objection first on consideration. it will be found that. sort we see. while at the same time one draws the same conclusion from the aggregation of the nebulae in streams or clusters where there are streams and clusters of' stars. conclude that there peculiarity. find the nebulae gathered where stars are wanting. vice in a particular region.OTHER WORLDS THAh OURS. in these cases. One cannot argue. the formation of nebulae should be encouraged. that the nebulae are asso- ciated with the sidereal system because they are least numerous where there are most stars. as respects the two proofs on which I have last dwelt. 302 seen projected on a distant galaxy. would otherwise have been formed. but forms part and parcel of the nebula itself. it might be urged. in the case where we find but certain that . but. and vice versa. seems just . or Why. It will be noticed. that the relation is accounted for if we suppose that. in reality. further.





both stars and nebulae abundant in particular parts of
the heavens,


not accidental.

feel equally certain that the result is

Even though

there were not here, as

in the former case, the evidence of a clearing of star-

material from certain regions,


could not doubt that

the association of stars and nebulae was real and not



in reality there is here, precisely as in

the former case, a gathering together of stellar matter
into certain regions.

The very

existence of such a

stream as Eridanus or Hydra, and of such a cluster as
the greater or lesser Magellanic Cloud, implies the action of such a process of segregation.

A stream would

were not bounded by relatively
bare regions. Clusters like the Xubeculae might be
visible even on a rich sky, and were the sidereal heavnot be recognizable

if it

ens richly strewed with


round these objects I

should be disposed to admit that there was a difficulty



But what


Xot only

the fact?


each of the ISTubeculae placed in a region obviously
bare of lucid


but Sir John Herschel, speaking of

the telescopic aspect of the neighborhood of these mysterious clusters, dwells again


and again on

A miserably poor and barren region,"


near the IN'ubeculae.




he says elsewhere, "is on





he says of one

access to the E"ubecall sides

through a

evidence could more clearly point to

the fact that these great clusters are gathered out

from a vast region of space?
teaches us


Their internal structure

such a process of segregation leads to

the birth of nebulae, as well as stars.
tory of the sidereal system


The whole


indeed taught us in the



Magellanic Clouds and the great streams of interstars and nebulae which flow toward them as
toward some mighty lake. We see the wonderworking forces of gravitation extending their influ-



ences throughout vast regions of space, gathering in

the materials spread throughout that space, here form-



there nebulae, changing the element of dis-

tance into various forms of force

and magnetism

— and





(though in

what special way we are as yet unable to perceive)
making the orbs which it has formed the seats of life,
or subservient, more or less directly, to the wants of
living creatures.




It has been customary, in treatises on the plurality of worlds, to discuss the religious difficulties which


to suggest themselves

verse around



wheu man

regards the uni-

thronged with worlds, each peo-

pled with millions of living creatures, and



chance the abode of intelligent and therefore responAccustomed to regard himself as in a
sible beings.
it is

manner the

object of God's care




brought to

not without a sense of pain that he

contemplate the possibility that other creatures
exist in

uncounted millions

infinite love




whom God


regards with

" If this be so," asks


and men, its inhabitants,
annihilated as it were by the magnitude of the known
universe, continue to be any thing in the regard of
Him who embraces all ? Least of all, how shall men
shall the earth

continue to receive that special, preserving, providential,

judicial, personal care,


and without the belief in which, any
ligious thoughts


and forsaken % "

be. disturbed

religion implies

man who



and unhappy, deso-




do not, however,


by any means invited to
by the success which
made by others to remove it.


consider " the religious difficulty "

has attended the efforts

I find that, while, on the one hand, the thoughtful
and conscientious men who have in a special manner
considered the difficulty have been (in relation at
least to revealed religion) at issue

among each


have not, on the other hand, been found
acceptable even by a few among their readers. I
doubt almost, when I judge from the comments which
have been made on this part of the works of Chaltheir views

mers, Whewell, Brewster, and others, whether a single

reader of those works has found the religious

views of any one of their authors congenial with his




noteworthy that even where,

in the case of Brewster


and Chalmers, two writers

adopt the same view of the general question of other
worlds, they yet hold altogether different views as to

the bearing of that question upon the subject of


very doubtful, therefore, whether

thing, whether

it is



a wise

conducive to the purpose of any

one thus conscientiously discussing the religious aspect


personal views


If I thought

of our question, to present his

on the subject of revealed

otherwise, I should not shrink from the task of indi-

cating the sufficiently definite views which I entertain

myself upon this subject.


I apprehend that, apart

from the consideration that the reader must be wholly
my indicating them would have

indifferent about them,



the very reverse of that which I should



Merely remarking, therefore, that in considering
we must remember

the infinity of God's beneficence
this quality of infinity, that it


I pass on to considerations which

more naturally within the province



seem to


of the student of




a peculiarity of the subject of other worlds

than ours, that




strikingly than


other, certain difficulties in connection with the con-



are to form as to the supervision and con-

by the Creator over His works. We
are to believe, as we must believe, in
an infinitely powerful and wise God, we must not
merely regard all the worlds which people space as
objects of His regard, but every event, however seemtrol exercised
feel that if


ingly insignificant, occurring in any, even the least

important of His worlds, as an essential part of the
plan according to which


things were created from

the beginning.

