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o High throughput analysis of RNA DNA Proteins metab’s regarding a
community of organisms living in a partic environ. Standard:
Serology/culture (non blablablabla). Newer: NA amplific (Rt-PCR),
isothermal (NASBA), Commerical: NASBA CMV and Digene HPV
o Sanger (dye term’s 90kb read length, overlap). 2 nd gens:
Illumina/SOLiD massively parallel. 100x bp/read but 30% less read
length, reversible terminators/ligation… alignment. Pyro seq’ing …


o Malnut, SAM (under, weight/hair loss and mortality risk),
over/under/wrong. Malawian diet: defic in total/animal proteins.
Marasmus: severe weight loss/muscle wasting/fat store depleting.
Kwashi: odoema, anorexia/apathy as skin/hair lesions. Diet influence
but not only.
o Gut involvement. 300 twins, first 3 years 50% mal, 43% discordant,
7% SAM. Fixed with RUTF. Microbiota before/after reveal differences,
some didn’t develop notmally.
o Gut contrib: fecal transplant to mice. 2/3 discordant . reverse with
RUTF but stil susceptible to diet-malnut weight loss. 37 bacteria
changes on Malawian diet for human, after rescuing with RUTF.
RUTF itself changes it. Only 13 true changes, B wadsworthia.
Inversely related to lower sulfuric acid urinary excretion= IBS.
o Serious neurodevelopmental disorder, diagnosed by
presence/severity of stereotypic behaviours/defects in
language/social interaction, comes with GI defects/IBS (like C palsy).
MIA model links maternal immune response (familial autoimmune
disease/elevated inflammatory factors In blood/placenta) to
offspring ASD risk. Inject pregnant mouse with viral mimic peptide
poly(I:C) gives ASD mouse+ GI barrier defects (abnormal tight Jn
expression/cytokines). Also abnormal microbiota, clos and
bacteriodes. Esp B fragilis. Treat to ameliorate GI defects (integrity
(Tight Jn/Cyt expression)), restore Il-6 levels and fix microbiota
changes. Blablabla yes – fixed sensory/anxiety/