Where Bacon has selected
down their




few can without presump-

tion venture to lay

opinions as of weight in matters con-

nected with revealed religion.

The argument which




indeed be acceptable to many, but few will doubt the wisdom of the con" If we were disposed," he says, "to surclusion to which he comes.
vey the realm of sacred or inspired theology, we must quit the small
vessel of


reason, and put ourselves on board the ship of the

Church, which alone possesses the Divine needle for justly shaping the



lent their light,

not improper to

Book IX.

the stars of philosophy, that have hitherto principally

and therefore it were
be of further service to us
be silent upon the subject."
Advancement of Learning,



3 o8

—I have

But here already


the nature of the subject

been forced to use terms
I am
which have really no proper application to the Almighty and His works. I have spoken of the creation
of all things, whereas, in the sense in which men can
to deal with

we cannot

alone interpret such words,
ceive that there ever

reasonably con-

was a creation

and I have


spoken of the beginning, whereas we cannot conceive
that there ever was a beginning in the sense implied.*
Let us consider definitely (even though we must be
unable to conceive clearly or at


the infinities


have to deal with.

"We know that space must be infinite. If the region amid which stars and nebulae are scattered with
so great profusion be limited, if beyond lies on all sides
a vast void, or if, instead, there be material bounds
enclosing the universe of worlds on every hand, yet

where are the

space, occupied or
ly be.


Of this

bound ? Infinity of
unoccupied, there must undoubted-

limits of void or

infinity it


whether within


has been finely

said, that its

boundary nowhere.

this infinity of space there

be an


which we cannot so cerOnly, if we were to accept this as certainly answer.
tain, that the proportion which unoccupied bears to
occupied space cannot be infinitely great a view
which at least seems reasonable and probable then it
would follow that matter as well as space must be in-

ity of matter, is a question

my meaning being misinterpreted
have been obliged myself to use the terms of

* To prevent any possibility of
here, I point out that I



speak as inexact.



self also

as the




proportion of infinity must




that, regarding occupied space

realm over which the Almighty's control



and over which His supervision extends, we
find just reason for looking upon that realm as no less
infinite than the infinity of space in which it is con-




must undoubtedly be


If the


portion of time which has hitherto been, or which will
hereafter be, occupied with the occurrence of events
(of whatever sort) were preceded and will be followed
by a vast void interval, yet there can be neither beginning nor end to either of those bounding voids.
Infinity of time, occupied or unoccupied, there must
undoubtedly be. And, though it is not possible for us
to know certainly that there has been no beginning,
or that there will be no end to that portion of time
which is occupied with the occurrence of events (of





appears so unreasonable to con-

ceive that unoccupied time bears an infinitely great

proportion to occupied time, that
the conclusion that occupied time
definitely, that there has

we seem

is infinite

forced to



been no beginning and will

be no end to the sequence of events throughout the
infinitely-extended realm of the Almighty.




wisdom and the

are forced to believe in the infinite

power of God
wisdom and power



since to con

Him whose
and in duration, is obviously
to conclude that the Ruler is infinitely incompetent to
rule over His kingdom
for there can be no relation

ceive of limits to the



infinite in extent



as He is. we have we can no more attribute God than we can assign to Him hands and feet. He not only recognizes all these processes in such sort that he see what we effects see. though related to vision. but of a wholly different kind. before considering the nature of God's super vision of The His universe. Nor can we conceive in what way a spirit. are infinitely too senses. clearly. omnipotent. is cognizant of material processes which we only recognize through their material effects. we can indeed By more the sense recognize the . yet in we may He views which we men consider certain relations between the way the universe and the modes in which consider the various matters falling either un- der our supervision and partial control. we cannot doubt that He is to cognizant of can be all those processes by which our senses And affected. ' between the and the finite infinite save the relation of infinite disproportion. and omniscient — is altogether beyond the powers of man's imagination. as we do not doubt that God is cognizant of the actual state of the universe at any moment. we senses we may proceed a step farther. of touch. Yet.3 1 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. we must be minute as obvious to to be appreciated God by our as the light of day or the roar of thunder to ourselves. eternal. Now. hearing. may and be said to so on . but which. But. for instance. although the conception of God as a spirit- omnipresent. possess are sufficient to indicate to us the possible existence of senses not merely far acute. to hear what hear. or the like. or of which we can in any way Senses such as or to any extent become cognizant.

but infinite in degree. we cannot doubt that the natural involved in every such mode of conveying impressions to material creatures must be infinitely more obvious to God than we can possibly conceive them to be to material beings. Yet once more. be the municating intelligence "We can conceive means of com- as to the qualities of objects. is possessed by the Almighty. a hundred modes of receiving intelligence about what exists or is conceived. infinite in the extent of space Let us first deal with the teachings of that sense . and time over which and it ranges. might be readily Now. And now let us notice some of the conclusions to which these considerations tend. by the action of the heat-waves Or again electricity might.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. feeling of heat . Man is able to assure himself that events have happened which yet have produced no direct effect upon any of his senses. or in other words. substance. also of a sense bearing the same analogy to sight that the spectroscope bears to the telescope. in- stead either of light or of heat. but it is 31I easy to conceive of a sense (analogous to that by which light is made to teach us men to judge of the aspect of external objects) enabling of the figure. we know that reason is able to range beyond the action of the senses. proceeding from it. infinitely rapid in its operation. By the exercise of reason he becomes as well assured of such events as though they had actually passed before his eyes. And a hundred kinds of sense. and other qualities of an object. processes going on around us. We must assume that an analogous power. internal structure.

since we can feel the heat emitted by the spect. in travelling to the from any visible object on the earth eye of a terrestrial observer. the velocity of light appears infinitely great. fore. 312 which is man given to In a the most far-reaching * of —the sense of little treatise called the faculties all sight. were dealt I propose to fol- low the path of thought indicated in that treatise. Yet. light has occupied a real interval of time. that even the minute amount of heat received from the tixed stars might be felt. however minute. We know from surely from the Eomer's researches. in reaching the eye much that we . but as inso- mo- they were the minutest fraction of a second before. Yet touch or rather feeling—has a range exceeding that of hearing. and even more phenomenon termed the aberration of the fixed stars. some re- modern sults of discoveries respecting light with in a very interesting manner. indeed so enormous. light occupies a space of time indefinitely short. as a fitting introduction to wider conceptions of the supervision and control exercised by the Almighty over his universe. * Most persons. " The Stars and the Earth. that light does not travel with infinite Its speed is velocity." published anonymously several years since. . Nor is it difficult — to conceive of such an increase in the delicacy of the sense of touch.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. see objects not as they are at the ment we perceive them. far sun. and so the range of the sense extended many million-fold. even as regards such objects as these. if asked which sense comes next to sight in this rewould answer hearing. In a single second light traverses a space equal to eight times the circumference of the earth and there. that. com- pared with every form of motion with which we are familiar.

about an hour and twenty minutes on the thirty-five to about average in speeding across the great gap which separates us from Saturn. Yenus. of these than of events on the Continent. and of these again than of occurrences tak- ing place in America. in place of the indefinitely celes- minute interval before considered.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. 3^ Raising our eyes from the earth to regard the tial objects. from about fifty minutes in reaching us from Jupiter. early information of the condition But more than eight minutes light occupies From more than a second and a in reach- ing us from the sun. and Mars. Precisely as a daily newspaper gives us a later account of what is going on in London than of events happenter or ing in the provinces. so that we the obtain sufficiently of our satellite. if we could at any instant view the whole tively twice range of the solar system as distinctly as we see Jupi- Mars when in opposition. moon. Thus. we find. light takes little quarter in reaching us. while we receive intelligence from Uranus and Neptune only after intervals respec- and three times as great as that which light takes in reaching us from the ringed planet. a longer or shorter interval in travelling to us from Mercury. a really appreciable space of time occupied by light in carrying to us information as to the condition of those distant orbs. or indeed at any definite instant. the scene presented to us would not indicate the real aspect of the solar system at that. Asia. or Australasia. ac- cording to the position of these planets. so the intelligence brought members by light respecting the various of the solar system belongs to different epochs . Africa.

what neither army knew of. for example. Neptune could see all that is if an taking place on the earth. would be re- stroyed. and how eagerly he loo from the early dawn leon's heart would have watched the manoeuvres of either army and also. the Imperial Guard de- Napoleon fugitive. the conflict would in reality have been long since decided. though that event should happen under his eyes. . p4 And if man had powers of vision enabling him to watch what is system. and the Prussians. he might remain for hours quite unconscious of an event important enough to affect the wel- whole continent. and our great captain was watching with ever-growing anxiety. who to the Neptunian would be seen still struggling through muddy roads toward the field of battle. an observer on Neptune watching the battle of Wateruntil the hour when Napowas yet full of hope. to invert the illustration. as charge after charge threatened to destroy the squares on whose We steadfastness depended the fate of a continent. so to speak— while yet he remained wholly unconscious of their recurrence. the approach of Yet. tunian would thus have traced the progress of the battle from his distant world. can conceive how full of interest that scene would have been to an intelligent Neptunian. observer on Or. the British final charge of the army accomplished. and his visual powers be such fare of a have supposed.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. lentlessly pursuing the scattered army of France. taking place on the different planets of the solar it is clear that events of the utmost importance might have transpired— under his very eyes. as I We can imagine. while our NepBlucher with his Prussians.

respecting the wide range of magnitude least among the fixed stars. according to faintly-seen orbs us. one may views. gone. but with years. and centuries. there can be revealed to us which star in lie by the many no doubt right in adopting that. the views I have adopted. do not interfere in the with the theories which have been formed as to the distances from beyond which the light of some of the stars. only just visible in powerful telescopes. minutes. or whether I have been others. when is. decades. there among the stars must be myriads times farther from us than the bright Centaurus and the orb in Cygnus which have been found relatively so near to us. must be supposed to reach conceive. It however. we pass beyond 315 the limits of the solar system that the non-contemporaneous nature of the scene presented to us becomes most striking Here we have to deal not with seconds. In fact. or hours.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. telescope. there are so or telescopic — whose many amid the whole host of hundred stars lucid — as a light reaches us in a shorter in- terval of time than twelve or fifteen years. whether those usually accepted be held to be correct. heaven. views we form star 61 as to the Whatever arrangement of the sidereal scheme. Even the Cygni only reaches us in is ten years. in which case the distance of such stars would be many times greater than has been hitherto . it from us that so far And. my On the contrary. that some of these may be many times larger even than giant Sirius. From the nearest of the fixed stars light takes fully three years in travelling to the earth. its light so far as observation has hitherto seems unlikely that.

the bounds of our own galaxy do if even not extend into space as far as the widest limits hitherto assigned to the sys- tem of nebulae. go further. to misinterpret altogether times as long does in travelling to us But it would be the views which I have formed respecting the universe to suppose that I imagine those distant spaces which astronomers have hitherto filled with imaginary galaxies to be unten- On anted. the contrary. If we conceive. without instru- mental tial aid. am not precluded from though unrecognized by ever pouring in upon the earth. resembling our own. indeed. a message which has taken millions on millions of years in traversing the awful gulf beyond which lie those mysterious realms. piercing even to those outer galaxies which . So that I speaking of orbs whose us. yet is light. dence that may at any many stars only rate assume with confivisible in powerful tele- scopes shine from beyond depths which light would occupy thousands of years in traversing. exist at distances infinitely exceeding those at which astronomers have placed their most distant nebular universes. and say that the nebulae must be regarded as external and therefore galaxies. I cannot. as astronomers have hitherto done. as sending their light to us many over spaces which light must take an interval in traversing as it from the bounds of our own galaxy. though in letters we cannot decipher. that man's visual powers could suddenly be so increased that. I have no doubt whatever that galaxies. then. or even trace. he could look around him into the celes- depths. conveying. jl6 We supposed.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS.

some whence would occupy thousands of years to wing its flight to us. there would be presented. that the author of the little treatise I have spoken of intion the two processes of thought having on which we live. the picture of events which thousands of years since really occurred upon her surlight a being placed on far-distant orb. how wide would be the range of time presented to him There by the wonderful scene he would behold. had begun to gather into worlds around its central orb. lastly.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. ages even before this earth was framed into a globe. many centuries in age . vites us to consider sole reference to this earth seems to fade into such utter insignificance in the presence of the grand history of the orbs which uncounted millions around To lie in us. . if he turned his gaze upon our earth. though all-important to ourselves. would blaze out Alpha Centauri with its record three years old there the star in Cygnus as it existed ten years since the whole host of stars known to man would exhibit records ranging from a few years to . as one may almost say. 357 astronomers have seen only imaged in the nebulje. and if his vision were adequate to tell him of her aspect. It is when we are thus contemplating in imagina- whole expanse of the universe. and. . the whole range of past time. and to that history which. the external gal- which are perhaps forever hidden from the searching gaze of man. and. nay ages perhaps before the planetary system axies. would reveal themselves as they were ages on ages before man appeared upon the earth.

3 OTHER WORLDS TEAK OURS. if we face. he would see one phase of the event continually present before him. on this those far-off years would seem to be actually in progress. because he would . Suppose that a being armed with such powers of vision as we have imagined sense. and that in an instant of time he could sweep through the enormous interval separating him from our earth. winging may so speak. At he were no farther from us the beginning of that tremendous journey he would be watching events which were occurring thousands of years since would gaze upon the earth as it . until than the moon. its way through space with the account. the events which happened in sands of years in duration. i8 For the light which left the earth at that time. But now conceive that powers of locomotion commensurate with his wonderful powers of vision were given to this being. at its close before he undertook his instantaneous flight in the course of his journey. he would gaze upon a succession of events which had occurred during those thousands of years upon the face of this ing The other conception —I may remark. but amid regions left it of space removed from us by a light-journey thou- And thus. If he then began from the earth at a rate equal to that at progress of to travel which light travels. in and strik- a scientific somewhat more exact. less beautiful also. he was one second only . should watch fiom the neighborhood of our earth the some interesting event. as swiftly as when now is travelling our earth. that it is. to the observer distant orb. so that. of those occurrences. is no little earth.

for example. for hours. their dead men coming to life as the bullets passed from their wounds. he were watching the battle ol Waterloo. it may be well to consider a further objection. Suppose. he . as it had decided so many hardwas actually travelling. he might so wing his flight through space that the Guard would seem to retreat. nay. SVPERVI8I0N AND CONTROL. he dwells upon two of the more obvious objections to the first conception. for cenor he might watch the whole progturies or cycles ress of the charge occurring so slowly that years might elapse between each step of the advancing column. author lays some little stress upon the But as the scientific truth of the method in which his fancies are exhibited. which enforces on us a total change in the way of presenting the idea. finally. or else appear to wend their way with scarcely perceptible motion through the air or. . He remarks that the being he has conceived to be borne . swiftly away. years. ^9 always be where the light-message recording that event By passing somewhat less would see the event taking place with singular slowness while by passing away more swiftly he would see the event occurring in inverted order.. he could gaze on the fine picture presented by the Imperial Guard as they advanced upon the English army. further. in the assured hope of deciding Waterloo. hypercritical to notice scientific in- exactness in ideas professedly fanciful. fought battles for It may seem its imperial chief. and as. until at length the Old Guard would be seen as it was when it began its advance. and the bullets which mowed down their ranks might either seem unmoving.

even occurring in a single instant. the events which have taken place during those thousands of years. However. though all And. ceived Among But there is a more serious objection. by a slight modi- our author can be least in may which the be conceived to times present to the thoughts of the Al- Imagine a sphere with a radius over which . but only a hap-hazard succession of half days for each portion of her surface. city So in reality see the its and sweeping with even more tremendous veloaround the sun. see in a moment the whole history of the earth during the thousands of years considered. He would see clouds forming and vanishing in an amazing succession of changes.3 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. 20 toward the earth through a distance so enormous. all that took place under roofs or under cover of any sort. by him. but would not only the history of that hemisphere which was turned toward him while. fication. three hundred and sixty-five times as and more than many rotations of this earth upon her axis. would remain unper. the beautiful conception of made to illustrate one mode at events occurring upon our earth be at all mighty. so as to complete thousands of circuits in a single second. have been thousands of revolutions of this earth around the sun. his powers of vision enabled him to pierce the cloud-envelope. he would not have a consecutive pre- sentment of the various events occurring in any part of the earth. sway of the earth that our imaginary observer would earth whirling with inconceivable rapidity upon axis. we can easily see that. further. to say nothing of the stately in her motion of precession.

To apply this We know illustration to the subject we are Almighty is present where the boundary of our great sphere was placed at first.SUPERVISION AND COMROL. until its myriad millions of eyes were gazing intently on our earth from a sphere of but a few thousand miles in radius. He therefore 3ees the whole history of the earth light-waves. conceive these millions of eyes closing swiftly in upon the earth. Then if that wondrous sphere contracted in an instant. Before Him that the the light-messages account of the primeval earth. already to feel that . presenting are He the also is present everywhere within the region through which the contracting sphere was conceived to pass. upon. Now. would have been in a moment of time presented before the myriad-eyed sphere. as presented by the however. according to the law assigned it. but with this movement that. Then. if we imagine over the surface of that sphere. they were always on a sphere around the position which was really occupeculiarity of pied by the earth. when the light-messages started which those eyes are receiving at the moment. 21 We begin. instead of being always on a sphere around a fixed point. so far as light could render it. the whole history of the earth. we see would be presented by the not as she is now. iglit would 2 \ which has elapsed since began to move upon this earth travel in the time jving creatures and having ~ first for centre the place occupied at that instant. that primeval day. by the earth millions of eyes turned with pier- all upon the central earth. but as she was at cing powers of vision that to these eyes the earth record of light.

And.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. must be cognizant of all things. there is no succession of time in His vision of the events transpiring on our globe. A sense which could analyze heat-im- pressions as eyesight analyzes light. that all this further He must things. so to speak. we can see that a much more complete and definite picture of past events than light can convey. said of the imaginary or of the myriad-eyed contract- ing sphere. 322 we cannot say of Him what we being first thought of. but At would much tell us not that no light- messages can convey to us. But now. we see that what is true of our earth is true also of every orb throughout the universe. that in a moment of time He can see the whole history of the earth successively presented before Him. The whole light-history of every such orb must be present at . only what eyesight tells us. by extending these considerations to other modes in which the history of an event is recorded. we present. Him and we Past and present are one before shall soon see that present and future must be one in His sight. by natural processes. also every instant of time to the Creator who is omni- So that to the obvious conception that God. being everywhere. As He exists throughout that space. must be at all times present before the Almighty. in the consequence of His omnipres- be cognizant of the history of same sense that a man is cognizant of events which are passing before his eyes. have to add ence. still considering only the information which light conveys as it travels onward through space. that a sense of this sort would enable the being pro least it is conceivable .

rided with 323 surface of it to recognize not merely the nature of the any body whose heat reached the organ of this sense. but by the action of physical processes such as our Faradays and Tyndalls deal with. must be conveyed to the omnipresent God. turning from the consideration that the Al- mighty. but conceivable senses. May of this great truth. tempted to dwell somewhat thoughtfully on the ideas raised by the considerations I have dwelt on above. but will for ever and ever be freshly present to Him and that. but the quality of the body's internal struct- ure. or the nature of bodies so placed that eyesight would not render us sensible even of their existence. not merely of all that * Moralizing is at is thus cog- any moment taking may seem altogether out of place in such a work as this. even where be has no fear of their ever bearing fruit in future sorrows ? . we must imaginary believe that any in- formation which they could by any possibility impart.* But. And precisely as. as regards these so. Electricity. feels contrition for long-past which people misdeeds. It is not without a feeling of awe that one considers that the records of every action of our lives are not merely at this moment before God.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. in considering light. would avail to give information altogether distinct from that which light can impart. that it not be through an instinctive recognition man alone. of all the creatures this earth. not merely in the sense but certainly one is : that He knows every thing (an idea too vague for man rightly to grasp). it would be a contradiction to our belief in His infinite wisdom to suppose that the infinite multiplicity of the records thus continually present Him way could in any before render their significance less distinct. nizant. in like manner. by virtue of His omnipresence. And further. we saw that the Creator must be supposed sensible of every light-record trav- elling through space. processes going on within the body.

we commonly feel safe from error. that certain objects have been really present. where no such event has transpired. pressions resembling those caused that event. yet I am as certain that the battle though sight and hearing had really took place given me direct information on the matter. after all. even man. what we really imply is. before us. or by the actual occurrence of some may arise where no such object has been present. saw the battle of the guns there. When we say. which we can only explain by the existence taken place in the infinity of past time. that we have recognized certain physical impressions.3 OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. by the actual pres- ence of an object. and he can become certain of the occurrence of past him any events of which no sense he possesses gives For example. 24 place throughout the universe. then. And. Still. merely one means by which we judge of causes by their effects. in concluding. as . can yet follow a series of effects and causes far merous so more nu- than those concerned in the act of vision . The senses by which we judge of what is going on around us are. but of all that haa we have to which the universe must be regarded as present before Almighty God. or by the occurrence of We know. or watched such and such an event. at rest or in action. from certain impressions conveyed to the mind by the agenevent. But. though I neither Waterloo nor heard the thunder of direct information. limited as are his powers. or cy of the visual organs. that we have seen such and such an object. consider another mode in of that object. for instance. in that in certain exceptional cases im- fact.

the knowledge which any man has is associated with considerations of cause and effect. of confidence in the accounts of others or in his own judgment. not only what the characteristics of that race were. but the general nature of the scenery amid which such creatures lived. such events must be recognizable by Him (even to their minutest details) in the consequences which they have led to. with regard to a variety of matters. and that certain words Not represented certain ideas. it to follow out the long will be clear that. by examining the tooth of a creature belonging to some long-extinct race. which are in reality of a highly-complex character. Now. we see at once that a single grain of sand or drop of water must convey to the Omniscient the his- Nay. we that. If a great naturalist like Huxley or Owen can tell. associated with the question of fidence in those who taught me my con- that certain symbols represented certain letters. that certain combinations of letters represented certain words. I find a my acqui- complicated series of events involved in sition of the My knowledge that the battle took place interpretation of the letter-press account of the battle involved in itself a number of more or less com- plex relations. of general experience.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. are led by these thoughts to remember independently of those records of past events which are brought continually before the Almighty by processes resembling those which directly affect our senses. train of ideas thus suggested. when I inquire whence that certainty 325 arises. tory of the whole world of which it why should we pause history of that world here ? The forms part. .

even the minutest degree. that the grain of sand or drop of watei conveys not only the history of a world. has the whole past history of the universe continually present before Him. future is present in its germs. however insignificant. we must not the limited nature of our recognition of the course of future events prevent us from forming a just opin- way which the future must be always We can judge of the past by its effects. an then. It It is easy not only to conceive that the future and the past should be equally present to intel- form of intelli- gence according to which past events would be obliter- ligent creatures.3 OTHER WORLDS THAN 26 bound up in truth is OURS. so intimately with the history of the universe. been otherwise than it has actually been. but with equal completeness the history of the whole universe. by virtue of His possessing in infinite degree that quality which enables man to reason upon past events of which his senses bring him no direct intelligence. in . the future. but to conceive of a ated from the * In fact. precisely as the past is may be regarded in fact as merely a peculiarity of man's constitution that the past is more clearly present to his mental vision than present in its fruits. Yet we cannot doubt that the ion as to the in present before God. had the history of any part of the universe.* Turning from the past let to the future. while consider the matter attentively. we see that there cannot be a single atom throughout space which could have attained its present exact position and state. but we are almost utterly unable to judge of the future by its causes. if we mind as fast as they took place. in the state and position of each single atom throughout infinity of space. The Almighty.

and (2) He sees at each instant the whole wisdom. and following it. His In virtue infinite universe as and it as it will as true of (1) of His omnipresence. let its direct importance be what it may. we has been in the infinite past. accompanying. is other view compatible with the assumption of the Almighty's wisdom. For every event. infinite each leading to the recognition of a perfect supervision. the whole history of the universe throughout the nite past —and who can doubt that this is so 1 — it and infi- con- tains with equal completeness the history of the uni- No verse throughout the infinite future. and effect. mustbe held to contain in itself the whole history of the universe throughout the infinite past. . as be in the infinite future any one instant as it is of . and no assumption which limits the wisdom of God is compatible with our belief that He is supreme in the universe. we have two lines of thought. in endless series of causation. and this being of any other. 327 the future should be as actually present as to the ordi- nary human mind the past is. it is now. In considering the Omniscient. is indissolubly bound up with events preceding. Obviously also every event. position. The future must be as absolutely and essentially present to Him in its germs as the past has been shown to be in its fruits. as the Almighty's watch over His universe is concerned.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. figure. then. the picture of the universe as it is. all questions of degree must be set on one side. interaction. and throughout the infinite future. however. however trifling. and If a grain of sand contains in its state. So far.

these laws are never abrogated. seems clear to many that such thing as free-will . God if does exercise from the laws which He has assigned to His universe. if all It things are foreknown there can be no insomuch that some have even felt believe that the Almighty. who with regard to control. But in reality human foreknowledge. there is the old question of the relation between man's free-will and the absolute foreknowledge of Almighty God. supervises trolling action It all Does the Al exercise any con- things. And now mighty. new form of infinity— the infinite duration of the Almighty's existence — to render yet more inconceivably perfect God's supei vision of His universe. whether in the past or in the future. His knowledge of the progress of past and future events is not therefore to be called in quescontrol. quite as is consciousness (to use this much word for the subject of His want of a the action of His creatures or of the laws marily set better) as He has pri- them. to see that there no necessity for any theory so self-contradictory as this.* Here I set - altogether * All things working thus according to law. apart tion. already considered other attributes of the Almighty as in is We have a siense re- . certain diffi- which must not be left undealt with.3 OTHER WORLDS THAN 28 recognize the operation of yet a OURS. forced to must in a men we have sense forego His knowledge of future events so that the actions of may be subject to the control of their only to consider the analogy of will. "We know that certain laws have been assigned the universe. upon the course of events ? need hardly be said that. since His own direct action. however. so far as our very limited experience enables us to determine. and we know to also that. though undoubtedly omniscient. since consider them might be to leave painful doubts in the minds of culties suggest themselves not to some who may read these pages. In the first place.

not to we see that no The give further instances where the conceivable degree of foreknowl- and absolute foreknowledge of the Almighty is therefore altogether dissociated from the dangerous and hurtful belief in a predestination which renders man irresponsible for edge bars free-will. the belief in the absolute perfection of the laws according to which God rules His universe. that I have left a valuable act. for the moment. Secondly. happen according that all things to set physical law? sembling. and consider only the resnlts of experimental or observa- Thus. in a room which will presently be passed through by one whom I know I judge accordingly that the person will purloin the to be dishonest valuable. In this case his free-will is not affected by my anticipation nor would it be though a yet clearer conviction of his. that such be performed by others. and which also does seem in a sense associated I have been dealing with. inquire whether that attribute of man which.. though infinitely exceeding in range of action. yet corresponds to the foreknowledge of God. I suppose. few words may be the hearts of all permitted me on a point which comes close home to of us. the 329 possibility of miracles. has been thought by many. SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. though imperfect and limited. . for example. We know more or less certainty of conviction. no conceivable degree of certainty on my part which would render him undeserving of punishment for .. I wish very carefully to avoid any intrusion on matters apart from the general scope of my subject but a all . All men. worlds in space things insomuch that throughout work according all the to those laws without need of special interference on His part. with and such acts will in no sense influences the will of the persons who are expected so to Suppose I remember. The answer is obvious at once. matter is so obvious. and is painfully felt by some. that we often judge. may fail to see any possible utility in the practice. to oppose itself to our belief in the efficacy of prayer. There is. then. aside. pray though many may in words deride prayer. . infinite his actions. It is because I fear lest some of my readers should have felt this difficulty. certain attri- man let us. in fact. with the matters because they cannot believe that the action of the physical laws of God can be interfered with in answer to the appeal of His creatures. stealing the valuable. and though hundreds. without expressing doubts. we are led to the conclusion tional science. In touching on this point. and that yet our anticipation the exercise of free-will. conduct were impressed upon me. And so. affords us any reason for believing that perfect foreknowledge bars butes of .

might tell him to go to such a place and to open such a box. fling. as we can conceive it . in reality bring about its own reward. further. by any means. Remembering on the one hand. For instance. be a part of human nature. It seems bafdaily offered are responded to (where . does in the other.OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. were that belief founded in a monstrous fiction. 33° and without. we see strong reason to believe that the laws which He has assigned to it are sufficient for the con- and should find their doubts confirmed by any thing I may here have written. than our fulfilment of the duty of prayer can cause the laws of Nature to cease or change in their operation yet obedience would in the one case. to human thoughts should thus be provided for. in ty of past and future time . desirous at infini- in question this mode of con- conceptions of what once of testing and is re- warding the obedience of a son. precisely as the greater or less certainty of the father as to his son's obedience would in no sense affect the latter's merit. It must be remembered here that recent physical researches. in fact. there is the difficulty as to our belief in miracles —that is. indeed. the obvious conclusion seems to be that prayers it has seemed fitting that they should be) without interference with natural laws that. it is unreasonable to suppose that to physical laws are interfered with in response to the millions of prayers by men. affect in any sense the merit which He has been pleased to recognize in the sincere performance of the act of prayer. and tha* on the other hand. it may be remarked that. tell neither for nor against our recognition of the possibility of yet . trol infinite Nor inconsistent even with our merely reasonable. though they have enabled us to interpret so many of the laws of Nature. that such an infinity of varied interests a scheme whose extent covers the but where consideration need not trouble us. a is wisdom is this particular human father. in events which involve the temporary suspension or alteration of natural laws. it is unreasonable to conceive that God would thinks that. the scheme of the Almighty includes at once the prayers and their response. Lastly. as it has done. And. so neither does the absolute foreknowledge of God as to the prayers which His creatures will offer up. no more result in bringing the gift to the box. have allowed a belief in the efficacy of prayer to grow. having beforehand placed therein a reward for Here the fulfilment of the father's request would his son's obedience. that I indicate the explanation which I suppose every one who much upon this point would probably be led to. adopting the view that Almighty no exercises special control over the- His uni- verse.

Thus between him and Almighty God there is a direct relation. so far as 33 tilings take all accordance with laws which the Almighty place in must assuredly have Himself ordained. in miracles further argues that nothing tending to prove the impossibility (in a natural sense) of an event of this sort can be ac- cepted to disprove its occurrence. or to a Newton or a Faraday on the other. and indimiracles. which renders it necessary that the will of God should be communicated to man. we may say that every event which has happened or will happen throughout infinite time is the direct work. by events of a supernatural character. we can conceive no way in which such communication can be made in an 'unmistakable manner. Now. since what the very purpose of a miracle possible. since its connection with a special manner is reasonablj the triviality or non-triviality of an event whose miraculous character is in question is to be judged only by the circum- . not whether such and such an event is more or less wonderful to the unHodge or Styles on the one part. I take it. for instance.SUPERVISION AND CONTROL. Indeed. or indeed can affect otherwise than to render it the more inexplicable. and were absolutely certain that so many thousands had been learned satisfied with what would naturally be the food but of a few. so long as the communication of God's will in established. trol of all things. but whether an event can really take place in which the laws of Nature have absolutely been annulled and abrogated. itself Nor is it is essentially requisite to should be in a natural sense imnecessary that any recorded miracle should be in is that it of a striking or imposing character. our wonder would not be greater or less whether we viewed the matter as a laborer would. It belongs to the very essence of a miracle that it should be an event which no physical researches can explain. in favor of miracles or against their having occurred be no question) are the same now as they Those who believe in the occurrence of miracles argue thus Man differs from all other terrestrial creatures in being responsible to his Creator. but by events which involve an unmistakable exercise of a power be(of their possibility there need were in ages. that if we could see a hungry multitude fed with a few loaves. The question is. who simply knows what hunger is and what is needed to satisfy it. or whether we were familiar with the analysis of bread and comparted the amount of fibrine and albumen contained in the loaves with what we knew of the daily or hourly exhaustion of the corresponding materials in the human The arguments frame. less scientific : God longing to The believer alone —that is.

OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS. inex- There seems. ac- work that evil Almighty. so to speak. that the con- siderations I have urged. all Him who is who permits it objectively does it) as with a per- that in the infinity of future time to flow Now. stances of those for whose instruction the miracle is supposed to have been worked. of God. often works may by no means is evil limited as our good or wisdom to good. which makes us regard them as unchanging. by permitting evil. that the occurrence of of that argument miracles is — contrary to experience. and to regard that which evil (and actually evil in the creature subjectively good in fect is knowledge of from it. in a sense. it seems conceivable that in reality it is only our limited acquaintance with the operation of the laws which God has set His universe. reason rather to expect orable. it not only does not meet the considered. we are to recognize the sequent good as in truth His work. to. on this matter would bring me to deal with that subject which belief of I have selected to avoid . tt 2 cates the direct purpose and Almighty God. namely. but rests on the very fact which constitutes the the fact. then. of Eor need the thought that the Almighty thus seems to be made the author of evil as well as of good in any way startle us. because we know that what constitutes evil or good in our limited vision cepted as indicative of what We know. seems. The argument against the occurrence of miracles has been already As has been pointed out. and. however. will. argument just basis stated. so that if the be as the is. To speak further. indeed. whose wisdom extends over the never-ending chain of sequent events. It is obvious. as to the nature of God's control over His universe. need not be regarded as in the slightest degree affecting the men in those direct relations between God and man which have been held to involve the necessity of miracles. countenance it.

than to deny, that
or suspend



He who made


the laws


may annul

His pleasure.

I think that this view

— though


has been

bj many thoughtful men, especially be
cause it seems to give the Almighty a special controlling power over His universe
is in reality inconsistent

with just conceptions of His infinite wisdom.

wisdom, though inconceivably great, were yet


If His

could not suppose that the universe would have

(still to use inexact words for want of
and laws of such a nature assigned to it, that
throughout the infinity of time all things should work
out the will and purpose of Almighty God.

been so planned


would then, undoubtedly, be continual need of adapof the annulment of a
tation, change, remodelling

law here, or


suspension there


order that the

But where the God
of ^Nature is infinitely wise, there can be no such necessity.
The whole scheme of the universe must needs
whole mio'ht not

foil to


be so perfect that direct intervention cannot at any
time be required.

To sum



find ourselves led to the belief that,

while intervention with the operation of natural laws




the worlds existing throughout space

in a very definite

and special manner, watched

over and controlled by an omnipresent, omnipotent,

and omniscient Being; that before Him the infinite
and the infinite future of the universe are at all


times sensibly present
a lid



that each the minutest


every the least important event exhibits before

each instant the perfect history of the limitless



past and future of the universe;
infinitely perfect consciousness of,

that has been,



and lastly, that Hie
and control over, all

or will be, are infinitely multiplied

use the only available expression) by the infinite

Juration throughout

which His existence extends.




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